From the Courthouse to the Schoolhouse: Making Successful Transitions by nvc17395


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									U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Shay Bilchik, Administrator                                                                                       February 2000

From the Courthouse to                                                                             From the Administrator
the Schoolhouse: Making                                                                            The successful reintroduction of
                                                                                                   juvenile offenders from correctional

Successful Transitions                                                                             facilities into the communities in
                                                                                                   which they live is fraught with chal-
                                                                                                   lenges. It is, however, an essential
                                                                                                   process in which schools play a key
                                                                                                   role in ensuring the offender’s chances
Ronald D. Stephens and June Lane Arnette                                                           for success and the classroom’s status
                                                                                                   as a safe environment of learning. In
This Bulletin is one of a series of OJJDP         would be compelled to learn and become re-       fact, the transition that a juvenile of-
Bulletins focusing on both promising and          sponsible citizens. The Chicago Board of
                                                                                                   fender makes from secure confine-
effective programs and innovative strate-         Education understood that when young             ment to school will likely shape the
gies to reach Youth Out of the Education          people were not in school, they were often
                                                                                                   youth’s transition to the community.
Mainstream (YOEM). YOEM is a joint pro-           out in the community committing delinquent
gram initiative of the Office of Juvenile Jus-    acts. The Board also recognized that school-     In 1996, the Office of Juvenile Justice
tice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. De-         ing was a key to crime prevention. While the     and Delinquency Prevention and the
partment of Justice, and the Safe and             Board’s theory sounds simple enough, the         Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program
Drug-Free Schools Program, U.S. Depart-           process it implies is complex and is filled      asked the National School Safety
ment of Education. The YOEM initiative            with both opportunities and risks.               Center to identify strategies for en-
focuses on at-risk youth who are truant,                                                           hancing services for youth out of the
dropouts, fearful of attending school, sus-       With the approach of a new century, a new        education mainstream.
                                                  priority has emerged for schools to play a
pended or expelled, or in need of help rein-
tegrating into mainstream schools from ju-        major role in the transition of young offend-    This Bulletin, one of a series address-
                                                  ers from confinement within a juvenile jus-      ing issues related to that initiative,
venile detention and correctional settings.
Each Bulletin in this series highlights one       tice setting to life in the community. Schools   describes effective approaches to
                                                  are being asked to shoulder the dual respon-     reintegrating youth from juvenile
or more of these five separate but often
related categories of problems that cause         sibility of preventing juvenile crime and de-    justice system settings into the ed-
                                                  veloping a responsible citizenry. The public     ucation mainstream and provides
youth to forsake their education and thus
place themselves at risk of delinquency.          believes that school is the right place for      information about promising pro-
                                                  young people to be if they are to stay away      grams, practices, and resources.
  “… We should rightfully have the                from trouble and focus on learning and per-
  power to arrest all these little beggars,                                                        With help from all concerned, juvenile
                                                  sonal development. This belief holds that
  loafers, and vagabonds that infest our                                                           offenders can return to their commu-
                                                  the interests of young offenders can best be
  city, take them from the streets and                                                             nities to lead productive lives. I hope
                                                  served in school, where these children can
  place them in schools where they are                                                             that the information this Bulletin con-
                                                  obtain academic and social skills that will
  compelled to receive education and                                                               tains will assist them in taking the
                                                  enable them to become good students and
  learn moral principles.”                                                                         first step—successful transition to
                                                  productive members of the community.
           —Chicago Board of Education,           Thus, schools need to provide a coordina-
               44th Annual Report, 1898           tion and support structure for promoting the     Shay Bilchik
                                                  success of young people who have had con-        Administrator
It has been over a century since the              tact with the juvenile justice system.
Chicago Board of Education released its
now-infamous edict to arrest disruptive           The successful transition of juvenile of-
youth and put them in schools where they          fenders from correctional systems back to
school and community environments can be
a difficult one. Juvenile detention and correc-
tional facilities are designed to provide a
structured environment with continuous
supervision and a wide range of services
(medical and mental health services, educa-
tion, training, counseling, and recreation).
Moving from this environment, with its per-
sonalized care and intense supervision, to
the relatively less structured environment
of mainstream education settings presents
problems for both the youth and the educa-
tors involved in the process. For the most
part, neither group is adequately prepared
to address these problems.
Young offenders making the transition
back to school often are still affected by
the social and personal influences that
contributed to the conduct that placed
them under the jurisdiction of the court          documentation regarding these students’         to guide youth-serving professionals
in the first place. Such influences, or “risk     personal and scholastic histories, which        toward promising programs, practices,
factors,” include delinquent peer groups,         makes it difficult to select appropriate edu-   and resources.
poor academic performance, high-crime             cational placements for them. Educators
neighborhoods, weak family attachments,           must also deal with their own prejudices
lack of consistent discipline, and physical       and fears regarding juvenile offenders—         Scope of the Problem
or sexual abuse.1 A youth may also return         attitudes that may impede decisions about       According to OJJDP’s National Juvenile
to school with a variety of special service       placement and services for individual juve-     Court Data Archive, the Nation’s juvenile
needs (such as individual counseling,             niles and thereby hinder their successful       courts processed 1,757,600 delinquency
drug rehabilitation, and family counsel-          reintegration into the school setting.          cases (cases involving juveniles charged
ing) that are outside the scope of the                                                            with criminal law violations) in 1996.2 Each
mainstream education system.                                                                      case in this count represents one youth
                                                  Youth Out of the                                processed on a new referral during the
Educators, including both teachers and            Education Mainstream                            calendar year. Although an individual
administrators, face unique problems in                                                           youth may be involved in more than one
helping young offenders make the transi-          Initiative
                                                                                                  case during the year, this figure can be
tion back to school. The main problem of-         In 1996, the U.S. Department of Justice’s       used to estimate that as many as 6 percent
ten is a lack of complete information and         Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency      of the Nation’s school-age youth are pro-
                                                  Prevention (OJJDP) and the U.S. Depart-         cessed through juvenile justice systems
                                                  ment of Education’s Safe and Drug-Free          each school year. Juvenile offenders re-
  A Note About Prevention                         Schools Program asked the National School       turning to school from out-of-home
  Although reintegrating young offenders          Safety Center to develop strategies for         placement represent a relatively small
                                                  enhancing services to youth out of the          percentage of this group of students, but
  into the education mainstream is a ma-
  jor concern, emphasis should also be            education mainstream. The Youth Out of          managing and supporting system-involved
                                                  the Education Mainstream (YOEM) initia-         juveniles, including those returning from
  given to building prevention programs
  for young people before they begin a            tive drew attention to the needs of five        out-of-home placement, are critical to
                                                  often interrelated categories of at-risk        the success of all students, the vast ma-
  life of crime and violence. Communi-
  ties must improve their ability to identify     youth: students fearful of attending school     jority of whom have followed the rules
                                                  because of violence, truants, dropouts,         and behaved as expected.
  and address the risk factors that cause
  troubled youth and their families to drift      suspended/expelled youth, and youth re-
                                                  turning to school from correctional set-
  away from mainstream education.
                                                  tings in the juvenile justice system. As a      Impact of the Problem
  Many at-risk young people make the              result of their separation from mainstream      on Youth and Society
  disastrous choice of dropping out of            education, youth in these categories face
  school or of behaving in ways that              many obstacles to becoming successful,          The lack of an education can make an
  cause them to be abandoned by or                socially responsible adults.                    enormous difference in a juvenile’s life.
  pushed out of the school setting. Next                                                          Harold Hodgkinson, a demographer and
                                                  This Bulletin is one in a series designed       education analyst, writes that dropping
  to the family, school is perhaps the
  most formative influence in a child’s life.     to address issues associated with the five      out of school as a youth is a factor closely
                                                  categories of youth identified by the YOEM      related to being a prisoner as an adult. He
  Providing meaningful educational pro-
  grams together with support systems             initiative. Its purpose is to shed light on     estimates that States spend roughly $22,000
                                                  successful strategies for reintegrating         annually on each adult in prison.3 Other
  and networks to assist young people in
  the learning process is essential.              youth from juvenile justice system set-         researchers estimate that it costs as much
                                                  tings into the education mainstream and         as $35,000 to $60,000 per year to incarcerate

