U.S. Foreign Policy in the 1950s and 1960s

					   U.S. Foreign Policy
in the 1950s and 1960s
“Spies, Lies, Heroes and Disgrace”
     For 1950-1970, SWBAT:
• Analyze USFP Guiding
  Principles
• Describe trends in U.S.
  Foreign Policy (USFP)
• Analyze major Cold War
  events
• Evaluate U.S. Foreign
  Policy Decisions
  Guiding Questions/Principles
• Should the U.S. place our ideals of
  “freedom” and “democracy” above our
  national (economic, security) interests?
• Should the U.S. attempt to “spread”
  democracy throughout the world? (If so,
  when, where, how, and to what effect?)
• What should we do when our ideals and
  national interests don’t coincide?
• How should the U.S. deal with “hostile”
  nations?
              It’s Personal!
• Think of relations between countries as
  relationships between people
  – How easy is it to influence/change behavior?
• The relationship leaders have with each
  other has a huge impact on policy
  – Individual goals, values, and personality
• Most leaders want to stay in power
  – Look strong, good to own people
       Historical Trends in USFP
•   Isolationism (1780s to 1890s)
•   Manifest Destiny (1820s to 1890s)
•   Internationalism (1890s to 1910s)
•   Return to Isolationism (pre & post WWI)
•   Dominant Internationalism (WWII to present)
         Post WWII Trends
• Cold War Fears and Misunderstandings
• Global Ideological Battle/Competition
  – Capitalism & Democracy vs. Communism
• End of Colonialism
  – Nations around world gain independence
• Growth of International Trade
1940s Timeline of Major Events
•   1947: Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
•   1947: USA creates CIA
•   1947: India gains independence
•   1948: Israel becomes a nation
•   1948: Communists take Czechoslovakia
•   1948-49: Berlin Blockade and Airlift
•   1949: Communists (Mao) take over China
•   1949: Soviets explode atomic bomb
•   1949: NATO forms
1950s Timeline of Major Events
•   1950-53: Korean War
•   1954: CIA supports coups in Iran and Guatemala
•   1954: Soviets establish KGB
•   1954: French lose at Dien Bien Phu (Vietnam)
•   1955: Warsaw Pact forms
•   1956: Suez War
•   1956: Soviets crush liberation movement in
            Hungary
•   1957: Soviets launch Sputnik
•   1958: US forms NASA
•   1958: US sends marines to Lebanon
•   1959: Communists (Castro) take over in Cuba
•   1959: Khrushchev visits USA
1960s Timeline of Major Events
•       Soviets shoot down U2 spy plane
    1960:
•       Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba
    1961:
•       Construction of Berlin Wall
    1961:
•       Kennedy forms Peace Corps
    1961:
•       Cuban Missile Crisis
    1962:
•       US troop buildup in Vietnam begins
    1962:
•       President Kennedy assassinated
    1963:
•       Senate ratifies Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
    1964:
•       Soviets crush revolt in Czechoslovakia,
    1968:
          leads to Brezhnev Doctrine
• 1968-69: Anti-Vietnam War Protests Peak
• 1969: Apollo 11 lands on the moon
1970s Timeline of Major Events
•   1972:   Nixon visits China and USSR
•   1972:   Senate ratifies SALT I
•   1973:   First Oil Crisis (OPEC)
•   1974:   Nixon resigns over Watergate
•   1975:   US pulls out of Vietnam
•   1979:   Second Oil Crisis (OPEC)
•   1979:   Soviets invade Afghanistan
•   1979:   Iranians hold Americans hostage at
               US Embassy
    Was Fear of Communism Real?
•   YES! (but…)
•   Soviet spies in the West
•   Soviet support of communism in world
•   Communism and Capitalism incompatible?
    – At the time, very hard for either side to see
      middle ground
• The Power of Fear
    – Domestic conditions impact foreign policy
Politicians Use “Fear” to Get Elected
• 1952: Eisenhower elected by labeling
  Truman too passive against Soviets
• 1960: Kennedy elected by blaming
  Eisenhower-Nixon for Soviets lead in
  missiles
• 1968 & 1972: Nixon elected by taking
  strong anti-communist stance
• 1980: Reagan elected by promising to
  close “window of vulnerability” with USSR
        U.S. and Soviet Espionage

