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					NATIONAL PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE FOR WALES                      SUMMARY OF THE POPULATION OF NORTH WALES
CJ/Designed for Life/Summary Profile of the population of     FINAL
North Wales v6




             Summary Profile of the Population of Wales
An initial summary of the key points relevant to the North Wales region arising
from currently available baseline documents.


Key Messages

    The demography of North Wales is predicted to change over the next 20-30
     years with large growth in the numbers of older people.

    Tackling inequalities in health is a key issue, almost one fifth of the population
     living within the most deprived wards in Wales are located in North Wales.

    There is evidence to show that people with chronic conditions are more likely to
     use secondary care services. Reducing admissions requires partnership working
     across sectors.

    The birth rate in North Wales is falling with the biggest decline seen in the North
     West area.

    North Wales has a lower number of young people at all ages compared to the
     Welsh average.

    Diseases of the circulatory system are the main cause of death in North Wales.




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Background
The project to review secondary care services across North Wales, requires an
understanding of the current health needs and the projected health needs of the population
over the next 20 -30 years.

This initial summary identifies key messages which are relevant to the review. It has
been produced by the National Public Health Service for Wales (NPHS) and has involved
staff from the North Wales region and National Health Information and Analysis
Resource Team.

The summary has drawn upon detailed information previously produced by the NPHS,
new information prepared for the purpose of this review and other national reports from
the Welsh Assembly Government. Reference and access links to these detailed reports
are summarized in Appendix 1.

The report summarises information as it relates to the North Wales geographical
boundary, which includes the population covered by the Anglesey, Gwynedd, Conwy,
Denbighshire, Flintshire and Wrexham Local Health Boards (LHBs) and their
coterminous Unitary Authorities (UAs). However, it is important to point out that
detailed health needs assessment information is also included in the needs assessments
prepared in support of the Local Health, Social Care and Wellbeing Strategies and
Community Strategies which have been prepared and adopted by the LHB/ UA
partnerships in each of the six areas.



Demography
Population Structure
In 2003 the population of North Wales was 670,800. Flintshire in the North East has the
largest population of 149,400 and Anglesey in the North West has the smallest
population, 68,400.

18.5% of the current resident population is aged 65 and over. This is slightly higher than
the Welsh average of 17.5%.

Conwy and Denbighshire have the highest proportions of people aged 65 years and over
in Wales, 23% and 20%.

Conwy and Denbighshire have the highest proportions of people aged 85 years and over
in Wales, 3.3% and 2.8%.




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Compared to Wales as a whole, North Wales also has a lower proportion of people aged
16 and under and people of working age (16 – 65 years old), 19.20% and 62.25%
respectively.

Conwy has:

    the lowest proportion of people aged 16 and under, 17%
    the lowest proportion of people of working age, 60%
    the highest proportion of people aged 65 and over, 23%

Population figures available in Appendix 2 Tables 1 & 2.


Population Projections
By 2023 the North Wales population is set to increase by 3.6% overall to 695,000.

All UA areas will experience population growth, with the exception of Anglesey.

Conwy, Wrexham and Denbighshire are expected to experience the largest growth (North
Wales Population and Housing Group, 2005).

There are major differences between the age groups, which will alter the demography of
the area, notably:

    The 0-4 year old age group is predicted to fall by 10% and the 16-24 year old age
     group by 9%.

    The 65-74 year old age group is projected to rise by 35%, and the over 75 year old
     age group by 50%.


Key Message: The demography of North Wales is predicted to change over the next
20-30 years with large growth in the numbers of older people.


Population density
Population density varies across the region. Wrexham and Flintshire are the most densely
populated areas. Denbighshire, Conwy and Anglesey are more sparsely populated and
Gwynedd has the most sparsely distributed population in North Wales.

Further information on population density is available in Appendix 2 Tables 3 & 4.




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Households
The proportion of one person households could impact of the demand for formal care
service provision.

    29.1% of households in North Wales are one person households.

    Conwy has the highest proportion and one persons households, 32.7%.

Further household data are available in Appendix 2, Table 5.