one youth.4 In contrast, the average cost        or she were an adult. The waiver decision        providing services, seldom does one
to educate one student for 1 year is             is based on a variety of constitutional and      agency maintain a portfolio documenting
about $7,000.5 It makes economic sense           statutory factors, including the severity        the complete range of services that have
for communities to emphasize education           of the offense, the age and prior record         been and are being provided to the juve-
over incarceration.                              of the juvenile, and the juvenile’s amena-       nile and the juvenile’s family.
                                                 bility to treatment.
Although it is understood that not all juve-                                                      A prime example of inadequate information
nile crime can be prevented, it is clear that    After adjudication, a disposition hearing        sharing is the situation that often arises
promoting the development of troubled            is held to determine what, if any, sanc-         when a student returns to school after de-
young people into responsible citizens is in     tions are to be imposed and whether the          tention or confinement. Educators must
society’s best interests. Juveniles struggling   juvenile should be placed under court or         often guess about vital information missing
to make the transition from the juvenile         correctional supervision. Court and cor-         from the student’s file, such as information
justice system to school completion and          rectional supervision may involve sev-           about treatment history, family problems,
the workforce must not be overlooked.            eral measures: assignment to formal pro-         probationary status, or court-ordered man-
Helping them successfully reconnect with         bation, placement outside the home in a          dates of aftercare services that influence
the education mainstream is an essential         residential facility, referral to a community-   schooling (e.g., attendance and behavior
first step. The challenge centers on how to      based program or service, or restitution         requirements). The time it takes to obtain
make this process happen for the good of         or assignment to community service.              all the information needed often leads to
both the community and the young person.                                                          unnecessary referrals, duplicate services,
                                                 Although many of the programs and models         inaccurate information, and service delays.
                                                 discussed in this Bulletin have relevance
                                                                                                  Inefficiencies in information sharing compli-
Processing Cases                                 for all youth who have come into contact         cate the reintegration of juvenile offenders
                                                 with the juvenile justice system, the pri-
Within the Juvenile                              mary focus will be youth whose actions
                                                                                                  into school settings, often hindering the
Justice System                                                                                    education process or rendering it ineffec-
                                                 have caused them to be removed from the
                                                                                                  tive. It is the student who suffers the conse-
Before continuing this discussion about          community and their schools, i.e., those         quences of this highly inefficient system of
reintegrating juvenile offenders into school     who have been detained or incarcerated.
                                                                                                  information sharing.
and community settings, a brief explanation
of the juvenile justice process is in order.                                                      There are a number of constraints on col-
                                                 Information Sharing:                             laborative information sharing among
After a juvenile is arrested, one of the first   The Foundation                                   youth-serving agencies. One such con-
actions to be taken when processing the                                                           straint, the Federal Family Educational
case is to decide whether the juvenile           Open lines of communication among all
                                                 organizations involved with juvenile offend-     Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA),
should be placed in secure detention. Ju-                                                         also known as the Buckley Amendment, is
venile detention is a process designed to        ers are necessary to establish a compre-
                                                 hensive treatment approach for offenders         often cited as the reason educators will
ensure “the temporary and safe custody                                                            not share information about students with
of juveniles who are accused of conduct          and their families. Open communication
                                                 can prevent replication of services or,          other agencies. FERPA was enacted to as-
subject to the jurisdiction of the court and                                                      sure parents and students that their pri-
who require a restricted environment for         worse, lack of services. The ultimate goal
                                                 of information sharing is to avoid stereo-       vacy interests would be protected through
their own or the community’s protection                                                           standards for recordkeeping, thus dis-
while pending legal action.”6 Juvenile de-       typing or stigmatization of the juvenile
                                                 offender and to increase the probability         couraging unnecessary disclosure to any
tention serves to protect the community,                                                          agency of a student’s educational records.
protect the juvenile, and ensure that the        that he or she will successfully exit the
juvenile will appear in court.                   juvenile justice system, avoid future con-       Failure of an educational agency or institu-
                                                 tact with the system, and complete school        tion to comply with FERPA can result in a
Although policies and practices vary             and/or secure gainful employment.                loss of Federal funding to that agency. Many
among jurisdictions, the general proce-                                                           educational agencies have been overly cau-
dure is as follows: Once the case has been       Juvenile offenders and other high-risk
                                                 youth encounter many problems that often         tious in their interpretation of FERPA by
reviewed, it can be dismissed, handled                                                            establishing policies recognizing a general-
informally through a voluntary disposi-          require responses from numerous agen-
                                                 cies. Such youth may require counseling          ized right to privacy with regard to all stu-
tion (e.g., informal probation), or brought                                                       dent records and information. These poli-
before a judge in a formal hearing. Gener-       (both individual and family). They may
                                                 also have mandatory education require-           cies often pose significant obstacles to
ally, the judge can either refer the case                                                         information sharing among agencies.
to an adjudication hearing or conduct a          ments associated with the disposition of
waiver hearing, usually on motion of the         probation. Personal and family problems          In recent years, FERPA has been amended
prosecutor. Adjudication hearings in ju-         and needs can generate turmoil for youth,        to promote information sharing between
venile court decide whether the juvenile         who may also become lost in a tangle of          educators and juvenile justice system
is responsible for an alleged delinquent         bureaucratic agencies that too often share       personnel. The Improving America’s
act and are similar to the process of de-        only limited information with each other,        Schools Act (IASA) of 1994 (Public Law
ciding whether a defendant is guilty or not      resulting in fragmented assistance. In most      103–382) permits information sharing
guilty in criminal court. In waiver hearings,    cases, no single agency or advocate “looks       (subject to State statute) between educa-
the juvenile court judge considers relin-        after” the needs of an adjudicated youth.        tors and juvenile justice system person-
quishing jurisdiction over a matter and          Although information about adjudicated           nel on juveniles prior to adjudication. In
transferring the case to criminal court,         youth and their families is usually well         addition, OJJDP’s review of the FERPA
where the juvenile will be tried as if he        documented within the various agencies           statute and the current U.S. Department

of Education (ED) regulation (34 CFR Part       National Council on Crime and Delin-            inmates who participate in education pro-
99) have shown that FERPA need not              quency. A research preview released in          grams are more likely to be employed and
stand in the way of effective interagency       December 1998 summarized some of the            less likely to end up back in prison than
information agreements between schools          evaluation queries and early findings.9         nonparticipants.11
and other agencies with whom they share
                                                Each demonstration test site has tailored       Ideally, academic educational services
a common interest.
                                                the IAP model to its specific needs and lo-     should be the focus of detained and incar-
Guidance on information sharing by and          cal context. The IAP model is a descrip-        cerated youth’s institutional experience.
with schools in compliance with the Family      tive, multifaceted, integrated approach de-     State constitutions guarantee all children
Educational Rights and Privacy Act is avail-    signed to closely monitor juvenile offenders,   the right to a free public education. Al-
able from OJJDP or ED in Sharing Informa-       enhance aftercare service delivery based        though educational services are offered to
tion: A Guide to the Family Educational         on acknowledged risk and protective fac-        many juveniles in confinement, this is not
Rights and Privacy Act and Participation in     tors, forge working collaborations among        always the case. In addition, many State
Juvenile Justice Programs, an indepth review    diverse agencies and individuals, and           education departments have not approved
of FERPA and its impact on information          reduce recidivism.                              the institutional education programs, the
sharing; and in two related OJJDP Fact                                                          programs often are not designed to ad-
                                                Among the elements critical to success-
Sheet publications, which offer concise                                                         dress each student’s individual educa-
guidelines for information sharing.7            fully translating IAP principles into prac-     tional needs, and students often cannot
                                                tice are the following case management
                                                                                                receive academic credit toward earning
Individual State laws may impose some           components:10                                   diplomas upon their transfer or release.
restrictions on information sharing. How-
                                                x Risk assessment and classification for
ever, the Federal FERPA statute allows                                                          There have been efforts to upgrade pro-
educational institutions to share informa-        establishing [program] eligibility.           grams to improve the quality of school-
tion freely among themselves. If a correc-      x Individual case planning that incor-          ing for young people in confinement and
tional facility also includes an educational      porates a family and community                to create educational service links be-
unit, the sharing of educational records          perspective.                                  tween school systems and correctional
would not be precluded by Federal law.          x A mix of intensive surveillance and           settings. In 1992, OJJDP funded a 3-year
                                                  services.                                     grant project with the National Office for
                                                                                                Social Responsibility (NOSR) to assist
Theoretical Framework                           x A balance of incentives and graduated         juvenile corrections administrators in
for Intensive Aftercare                           consequences coupled with the imposi-         planning and implementing programs to
                                                  tion of realistic, enforceable conditions.    improve educational services for detained
The Intensive Aftercare Program (IAP)
initiative, funded by OJJDP in 1988, created    x Service brokerage, with community             and incarcerated juvenile offenders. NOSR
a sustained focus on solving the problem          resources linked to social networks.          conducted an extensive literature search
of community reintegration following the                                                        and published a report on effective prac-
                                                The youth participating in the IAP demon-
release of high-risk juvenile offenders from                                                    tices in juvenile corrections education
                                                stration sites are serious, habitual offend-
secure confinement. Researchers David                                                           and a training and technical assistance
                                                ers in secure correctional confinement,
Altschuler and Troy Armstrong developed                                                         manual.12 NOSR also selected three State-
                                                and some are not likely to return to main-
the theoretical framework for this reinte-                                                      operated juvenile correctional facilities
                                                stream educational systems. Nevertheless,
gration process. The framework empha-                                                           to establish model learning environments
                                                the theoretical approaches identified by
sizes effective intervention based not only                                                     for incarcerated youth. These sites were
                                                the IAP model for reintegrating juvenile
on intensive supervision and services but                                                       Adobe Mountain School in Arizona, Look-
                                                offenders into the community after con-
also on a process that focuses on reinte-                                                       out Mountain Youth Center in Colorado,
                                                finement are suitable for the reintegration
gration during incarceration via a highly                                                       and Sauk Centre in Minnesota. Each site’s
                                                of juvenile offenders into transitional edu-
structured and gradual transition period                                                        vision encompassed the philosophy that
                                                cational settings. In particular, the model’s
to bridge the gap between institutionaliza-                                                     learning is the most important compo-
                                                emphasis on providing youth with com-
tion and aftercare. Elements of their for-                                                      nent of the rehabilitative process and
                                                prehensive, ongoing services and supervi-
mative work underscored the importance                                                          must be the centerpiece of each youth’s
                                                sion, both while they are incarcerated and
of preparing youth for progressively in-                                                        institutional experience. The models
                                                when they return to their communities,
creased responsibility and freedom in the                                                       sought to expand learning from the class-
                                                also applies to their transition from con-
community, facilitating youth-community                                                         room into the entire fabric of the institu-
                                                finement to school settings.
interaction and involvement, linking the                                                        tion, to train and empower all institu-
offender with community support sys-                                                            tional staff to teach, and to make learning
tems, and monitoring youth progress.8           Correctional Education:                         enjoyable.

