Academic Partnerships with Native American Communities Presented by Sara L. Young, Montana State University American Indian Tribes in the U.S. • • • Photo source: http://www.drumhop.com/CrowFair.html There are 562 federally recognized American Indian tribes in the U.S. The majority of these tribes have sovereign nation status – they have their own tribal governments which conduct government to government relations with other levels of government (federal, state and local) Each tribe has its own unique culture, language, practices and economic situations and although there are similarities between some tribes there are many differences Crow Tribe of Indians of Montana – the Apsaalooke Nation • Located in south central Montana with 2 million acres within the exterior boundaries – the original treaty boundaries included 32 million square acres. Today the reservation is about 60 miles by 40 miles. Current tribal enrollment is at 11,500 The majority of tribal members residing on the reservation receive their medical care at the Indian Health Service facilities on the reservation – clinics at three sites and one hospital • http://montanafilm.com/crowres_03.htm • • Little Big Horn College has an enrollment of approximately 250 tribal students working on associate arts degrees in several areas, many of whom are interested in biomedical and environmental health fields http://lewisandclark.state.mt.us/visitres.htm U.S. Federal and State Indian Reservations http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0778676.html Tribal Population – 2000 US Census • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Apache96,833 Blackfeet85,750 Cherokee729,533 Cheyenne18,204 Chickasaw38,351 Choctaw158,774Colville9,393 Comanche19,376 Chippewa149,669 Cree7,734 Creek71,310 Crow13,394 Delaware16,341 Houma8,713 Iroquois80,822 Kiowa12,242 Latin American Indian180,940 Lumbee57,868 Menominee9,840 Navajo298,197 Osage15,897 Ottawa10,677 Paiute13,532 Pima11,493 Potawatomi25,595 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Pueblo74,085 1. The numbers by American Indian and Alaska Native tribes Puget Sound do not add up to the total Salish14,631 population figure because Seminole27,431 respondents may have put down Shoshone12,026 more than one tribe. Respondents Sioux153,360 reporting several tribes are TohonoO'odham20,087 counted several times. 2. Total includes American Indian Ute10,385 and Alaska Natives alone or in Yakama10,851 combination with other tribal Yaqui22,412 groups or races. Indian and Yuman8,976 Alaskan Native population alone Other specified American in 2000 was 2,475,956. Indian tribes357,658 American Indian tribe, not specified195,902 AlaskaAthabascan18,838 Aleut16,978 Eskimo54,761 Tlingit-Haida22,365 Other specified Alaska Native tribes3,973 Alaska Native tribe, not specified8,702 American Indian or Alaska Native tribe, not specified1,056,457 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000. Potential Partners – Tribal Colleges and Universities • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Institution State Highest Degree Offered BAY MILLS COMMUNITY COLLEGE MI Associate's BLACKFEET COMMUNITY COLLEGE MT Associate's CANKDESKA CIKANA COMMUNITY COLLEGE ND Associate's CHIEF DULL KNIFE COLLEGE MT Associate's *COLLEGE OF MENOMINEE NATION WI Associate's COMANCHE NATION COLLEGE OK Associate's CROWNPOINT INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NM Associate's DINÉ COLLEGE AZ Associate's FOND DU LAC TRIBAL AND COMMUNITY COLLEGE MN Bachelor's FORT BELKNAP COLLEGE MT Associate's FORT BERTHOLD COMMUNITY COLLEGE ND Associate's FORT PECK COMMUNITY COLLEGE MT Associate's HASKELL INDIAN NATIONS UNIVERSITY KS Bachelor's INSTITUTE OF AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE CULTURE NM Bachelor's *KEWEENAW BAY OJIBWA COMMUNITY COLLEGE MI Associate's LAC COURTE OREILLES OJIBWA COMMUNITY COLLEGE WI Associate's LEECH LAKE TRIBAL COLLEGE MN Associate's • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Institution State Highest Degree Offered LITTLE BIG HORN COLLEGE MT Associate's LITTLE PRIEST TRIBAL COLLEGE NE Associate's NEBRASKA INDIAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE NE Associate's NORTHWEST INDIAN COLLEGE WA Associate's OGLALA LAKOTA COLLEGE SD Master's SAGINAW CHIPPEWA TRIBAL COLLEGE MI Associate's SALISH KOOTENAI COLLEGE MT Bachelor's SINTE GLESKA UNIVERSITY SD Master's SISSETON WAHPETON COLLEGE SD Associate's SITTING BULL COLLEGE ND Bachelor's SOUTHWESTERN INDIAN POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE NM Associate's STONE CHILD COLLEGE MT Associate's TOHONO O'ODHAM COMMUNITY COLLEGE AZ Associate's TURTLE MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE ND Bachelor's UNITED TRIBES TECHNICAL COLLEGE ND Associate's WHITE EARTH TRIBAL AND COMMUNITY COLLEGE MN Associate's *WIND RIVER TRIBAL COLLEGE WY Associate's *Indicates a tribal college is seeking formal accreditation candidacy status Source: http://www.aihec.org Tribal College and University (TCU) Demographic Information: • • 34 tribal colleges in 13 states 8 TCUs offer baccalaureate programs; 2 offer master’s degree programs and all offer associate degree programs. Tribal College and University Student Demographics: • 27,000+ academic students annually; tens of thousands more through community outreach • 80% of the students are enrolled in federally recognized tribes • 67% Female • 59% Full-time Source: http://www.aihec.org • • • • • Aberdeen Area Alaska Area Albuquerque Area Billings Area California Area • • • • • Nashville Area Navajo Area Oklahoma Area Phoenix Area Portland Area Source: