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					NB All the data in this Spreadsheet is for illustration only. The data is not valid.
Life Cycle assessment



                                                   UK Limited By
Outputs                                                                            Generating Impact




                        prportion of generating
                                                    100.00%

                                                       10.00%                                                                   UK


                                capacity
                                                       1.00%                                                                    Europe

                                                       0.10%                                                                    Worldwide

                                                       0.01%
                                                                0              2              4           6         8
                                                                                           ppkWHr
Woodgen option1

                                                  Woodgen option2                          Woodgen option 3




                                                              carbon dioxide emitted per KWhr produced

                                                         Woodgen option 3


                                                         Woodgen option 1


                                                                           Arbre


                                                                EU average

                           -0.3                        -0.2         -0.1           0         0.1        0.2   0.3       0.4          0.5
                                                                                           kg/kWh




                    Likely range of Woodgen option
                    3                            Woodgen UK uptake

                        100%
                         90%
                         80%
                         70%                                                                                                  Crop farming
                         60%
                         50%                                                                                                  Animal Farm
                         40%
                         30%                                                                                                  Woodgen
                         20%
                         10%
                          0%
                                                   0                2                  4            6          8
                                                                        £k income per hectare


     Likely range of Woodgen option1
Inputs needed from lower models Summarised and selected component data

Inputs from papers              Capital cost discount rates
Market
% installed capacity
ppkWH                                         2      3      4      5     6     7
UK                                       20.00% 20.00% 10.00% 1.00% 0.10% 0.10%
Europe                                   40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 1.00% 0.10% 0.10%
Worldwide                                45.00% 35.00% 25.00% 10.00% 1.00% 0.10%




Market inhibitors

Max UK Penetration, land limited            10%     20%   30%    40%   50%    60%   70% 80%
Generator efficiency                         8%     16%   24%    32%   40%    48%   56% 64%
Transport cost proportion, large            80%     70%   60%    50%   40%    30%   60%
Transport cost proportion, Distributed       1%      1%    1%     1%    1%     1%    1% 1%


Carbon footprint
                                         kg/kWh
EU average                                   0.43
Advanced Gas                                 0.35
Arbre                                         0.1
E-on wood                                     0.1
Woodgen option 1                              0.1
Woodgen option 2                                0
Woodgen option 3                             -0.2




                                         Take up
Woodgen income £kpa /HA                      0.5      1     2      3     4      5     6
Crop farming                                30%     30%   25%    20%   15%    10%    5%
Animal Farm                                 70%     60%   50%    40%   20%    10%    5%
Woodgen                                      0%     10%   25%    40%   65%    80%   90%

Generating Capacity (GW)                       0     15   37.5    60   97.5   120   135
(at 10kW/HA, 16MHA total area)
% UK demand                                  0%     19%   47%    75% 122% 150% 169%
90% 100%
72% 80%
60%
          Techno-Economic

Output to lifecycle level
(options below plus associated supporting data. Options selected as most appropriate options to pass to higher level)
           Title                           Description
           Woodgen Option 1                50kW unit, 25k units per anum
           Woodgen Option 2                100kW unit partial CO2 sequestration, 50k units per year
          Woodgen Option 3                              250kW unit full CO2 sequestration 400k units per year




Outputs of Techno-economic anaylses




                                                                                                                100kW Plant
                            Cost per kW of installed capacity versus market                                     250kW Plant
                                                volume
                        6
                                                                              50kW plant
                                                                                                                50kW plant
                                                                                                                100kW Plant
                        5                                                     100kW Plant
                                Total UK                                                                        250kW Plant
                                                      World generating        250kW Plant
                        4       generating            Capacity = 4000
            £k per kW




                                Capacity = 80         GW
                        3       GW                                                                              Total installed capacity (G
                                                                                                                50kW plant
                        2                                                  nuclear                              100kW Plant
                        1                                                  Conventional                         250kW Plant
                                                                           gas powered
                        0
                            5     10     30     100     300    1000 3000
                                       Installed Capacity GW




                                                                                                                Breakdown of cost per kW


                                                                                                                Chipper
                                                                                                                Tractor
                                                                                                                Transportation vehicles
                                                                                                                Generating Plant
                                                                                                                Drying plant

                                                                                                                Woodgen at

Models produced at this level
Inputs needed from lower levels
          Efficiency of plant




Inputs from papers
Average output from land            2.5
Distributed Generating technology




Power Plant efficiency
propriate options to pass to higher level)




                                                     Yearly vehicle production (1000's pa 25 yr life)
                     Total installed capacity (GW)            5         10         30         100       300    1000    3000
                     50kW plant                               4           8        24           80      240     800    2400
                     100kW Plant                              2           4        12           40      120     400    1200
                     250kW Plant                            0.8         1.6        4.8          16       48     160     480