After 7 years of research, development, and     Preparation for                                 According to research by NOSR, effective
training, the IAP project established five      Reintegration                                   educational programs within correctional
competitively selected demonstration                                                            facilities include not only basic academic
                                                Preparation for increased responsibility and    skills, high school completion, and general
sites to test the model over a 5-year period:   successful reintegration into community life
Denver, CO; Las Vegas, NV; Camden and                                                           educational development (GED) test prepa-
                                                begins inside correctional institutions. Edu-   ration, but also special education, pre-
Newark, NJ (which subsequently discon-          cation has been a part of American prison
tinued participation); and Norfolk, VA.                                                         employment training, and other programs
                                                systems since 1798. The most common             aimed at enhancing students’ social, cog-
The remaining sites are being indepen-          finding of 20 years of research is that
dently evaluated through a grant to the                                                         nitive, and life skills.13

Special education. Learning disabilities         will pursue school completion. It is also      Transitional Support for
have been identified as an important risk        important for detained or incarcerated
factor that contributes to failure in school     youth to develop entry-level job skills        Leaving Confinement
and to entry into the juvenile justice sys-      and workplace competencies.                    After confinement, juveniles’ experiences
tem. An estimated 50 to 80 percent of all                                                       and training within correctional settings
                                                 Life skills. Delinquents often lack social     must be linked to their experience within
confined juveniles are eligible for services
designed to address learning disabilities.14     and communication skills, particularly         their communities. Transitional services pro-
                                                 those related to problem solving and moral     vide this link. Effective transitional programs
NOSR contends that correctional educa-
tion must provide a full array of special        reasoning. Juvenile correctional education     increase the likelihood of reenrollment in
                                                 should offer programs and curriculums          school, graduation from high school, and
education programs and services, includ-
ing a trained staff, a curriculum that meets     that focus on the development of life skills   successful employment. The lack of such
                                                 and provide the opportunity for juveniles      services may undo the often significant pro-
each student’s needs, training for inde-
pendent living and vocational skills, and        to practice and apply the skills they learn.   gress made by juveniles while they were in-
                                                 These programs should incorporate skills       carcerated. Successful transition between
linkage with pre- and postconfinement
educational services.15                          such as goal setting, time and plan man-       correctional facility and school requires inte-
                                                 agement, problem solving, and conflict         grated and coordinated prerelease strategies
Preemployment training. While motivat-           resolution; should reflect real world needs,   developed and implemented collaboratively
ing juvenile offenders to return to main-        such as thinking creatively and working        by all agencies involved in providing both
stream education is a priority, correc-          in teams to achieve common goals; and          institutional and aftercare services to youth
tional education must also focus on              should help youth develop positive             and their families.
making the connection from education to          personal qualities, such as responsibility,
the workplace. Not all juvenile offenders        dependability, and honesty.                    An important reason for coordinating
                                                                                                transition services is to avoid problems
                                                                                                that arise from inadequate information
                                                                                                sharing between correctional facilities
  Jackson-Hinds County Youth Detention School                                                   and schools. As mentioned earlier in this
                                                                                                Bulletin, juvenile offenders often arrive at
                                                                                                school settings without any scholastic
  The Jackson (MS) Public School District          diagnostic evaluation, and the Test of
  is committed to providing a quality interim      Adult Basic Education (TABE). Depend-        documentation from correctional facili-
                                                                                                ties. There may be delays in forwarding
  educational program that will allow juve-        ing on TABE results, juveniles are placed
  niles to achieve their potential while being     in either a home school, general educa-      correctional school records to the receiv-
                                                                                                ing school. When received, information
  detained in the Jackson-Hinds County             tional development (GED) test prepara-
  Youth Detention Center. The Youth Court          tion, or special education track.            may be unconfirmed, undocumented, out-
                                                                                                dated, or tainted by personal prejudices
  School is an extension of the Jackson
  Public School District alternative school.       The program teaches basic skills such        and interpretation. School personnel may
                                                   as reading, math, and English. Alcorn        have to rely on personal contacts for in-
  Students ages 10 to 17 served by this
  program include juvenile delinquents,            State University provides vocational         formation. The process of obtaining the
                                                   training, and Jackson State University       needed information is daunting, involving
  law violators, runaways, and disruptive
  students.                                        assists with support services such as        time-consuming phone calls to previous
                                                   social workers, counselors, and social       institutions and encounters with individu-
  Program components include assess-               work interns. After juveniles are released   als who often refuse to disseminate infor-
  ment, basic academic and survival                from detention, social work interns con-     mation (frequently citing confidentiality
  skills, vocational training, support ser-        duct extensive followup. If juveniles do     laws) or who can provide only sketchy
  vices, and parent training. The school           not attend school after release, they are    accounts based on memory alone. These
  has intensive collaboration with Jackson         required to attend either GED classes        problems impede the timeliness and qual-
  State University, Alcorn State University,       at the Jackson Public Schools GED/           ity of educational program development
  the Art Alliance of Jackson, and the             ABE Center or a community program            for youth who are making the transition
  New Hope Foundation, which all assist            in the city of Jackson.                      from correctional facility to school.
  with implementation of the Youth Court
  School mission. The program also re-             Many participants have received GED          OJJDP’s training and technical assistance
                                                   diplomas or have developed skills that       programs stress the importance of inter-
  quires parents to attend an 8-week
  Systematic Training for Effective                enabled them to make the transition          agency information sharing in the coordina-
                                                   back into regular school. After receiving    tion of services. Training programs include:
  Parenting course.
                                                   a GED diploma or graduating from high
  Police officers bring juveniles to the           school, many participants have attended      x The School Administrators for Effective
                                                                                                  Police, Prosecution, and Probation Opera-
  Jackson-Hinds County Youth Detention             Hinds Community College.
  Center, where they are booked and de-                                                           tions Leading to Improved Children and
                                                   For more information about the Youth           Youth Services Program (SAFE Policy), a
  tained until they can see an intake coun-
  selor. The intake counselor determines           Detention School, contact Dr. Ginger M.        week-long course directed at reducing
                                                   Smith, Director, Jackson-Hinds County          juvenile violence in schools. The course
  whether the juveniles are detained or re-
  leased. If juveniles remain longer than          Youth Detention School, 400 East Silas         stresses the importance of interagency
                                                   Brown Street, Jackson, MS 39225;               agreements for information sharing and
  3 days, they receive an educational
  assessment that includes intake,                 601–960–1700.                                  coordination of juvenile services.

x The Chief Executive Course, an intensive         These courses have modules on laws and          school and community include some for-
  1-day orientation for local executives           policies that impact information sharing        malized system of communication among
  of public and private agencies. The              and on techniques to maximize informa-          the corrections staff and community social
  course emphasizes information sharing            tion sharing. Sample State legislation,         institutions—schools, mental health agen-
  as a method for improving the juvenile           consent policies, and judicial orders are       cies, alcohol and drug treatment centers,
  justice system.                                  also available to course participants.          and employment training and placement
x The Serious Habitual Offender Com-                                                               agencies, among others. The following
                                                   In addition, OJJDP can provide direct tech-
  prehensive Action Program (SHOCAP),                                                              model uses a formal interagency partner-
                                                   nical assistance upon request to individual     ship established to address the needs of
  presented as a module in the SAFE                jurisdictions working on improving their
  Policy and Chief Executive Training                                                              adjudicated youth and juvenile parolees.
                                                   information sharing. To learn more about
  programs and also available in a 40-             training and technical assistance related
  hour course designed to assist SHOCAP            to information sharing, contact the Train-      Cluster Group Model: The
  jurisdictions in developing their own            ing and Technical Assistance Division,          New Jersey Gateway
  unique interagency information sharing           Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency      Academy
  agreements. The course requires the              Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S.    The Gateway Academy uses a cluster group
  participation of policy-level officials          Department of Justice, 810 7th Street NW.,      model to manage information and coordi-
  from law enforcement, schools, juvenile          Washington DC 20531; 202–307–5940.              nate services for juvenile offenders and
  detention and corrections, prosecu-                                                              their families. The cluster group comprises
  tion, and social services.                       Most effective strategies for helping juve-
                                                   nile offenders make the transition into the     various service agencies (e.g., educational,

  Law-Related Education
  Law-related education trains young                Street Law, Inc., provides programs, ma-           Court as well as significant current
  people to think critically, solve problems,       terials, and services to students in kinder-       cases, taught each summer in Wash-
  and understand legal rights and respon-           garten through 12th grade and young                ington, DC, at the U.S. Supreme Court.
  sibilities. It also demonstrates the role of      people in community-based settings
  citizens in mitigating violence. It involves      and juvenile justice settings. Key pro-         Street Law also offers a new curriculum
                                                                                                    infusing conflict resolution skills with
  instruction about rules, laws, and the            grams include:
  legal system. Students explore and re-                                                            lessons concerning community violence.
  flect on their own and others’ perspec-          x The Street Law Program—a high                  The curriculum is being piloted in the
                                                     school practical law elective class            Save Our Streets (SOS) program in
  tives, express and defend their views,
  listen to the views of others, develop             available in every State. Many classes         Washington, DC. Youth ages 13 to 17
                                                     are taught in cooperation with local law       who have been charged with weapons
  arguments for both sides of an issue,
  mediate, and formulate decisions and               students. All classes make extensive           offenses are referred to the program by
                                                     use of legal resource persons such as          the Superior Court of the District of
  resolutions based on multiple and often
  conflicting concerns. The purpose is to            judges, lawyers, law students, and law         Columbia, Social Services Division,
                                                     enforcement personnel.                         Family Branch. SOS serves as a pre-
  train students for responsible citizenship.
  An additional purpose in juvenile justice                                                         adjudication service for these youth,
                                                   x Teens, Crime, and the Community—a              most of whom have been released to
  or transitional educational placements is          partnership program with the National
  to help stop juvenile offenders from en-                                                          the custody of their parents. Students
                                                     Crime Prevention Council featuring a           participating in SOS have ongoing court
  gaging in delinquent activity.                     curriculum designed to help young
                                                                                                    cases throughout their participation.
  Street Law, Inc., is a nonprofit organiza-         people avoid becoming victims of crime.        Each lesson within the SOS program is
  tion dedicated to empowering people              x Street Law/Juvenile Justice—                   designed to examine laws and issues
  through law-related education. Partici-            lessons for use in detention settings          that affect participating students and the
  pants in Street Law programs learn                 and in juvenile court alternative pro-         community; discuss information on avail-
  substantive information about law,                 grams, including diversion.                    able community resources and how to
  democracy, and human rights through                                                               use these resources to benefit partici-
  strategies that promote problem solving,         x Teen Parents and the Law—a                     pants, other youth, and the community;
  critical thinking, cooperative learning,           carefully developed and field-tested           and provide opportunities to build conflict
  improved communication skills, and the             adolescent parenting program.                  resolution skills. The lessons are taught
  ability to participate effectively in society.   x Human Rights U.S.A.—a national edu-            by using law-related education’s interac-
  Formerly called the National Institute for         cation effort designed to raise aware-         tive strategies with a strong focus on stu-
  Citizen Education in the Law, the pro-             ness of human rights issues among              dent skill development.
  gram began at Georgetown University                American citizens. The focus is on             For more information on Street Law,
  Law Center more than 20 years ago,                 community groups and students.
  when law students developed a practical                                                           Inc., write Street Law, Inc., 1600 K Street
                                                   x Supreme Court Summer Institute for             NW., #602, Washington, DC 20006;
  law course that was taught in Washing-
  ton, DC, public schools. Georgetown Law            High School Teachers—a 5-day, teacher          phone 202–293–0088; or visit
                                                     education program focusing on the his-
  Center’s Street Law Program continues
  to operate in the District of Columbia.            tory and processes of the Supreme