http://www.nihb.org/index.php NCAI – National Congress of American Indians • • Cowlitz Indian Tribe [Northwest]John Barnett (Chairman) Tel: (360) 577-8140 Fax: (360) 577-7432P.O. Box 2547 Longview, WA 98632-8594 Website: www.cowlitz.orgCoyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians [Pacific]John Feliz, Jr. (Chairman) Tel: (707) 485-8723 Fax: (707) 485-1247P.O. Box 39 Redwood Valley, CA 95470 Website: www.coyotevalleycasino.com Craig Community Association (IRA) [Alaska]A. Millie Stevens (President) Tel: (907) 826-3996 Fax: (907) 826-3997P.O. Box 828 Craig, AK 99921 Crooked Creek Traditional Council [Alaska]Johnny John (President) Tel: (907) 432-2201 Fax: (907) 432-2200P.O. Box 69 Crooked Creek, AK 99575 Crow Creek Sioux Tribe [Great Plains]Lester Thompson, Jr. (Chairman) Tel: (605) 245-2221 Fax: (605) 245-2470P.O. Box 50 Fort Thompson, SD 57339 Crow Nation [Rocky Mountain]Carl E. Venne (Chairman) Tel: (406) 638-3715 Fax: (406) 638-3773P.O. Box 159 Crow Agency, MT 59022 NCAI’s webpage gives a list of the contact information for over 250 member tribes – this is just a sample of some of the tribes listed. In many cases, a tribal resolution approving the research project will be required prior to gaining approval from an IRB of a regional I.H.S. office. • • • • Source: http://www.ncai.org/Tribal_Governments.119.0.html?&no_cache=1&print=1 Urban Indians • Throughout the U.S. there are a number of clusters of Native Americans living in urban areas that have their own inter-tribal communities with urban Indian clinics or other healthcare facilities governed by Native American boards that are another source of potential partnerships. More Native Americans actually reside “off the reservation” than live on but they are a little harder to find and generally include groups of many different tribes. Their community population may or may not maintain close ties to their extended families, tribes and cultural ways. IRB’s • Many tribes and/or tribal colleges have developed or are in the process of developing their own IRBs which researchers need to work with for projects involving tribal members or tribal data • When a tribe or tribal college does not have an IRB in place researchers generally are required to go through the IRB process with the area office of the Indian Health Service • If the research will involve working with any data, patients, staff or facilities of the I.H.S., researchers need to seek approval from both the tribal IRB and the I.H.S. IRB So how do we develop partnerships? • Respect, collegiality, trust, equality, communication, commitment, sincere interest in working with the tribe, development of a minimal level of understanding about the tribe’s history prior to making contact if possible • “The rule is to talk to tribes before the pencil hits the paper, not when the document is ready to be signed in ink.” Reno Charette, Coord. of Indian Affairs for the State of Montana Is CBPR the only way, the best way? • No, community based participatory research approaches are not the only way to establish academic partnerships with Native American communities but CBPR does provide a good approach to building a trust relationship with individual community groups or tribes. Messengers for Health A community-based participatory research project between Dr. Suzanne Christopher, a faculty member at Montana State University, and the Crow Nation that began 5 years ago to increase the participation of Crow women in cervical cancer screening and has now expanded to cover a broader area of addressing health disparities. The project is funded by the American Cancer Society. Montana Consortium for CommunityBased Research in Native American Health • Established as a result of many requests from community groups within the Crow Nation, community groups in other Montana reservations and faculty from both the Montana State University and University of Montana campuses for more partnerships to conduct collaborative research between the universities and Native communities. Proposal submitted to NIH • Linking Native American community partners, university partners and other research partners to develop community based participatory research projects that will address specific health disparities affecting Native American communities • If funded, the project will fund up to 25 planning grants throughout Montana’s seven reservations over a 5 year period through the establishment of an exploratory center. How do academic partnerships develop when the reservations are so far from the university and urban Native communities are not always easy to locate ? • Working with universities that have Native American Studies departments and can provide information on Native communities in the region • Identifying I.H.S. regions with health disparities that fall into research areas of interest to you and making contacts through either the I.H.S. Area Office, the Area Tribal Health Board or the tribal health board • Establishing a collaboration with an investigator who has already developed a positive working relationship with Native communities and/or TCUs. Native American Health Disparities • Need for research to address the broad range of health disparities impacting Native American people. • Tribes are requiring a more significant role in research on or about their tribal members. • Tribes recognize the need to partner with academic researchers to overcome the health disparities. Thank you for your interest in fostering collaborations with a diverse population impacted by health disparities.
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