1960s protests by maclaren1


									Englisch LK (Hanauska)                                            American Traditions and Visions 12.2

                                  1960s in the US

1960s protests
   - civil rights movement
          o peaceful equal rights movement, Martin Luther King (assassinated
              1968 in Memphis, Tenneessee)
   - black power movement
          o be proud to be black, teach black version of history, economic and
              political equality, Black Panther Party was willing to use violence,
              Malcom X (radical activist, assassinated in 1965 while giving a speech
              in Manhattan)
   - student rights movement
          o demanded more freedom to be politically active, to change the
              established curriculum (like adding minority studies) and to have
              accountability by the administration for its actions, later protests
              against Vietnam war and capitalism
   - anti-war movement
          o young men tried to avoid being drafted by fleeing to Canada and other
              means, organised peaceful protests, veterans joined demonstrations,
              fatal shooting of anti-war protests at Kent State University, Ohio
   - sexual revolution
          o Kinsey Report ( 9 year study on human sexuality published in 1948)
              started it, gays and lesbians came out, high drug consumption loosened
              inhibitions, „"Free love" meant you could love anyone, anywhere,
              anytime, without guilt.‟, mini-skirt, the pill
   - women‟s liberation and feminism
          o social, political and economic equality, women protested for such
              things as equal rights, equal pay, maternity leave, childcare, etc.

                                 source: http://www.hippy.com/php/search.php?cat=17

Chicago Seven
The 1968 Democratic National Convention, held in late August – convened to select
the party's candidates for the November 1968 Presidential election – was the scene of
massive demonstrations protesting the Vietnam War, which was at its height.
Thousands of people showed up with signs and banners, music, dancing and poetry. A
pig, "Pigasus the Immortal", was brought into the city to be "nominated" for
President. Initially, there was a carnival atmosphere. Police and national guard forces
were edgy and used tear gas, struck people with batons, and made arrests. These
clashes between protesters and the police continued to escalate over the next few
days. In the aftermath of what was later characterized as a "police riot" by the U.S.
National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, a grand jury indicted
eight demonstrators and eight police officers.
The Chicago Eight then became the Chicago Seven, where the defendants,
particularly Yippies Hoffman and Rubin, mocked courtroom decorum as the widely
publicized trial itself became a focal point for a growing legion of protesters. One day,
defendants Hoffman and Rubin appeared in court dressed in judicial robes. Abbie
Hoffman blew kisses at the jury. Judge Hoffman became the favorite courtroom target
Englisch LK (Hanauska)                                         American Traditions and Visions 12.2

of the defendants, who frequently would insult the judge to his face. Abbie Hoffman
(no relation) told Judge Hoffman "you are a 'shande fur de Goyim' [disgrace in front
of the gentiles]. You would have served Hitler better." He later added that "your idea
of justice is the only obscenity in the room." Both Davis and Rubin told the Judge
"this court is bullshit."
all seven defendants were found not guilty of conspiracy. At sentencing, Abbie
Hoffman recommended that the judge try LSD, offering to set him up with a dealer he
knew in Florida.

Vietnam War 1965-1975
Containment is a policy uniting military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to
contain any further Soviet communist expansion and to enhance America‟s security
and influence abroad during the Cold War. The policy was a response to a series of
moves by the Soviet Union to expand communist influence in eastern Europe and

The war was fought between the communist North Vietnam, supported by its
communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United
States and other member nations. The Vietcong, the lightly armed South Vietnamese
communist insurgency, largely fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces
in the region. The North Vietnamese Army engaged in a more conventional war.
North Vietnam won the war, it is now a communist country.

The war demonstrated that no power, not even a superpower, has unlimited strength
and resources. But perhaps most significantly, the Vietnam War illustrated that
political will, as much as material might, is a decisive factor in the outcome of

Martin Luther King (thanks to Lisa Krawiec)
Yesterday at 6 pm someone assassinated the 39 year old "Friedensnobelspreisträger"
Martin Luther King. He was known for his "I have a dream" speech during a civil
rights march to Washington for jobs, freedom, and equality for Afro-Americans in the
USA. He was a very important figure of the civil rights movement who “fought”
tirelessly and peacefully.

Woodstock (thanks to Cynthia)
Welcome to the news on 18th August 1969

Bethel, New York
This morning, the "Woodstock Music and Art Festival" ended after 4 days, although
official dates were from 15th to 17th August. Over 400.000 people celebrated together
with 32 artists, for example Jimi Hendrix and Joe Cocker, the "Flowerpower". As
attendance was expected much lower, logistics like catering and medicine turned
Although the visitors of this festival were very peaceful, they caused a damage of
value about 35.000 $. In addition there were three cases of death, 2 persons died
because of an overdose of drugs, the other was ran over by a tractor.
Englisch LK (Hanauska)                                            American Traditions and Visions 12.2

The first moon landing (thanks to Christina)

Florida. Neil Amstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin Aldrin returned back from the
first moon landing which took place on the 20th of July 1969 as part of the Apollo
program of NASA.

“That‟s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind” were the words of Neil
Amstrong when he stepped onto the moon as the first man in history. With this
mission the USA wins the competition against the USSR for sending the first man to
the moon. The moon landing mission was planned by NASA as part of the Apollo
program. Named Apollo 11, the mission started on 16th July 1969 in Florida. Aboard
the space shuttle “Columbia” were the astronauts Neil Amstrong, Michael Collins and
Edwin Aldrin. On the 20th of July they landed on the moon and Neil Amstrong took
the first steps on it. During their time the astronauts made experiments, positioned the
American flag and collected stones from the moon. On 24th July the Columbia
returned back to earth.
Men had been sent to space since 1961 but the Apollo 11 mission was the first one
during which men landed on the moon. This event was watched by 500 million people
all over the world.

Student demonstrations – Year 1968 (thanks to Greta)
Columbia University (NY)

Students discovered links between the university and an institutional apparatus which
supported the United State‟s involvement in the Vietnam War and started to protest
against it.

This resulted in student occupation of many university buildings and their violent
removal by police.


Students‟ protested against Vietnam War and the foreign policy of the United States.
They also want to abolish authority in schools and universities and show their
antipathy to the capitalist system in Germany.


Demonstrations against the antiquated educational system (in May 1968).


Chappaquiddick is a small island in Massachusetts in the north- east of America. It is
part of the larger island Martha‟s Vineyard, but it is separated by a narrow strait. That
is the reason why its name is Chappaquiddick, because it comes from an Indian word
“Cheppiaquidne” which means “separated island”. Chappaquiddick became famous
because of a car accident that was caused by the US - senator Edward Kennedy in
July 1969. The woman who was in the other car that was involved died and Edward
Kennedy left the place of accident. At first he was meant to go to prison for two
Englisch LK (Hanauska)                                          American Traditions and Visions 12.2

months but later it was decided that he didn‟t need to go. Nevertheless he didn‟t have
the chance to become President of the United States any more.

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