Ethnicity
Race and ethnicity are important issues reflecting the need for and uptake of health
services.

    Less than 1.2% of the population of North Wales belongs to a Black, Minority or
     Ethnic Community (BME).

    Most BME communities are concentrated around the Bangor, Rhyl and Wrexham
     areas.

Ethnicity data is available in Appendix 2, Table 6.


Determinants of Health
Socio-economic deprivation
Despite improvements in health, the gap between the least and most deprived appears to
be widening at a national level. A key challenge for organisations is to ensure that
sufficient focus is placed on the longer term aims of tackling health inequalities.

Across Wales electoral wards have been grouped from worst to best into fifths (quintiles).
On an all Wales basis 705,118 people are recorded as residing within the most deprived
wards. 122,181 people are recorded as living within such wards which are located within
North Wales (i.e. approx 17% of the total population living within the most deprived
wards in Wales).




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The numbers and proportions of the population living in the most deprived wards in
North Wales are as follows.

Table 1: Percentage of people living in most deprived wards in
North Wales
                                    Number              %
Gwynedd                              32,900             28
Isle of Anglesey                     11,622             17
Denbighshire                         12.335             13
Conwy                                18,849             17
Wrexham                              28,544             22
Flintshire                           17,931             12
Source: ONS 2001 Census


Educational Achievement
Poor educational achievement has been linked to poorer health in adulthood.

    Denbighshire and Wrexham have significantly higher numbers of 16-24 year olds
     with no qualifications, compared to the average for Wales.

    Wrexham has a significantly lower number of pupils gaining 5 GCSEs, compared to
     the average for Wales.


Economic Infrastructure
People in employment are generally healthier than those who are unemployed.

    Around 59.3% of the North Wales population is of working age. This is slightly lower
     than the Welsh average of 59.6%.

    North Wales has a higher proportion of economically active people, 76.9%, compared
     to the Welsh average, 74.2%.

    North Wales has a higher proportion of people in employment, 74.7%, compared to
     the Welsh average, 70.5%.

    North Wales has a lower proportion of unemployment, 3.27% compared to the Welsh
     average, 5.1%.




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However, rates of economic activity vary across the region.

    Flintshire has the highest proportion of economically active people, 80.7%; people in
     employment, 78.3%; and employees, 69.3%.

    Anglesey has the lowest proportion of economically active people, 74.3%; and people
     in employment, 70.8%; and the highest proportion of unemployment, 4.7%.

    Wrexham has the lowest proportion of unemployment, 2.3%.

22.9% of the people of working age in North Wales are economically inactive (people
who are neither in employment nor unemployed, such as people who look after a home or
who have retired).


Again, rates of economic inactivity vary considerably across the region.

    Anglesey has the highest proportion of economically inactive people, 25.7%.

    Flintshire has the lowest proportion of economically inactive people, 19.3%.


Employment data available in Appendix 2, Tables 7 & 8.


Transportation
Car ownership can have significant advantages to an individual and household. Owning a
car can improve access to services such as healthcare, employment and leisure activities.

    Wrexham and Conwy have the highest proportion of households in North Wales with
     no car or van, 24%, although they are below the average for Wales, 26%.

Further information is available on transport networks in Appendix 2.




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Lifestyle
People‟s lifestyles greatly influence their health and the risk of developing chronic
diseases.

Results of self-reported lifestyles from the Welsh Health Survey are shown below.

Table 2: Self-reported lifestyle factors, Welsh Health Survey 2003-04
                                       North Wales                Wales
                                            %                       %
Smoking rates                               28                      26
Levels of obesity                           52                      54
Consumption of fruit and
                                            40                      39
vegetables
Physical activity levels                    31                      29
Consumption of alcohol above
                                            18                      20
recommended guidelines
Source: Welsh Health Survey 2003/04


Improving health is a key national and local policy objective of Welsh Assembly
Government, Local Health Boards and their partners. Implementation of national
initiatives such as Health Challenge Wales and Local Health Social Care and Wellbeing
Strategy Action Plans will aim to address key determinant of health issues, including
lifestyle, over the next period which may have a positive impact on long term health
status.