• Pop Culture Reflects Tensions
• “Bond. James Bond” (by Ian Fleming)
    – First Book published 1953 (Casino Royale)
    – First Movie Dr. No (1962)
        • Dr. No wants to destroy a U.S. moon rocket
    – 2nd Movie From Russia with Love (1963)
        • Bond helps a Soviet corporal defect


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ii1tc493bZM
    U.S and Soviet Espionage
• 1940s: Steve Nelson and Clarence
  Hiskey gave USSR info on Manhattan
  Project
• Nathan Silvermaster mole in US govt.
• Soviet agent Andrei Schevchenko
  pressured defense workers to give high
  tech secrets
• Hundreds of Soviet agents in US
   U.S and Soviet Espionage
• Ethel and Julius
  Rosenberg convicted
  in 1951 for sharing
  atomic secrets;
  executed 1953
• U2 spy flights over
  USSR



                        http://www.infoplease.com/spot/spies1.html
How & Where was Cold War Fought?

• Military Technology
  – Arms Race and MAD
  – In Space
• Newly Independent Countries
  – Aid, ideas, and war
• Kennedy’s inaugural address 1/20/61
            http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xE0iPY7XGBo

                         at 1 min
      Arms Race & Space Race
•   Technology = Power
•   Atomic Bomb
•   Hydrogen Bomb
•   Fear of Missile Gap (ICBMs) vs. Reality
    Arms Race & Space Race
• Sputnik (1957)
• NASA (1958)
• Kennedy’s promise “…because it is hard”
  – Land on moon by end of 1960s
  – Moon landing in 1969

            http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4VIBmVZPWmI

                              at 8 minutes
  How Far Did U.S. Go to Prevent
   the Spread of Communism?
• 1940s: Truman Doctrine (1947) to
  “contain” Communism (Kennan’s idea)
• 1950s: John Foster Dulles’ policy of
  “brinkmanship” (Allen Dulles at CIA)
• 1960s: Dean Rusk promotes “Domino
  Theory”                  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domino_theory
     What Does this Lead to?
• World Divided:
   – First World (U.S. and W. Europe)
   – Second World (U.S.S.R and Satellites)
   – Third World (poor, developing countries)
• U.S. willing to SUPPORT ANY GOVT. as
  long as NOT COMMUNIST
   – U.S. Sponsored Military Dictators
   – U.S. Sponsored Coups &
     Assassinations
• Short-term and Long-term Implications?
• Lessons for Today?
 Newly Independent Countries
• Third World: Democracy vs. ???
• Often US did not favor repression over
  democracy
• These areas had no established
  democratic institutions (govt, media)
• US supported anti-communist dictators in
  an effort to prevent communist dictators
• Coups and assassinations
         Iran




www.solarpaces.org/_Libary/map-iran.jpg
                     Iran
• Both Russia and Britain have ties
• 1921-1941 Reza Shah dictator
  – Some reforms but harsh rule
• WWII occupied by Britain, Soviets, & USA
• 1941 Mohammad Reza Shah in power
  – Promises constitutional monarchy, but…
• 1951 Nationalize oil industry (from UK)
• 1951 Dr. Mossaddeq becomes PM
  – Very nationalist, but not communist
                     Iran
• US and UK Fear communist leanings
• 1953 CIA sponsors coup of PM
• Reza Shah solidifies power
  – Shah of Iran in power (1941-1979)
  – Corrupt dictator, but some reforms
  – Seen as “puppet” of US
• Islamic fundamentalists take power (1979-
  present) initially promise democracy
                                http://www.mideastweb.org/iranhistory.htm
         Guatemala