mental health, probation, and child pro-
tection) assembled to benefit and support        New Jersey Juvenile Justice Commission:
each individual youth. The group meets on        Transitional Services
a regular basis to share information and to
ensure that needed services are provided         In addition to the partnership formed with    x A transitional specialist from NJJJC
without replication. A school representative     the Newark Public Schools, the New              follows implementation of each re-
(a principal, social worker, counselor, or       Jersey Juvenile Justice Commission              leased youth’s education plan and
homeroom teacher) typically serves as the        (NJJJC) is involved in providing transi-        provides followup services to the
chairperson of the cluster group; all infor-     tional services to students returning           student or education agency as
mation governing a juvenile is disseminated      from NJJJC to other schools and com-            required.
through the chairperson to other cluster         munities throughout the State. Some of
members. As a result, all cluster members                                                      x NJJJC transitional specialists are
                                                 these services include the following:
have access to needed information, avoid-                                                        also involved in special projects,
ing a piecemeal approach to collecting in-      x NJJJC reviews and evaluates every              including apprenticeships, school-
formation. As additional agencies or other        student’s educational record and               to-career partnerships, entrepre-
interventions are needed, the appropriate         consults with school district repre-           neurial programs, career exploration
services can be arranged, and duplication         sentatives to ensure that the most             and employability skill training, and
of services can be avoided.                       appropriate educational program                mentoring.
                                                  has been identified for the returning
For youth currently incarcerated or in resi-      student.                                      For more information about NJJJC
dential placement, the cluster should be                                                        transitional services, contact Robert V.
formed in time to establish communication       x NJJJC develops an educational after-          Coté, Jr., Executive Manager, Office of
with the school system prior to the youth’s       care plan to meet the individual needs        Education, New Jersey Juvenile Justice
release. Major issues to be identified and        and goals of the returning student and        Commission, 9 Quakerbridge Plaza,
addressed by the cluster group include            provides ongoing evaluation of the            3rd Floor, P.O. Box 108, Trenton, NJ
adjudication, conditions of probation, aca-       student’s progress.                           08625–0108; 609–631–4743.
demic level and educational placement,
therapy needs, and method of followup.
The Gateway Academy is a partnership           needs. The task force included representa-     and family counseling and employment
established between the New Jersey Juve-       tives from NJJJC, probation, the juvenile      training and placement. Academy staff are
nile Justice Commission (NJJJC) and New-       courts, Newark police, community service       trained to provide a sound educational
ark Public Schools (NPS). The partnership      providers, and members of the community.       program that will address the special
was formed as a direct result of the sup-                                                     needs of students returning from NJJJC.
                                               Over several months, the task force con-
port provided by the YOEM initiative.          ducted an assessment of the needs of           Student transcripts and needs are assessed
Prior to YOEM efforts, NJJJC and NPS had       NJJJC/Newark students. It identified poor      by a team of personnel from NJJJC. This
functioned as independent entities, with       collaboration among service agencies as a      team determines the most appropriate edu-
no formal effort made to work as a team.       major obstacle to the successful transition    cational setting for the student, whether
Agencies exchanged educational records         of students from NJJJC programs to the         it is the Gateway Academy or another
when students moved from one system            public schools. To overcome this problem,      school within the Newark Public School
to the other, but no personal contact or       representatives from each social service       District. Regardless of educational place-
followup occurred. NPS recognized the          agency agreed to serve as members of a         ment, these students are associated with
importance of improving the flow of infor-     multidisciplinary panel. Panel members         and receive services at the Gateway Acad-
mation between the school district and         are selected according to the needs of indi-   emy. Each student is encouraged to be
other educational providers working with       vidual students to participate in a cluster    involved in afterschool activities, commu-
the district’s students. The Newark YOEM       group formed specifically to support each      nity service projects, and Saturday activi-
Conference, conducted through the col-         student. NPS serves as the umbrella agency     ties sponsored by the Academy. Students
laborative efforts of the National School      under which all the service agencies work.     placed at the Academy complete the
Safety Center and NJJJC, helped formalize                                                     Academy’s 12-month program and then
NPS’s desire to facilitate this exchange of    The task force also determined that a spe-
                                                                                              return to their regular schools to complete
information. Following the conference,         cial program should be developed to serve      their high school education and graduate.
NPS invited a representative of NJJJC to       students returning to the community from
become a working member of its atten-          incarceration. The Gateway Academy,            For more information about the Gateway
dance improvement committee.                   which was planned under the direction of       Academy, contact Jennifer Mitchell, Gate-
                                               the task force, opened in spring 1999. The     way Academy, 131 13th Avenue, Newark,
The attendance improvement committee           Gateway Academy is a 12-month program          NJ 07102; 973–733–7067.
found that a large number of students          designed to provide “one-stop service”
were “getting lost” in the transition from     for all Newark students who are returning
NJJJC programs back to Newark schools.         from incarceration to the public schools.      Transitional Educational
The committee also recognized that stu-        The centrally located facility houses the      Placements
dents involved with NJJJC had special          various service agencies working with
needs that should be addressed in greater                                                     Although some juvenile parolees may even-
                                               this population of students, including pa-     tually perform well in mainstream class-
depth. The Save Newark’s Youth Task Force      role, probation, and mental health and
was organized to focus on these issues and                                                    rooms, it is often difficult for these youth
                                               social service agencies providing drug         to succeed in traditional campuses

immediately following release from incar-       behavior by these youth when they return        accustomed to receiving in the correctional
ceration. “Cold turkey” reentry into public     to school.                                      setting. In a transitional educational place-
schools is often a formula for failure. Ju-                                                     ment, recently released juvenile parolees
                                                Alternative schools or transitional educa-
veniles attempting such reentry typically                                                       can undergo careful assessment and take
say that they feel lost or overwhelmed on       tion centers are known as transitional edu-     part in learning experiences that prepare
                                                cational placements. These placements are
large traditional campuses. Also, the level                                                     them to return to mainstream class-
of structure and attention that adjudicated     interim steps for youth who have been re-       rooms. An alternative school or transi-
                                                leased from incarceration. Such placements
youth receive in correctional and resi-                                                         tional education center also reduces the
dential settings is limited on traditional      offer appropriate environments that gradu-      risk of a youth’s getting lost in “the sys-
                                                ally reduce the level of supervision and sup-
campuses. This change in structure and                                                          tem” without needed support services.
attention often contributes to disruptive       port from that which these youth were

  Transitional Support and Placement: The Kentucky Experience
  Kentucky Youth Assistance Alliance.               screens each returning student, con-          The school was established specifically
  More than 3 years ago, an alliance was            ducts transition interviews, collects         to address the needs of students return-
  formed among several Kentucky youth-              appropriate data, and obtains parental        ing from adjudicated residential place-
  serving organizations interested in eas-          releases for juvenile record sharing.         ment. Its design was the result of a col-
  ing the transition of adjudicated youth                                                         laborative effort involving the Jefferson
  from juvenile justice settings, including      x Design an “educational passport”—a             County Public Schools’ Safe and Drug-
                                                   form of documentation that accompa-
  secure treatment facilities, to educa-                                                          Free Schools Unit, the State’s Depart-
  tional settings. Included in the partner-        nies the returning juvenile to his or her      ment of Juvenile Justice, and Seven
                                                   subsequent educational placements—
  ship were Christian County, Henderson                                                           Counties Services (the State mental
  County, and Jefferson County public              to facilitate information sharing across       health authority for the region).
                                                   jurisdictions for returning students,
  schools; three State agencies (the Of-
  fice of Juvenile Justice, the Cabinet for        including notification of schools re-          Franklin Transitional High School cur-
                                                   garding the impending releases of              rently has approximately 40 students
  Human Resources, and the Kentucky
  Department of Education); the Univer-            juveniles from treatment facilities or         enrolled. The ratio of staff to students is
                                                   incarceration.                                 very high (the school currently employs
  sity of Kentucky; and the Kentucky Coa-
  lition for State Agency Children.                                                               20 staff members). Students come di-
                                                 x Recruit and train mentors for each             rectly from incarceration to the school.
                                                   returning student.
  The first priority of the partnership was                                                       A bridge coordinator team, rather than
  to collect data on school-age adjudicated      x Monitor progress of returning students         a single coordinator, screens returning
  youth in Kentucky. The partnership found         to further assess their needs and              students. The length of time students
  that the school systems were losing              identify barriers to successful reentry.       stay at the school is based on their indi-
  nearly 95 percent of such youth because                                                         vidual needs. The goal is to prepare
  the youth failed to make successful tran-      x Provide alcohol/drug prevention edu-           students for other educational place-
  sitions into a mainstream school or tran-        cation and other counseling and pre-           ments, but students can actually gradu-
  sitional educational center (also known          vention support to youth and their             ate from the transition school if that is
  as an alternative school). The partner-          families.                                      what it takes to complete their second-
  ship also found that existing efforts to       x Offer support groups for juveniles who         ary education. Documentation in the
  help adjudicated youth in these counties         have witnessed violence, particularly          form of an educational passport helps
  were flawed by problems in identifying           domestic violence. (Approximately              determine each student’s educational
  the target population and by inconsistent        60 percent of adjudicated youth had            and treatment needs and accompanies
  school reentry processes, gaps in ser-           a history of domestic violence in              the student to his or her subsequent
  vices, and lack of community support.            their families.)                               educational placements. Representa-
                                                                                                  tives from the Institute of Families, a
  Two years ago, the partnership became           The original alliance is no longer in ex-       private agency, provide counseling ser-
  involved in the YOEM initiative. The            istence, but the approach it established        vices to students and their families.
  project’s application for YOEM assis-           is successfully addressing many of the
  tance proposed a model that would ad-           issues and problems associated with             For more information about transition
  dress the gaps in services to Kentucky’s        successful reentry for juvenile offend-         activities in Jefferson County, contact
  adjudicated youth. The model set forth          ers. The bridge coordinator and educa-          Pam Carter, Assessment Coordinator,
  the following objectives:                       tional passport concepts are part of            Jefferson County Public Schools, Safe
                                                  “transitional school” initiatives under-        and Drug-Free Schools, 911 South
 x Establish a uniform system by which                                                            Brook Street, Location #895, Louisville,
   youth in juvenile justice or treatment         taken in the three counties that partici-
                                                  pated in the alliance.                          KY 40203; phone 502–485–3260; e-mail
   facilities can return to a school setting.                                           ; or Dr. Rick
 x Create a bridge coordinator position           Franklin Transitional High School. In           Tatum, Principal, Franklin Transitional
   in each school district to facilitate the      August 1999, the Franklin Transitional          High School, 1800 Arlington Avenue,
   return of adjudicated youth to school          High School, Louisville, KY, opened its         Louisville, KY 40206; phone 502–485–
   enrollment. The bridge coordinator             doors for the 1999–2000 school year.            6678; fax 502–485–6680.