Key Message: Tackling inequalities in health is a key issues, almost one fifth of the
population living within the most deprived wards in Wales are located in North
Wales.


Preventive Health
Preventive ill health or reduction of the effects of illness can be achieved through many
different measures. Some involve broad based initiatives – for example addressing
inequalities in health or achieving reductions in smoking. More specific initiatives
include screening services and immunisation programmes.

In August 2005, MMR uptake, as at 2nd birthday, was 86.5% in North Wales and 83.7%
across Wales. Anglesey has the highest uptake, 89.7% and Denbighshire had the lowest,
81.6%.




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Health Services in North Wales
North Wales has a total of 123 GP Practices, most of which are in Flintshire and
Wrexham. Anglesey has the least amount of GP Practices.

Table 3: Number of GP Practices in North Wales by UA Area, 2004
Anglesey                                                   11
Gwynedd                                                    27
Conwy                                                      19
Denbighshire                                               16
Flintshire                                                 26
Wrexham                                                    24
North Wales                                               123
Source: Welsh Assembly Government 2005

There are 42 hospitals in North Wales. Three of these – Ysbyty Gwynedd (Bangor),
Ysbyty Glan Clwyd (Bodelwyddan) and Ysbyty Maelor (Wrexham) – are major acute
hospitals, and a further two – Ysbyty Llandudno and Ysbyty Abergele – are acute
hospitals.


Table 4: Number of Hospitals in North Wales by NHS Trust, 2004
                        North West     Conwy &       North East                                North
                       Wales NHS      Denbighshire  Wales NHS                                  Wales
                          Trust        NHS Trust       Trust
Hospitals-major acute        1             1              1                                      3
Hospitals-acute              1             1              0                                      2
Hospitals-community          7             7              5                                     19
Hospitals-community
                             2             1              4                                      7
(geriatric)
Source: Welsh Assembly Government 2005

There are three NHS Trusts in North Wales, all providing a range of secondary care
services. The North West Wales NHS Trust serves the Unitary Authority areas of
Gwynedd and Anglesey, the Conwy and Denbighshire NHS Trust serves the Unitary
Authority areas of Conwy and Denbighshire and the North East Wales serves the Unitary
Authority areas of Flintshire and Wrexham. Whilst these are the main secondary care
services provides in the region, some people access secondary care services elsewhere
(such as in Powys, Ceredigion and Cheshire) depending on their geographical location.




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North Wales has an average of 3,140 beds available on a daily basis, of which 1,891 are
dedicated for acute services.

Table 5: Average Daily Beds* in North Wales by NHS Trust, 2003/04
                           North West              Conwy &                North East                  North
                          Wales NHS             Denbighshire              Wales NHS                   Wales
                               Trust              NHS Trust                   Trust
Acute                           666                    663                     562                     1891
Maternity                        42                     44                      44                      130
Geriatrics                      200                    158                     272                      630
Non-
                                907                    865                     879                     2651
psychiatrics
Psychiatrics                    268                    139                      82                      489
All Beds                       1175                   1004                     961                     3140
Source: Welsh Assembly Government, 2005
* the average daily beds is the average number of staffed beds available daily during the year including beds set up
temporarily and beds borrowed from other specialties but excluding beds loaned to other specialties.


Morbidity
Long Term and Chronic Conditions
It has been highlighted that people with chronic conditions are more likely to use
secondary care. Evidence has shown that older people with chronic respiratory
conditions and „acute on chronic‟ disease accounted for greatest use of bed days,
particularly during the winter months.

A recent review of chronic illness showed that, for the population of Wales as a whole,
about one third of people over the age of 16 self report having at least one chronic
condition. This rises to two thirds of people over the age of 65 years. 23% of people
report having some form of limiting long term illness (LLTI) in Wales, higher than in
England (18%) and the other home nations (20%).