http://www.geographicguide.com/caribbean-map.htm
                  Guatemala
• 1931-1944 led by dictator (Ubico)
• 1944 virtually bloodless revolution
  – Ubico flees to live in USA
• 1945 Juan Jose Arevalo Bermej elected
  – Rejected Marxism but claimed to be a
    “spiritual socialist”
  – US cuts off military aid
• 1952 Jacobo Arbenz Guzman elected
  – First peaceful, democratic transfer of power
               Guatemala
• Arbenz plan to redistribute land
  – 2% owned 70% of land
  – Owner paid value based on taxes
  – 1.6 million acres
• U.S. Based United Fruit Co.
  – World’s biggest banana producer
  – Biggest landowner in Guatemala
  – Launches PR campaign against communists
                Guatemala
• 1954 CIA trains and
  equips force to
  overthrow govt.
  – Uses propaganda
    and bombs capital
• U.S. picked leader
  takes over (Castillo
  Armas)


                         http://www.geo.mtu.edu/~jaherric/Documents/map_guatemala.gif
                  Guatemala
• Almost 100% of United Fruit’s land
  returned
  – Peasant farmers forcibly removed
• 1,000s jailed or to camps
• Castillo Armas hero in US
• Guatemala Civil War 1960-1996
  – 50,000 “leftists” killed during 1970s
  – 1977 USA cuts military aid
  – 200,000 civilians killed
1950s Lesson from Guatemala?

• Latin American govts. wanting
  independence from US were viewed with
  distrust, suspected of communist leanings
• Countries cannot be neutral but must pick
  sides (US or USSR)
   – Often play both sides!
• US will intervene to protect interests
       Cuba




geology.com/world/cuba-map.gif
                        Cuba
• 1940s: Democratically elected govts.
• 1952: Coup led by Batista, US supports
  – Corruption in govt.; more dictatorial
• July 1953 Castro coup fails
  – Jailed (serves 3 of 15 years)
  – After release met Che Guevara
• Dec. 1956 Castro reenters: Civil War
• US encouraged Batista to leave
                       Cuba

• 1959 Fidel Castro takes power
  – US recognized, but soon tried to remove
  – Castro was nationalizing US companies
• April 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion
  – CIA sent 1,500 Cuban exiles to invade
  – Total Failure for US
• Oct. 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
               http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7YkJxQT_0Y
                    Cuba
• Castro is longest serving dictator in
  Western Hemisphere (1959-2008)
  – Brother Raul Castro took over
• Castro claims 638 assassination attempts
                   Vietnam
• French colony after
  WWII
  – Wanted
    independence
• South leader Ngo
  Dinh Diem
  – Corrupt, dictatorial,
    but not communist


                             geology.com/world/vietnam-map.gif
     Vietnam
• Defeats France at Dien Bien
  Phu (1954)
• Vietnam split at 17th parallel
• 1963 US supports military
  coup of Diem
   – Increased instability, US
     troops increase
                 Vietnam
• 1963 Kennedy considers pulling out
• 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident
• 1968 Nixon elected with “secret plan” to
  end war
  – Bombs Cambodia illegally
• 1970 Anti-war Protests peak
• 1973 Most US troops pull out
         US Troops in Vietnam
•   1961 – 2,000
•   1963 – 16,000
•   1964 – Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
•   1965 – 184,000
•   1966 – 385,000
•   1969 – 542,000
•   1973 – Most forces leave
•   1975 – US evacuates embassy; remaining
    forces leave
            Costs of Vietnam
•   Total deaths 58,000
•   300,000 wounded
•   Cost of $150 billion
•   570,000 draft dodgers
•   563,000 less-than-honorable discharge

• 1975 – Communists unite Vietnam
      Lessons of 1950-1970?
• Consider both Short-term and Long-term
  Goals
• National vs. Corporate interests
• Our ideals and national interest can
  conflict – What then?
• Military engagement should be last resort
• Nationalism is not Communism
• “Nation-building” is hard, if not impossible
• Leadership matters!
 How can the US deal with “rogue”
       leaders/countries?
• Moral persuasion
• Economic sanctions and trade
• Military force

• Concept of BATNA
  –   “Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement"
  –   Developed by Dr. Fisher at Harvard
  –   Analyze the needs/values/perspective of other side
  –   Are leaders doing what’s best for them or country?

				
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