An alternative school facility should pro-
vide the least restrictive environment
appropriate for a juvenile exiting a cor-
rectional institution or other residential
placement. The smaller pupil-teacher ratio,
individualization, and therapeutic family
approach available in transitional edu-
cational placements can provide these
juveniles with a fresh start and can ease
their transition into a school environment.
New Jersey’s Gateway Academy, described
above as an example of the cluster group
approach to transitional services, is also
an example of a transitional educational
placement. Another example is Arizona’s
Pathfinder Project.

The Pathfinder Project
Created by Alan Wright, former education       transition, many Success School students       Prerelease information sharing. Place-
superintendent of the Arizona Department       chose to engage in work-study, which           ment considerations and discussions with
of Juvenile Corrections, the Pathfinder        maximized their independence and com-          the receiving school should begin long
Project provided transitional educational      munity service.                                before the student is scheduled to depart
placement for troubled youth in Arizona.                                                      from the facility. Juvenile justice system
After 7 years of intensive reform efforts,     The Success School approach can be im-
                                                                                              officials should share information with the
Arizona established a research-based and       plemented in any public school system,         school about the student’s therapeutic
accredited alternative school that empha-      either as a “school within a school” or as
                                                                                              service needs, academic functioning and
sized performance-based accountability         a contracted partnership operated sepa-        achievement, and future educational needs
through its curriculum. The Pathfinder         rately from a mainstream school. Arizona
                                                                                              and goals and about aftercare conditions
Project targeted disruptive, delinquent        operated both approaches of Success            that the school will be asked to assist in
adolescents, enrolled them in “Success         School. Each of the approaches creates a
                                                                                              monitoring (e.g., compliance with school
School,” and used a curriculum that pro-       continuum between the “regular” public         attendance, behavior, or therapy atten-
vided a continuum of educational experi-       school classroom and the specialized
                                                                                              dance requirements). In addition, juvenile
ences. The Pathfinder Project was re-          Success School classroom.                      justice system officials should indicate how
cently discontinued in Arizona, but the                                                       they will assist the school to help monitor
                                               For more information about the Path-
Pathfinder model continues to offer an                                                        and enforce attendance, achievement, and
                                               finder Project, contact Leonard Lindstrom,
alternative to traditional methods of deal-                                                   behavioral standards.
                                               Program Administrator, Arizona Depart-
ing with disruptive students.
                                               ment of Juvenile Corrections, 1624 West        Prerelease visit. A key factor in easing
In the Pathfinder model, the purpose of        Adams, Phoenix, AZ 85007; phone 602–255–
                                                                                              the reintegration process is a prerelease
Success School is to recognize and serve       5259; fax 602–255–5265.                        visit by the student (accompanied by the
system-involved youth who have little or                                                      appropriate juvenile justice system offi-
no hope for the future and who do not be-                                                     cial) to the receiving school. The student
lieve they can achieve personal success        School Enrollment
                                                                                              should be transported to the school and
within the traditional educational system.     Many students leaving incarceration do         meet with the principal and other staff
Success School teaches troubled youth          not have access to specialized transi-         members. Classroom placement and cur-
a leadership style focused on personal         tional educational placements and must         ricular needs can be discussed at this
development and lifelong learning for          reenter the school environment immedi-         time. (An effective approach matches the
community-based stewardship. Students          ately after their release. It is unfortunate   student’s learning style with the receiving
learn responsibility and thus are empow-       for a student to have to attempt this diffi-   teachers’ instructional styles. The visit is
ered to achieve success. Behavioral            cult reentry without help. Many steps can      also an excellent time to introduce the
changes observed in Arizona’s Success          be taken to avoid this.16                      student to the selected teachers.)
School participants provide evidence that,
                                               Curriculum coordination. It is extremely       This advance visit establishes first impres-
when fully implemented, the program can
                                               difficult for any student to enter classes     sions for both the student and the school
help students gain literacy skills at accel-
                                               during the middle of a semester and to         personnel and can help both parties be-
erated rates and can increase their com-
                                               succeed academically without prior expo-       come more comfortable with each other.
mitment to learning.
                                               sure to the curriculum. Therefore, it is       A well-planned visit can allay school
A key component of the Pathfinder model        worth the time and effort to make certain      personnel’s fears associated with a juvenile
is the transition to a mainstream school       that the curriculum within the institution     offender reentering the mainstream
environment. In Arizona, students who          is individualized to parallel that of the      school, especially if the youth arrives at
were properly prepared through the Path-       student’s mainstream school while com-         the meeting well-groomed and behaves in
finder model were likely to be successful      plying with the State’s educational guide-     a polite and nonthreatening manner.
in making such a transition. Following         lines for graduation.

                                                 of discipline in the school must be ex-          Violence elimination contract. A strategy
  The Family                                     plained to parents and students during an        similar to the acknowledgment statement is
                                                 admission interview. Such policies give          the use of a violence elimination contract
  The impact of the family on the academic       both youth and their parents important           that emphasizes the zero-tolerance policy
  and emotional well-being of a juvenile is      information on accepted behaviors and            for weapons and violence. The school
  crucial. If the family is dysfunctional, the   disciplinary measures while removing dis-        principal guides the student and parents
  risk for student recidivism is significantly   cretionary options from school administra-       through the contract, which clearly ex-
  greater. In short, progress achieved dur-      tors and law enforcement, thus reducing          plains that weapons and violence will not
  ing confinement or at school can be re-        the possibility of unfairness in administer-     be tolerated. The principal, student, and
  versed in the home. Receiving schools          ing discipline. For instance, a policy might     parents all enter into the contract, which
  must assist in educating parents and           state that disciplinary measures for acts of     also makes clear the roles of each and es-
  helping families obtain necessary ser-         violence such as fights, threats, or bullying    tablishes a team process for working with
  vices. Periodic family “checkups” should       will be met with consistent, swift conse-        the student. The student becomes aware
  be a requisite of working with former ju-      quences for each individual and that bring-      of the united efforts of school officials,
  venile offenders. Checkups should in-          ing a weapon to the school campus will           parents, the courts, and police officers to
  clude meetings at least once every 6           result in criminal charges and a 1-year ex-      handle disruptions on the school campus.
  months among all agencies providing            pulsion. This firearms policy is consistent      The violence elimination contract may also
  services to a student and family to en-        with the Federal Gun-Free Schools Act of         call for a mandatory meeting with school
  sure service and therapy followthrough.        1994.17 Other zero-tolerance policies may        officials to work out a resolution if the stu-
                                                 address codes of conduct, gang affiliation,      dent is involved in a conflict or violent situ-
                                                 dress code violations, and contraband.           ation on campus.
Admission interview. The admission inter-
view, conducted with reentering students         An effective way to communicate school           Another benefit of the violence elimination
and their parents, is an essential part of       policies is through a student/parent hand-       contract is parental accountability. Par-
the reintegration process. The interview         book. During the admission interview, staff      ents are asked to regularly observe their
can elicit valuable information about the        members can divide the topics covered in         children and help ensure that contraband
student: likes and dislikes; self-perception;    the handbook and discuss the topics. For         or weapons are not brought to school.
student- and parent-identified academic          example, the assistant principal can clarify     Parents are also reminded of their respon-
and vocational goals; relationships with         behavior rules and the dress code, while the     sibility to teach their children about gun
friends, family, and authority figures;          homeroom teacher or counselor can explain        safety and are asked to keep any weapons
past experience with the legal system;           academic performance expectations. The           they own under lock and key. Finally, stu-
adjudication status; mental health concerns      combination of both a written and verbal         dents and parents agree to attend conflict
and treatment; and individual strengths          explanation of school policies can ensure        resolution sessions with trained school
and weaknesses. The interviewer(s) can           understanding and encourage compliance.          mediation personnel if the student is in-
also observe who “controls” the family—                                                           volved in a violent situation. Attendance
a parent or the juvenile. Evidence that the      Students and parents should be required          at these sessions can teach parents how
                                                 to sign a statement acknowledging that
juvenile has control indicates a problem                                                          to use the same skills with their children
in the family. Steps can then be taken to        they have received a copy of the hand-           at home that professionals use at school.
                                                 book and agreeing that they are account-
provide family counseling. The admission
interview also provides an opportunity for       able for following school policies. This         Plans and curriculum. An important step
                                                 signed statement can be useful if students       in the enrollment and reintegration process
school staff to discuss relevant policies
and rules with reentering students and           or parents should ever deny knowledge of         is the establishment of academic, behav-
                                                 policies in the future. The school district’s    ioral, and vocational goals and objectives.
their parents (see below).
                                                 attorney should review and approve the           If the student requires special education,
Transitional counseling. An individual           exact wording of the acknowledgment              an Individual Education Plan must be com-
who has been released from a residential         statement.                                       pleted. If the student does not qualify for
setting or an incarceration facility will
require ongoing contact with staff from
the discharging facility for followup after        Gangs
placement. Juvenile offenders often expe-
                                                   Involvement with gangs appears to be common with many juvenile offenders. Juveniles
rience feelings of abandonment in new
                                                   leaving incarceration often transfer the terminology, clothing style, handsigns, and graf-
settings. A phone call or a visit from a
                                                   fiti associated with gang affiliation from the institution into the school setting. Whether
staff counselor during the first 2 weeks of
                                                   these juveniles are actual members of a gang or “wannabe” members, the gang influ-
the transition can ease the student’s dis-
                                                   ence is nevertheless a reality. Schools can become breeding grounds for gang rivalries
comfort until rapport with new staff and
                                                   and gang “ranking” (recruiting and initiating new members). Young people searching for
peers has developed. Institutional staff
                                                   identity often fall prey to the tantalizing notion of gang membership. Gangs can seri-
should maintain contact with the youth for
                                                   ously undermine the effectiveness of reintegration services and educational programs
up to 6 months after release, helping the
                                                   attempting to assist the former juvenile offender. Schools must pay particular attention
youth to transfer positive skills and be-
                                                   to providing positive alternatives for vulnerable juveniles to diminish the allure of gang
haviors acquired in the old institutional
                                                   membership. School administrators should keep in mind that, while they can do little to
setting to the new community setting.
                                                   prevent students from joining gangs and participating in gang activities off campus, they
Policies and rules. Any “zero-tolerance”           can seek to eliminate gang activity and its detrimental effects on campus.
policies governing day-to-day administration