Table 6: Percentage of persons reporting having a LLTI
LHB Area                                 % reporting LLTI*
Ynys Mon                                        22.4
Conwy                                           23.5
Denbighshire                                    23.4
Flintshire                                      19.2
Gwynedd                                         20.6
Wrexham                                         21.5
Source: ONS 2001 Census / HIAT
* The numbers are not standardized for age and sex therefore variation may be due to differences in population structure rather than
true variations in LLTI.




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Emergency admissions are a particular concern in Wales and North Wales and chronic
conditions have been highlighted as a cause or contributory factor in a large proportion of
admissions.

Admissions can be prevented if patients with a chronic condition are well managed in
primary, community and intermediate care. This requires health communities to work
together across the sectors.

Key Message: There is evidence to show that people with chronic conditions are
more likely to use secondary care services. Reducing admissions requires
partnership working across sectors.


Mental Health
The determinants of mental health and well being are multi-factorial and risk factors for
experiencing poor mental health can be associated with where you live, ethnic
background, socio-economic status and lifestyle.

Welsh Health Survey data has shown:

    The highest proportion of respondents who reported that they suffered from
     depression is highest amongst people aged 45-64 years and older people aged 85
     years and over.

    A statistically significant association between poorer mental health and lower social
     class.

    A higher proportion of females reported being treated for depression than males.

Sexual Health
Sexually transmitted infections are an important cause of mortality and morbidity and the
consequences of some of these infections can be devastating for the patient and involve
lifelong service utilization.

The past decade has seen both a substantial increase in high-risk sexual behaviours and a
significant increase in new diagnoses of STI‟s, particularly in chlamydia, syphilis and
gonorrhoea. Sub-groups within the population tend to experience a disproportionate
burden of disease, for example, young people, gay and bisexual men and some ethnic
minorities




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Children & Young People

Births

    The birth rate has fallen in the last decade in Wales. Anglesey and Gwynedd have
     seen the greatest decline in North Wales of around 15%, with Wrexham experiencing
     the smallest decline of 4%.

    Traditionally most mothers are in the 20–30 age groups although there are older
     mums. There is likely to be a 10% fall in these age groups in the coming decade,
     which may be reflected in maternal age falling or rising with the consequent health
     care issues.

    There may be a slightly significant upward trend in low birth weight babies generally
     in Wales. However North Wales has experienced a lower percentage of low birth
     weight babies compared to Wales.

    The number of infant mortalities in North Wales is low. Denbighshire has a higher
     rate than Wales for 1999-2001 although this is not statistically significant. Gwynedd
     had a significantly lower rate than Wales during this period.

    Wrexham has a significantly higher rate of reported congenital malformations.

    Approximately 25% of children in Wales live in lone (single) parent households.
     North Wales has a significantly lower proportion of lone parent households compared
     to the average for Wales.


Key Message: The birth rate in North Wales is falling with the biggest decline seen
in the North West area.


Young People
North Wales has a lower number of young people at all ages, compared to the average for
Wales. This is partly accounted for by the college/university availability elsewhere in
Wales.


Key Message: North Wales has a lower number of young people at all ages
compared to the Welsh average.




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Older People
Chronological age is a poor indicator of health need.

The post war baby boom will reach retirement in the next decade.

The preponderance of females in the older age group has decreased over the past 40 years
with mortality rates for males falling at a faster rate than for women.

Life expectancy
Life expectancy at birth is above average in North Wales.

There are however variations across the region and by sex

    Life expectancy is significantly higher for males in Flintshire and Gwynedd.
    Life expectancy for women is lower than average in Wrexham but significantly
     higher for Gwynedd.

Inward migration
There is a significant retirement population on the North Wales coast. 56% of Conwy and
of 52% Denbighshire residents over the age of 65 were born in England.

There are high numbers of first language Welsh speakers in North West Wales but the
high inward migration may well affect this.

Lifestyle
In the 70 years and over age group, 21% of male and 15% of female deaths are smoking
related. The prevalence of smoking is declining and it is hoped this will be reflected in
the next 20 years.