                                                     Cost per Plant (£k
                     50kW plant                            250          100         32          16       14      12      10
                     100kW Plant                           400          250        100          64       32      16       8
                     250kW Plant                           600          600        300         100       50      32      16

                                                     Capital cost £k per kilowatt
                     Total installed capacity (GW)             5         10         30         100      300    1000    3000
                     50kW plant                                5          2       0.64         0.32     0.28    0.24     0.2
                     100kW Plant                               4        2.5          1         0.64     0.32    0.16    0.08
                     250kW Plant                             2.4        2.4        1.2          0.4      0.2   0.128   0.064




                     Breakdown of cost per kWh
                                                     Capital cost of conventional woodgeneration
                                                     Cost       Capacity Cost per unit
                     Chipper
                     Tractor
                     Transportation vehicles
                     Generating Plant
                     Drying plant

                     Woodgen at
kw/Ha at 30% effciency
kw/Ha at 60% effciency
Output to Techno-economic level
(options below plus associated supporting data. Options selected as most appropriate options to pass to h
          Title              Description
          Gassifier option 1 450kWth, 9 Bar pressure
          Gassifier option 2 100kWth, 3 Bar pressure

          Gas turbine characteristics
                               Costs per kW for various sizes
                               Efficiency for various sizes
          Dryer characteristics

          Heat Exchager characteristics




Models produced at this level

          Heat flow models




          Gas turbine, compressor chic
priate options to pass to higher level)
Gasifier characteristics
Reference
                                       England
                                 2003/04    2004/05
Number of farms in sample           2007       1789

Yields (tonnes per hectare)
Wheat                                   7.9        8.1
Barley                                  6.2        6.1
Oilseed Rape                            3.5        3.1
Potatoes                               40.2       39.6
Sugar beet                             52.2       57.8

Prices (£ per tonne) (a)
Wheat                                  87.4       69.6
Barley                                 80.6       69.1
Oilseed Rape                          166.2      142.7
Potatoes                              131.4      103.6
Sugar beet                             33.6       31.5

Derived values
Prices (£ per HA)                                        Average of two years
Wheat                            692.7113     563.1451         0.6
Barley                           497.1205     420.9217         0.5
Oilseed Rape                     586.9377      447.084         0.5
Potatoes                         5285.844     4096.944         4.7
Sugar beet                       1750.968     1821.911         1.8

Average                          1762.716 1470.001             1.6 £k/HA
                                                         Range = 0.5 to 5k/HA


Reference




                                                 2005    Derived figure below to understand the DEFRA table
Total agricultural area (1000's HA)             18509
of which:
crops                                            4443
bare fallow                                       140
Total tillage                                    4583            4583             4583
All grass under five years old                   1193            1193             1193
Total arable land                                5777            5776
                                                 5683
All grass five years old and over (excluding rough grazing)                     5683
Total tillage and grass (c)                     11488         11552            11459         11488
Sole right rough grazing                         4354                                         4354
Set-aside                                         559                                          559
All other land (d) and woodland                   872                                          872
Total area on agricultural holdings             17273                                        17273
Common rough grazing (estimated)                 1236


                                                          %
Crops                                            4443         24.0%
Grass land                                       6876         37.1%
Sole rights rough Grazing                        4354         23.5%
Other Land                                       2836         15.3%

                                                          % all land % crop/animal
Crops                                            4443        24.0%        28.3%
Animal                                          11230        60.7%        71.7%
Other                                            2836        15.3%

Animal and crop area                15673


Total UK energy demand                  80 GW




                                                          reference
                                                                                          ADVANCED
                                                                           STEAM
                                                                                          GASIFICATI
                                                                          TURBINE
                                                                                              ON
                                                                        3.0-5.0          2.63
                                                         capital        cents/kWh        cents/kWh
                                                         operating
                                                         (excluding     2.2-2.8          0.4
                                                         fuel)          cents/kWh        cents/kWh
                                                         biomass        1.2-3.5          1.62
                                                         feedstock      cents/kWh        cents/kWh
                                                                        6.4-11.3         4.65
                                                         TOTAL          cents/kWh        cents/kWh
                                                          Above for plant size 10 to 25 MW


                                                          Above for plant size 10 to 25 MW


                                                          Reference
                                                                                                       Rent
                                                                              A               B
                 2000 -
      SWITCHG    YR. 1
        RASS    ESTAB.
2     BUDGET     COST
3    VARIABLE CASH COSTS
4    Seed          14.63
5    Fertilizer    30.76
6    Chemicals     13.06
7    Fuels/Lube     4.41