  When a Delinquent Offender Returns to School

  Preenrollment Strategies                        Staff Preparation                               x Carefully select and monitor the
  x Contact Probation or Parole                   x Develop and implement a crisis plan.            student’s participation in extracur-
    Department.                                                                                     ricular activities.
                                                  x Train staff in nonviolent conflict
  x Review juvenile records.                        resolution.                                   Support Services
  x Clearly communicate expectations.             x Share relevant information with               x Make appropriate referrals to
                                                    teachers and staff members.                     outside agencies.
  Welcoming Procedures
  x Review student/parent handbook.               Classroom Management                            Interagency Collaboration
                                                  x Share relevant information and ob-            x Work closely with the presiding
  x Develop and discuss Individual                  servations concerning the student               juvenile judge and probation
    Behavior Plan.
                                                    among teachers and staff, keeping in            department.
  x Create behavior contract that is                mind that minor incidents may be
                                                                                                  x Provide office space on campus
    signed by the student and parents.              significant.
                                                                                                    for the probation officer.
                                                  x Carefully monitor the student’s be-
  Placement                                                                                       x Create joint power agreement for
                                                    havior, including relationships with
                                                    others, task behavior, tardiness, and           sharing resources and juvenile
  x Use vertical counseling, i.e., assign
    one counselor to the student through-           attendance.
    out the student’s tenure at school.
                                                  Supervision Outside the                         Remember: There are no insignificant
  x Carefully select classroom teachers.
                                                  Classroom                                       violations of school or probation rules
  x Recruit a trained adult mentor.                                                               when it comes to students who are
                                                  x Provide responsible supervision in
                                                                                                  delinquent offenders. Any violations,
  x Prepare classroom (e.g., ensure                 lunchroom, library, and halls.
                                                                                                  threats, or assaults must be taken
    communication capability in the event         x Assign the student a locker in a well-        seriously.
    of an emergency; remove objects that            supervised area.
    are potential weapons).

special education services, a similar plan,     Mentors can help create links from correc-      amendment to the Juvenile Justice Delin-
called an Individual Service Plan, can be       tions to schools and the community. In some     quency Prevention Act of 1974, awards
prepared. Both plans specify academic and       cases, mentors help monitor youth’s compli-     grants to local governments or nonprofit
behavioral goals and objectives for the stu-    ance with conditions of parole.                 organizations that partner with local edu-
dent. The use of these documents, which                                                         cation agencies to pilot programs in which
provide a foundation for programming            Public/Private Ventures conducted a nation-     adults mentor high-risk and court-in-
                                                wide study18 on the impact of mentoring
and evaluation, is essential in developing                                                      volved youth. OJJDP currently sponsors
a student’s map for success.                    and found that adult mentoring as a strat-      170 JUMP sites in 42 States. While each
                                                egy for supporting at-risk youth does work,
                                                                                                mentoring program under JUMP must ad-
The course of study offered juvenile offend-    particularly when the program is carefully      here to some basic requirements, grant-
ers must address the needs of the student       supervised and supported by rigorous stan-
                                                                                                ees use a variety of program designs.
and the needs of the community. Problem-        dards and trained personnel. Research pro-      Some programs emphasize tutoring and
solving skills, anger control, social skills,   vides evidence of resilient children who
                                                                                                academics, while others emphasize voca-
role identification, goal-setting skills, and   emerge from childhoods of poverty, abuse,       tional counseling and job skills. The var-
conflict resolution are important concepts      neglect, and delinquency to become emo-
                                                                                                ied mentoring programs share three
to include in their educational program-        tionally whole, capable adults. One of the      goals: improving academic performance,
ming, along with the traditional curriculum     documented protective factors that contrib-
                                                                                                reducing school dropout rates, and pre-
of reading, writing, and mathematics. Vo-       utes to resiliency is the presence of a         venting delinquent behavior. All sites are
cational skills should also be considered,      source of support outside the family. Men-
                                                                                                required to coordinate their activities
depending on the age of the student.            tors can be that source of support. A caring    with local schools. OJJDP’s 1997 Bulletin,
                                                mentor can appropriately reflect and vali-
                                                                                                Mentoring—A Proven Delinquency Preven-
                                                date the youth’s feelings, help with prob-      tion Strategy,19 describes early efforts un-
The Mentor’s Role                               lems, and, at times, offer considered advice.
                                                                                                der the JUMP program and also summa-
Mentoring is often touted as one of the most    Mentors frequently are the means by which       rizes the Public/Private Ventures evaluation
cost-effective solutions to juvenile delin-     young people learn of positive opportuni-
                                                                                                of the Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America
quency and recidivism. Mentoring programs       ties outside their communities.                 program. OJJDP’s 1998 JUMP Report to
engage community advocates and volunteer                                                        Congress20 indicates that youth involved
                                                OJJDP’s Juvenile Mentoring Program
mentors who are assigned to work with de-                                                       in mentoring programs are less likely to
                                                (JUMP), established in 1992 through an
linquent or at-risk youth and their families.

experiment with drugs, less likely to be         Regular contact. All volunteers enter PAC      and girls who might otherwise see a
physically aggressive, and less likely to        with high expectations; however, without       probation officer once or twice during
skip school than those not involved in           regular one-to-one contact, there will be      probation instead see a mentor an aver-
such programs.                                   little or no effect. Close mentoring friend-   age of 50 hours during the same time pe-
                                                 ships result from meeting face-to-face with    riod. Youth who appeared to be caught in
Central to any mentoring program is the
                                                 consistency and continuity.                    a downward spiral have found new hope.
concept of “the match.” The goal is the for-                                                    They are improving in school, are better
mation of a relationship that will ultimately    Listening. The most frequent need among
                                                                                                able to cope with family situations, and
benefit the juvenile. Programs that recruit      young people today is for someone willing      are staying out of further trouble. The PAC
mentors hastily are doomed to failure. The       to listen to them. Mentored youth need to
                                                                                                program is a success because volunteer
mentoring process is a complex interac-          know that someone outside their own im-        mentors from the community take the
tion. As with all human relationships, there     mediate family or peer group cares enough
                                                                                                time to demonstrate that they care and
are risks and potential trouble spots that       to listen. PAC volunteers build healthy        want to make a difference in the life of an
must be acknowledged. Volunteers need to         mentoring relationships by being good
                                                                                                adjudicated youth.
be realistically prepared for the hard work      listeners.
of relationship building and the potential                                                      For more information about PAC, contact
                                                 Tapping resources. The ability of juvenile
discouragement such efforts can bring.                                                          Mr. Kim G. Frentz, Program Director, Part-
                                                 offenders to fit into community life and to    ners Against Crime, 163 Madison Avenue,
Key to the success of the match between a        mature into productive citizens can be
                                                                                                Suite 120, Detroit, MI 48226; 313–964–1110.
mentor and a young person is providing           strengthened through contact with men-
mentors with appropriate training and sup-       tors who help smooth the way. Volunteers
port. The Public/Private Ventures study          often know about networks of people who        School-Based Probation
found that effective programs provide men-       can assist mentored youth. Once needs are
                                                                                                Establishing partnerships between juve-
tors with training that includes communica-      identified, PAC volunteers pursue possible
                                                                                                nile probation departments and schools is
tion skills development, tips on relationship    avenues for meeting those needs. Volun-
                                                                                                another innovative approach to effective
building, and recommendations for ways to        teers often attend to very basic needs,
                                                                                                intervention with young offenders, includ-
interact with young people. In addition,         such as providing food for youth and their
                                                                                                ing juveniles on probation and, in juris-
many of the Big Brothers/Big Sisters of          families. Finding resources can mean get-
                                                                                                dictions where probation departments
America programs evaluated by Public/            ting a youth involved in a recreation pro-
                                                                                                also serve youth returning from incarcera-
Private Ventures provided volunteer educa-       gram, making arrangements for a tutor, or
                                                                                                tion, juveniles on parole. The uniting of
tion and development programs that in-           providing guidance through the maze of
                                                                                                schools and probation departments has
cluded training in values clarification, child   college financial aid applications. Dedi-
                                                                                                been successful in communities and coun-
development, and problem solving.                cated mentors almost always find ways of
                                                                                                ties across the United States, including
                                                 filling a youth’s needs through personal
                                                                                                Allentown, PA; Jefferson, IN; Norfolk, VA;
Partners Against Crime                           or community resources.
                                                                                                and Fresno, Kern, Yuba, and Monterey
Detroit’s Partners Against Crime (PAC)           Reporting. Certainly one of the least popu-    Counties, CA.
mentoring program offers one approach            lar tasks among PAC volunteers is report-
                                                                                                Educators and juvenile probation officers
to the problem of repeat juvenile crime          ing. Often volunteers initially perceive no
                                                                                                share a common goal: helping young people
that plagues urban centers across the            relation between paperwork and success-
                                                                                                acquire knowledge and develop skills that
Nation. The PAC program matches an ad-           ful mentoring. While certainly not the ob-
                                                                                                lead to positive and productive lifestyles. As
judicated young offender with a commu-           ject of mentoring, the reports are essen-
                                                                                                officials of the juvenile court, school-based
nity volunteer who has been screened             tial to relieving mentored youth of their
                                                                                                probation officers provide control, supervi-
and trained.21 Through PAC training, vol-        most compelling problem: being under
                                                                                                sion, and incentives that delinquent youth
unteers become well versed in the five           court jurisdiction. Volunteers can accu-
                                                                                                often need to attend school regularly and
characteristics PAC has determined to be         rately report to the supervising probation
                                                                                                comply with school rules and regulations.
pillars for successful mentoring: friend-        officer, referee, or judge that the proba-
                                                                                                School-based probation officers can also
ship, regular contact, listening, tapping        tioner is complying with the court’s condi-
                                                                                                intervene in crisis situations involving
resources, and reporting.                        tions related to PAC participation. Such
                                                                                                juvenile probation clients and can assist
                                                 accountability helps the court to verify
Friendship. Volunteer mentors build                                                             schools in handling disruptive behavior by
                                                 compliance. To be truly successful, PAC
friendships with juveniles during weekly                                                        clients. Schools can contribute to probation
                                                 volunteers must spend the time required
meetings. Often just sitting and talking                                                        objectives by providing student probation-
                                                 each month to complete reports.
with a young person for a long period of                                                        ers with a structured environment for learn-
time is difficult. Building a friendship al-     In 1995, Wayne State University in Detroit,    ing basic life skills and by designing an aca-
most always needs to include an activity:        MI, conducted an impact evaluation of the      demic program tailored to the juvenile’s
visiting at a PAC chapter, going for a           PAC program. The evaluation findings in-       individual needs.
walk, attending a movie or sports event,         dicate that recidivism was 38 percent lower
                                                                                                School-based probation officers may
window-shopping, playing a game, or              for PAC clients compared with a control
                                                                                                perform a variety of specific functions:
having a soft drink and a hamburger.             group and more than 50 percent lower for
When mentors show that they care, that           PAC clients compared with probationers         x Notifying the school of a student’s con-
they are willing to give freely of their ex-     who declined to participate in PAC.              ditions of probation or parole and any
perience and time, and that they accept                                                           special educational or therapeutic
the mentored youth “as they are,” friend-        The results of the PAC program in Detroit
                                                                                                  needs that should be addressed
ships are inevitable.                            continue to be impressive. Young boys
                                                                                                  through school programming.