Income
Pension income will be a major issue but may not hit until the existing 40 year olds reach
retirement in 15 – 20 years time. Income is known to have direct effects on health and
well being. Retirement age may well increase over the next decade.

Wrexham has a significantly higher number of income support claimants over the age of
65.

Transport
Most older people in North Wales have access to a car, apart from Wrexham where the
rates are low in comparison.




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Housing
Wrexham, Flintshire and Anglesey have significant numbers of the over 65 in non owner
occupied housing.

Care
Older people are healthy and enjoying retirement. Only 4% of the over 65 require
residential or nursing care. This does go up with advanced age but the future pattern may
be different.

Over the past decade fewer older people are living in “communal establishments”.

Wrexham, Conwy and Denbighshire have significantly higher numbers of over 65 living
in medical or care establishments with Anglesey being very much lower. This may reflect
current distribution of provision.

Living arrangements are important for service provision. 22% of males and 44% of
females live alone over the age of 65, with this being significant in Wrexham, Flintshire
and Denbighshire.

Denbighshire has a significant number of over 75s who are also carers.


Mortality
The three main causes of death in North Wales are shown below; they reflect the pattern
for Wales.

Table 7: Major causes of death, North Wales 2001-2003
Cause of Death                                  %
Circulatory system                              42
Cancer                                          26
Respiratory system                              13


Diseases of the Circulatory System
Circulatory diseases are currently the main cause of death in North Wales.

North Wales has experienced a downward trend in deaths from diseases of the circulatory
system between 1990 and 2003.

The rate for persons aged 85 years and over increased between 1998 and 2003.

Flintshire and Wrexham experienced mortality rates higher than the average for Wales
for the period 2001-03.


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Cancer
Mortality rates for cancer in North Wales have fluctuated between 1990 and 2003, with a
general downward trend. The trend for persons aged 85 years and over has increased
slightly.

The 2001-03 rate for North Wales was higher than the average for Wales. Conwy,
Denbighshire and Wrexham also experienced higher rates.

Denbighshire experienced the highest rate in Wales for female cancer mortality in 2001-
03.

Diseases of the Respiratory System
The mortality rate for respiratory disease has fluctuated in North Wales between 1990
and 2003.

The 2001-03 rate for mortality from diseases of the respiratory system were higher in
Wrexham and Flintshire than the average for Wales.

All accidents and adverse effects
Injury mortality rates in North Wales fluctuated during he period 1990 to 2003.

Conwy, Denbighshire and Wrexham experienced a higher for 2001-03, compared to the
average for Wales.

Suicide, self-inflicted and undetermined injury
Suicide rates in North Wales fluctuated during the period 1990 to 2003.

The rate for Anglesey (males) and Denbighshire (all, females) for 2001-03 were higher
than the average for Wales.

Conwy experienced the highest rate in Wales for 2001-03.

Mental Disorders
The number of deaths from mental disorders is small, causing rates to fluctuate.

Anglesey (males, females) and Wrexham (all, females) experienced a higher rate
compared to the average for Wales for 2001-03.

Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs
There has been a slight upward trend in mortality rates in North Wales between 1990 and
2003, although rates are based on small numbers.

Anglesey (females), Gwynedd (males), Conwy (all, males, females), Denbighshire
(males) and Wrexham (all, males, females) had higher rates compared to Wales for 2001-
03.

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Diseases of the digestive system
North Wales experienced an upward trend in mortality rates between 1990 and 2003.

Anglesey (females), Gwynedd (females), Denbighshire (all, females), Wrexham (all,
females) had a rate higher than the average for Wales for 2001-03.

Key message: Diseases of the circulatory system are the main cause of death in
North Wales.


Conclusions
This report begins to describe the health status of the people in North Wales. It can be
added to as work on the reconfiguration of health services in the region progresses.




