BAS COSHH Risk Assessment - DOC

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					                       BAS COSHH Risk Assessment

Division: BSD                                           Assessment No:

Name of assessor: Rebecca Korb

Date of assessment: 24/11/04

Authorised by: Peter Ward

Name of substance or description of process
Primary production by 14C uptake

Risks are associated with the following stages of this procedure:
   1. Working with a radioisotope (14C sodium bicarbonate, aqueous,
       specific activity 2 mCi/ml).
   2. Working with corrosives e.g. use of conc. HCl.
   3. Working with toxic substances e.g. formaldehyde. This includes the
       additional risk associated with working with HCL and formaldehyde in
       the same procedure.

Key chemicals
        a. 14C sodium bicarbonate.
        b. HCl – 6N and 0.5N solution.
        c. Ethanolamine.
        d. Formaldehyde.
        e. Scintillation cocktail - Optiphase Supermix and Optiphase Hisafe

Risk phrases from safety data sheet (from Sigma Aldrich)
 C sodium bicarbonate
There are no risks phrases associated with this chemical.
Radioactive half life: 5730 years
Beta emitter.
20 mSv annual limit on intake by inhalation: 3.4 x 10 7 Bq (~0.91 mCi)

R-PHRASES: 34 37
Causes burns. Irritating to respiratory system.
OEL 2mg/m3 (1 ppm) – LTE, 8 hour TWA (ref EH40/2002)

R-PHRASES: 20 36/37/38
Harmful by inhalation. Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.
OEL 7.6 mg/m3 (3 ppm) – LTE, 8 hour TWA (ref EH40/2002)
R-PHRASES: 23/24/25 34 40 43
Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. Causes burns.
Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact
with skin and if swallowed. Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect. May
cause sensitization by skin contact.
OEL 2.5 mg/m3 (2 ppm).

Formaldehyde and HCl fumes may combine to produce
Bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME) , a known human carcinogen. Although
precaution will be taken to minimize this risk, as both formaldehyde and HCl
are used in the experimental procedure, we include the risk phrases
associated with BCME.
R-PHRASES: 45 22 24 26
May cause cancer. Highly flammable. Also harmful by inhalation,
in contact with skin and if swallowed.
OEL 0.005 mg/m3 (0.001 ppm). – LTE, 8 hour TWA (ref EH40/2002)

Scintillation cocktail
R-PHRASES: 36/38
Irritating to eyes and skin.
OEL TWA 15 mg/m3 (3 ppm)

People at risk
Operator (Rebecca Korb) and those working in the vicinity of the work area on
cruise JR116.

Hazard category
  a. 14C sodium bicarbonate:       not known.
  b. Concentrated HCl:             medium to high hazard.
  c. Ethanolamine:                 low hazard.
  d. Formaldehyde:                 high hazard.
  e. Scintillation cocktails:      low hazard.

Exposure potential
Overall score (A x B x C) for:
   a. 14C sodium bicarbonate: not known.
   b. Concentrated HCl: 100 x 10 x 1 = 103 (low)
   c. Ethanolamine:          10 x 1 x 1 = 101 (low)
   d. Formaldehyde:          1 x 100 x 1 = 102 (low)
   e. Scintillation cocktail: 10 x 1 x 1 = 101 (low)

Containment level
  a. 14C sodium bicarbonate:       not known.
  b. Concentrated HCl:             1/2
  c. Ethanolamine:                 1
  d. Formaldehyde:                 1/2
  e. Scintillation cocktails:      1
Control measures
1 - Open bench, normal laboratory environment usually about 15-20 air
2 - Fume cupboard or other adequate local exhaust ventilation.

14C uptake experiments
The following precautions will be taken:
   1. All steps apart from on deck incubations and scintillation counting will
       be carried out in the radiochemical lab on the JCR.
   2. Access to the radioisotope room will be limited to the personnel directly
       associated with the 14C work e.g. Rebecca Korb (phytoplankton
       biologist), Min Gordon (assistant) and the JCR heath and safety officer.
   3. In the radiochemical lab, direct handling of stock 14C will take place in
       the re-circulating radiochemical fume cabinet, as well as any activity
       likely to produce gaseous 14C e.g. 14CO2 during the acidification step.
       The fume cabinet contains special filters for radioisotope work, which
       will absorb any radioactive gas produced. For the PI curves, a lot of
          CO2 is produced, but this gas will be trapped by charcoal filters. For
       on-deck incubations, little 14CO2 is produced and can be absorbed by
       the filters following an acidification step in the fume hood.
   4. A Geiger counter will be operating in the radioisotope lab during work
       procedures to give an audible warning of any gaseous radiation threat.
   5. Lab coat, safety glasses and gloves (blue nitrile for 14C) will be worn at
       all times.
   6. All equipment e.g. glassware, pipettes, etc. will be designated for 14C
       work only and will be labeled appropriately with radioactive tape.
   7. All work will be performed on safety trays marked with radioactive tape.
   8. Solid waste such as gloves, tissue, etc will be placed in a 60L plastic
       drum (designated for solid, low level waste) appropriately labeled with
       radioactive tape and a tag.
   9. Waste pipette tips will be placed into labeled plastic jars with a secure
       lid and ultimately disposed of into a 60L plastic drum designated for
       solid, low level waste.
   10. Once counted, scintillation vials containing radioactive waste
       (scintillation cocktail and filters or seawater) will be placed in an
       appropriately labeled 60L plastic drum and stored in a specially
       designed waste safe.
   11. Liquid waste (produced mainly from filtrate and from washes) will be
       collected into 25L UN safety drums. Care will be taken to ensure that
       seawater waste with 14C will be not be mixed with acid.
   12. Daily records will be made of the amount of 14C used in experiments
       and the amount of scintillation waste.
   13. All isotope workers and the work area will be checked at least daily for
       contamination using Geiger counter and recorded on log sheets
       available in the radiation laboratory.
   14. All work will be carried out under the ‘Ionising Radiation Regulations,
       1985’ and the ‘Radioactive Substances Act, 1993’.
   15. All work will follow BAS local regulations on use of ionising radiation.
   16. Decon 90 (5% solution) will be used to wipe down and decontaminate
       all surfaces in the lab and on deck.
   17. All other cruise personnel will be informed of the hazards and
       implications of the experiments.
   18. All surfaces in the radioisotope lab, including the fume cabinet, will be
       cleaned and checked for radiation, by wipes and liquid scintillation
       counting, at the end of the work period.
   19. The ships radiation officer will be informed of the likely 14C activity of
       the fume hood filter.