                                                                                               The Allentown model uses a dual case
  Sentenced To Serve—Personalized Learning Under                                               management system for student probation
  Supervision (STS PLUS)                                                                       clients. Juveniles are assigned two proba-
                                                                                               tion officers: a school-based officer, who
  STS PLUS is a Minnesota program designed for delinquent youth who have experi-               develops treatment plans and handles
  enced educational and vocational deficiencies and who are under the supervision of           day-to-day monitoring of the student’s
  the court. The STS PLUS coordinator, school counselor, and probation officer create          behavior, and a court-based officer, who
  a personalized plan to help the client complete educational and vocational goals. Par-       attends all court proceedings and handles
  ticipating youth receive significant incentives: school credit is given for community ser-   other out-of-school probation functions
  vice projects, and a portion of the court-ordered community work service is pardoned         relative to that student. The school-based
  when the participant follows the personalized educational plan. Youth also receive           probation officers spend the majority of
  rehabilitation service referrals and counseling as needed.                                   their time on campus.

  STS PLUS community service is performed in small groups (eight students or fewer)            The primary goal of probation officers is
  under the direction of a trained crew leader. Participants select worksites from a list      to provide guidance by helping juvenile
  of proposals submitted by public agencies and nonprofit organizations around the             probationers avoid situations that may
  county; about half of the worksites involve environmental tasks, such as removing            lead them into further involvement with
  garbage, painting over graffiti, and planting trees. The Minnesota Department of Cor-        the juvenile justice system. Improving the
  rections operates the STS PLUS work crews and provides the trained crew leaders.             school performance of student probation-
  Juvenile STS PLUS crews work Monday through Friday during the summer months                  ers is a key objective for achieving that
  and on weekends during the school year.                                                      goal. To monitor improvement, the two
                                                                                               agencies must share relevant information
  STS PLUS goals are as follows: increase life skills, improve school performance, en-         with each other. The probation officer
  hance decisionmaking skills, assist youth in developing long-term goals to facilitate        needs to be aware of the prior academic
  success, reconnect the offender to the community, provide a way for the offender to          functioning of the student. The school
  make amends to the community, and reduce delinquency.                                        needs to know about special education or
  Program funding sources include the Minnesota Department of Corrections; the Min-            treatment needs that can be addressed
                                                                                               through district services.
  nesota Department of Children, Family and Learning; Carver County Court Services;
  and the Carver-Scott Educational Cooperative.                                                At the inception of the Allentown program,
                                                                                               juvenile record sharing was a major con-
  Program evaluation findings include the following: STS PLUS reduces patterns of
  delinquent behavior (there is a 4-percent recidivism rate among participants); the           cern for both the school district and the
                                                                                               probation department. The confidential-
  program motivates youth to achieve educational, vocational, and individual goals
  and improves their attitudes about school, law-abiding behavior, and the commu-              ity of sensitive information needed to be
                                                                                               preserved to avoid labeling or otherwise
  nity; participants learn important life skills such as how to set positive long- and
  short-term goals; participants are highly satisfied with the program; and STS                stigmatizing juveniles. These issues were
                                                                                               worked out in a formal information-sharing
  PLUS is a cost-effective approach that can provide significant financial benefit
  to the community.                                                                            agreement, which bases release of records
                                                                                               on each agency’s legitimate need to know.
  For more information about STS PLUS, contact Jerome Kleis, Juvenile STS PLUS
  Crew Leader, Carver County Court Services, 600 E. 4th Street, Chaska, MN 55318;              In addition to specifying information-
                                                                                               sharing arrangements, written agreements
                                                                                               between the school district and probation
                                                                                               department also outline funding arrange-
                                                                                               ments and reporting structures and iden-
x Monitoring the attendance, school             x Counseling young people in danger of         tify exactly what is expected of each of
  performance, and behavior of youth              being expelled due to truancy problems.      the parties involved. (Funding arrange-
  on probation or parole or undergoing                                                         ments vary. For example, a school and a
  informal behavioral adjustment.               The Allentown Model                            probation department may jointly pay
x Conducting home visits and coordinat-         The practice of physically placing full-time   the salaries of the officers involved, or
  ing intervention services that must be        juvenile probation officers on school          one agency may provide the entire fund-
  obtained for students and families from       campuses was first put into effect by          ing while the other furnishes office space
  sources outside the school system.            Lehigh County Juvenile Probation and the       and equipment.)
                                                Allentown School District in Pennsylvania.22   In developing a school-based juvenile pro-
x Coordinating reentry conferences for
  students returning to school following        The goal of the program was to strengthen      bation program, precautions must be
                                                collaboration between the school district      taken to ensure that the initiative is not
  placement in a juvenile justice facility.
                                                and the probation department toward            actually creating additional referrals to
x Providing services to minors who are          meeting their common objectives. By            and/or increasing involvement of youth
  not wards of the State but were referred      creating a mutual understanding of each        with the justice system. To guard against
  to probation for a variety of reasons         other’s duties, functions, and limitations,    this possibility, school-based probation
  (including minor offenses, school disci-      the two agencies enhanced their ability        officers should work only with youth al-
  pline and behavior problems, and fam-         to coordinate services for juveniles and       ready on juvenile probation and should
  ily difficulties).                            their families.                                not serve as general disciplinarians for