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Appendix 1

NPHS Published Reports (available at www.nphs.wales.nhs.uk)

A profile of the Health of Older People in Wales

A profile of the Health of Children and Young People in Wales

Deprivation and Health

A profile of long-term and chronic conditions in Wales

Additional NPHS Analysis (available by email see list of tables)

Socio-economic deprivation
Population projections
Population pyramids
Determinants of health including lifestyle and behavior
Live births

National Reports

Welsh Health Survey 2003/04 statistical publication. First Release.
http://www.wales.gov.uk/keypubstatisticsforwalesheadline/content/publication/health/20
05/hs2003-04/hs2003-04.htm

Additional NPHS analysis – list of tables

D4L Analysis Population Projection

LHB-level proportion of population residing in most deprived fifth of wards.

Proportion of population residing in most deprived fifth of wards, 2001 census.

Population projections - percentage of population aged under 16.

Population projections - percentage of population aged under 16 – 64.

Population projections - percentage of population aged 65+.

2003-Based National and Sub-National Population Projections for Wales.
Statistical Directorate, National Assembly for Wales
http://www.wales.gov.uk/keypubstatisticsforwales/content/publication/population/2005/s
b40-2005/sb40-2005.htm


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D4L Analysis Live Births

Live births by maternal age 2003

Annual live births

Year of birth

D4L Analysis Deprivation

http://www.wales.gov.uk/keypubstatisticsforwales/content/publication/health/2005/hs200
3-04/hs2003-04-ch4-tables.pdf

Standardised self reported health related lifestyle - smoking
(Welsh Health Survey 2003/04)
Table 4.13 Adults who reported key health-related lifestyles (standardised), by local
authority and region (provisional figures)
http://www.wales.gov.uk/keypubstatisticsforwales/content/publication/health/2005/hs200
3-04/hs2003-04-ch4-tabl

Standardised self reported health related lifestyle - alcohol consumption above
guidelines1
(Welsh Health Survey 2003/04)
Table 4.13 Adults who reported key health-related lifestyles (standardised), by local
authority and region (provisional figures)
http://www.wales.gov.uk/keypubstatisticsforwales/content/publication/health/2005/hs200
3-04/hs2003-04-ch4-tables.pdf


Standardised self reported health related lifestyle - consumption of fruit and vegetables3
(Welsh Health Survey 2003/04)
Table 4.13 Adults who reported key health-related lifestyles (standardised), by local
authority and region (provisional figures)
http://www.wales.gov.uk/keypubstatisticsforwales/content/publication/health/2005/hs200
3-04/hs2003-04-ch4-tables.pdf

Standardised self reported health related lifestyle - Exercise or physical activity done
meets guidelines4
 (Welsh Health Survey 2003/04)
Table 4.13 Adults who reported key health-related lifestyles (standardised), by local
authority and region (provisional figures)
http://www.wales.gov.uk/keypubstatisticsforwales/content/publication/health/2005/hs200
3-04/hs2003-04-ch4-tables.pdf

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Standardised self reported health related lifestyle - Exercise or physical activity done
meets guidelines5
 (Welsh Health Survey 2003/04)
Table 4.13 Adults who reported key health-related lifestyles (standardised), by local
authority and region (provisional figures)
http://www.wales.gov.uk/keypubstatisticsforwales/content/publication/health/2005/hs200
3-04/hs2003-04-ch4-tables.pdf




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Appendix 2


Demography

Table 1: Resident population of North Wales by Unitary Authority Area (2003 mid-
year estimates)
                           All Persons              Males           Females
Anglesey                      68,400                33,200           35,200
Gwynedd                      117,500                56,700           60,800
Conwy                        110,900                53,000           57,900
Denbighshire                  94,900                45,500           49,400
Flintshire                   149,400                73,300           76,100
Wrexham                      129,700                63,500           66,200
North Wales                  670,800               325,200          345,600
Source: Office for National Statistics via NPHS HIAT



Table 2: Age structure of North Wales by Unitary Authority (2003 mid-year
estimates)
                   0-4       5-15       16-24    25-44  45-65    65-74                           75+
Anglesey          3600       8500        7700    16400  19200     7000                           6200
Gwynedd           6500      14500       15200    28200  30400    11700                          10900
Conwy             5400      13300       11400    26000  29100    12900                          12900
Denbighshire      5000      11900       10300    23300  25000     9500                           9700
Flintshire        8400      19400       17500    42100  39000    12600                          10300
Wrexham           7300      16200       16500    35600  33300    10800                          10000
North Wales      36200      92600       69800   171900 175900    64500                          59900
Source: Office for National Statistics via NPHS HIAT