Preparation of HCl solutions e.g. 6N HCl.
The following precautions will be taken:
   1. Wear appropriate safety gear. E.g. lab coats, safety specs, rubber
   2. Carry the conc. HCl from storage to a fume cupboard in a suitable
       safety carrier.e.g. Safe Break carrier with lid.
   3. Decant the conc. HCl in the fume cupboard into a small container with
       a lid.
   4. For preparation of a 0.5N or 6N HCl solution, make up in fume hood in
       the prep lab, adding acid to water slowly.
   5. Rinse all equipment with traces of conc. HCl with water inside the fume
       hood. Decant rinse water into designated squat drums (25L) labelled
       ‘ACID WASTE’.
   6. Store waste in corrosive cabinet.
   7. Whilst working on the JCR, the acid will be secured against ship
       movement during storage and analysis.

Formaldehyde – for termination of 14C uptake
The handling of formaldehyde is covered by risk assessment # 841 by
Rachael Shreeve. A volume of ~50 ml will be decanted by Rachel Shreeve,
from her stock, following the recommended guidelines.
For the 14C uptake experiments the following precautions will also be taken:
       1. Wear appropriate safety gear when handling formaldehyde. E.g. lab
          coats, safety specs, rubber gloves. Fresh gloves will be used each
          time the formaldehyde is handled and changed immediately
       2. All work with formaldehyde will be carried out in a fume cupboard.
       3. A small aliquot of formaldehyde (sufficient for one experiment) will
          be dispensed from the 50 ml stock, into a small disposable vial with
          a screw cap lid. This will take place in the fume hood in the main lab
          of the JCR.
       4. In the radiochemical fume cabinet,     C uptake experiments (PI
          curves only) will be terminated by the addition of ~ to 200 l of
          formaldehyde. This will be added to 20 ml scintillation vials
          containing 5 ml of 14C-seawater and will result in a ~1:25 dilution of
          the formaldehyde.
       5. Designate one pipettor for dispensing formaldehyde only. Waste
          tips will be disposed of in a Ziplock bag and disposed of with
          Rachael Shreeves chemical waste.
       6. After addition of the formaldehyde, the scintillation vials will be
          placed into a dessicator. Later 6N HCl will be added to the samples.
          The dessicator will be closed and the pump switched on.
       7. Before acidifying samples in the dessicator, all formaldehyde
          contaminated materials will be removed from the fumehood. e.g.
          stock solution, pipettor, filtration unit. This will be followed by an
          intervening period of air throughflow in the hood. Only then will the
          dessicator be opened and the acid added to the samples.
       8. A vacuum pump is used to move air from the dessicator and
          through a trap containing charcoal. The output from the pump will
          be directed into the fume hood.
       9. In addition, stock solutions of formaldehyde and HCl will not be
          used at the same time in the fume hood and their individual use will
          be followed by an intervening period of air throughflow in the hood.

Emergency Procedures
Emergency showers, eyewash and chemical spill kits are situated in all labs
where the chemicals will be used.

In the event of the accidental spillage of 14C with a high specific activity (i.e.
concentrated stock solution), we will evacuate the lab or immediate area and
clean the area with Decon 90. This will be followed by swabbing and counting
of swabs as well as monitoring the area with a Geiger counter.

In the event of the accidental spillage of large quantities of concentrated HCl
we will follow the emergency procedures as stated in Croners Emergency
Spillage Guide, SP Chart 1 Acids (copy attached).

In the event of the accidental spillage of large quantities of formaldehyde we
will evacuate the lab or immediate area and follow the emergency procedures
as stated in Croners Emergency Spillage Guide, SP Chart 4 (copy attached).

Signature of assessor                              Authorised

Date                                               Date
Review     Reviewer                Reviewed on             Signature of
 date      or author                                         reviewer

           R Korb      17/12/05.
           R Korb      27/07/06. Reviewed early for
Dec 2006               cruise JR161. Slight changes – no
                       longer fuming filters with conc.
                       HCl or using NaOH.