8    Repairs      8.29
9    Harvest
17   COST OF OWNED RESOURCES

18   Capital              7.6
     Replaceme
     nt
19   Other               3.65
     Nonland
     Capital
21   Labor                9.6
24   Present Value (PV) Cos Calc.
     (1993 $/Acre)
25   Discount           8.065
     rate (%)
26   Annual land           74
     rental rate-
     CRP data:
27   A=R. 4-8, C. Estab. Cost-yr. 1
     B,D,F
28   B=R, 4-8, C. Maint. Harv. Cost-2-
     C,E,G         10
29   C=R.18-       Cap. Lab. Depr.-1-7
     19,21; All
30   D=R.26,       Land rental cost-1-10
     C.B,D,F
31   =A + B + C 10 Y. Farm C. (94
     +D            $/A)
32   Yield         Average
     Assum. -      (dry
     ORNL:         tons/acre/
                   yr)
33            2000       3.69
34            2005       4.22
35            2020       5.27
36
37   Annualiz. Farm C./Ton
     (93 $/Ton)
38          2000      47.60

39          2005       42.48
40          2020       35.74
below to understand the DEFRA table
   17273
    1236
   18509




Derived data
              ADVANCED
  STEAM
              GASIFICATI
 TURBINE
                 ON

        2.2           1.5   ppkW


        1.4           0.2   ppkW

        1.3           0.9   ppkW

        4.9           2.6   ppkW




        Rent
    C             D                E   F   G
                  2000 -            2005 -             2020 -
                YRS. 2-10          YRS 2-10          YRS. 2-10
                ANNUAL             ANNUAL    2020 -  ANNUAL
                 MAINT., 2005- YR. MAINT.    YR. 1    MAINT.,
                  HARV. 1 ESTAB. HARV.      ESTAB.    HARV.
                  COST     COST     COST     COST      COST
RIABLE CASH COSTS
                             14.63             14.63
                    21.91     31.6    22.19    33.88     25.03
                             13.06             13.06
                     0.38     4.41     0.38     4.41      0.38

                    0.55               8.29        0.55         8.29      0.55
                   17.61                          18.55                   20.9
 ST OF OWNED RESOURCES

                          10.03         7.6       10.69          7.6     12.34


                              4.51     3.65          4.8        3.65      5.59


                           13.54      9.6         14.67          9.6     15.45
esent Value (PV) Cos Calc.
 93 $/Acre)
                     Assumed Transport
                     Cost ($/T)
                               3 PV-2000       PV-2005      PV-2020


          Estab. Cost-yr. 1           71.15       72.19        74.27

          Maint. Harv. Cost-2-       269.24      277.36       311.91
          10
          Cap. Lab. Depr.-1-7        207.75       221.6       242.63

          Land rental cost-1-10      566.55      566.55       566.55

          10 Y. Farm C. (94     1114.69       1137.70      1195.36
          $/A)
                     Transport costs -yrs.
                     2- 10
                                              Calculations of annualized cost
                                              of switchgrass production, given
                          70.25               ORNL budgets, yields, and land
                          80.34               rental costs from CRP data
                         100.33               source

                     Annualized Delivered Bolded areas show budget data
                     Cost                               used.
                         50.60            Italicized numbers are resulting
                                                annualized farm costs.
                         45.48
                         38.74
   Global Renewable energy report NREL USA                            http://www.nrel.gov/director/pdfs/coloradoresummit1-11-06
   Worldwide generation                                               worldwide = 4TW
   DTI Innovation in renewables forecast                              http://www.dti.gov.uk/files/file22017.pdf#search=%22SRC%
                                                                      2005)
   Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections. (ICEPT Oct http://www.iccept.ic.ac.uk/pdfs/Alternative%20fuels%20for%
   Biomass for Electricity Generation, by Zia Haq, EIA USA.           http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biomass/
   Bioenergy FAQs                                                     http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/faqs/index.html#eco1
** Technoeconomic study CHP                                           http://www.ieabcc.nl/publications/IEA-CHP-Q2-final.pdf#se
***Wood and grass economocs                                           http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/bioam95/graham3.html
rel.gov/director/pdfs/coloradoresummit1-11-06final.pdf

 ti.gov.uk/files/file22017.pdf#search=%22SRC%20electricity%20cost%22
  cept.ic.ac.uk/pdfs/Alternative%20fuels%20for%20transport%20and%20electricity%20generation%20(final).pdf#search=%22SRC%20electricity%20cost%
  a.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biomass/
 rgy.ornl.gov/faqs/index.html#eco1
eabcc.nl/publications/IEA-CHP-Q2-final.pdf#search=%22economic%20evaluation%20biomass%20generation%22
 rgy.ornl.gov/papers/bioam95/graham3.html
nal).pdf#search=%22SRC%20electricity%20cost%22

				
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