                                                  mainstream, educators and other con-         Conclusions
  Probation/School Liaison                        cerned members of the community
                                                  need to redouble their efforts to pre-       The move from the closely monitored
  Program                                                                                      environment in a secure facility to less
                                                  vent the youngest children from tak-
                                                  ing a similar path. In the wake of re-       structured life in the community can be
  In this Norfolk, VA, program, seven
                                                  cent school shootings, the public has        overwhelming to the juvenile offender.
  probation/school liaison counselors work                                                     Youth reentering public school systems
  8 hours per day every school day moni-          exerted increasing pressure on school
                                                  officials to identify at-risk youngsters     from custodial settings frequently are alien-
  toring attendance, behavior, and aca-                                                        ated from the formal education process.
  demic performance of court-supervised           as early as possible so that appropri-
                                                  ate intervention services can be pro-        Without help, they may drop out of school
  youth in middle and high school. The
  counselors receive training in their liai-      vided. In attempting to respond to
  son function. They also participate in          public demands, school officials are
  disciplinary hearings and serve as a            hindered by the fact that human be-            An Essential Ingredient
  bridge between school personnel and             havior is not often predictable, par-
  probation officers.                             ticularly when a troubled individual           A story is told about Calvin Coolidge,
                                                  may display few outward signs.                 the 30th President of the United States:
  The purpose of the program is to provide
  a Norfolk Court Services Unit presence       x Overcrowding in juvenile detention              President Coolidge and Mrs. Coolidge
  in the schools so the probation officers       and correctional facilities often means         were staying at the Willard Hotel in
  responsible for students on probation or       that, before another youth can be de-           Washington, DC, during the President’s
  parole can be immediately aware when           tained or confined, officials must de-          first days in office. One night, the Presi-
  these students are truant or are experi-       cide who will be released in order to           dent awoke to discover a burglar in the
  encing other types of problems. Approxi-       make room for the new resident. Many            room, going through the President’s
  mately 800 students participate in the         times the youth being released are not          belongings and attempting to remove a
  program during each school year.               fully prepared for reintegration into           wallet and pocket watch. The President
                                                 mainstream schools and society.                 said, “I really wish you wouldn’t take
  The probation/school liaison counselors        These youth and their families may              that,” referring to the watch. He asked
  receive office space, telephone access,        need additional or enhanced services            the burglar to read the engraving on the
  and other support from the schools to          to help support them through the                watch, which said: “Presented to Calvin
  which they are assigned. Norfolk Public        transition.                                     Coolidge, President of the Massachu-
  Schools also provides administrative
                                               x Educators sometimes have unfounded              setts Senate.”
  support that includes payroll and other
                                                 fears and prejudices regarding juvenile
  billing functions.                             offenders. Preparing educators to work          Coolidge then identified himself as the
                                                                                                 newly sworn-in President of the United
  During its 3 years of operation, the pro-      with these youth is essential. The pre-
                                                 service curriculum in university-level          States, persuaded the burglar to relin-
  gram has improved school attendance,                                                           quish the wallet and watch, and then
  behavior, and academic performance of          teacher preparation programs should
                                                 equip young teachers with the skills            engaged the young man in quiet con-
  court-supervised youth.                                                                        versation. The burglar explained that he
                                                 and knowledge they need to work with
  For more information about the                 the full spectrum of students, including        and his roommate were unable to pay
  Probation/School Liaison Program,                                                              their hotel bill or purchase their train
                                                 those who have had contact with the
  contact Leslie Arnold, Probation/School        juvenile justice system. At the school          tickets back to their college campus.
  Liaison Program, 800 East City Hall            level, open lines of communication and          To the young man’s amazement, Mr.
  Avenue, P.O. Box 1357, Norfolk, VA             well-trained, informed teachers can             Coolidge gave him $32 from the wallet,
  23501; 757–441–2811.                           make the crucial difference in reinte-          as a loan, and then advised him to
                                                 grating juvenile offenders into main-           leave the room as unconventionally as
                                                 stream education.                               he had entered, to avoid detection by
the student body. The Allentown model                                                            the Secret Service.
                                               x Lack of coordination and collaboration
requires that school-based probation be
                                                 among schools, juvenile justice systems,        The President chose to show compas-
reserved for youth within the jurisdiction
                                                 and community social institutions has           sion, but he did not want it publicly
of the juvenile court. School-based offi-
                                                 been a serious impediment to the devel-         known that he had been so forgiving.
cers may also work with student parolees,
                                                 opment and delivery of effective after-         After all, he was a “law-and-order” poli-
either alone or in concert with parole/
                                                 care programming for juvenile offend-           tician. The story did not become public
aftercare staff.
                                                 ers.23 Petty turf battles, power struggles,     knowledge for many years.
                                                 and refusal to share information must
Remaining Problems                               give way to a spirit of cooperation and         This story is not specifically about way-
                                                 teamwork to better serve the needs of           ward youth returning to school from in-
Several challenges continue to face                                                              carceration, but it does illustrate an
                                                 troubled youth and their families. This
schools and communities as they attempt                                                          essential ingredient of the process:
                                                 call for unity has been made before but
to deal with problems of crime and vio-                                                          compassion on the part of adults who
                                                 has often gone unheeded because of
lence among youth:                                                                               are charged with shaping the lives of
                                                 funding limitations, community resis-
x In addition to helping to reintegrate          tance, competition for resources, or lack       young people and helping them achieve
  young people who are already in                of leadership.                                  responsible citizenship.
  trouble and outside the education

or be expelled for exhibiting inappropri-      4. Wilson and Howell, p. 193.                    13. Robert J. Gemignani, Juvenile Correc-
ate behaviors. These high-risk youth can-                                                       tional Education: A Time for Change, OJJDP
not be expected to succeed in a vacuum.        5. In the 1994–95 school year, the public        Update on Research (Washington, DC: U.S.
                                               schools spent $7,163 per pupil (in 1997
Young people, particularly troubled young                                                       Department of Justice, Office of Justice Pro-
people, need structure, supervision, and       constant dollars). See Thomas Snyder and         grams, Office of Juvenile Justice and De-
                                               John Wirt, The Condition of Education,
support. Schools and community agencies                                                         linquency Prevention, October 1994): 2.
should seek to improve their capacity to       1998 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
                                               Education, National Center for Education         14. Jessica Portner, “Jailed Youths Get
respond effectively to the needs of these
troubled youth.                                Statistics, June 1998): 58.                      Shortchanged on Education,” Education
                                                                                                Week, October 2, 1996.
                                               6. David W. Roush, Juvenile Detention
A number of significant and innovative pro-
grams and strategies have been developed       Training Needs Assessment, Research              15. Gemignani, p. 2.
                                               Report (Washington, DC: U.S. Department
for helping delinquent youth reenter the                                                        16. Information for this section was devel-
education mainstream. Foremost is the          of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office
                                               of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Pre-         oped by Melissa C. Caudle in “Returning
trend toward improving communication                                                            to School from Incarceration,” School Safety
among all of the agencies and other enti-      vention, April 1996): 4.
                                                                                                Update (Westlake Village, CA: National
ties involved in helping these youth de-       7. See Sharing Information: A Guide to the       School Safety Center, February 1996): 1–4.
velop and achieve positive goals. Commu-       Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
nities must forge partnerships among           and Participation in Juvenile Justice Programs   17. Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994, 20 U.S.C.
public and private youth-serving agencies                                                       Section 8921 (1994).
                                               (NCJ 163705, June 1997); A Guide to the
to provide a continuum of treatment and        Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act        18. Joseph P. Tierney, Jean Baldwin, and
aftercare services for juvenile offenders      (Fact Sheet #78, May 1998); and Information      Nancy L. Resch, Making A Difference: An
and their families.                            Sharing and the Family Educational Rights        Impact Study of Big Brothers/Big Sisters
Educational services provided to juvenile      and Privacy Act (Fact Sheet #39, July 1996);     (Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures,
                                               available from the Juvenile Justice Clearing-    November 1995).
offenders, both within juvenile correctional
facilities and outside in the community        house (write JJC, P.O. Box 6000, Rockville,
                                               MD 20849-6000; phone 800–638–8736; or            19. Jean B. Grossman and Eileen M. Garry,
schools, must reflect current educational                                                       Mentoring–A Proven Delinquency Preven-
philosophy, curriculum content develop-        e-mail and also avail-
                                               able online at              tion Strategy, Bulletin (Washington, DC:
ment, and instructional techniques. Instruc-                                                    U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Jus-
tion must be relevant to these students’       8. David M. Altschuler and Troy L. Arm-          tice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice
interests and needs and must allow them        strong, Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk        and Delinquency Prevention, April 1997).
to make connections to real-life situations.   Juveniles: Policies and Procedures, Program
These students can profit from challeng-       Summary (Washington, DC: U.S. Depart-            20. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin-
ing tasks that allow them to develop           ment of Justice, Office of Justice Programs,     quency Prevention, 1998 Report to Con-
problem-solving skills. They also need         Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency       gress: Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP),
job skills training to prepare them for fu-    Prevention, September 1994): 4.                  Program Report. (Washington DC: U.S.
ture employment. With the full support of                                                       Department of Justice, Office of Justice
their schools and communities, they can        9. See Reintegrating Juvenile Offenders          Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and
make the transition back to school and         Into the Community: OJJDP’s Intensive            Delinquency Prevention, December 1998).
build a future as responsible and success-     Community-Based Aftercare Demonstration
                                               Program, Research Preview (Washington,           21. Kim Frentz, “Pairing Juvenile Offenders
ful adults.                                                                                     with Volunteer Advocates,” School Safety
                                               DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of
                                               Justice Programs, National Institute of          Update (Westlake Village, CA: National
Endnotes                                       Justice, December 1998): 2.                      School Safety Center, April 1997): 1–3.
1. John J. Wilson and James C. Howell,         10. David M. Altschuler and Troy L. Arm-         22. Megan Clouser, “School-based Juvenile
Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Vio-       strong, “Aftercare Not Afterthought: Test-       Probation: Everyone Benefits,” School
lent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders, Re-      ing the IAP Model,” Juvenile Justice III         Safety Update (Westlake Village, CA: Na-
search Report (Washington, DC: U.S. De-        (December 1996): 16.                             tional School Safety Center, December
partment of Justice, Office of Justice                                                          1995): 1–4, reprinted with permission
Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and       11. Paul E. Barton and Richard J. Coley,         from Pennsylvania Progress, March 1995,
Delinquency Prevention, October 1993): 5.      Captive Students: Education and Training         Vol. 2, No. 1.
                                               in America’s Prisons (Princeton, NJ: Edu-
2. Anne L. Stahl, Delinquency Cases in         cational Testing Service, 1996).                 23. Altschuler and Armstrong, Intensive
Juvenile Courts, 1996, Fact Sheet #109                                                          Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: Policies
(Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Jus-       12. See Effective Practices in Juvenile Cor-     and Procedures, p. 7.
tice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of    rectional Education: A Study of the Litera-
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Preven-       ture and Research 1980–1992 (NCJ 150066,
tion, May 1999): 1.                            1994), available from the Juvenile Justice
                                               Clearinghouse (write JJC, P.O. Box 6000,
3. Harold Hodgkinson, “A Demographer’s         Rockville, MD 20849-6000; phone 800–638–
View,” in Marla Higginbotham, ed., What        8736; or e-mail
Governors Need to Know about Education
(Washington, DC: National Governors’
Association, 1995): 54.

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                     Bulletin                                                                                         NCJ 178900

                                                                                         Points of view or opinions expressed in this
  Acknowledgments                                                                        document are those of the authors and do not
                                                                                         necessarily represent the official position or
  Ronald D. Stephens, Ph.D., is Executive Director and June Lane Arnette is              policies of OJJDP or the U.S. Department of
  Associate Director of the National School Safety Center (NSSC) in Westlake             Justice.
  Village, CA.
  Photograph page 2 copyright 1999 Photodisc, Inc.; photograph page 9 copyright           The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin-
  Weststock.                                                                              quency Prevention is a component of the Of-
                                                                                          fice of Justice Programs, which also includes
                                                                                          the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau
                                                                                          of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of
  Share With Your Colleagues                                                              Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime.
  Unless otherwise noted, OJJDP publications are not copyright protected. We
  encourage you to reproduce this document, share it with your colleagues, and
  reprint it in your newsletter or journal. However, if you reprint, please cite OJJDP
  and the authors of this Bulletin. We are also interested in your feedback, such as
  how you received a copy, how you intend to use the information, and how OJJDP
  materials meet your individual or agency needs. Please direct your comments and
  questions to:
                               Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
                               Publication Reprint/Feedback
                               P.O. Box 6000
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