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Population Density

Table 3: Population Density, North Wales
UA Area                 Population per km2
Anglesey                          95
Conwy                             98
Denbighshire                     113
Flintshire                       257
Gwynedd                           46
Wrexham                          341
Source: Office for National Statistics, 2005

The population of North Wales is scattered between large concentrations of people in and
around the region‟s key urban centres', coastal resorts and rural market towns and smaller
concentrations in and around rural villages, hamlets and settlements.

North Wales has 62 areas which are classed as „urban‟ (that is, an area with a minimum
population of 1,500). Forty of these areas have populations of less than 5,000 people
(Llay, Menai Bridge, Bethesda, Llangefni, Penrhyn Bay, Blaenau Ffestiniog, Chirk,
Pwllheli, Conwy, Rhuddlan, Llanfairfechan, St Asaph, Tywyn, Ruabon,
Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, Llanrwst, Porthmadog, Llangollen, Bagillt, Rhostyllen, Dyserth,
Greenfield, Valley, Dolgellau, Penmaenmawr, Benllech, Malachi, Port Doorway, Russet,
Penrhyndeudraeth, Bala, Llansantffraid Glan Conwy, Llanberis, Whelston, Llanrug,
Bodelwyddan, Penygroes, Mostyn, Northop Hall and Beaumaris), and eight areas have
less than 10,000 people (Caernarfon, Mold, Deganwy / Llandudno Junction, Denbigh,
Cefn Mawr, Holywell, Coedpoeth and Ruthin). Fourteen areas have populations of
10,000 people or more:

Table 4: Main urban areas in North Wales
Name                                      UA Area                             Resident population
Wrexham,                                  Wrexham                                   42576
Colwyn Bay                                 Conwy                                    30269
Rhyl                                    Denbighshire                                25390
Shotton (inc. Hawarden)                   Flintshire                                24751
Prestatyn                               Denbighshire                                18496
Buckley                                   Flintshire                                18268
Brymbo/Gwersyllt                          Wrexham                                   17912
Abergele                                   Conwy                                    17574
Connah‟s Quay                             Flintshire                                16526
Bangor                                    Gwynedd                                   15280
Llandudno                                  Conwy                                    14872
Rhosllanerchrugog                         Wrexham                                   13246
Flint                                     Flintshire                                11936
Holyhead                                  Anglesey                                  11237
Source: Office for National Statistics, 2001 Census
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Households

Table 5: Household composition in North Wales by Unitary Authority area (2001)
                                                                              North
            Anglesey Gwynedd Conwy Denbighshire Flintshire Wrexham
                                                                              Wales
Total
             28356      49237     48062     39892        60539      53226    279312
households
One
person        8289      15897     15739     12866        16068      15227     84086
households
Married
couple       10589      16876     16075     13849        25547      20966    103902
households
Cohabiting
couple        1979       3778      3444      3069         5027       4692     21989
households
Lone
parent        2998       4838      4252      3836         5860       5171     26955
households
All other
              4501       7848      8552      6272         8037       7170     42380
households
Source: ONS 2001 Census




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Ethnicity

 Table 6: Percentage of people in ethnic groups, North Wales 2001
                                                            Denbigh-                             Isle of
                                              Conwy                    Flintshire   Gwynedd                Wrexham
                                                             shire                              Anglesey
 White: British                                 96.8          97.2       97.7         96.5        97.2      97.4
 White: Irish                                    1.0          0.7         0.6         0.7         0.9        0.5
 White: Other White                              1.2          1.0         0.9         1.6         1.2        1.0

 Mixed: White and Black
                                                 0.1          0.1         0.1         0.1         0.1        0.1
 Caribbean


 Mixed: White and Black
                                                 0.1          0.1         0.0         0.1         0.0        0.0
 African


 Mixed: White and Asian                          0.1          0.1         0.1         0.2         0.1        0.1

 Mixed: Other Mixed                              0.1          0.2         0.1         0.1         0.1        0.1


 Asian or Asian British: Indian                  0.1          0.2         0.1         0.1         0.1        0.2



 Asian or Asian British: Pakistani               0.1          0.1         0.0         0.1         0.1        0.1


 Asian or Asian British:
                                                 0.1          0.0         0.1         0.1         0.0        0.0
 Bangladeshi


 Asian or Asian British: Other
                                                 0.1          0.1         0.0         0.1         0.0        0.0
 Asian


 Black or Black British:
                                                 0.0          0.0         0.0         0.0         0.0        0.0
 Caribbean


 Black or Black British: African                 0.1          0.0         0.0         0.1         0.0        0.1


 Black or Black British: Other
                                                 0.0          0.1         0.0         0.0         0.0        0.0
 Black


 Chinese or other ethnic group:
                                                 0.2          0.2         0.1         0.2         0.2        0.1
 Chinese



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                                                            Denbigh-                             Isle of
                                              Conwy                    Flintshire   Gwynedd                 Wrexham
                                                             shire                              Anglesey

 Chinese or other ethnic group:
                                                 0.1          0.1         0.1         0.1         0.1         0.2
 Other ethnic group

 All White                                      98.9          98.8       99.2         98.8        99.3       98.9
 All Non-white                                   1.1          1.2         0.8         1.2         0.7         1.1
Source: ONS Census 2001

Economic Infrastructure

Table 7: Economic Activity in North Wales by UA area, 2003
                Economically           In  Employees        Self                                Unemployed
                   Active       Employment               Employed
Anglesey            29000           28000     24000         4000                                    1000
Gwynedd             53000           51000     41000         9000                                    2000
Conwy               46000           44000     37000         7000                                    2000
Denbighshire        42000           41000     35000         6000                                    2000
Flintshire          75000           73000     64000         8000                                    2000
Wrexham             61000           60000     53000         7000                                    1000
North Wales        306000          297000    254000        41000                                   10000
Source: Office for National Statistics

Table 8: Employment per sector in North Wales by UA area
               Anglesey Gwynedd Conwy Denbighshire Flintshire Wrexham                                           North
                                                                                                                Wales
Manufacturing         3434       4670                        2001        4456           20454       12498       47531
Construction           819       1535                        1440        2057            3127        1852       10830
Services             14188      38900                       31969       27014           35317       33786      181174
Distribution,
hotels &              5071      12905                       13043        7931           13014       11537      63501
restaurants
Transport &
                       975       1314                       1290         1560           2727         1859       9725
communications
Finance, IT &
other business        2004       3532                       3541         2291           5194         3910      20472
activities
Public
administration,
                      5302      17788                       12290       13596           11971       14118      75065
health &
education
Tourism related       1864       5645                       5595         3628           4762         3391      24885
Other services         837       3361                       1805         1636           2411         2362      12442
 Source: Office for National Statistics

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Transport Networks:
In North Wales, the key road transport links are the A55 Expressway (which also acts as
the North Wales section of Euro Route 22), the A5, A483, A487 and A470. The A55
Expressway (which has four road tunnels) experiences the highest volume of traffic,
which increases significantly during the summer months owing to the flow of tourists
into the region.

North Wales also hosts one of the largest Ferry Ports in Europe at Holyhead on Anglesey.
The Ferry Port connects around 2.5 million people each year via a total of 8,000 shipping
movements to and from Ireland. As a result, the Ferry Port is a berth for several ferry and
fast ferry vessels crossing to Ireland. The primary cargo is heavy haulage lorries and
there have been incidents in the past at the port involving events with „hazardous‟ goods.
The Ferry Port also marks the start of the North Wales section of the Euro Route 22, thus
putting Anglesey at the hub of an important Trans-European Network. Mostyn, on the
Dee Estuary, continues to develop as a port for the industrial areas of the North East.




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