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branch marcotting of bamboo.indd by fjhuangjun

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									MMSU Science and Technology Journal                                                     ISSN: 2012 0060
Volume 1. No.1
July-December 2007


                    Branch Marcotting Propagation of Some
                    Commercially-Grown Bamboo Species

                          Charito L. Samsam, Joselito I. Rosario and Sergia P. Garma


                                                         ABSTRACT
           Vegetative propagation of five bamboo species was conducted to assess their response
     to branch marcotting and determine the most effective and economical rooting media. Five
     bamboo species (four exotic and one endemic species) were marcotted using three rooting
     media: sphagnum moss, coco-coir, and sawdust. The bamboo species were: Buddha (Bambusa
     ventricosa Mc Clure), bayog (Dendrocalamus merrillianus Elm.), kauayan tinik (Bambusa spinosa Roxb.),
     machiku (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro), and giant bamboo [Gigantochloa asper (Schult.) Backer
     ex. Heyne].

          Results showed significant effects of rooting media on the rooting performance and height
     growth of Buddha propagules in the nursery. The sphagnum moss-treated branches of Buddha
     had the shortest root initiation period, and the highest rooting percentage and height increment.
     Marcotted bayog branches using sphagnum moss had also the shortest root initiation period.
     However, rooting media had no effect on the rooting performance of kauayan tinik, machiku,
     and giant bamboo, although a relatively high rooting percentage was observed on bayog and
     kauayan tinik. Likewise, the rooting media did not affect the growth and survival of the five
     bamboo species, both in the nursery and plantation areas.

         The above results suggest that marcotting can be used as an alternative method in the
     propagation of Buddha, bayog and kauayan tinik. Sphagnum moss should be used as rooting
     media to enhance root initiation and maximize net return.




Keywords: branch marcotting, bamboo species, bamboo propagule production


                                                    INTRODUCTION
     Bamboo is one of the most important                        making and construction but also as source of
non-timber forest products because of                           shoots for food.
its many commercial and domestic uses                               Considering the numerous benefits
such as food, furniture, post, fence and for                    that can be derived from these species and
construction purposes. Kauayan tinik and bayog                  the increasing demand for bamboo culms,
are two of the more popular and widely utilized                 there is a need to increase the area devoted
bamboo species in the province. Buddha, giant                   to bamboo production by establishing more
bamboo, and machiku, on the other hand, are                     plantations. Large-scale establishment of
recently introduced species that have great                     bamboo plantations, however, is hampered by
potential not only as raw materials for furniture               the insufficient supply of planting materials.

 Current address: Research and Development
 Mariano Marcos State University, City of Batac, Ilocos Norte                                                51
CL Samsam, et al

Although propagation by one-node culm                     One advantage of marcotting branches of
cutting was found promising, mass propagation       bamboo is that the culm can still be utilized
of bamboo planting materials is still constrained   for other purposes after separating the rooted
by the difficulty of procuring suitable culms.       propagules. Several studies have already been
Previous observations also revealed that not        conducted (Gonzales et al 1990), but data on
all bamboo species respond favorably to the         the most appropriate rooting medium for
one-node cutting propagation method.                a particular bamboo species are scanty and
     Another possible way of propagating            still have to be explored. Availability of this
bamboo is through marcotting. Marcotting is         information may lead to a more practical and
an ancient method of propagating plants. It         economical technology for the production of
differs from other methods because the stem         bamboo planting materials particularly the
or branch is induced to root while still attached   commercially grown species. Thus, a study
to the mother plant. According to Harmann           that evaluated the feasibility of propagating
and Kesler (1977), marcotting is easy and the       commercially grown bamboo species by
additional labor and material requirements are      marcotting using different rooting media was
compensated by the high rate of success.            conducted.

                                           OBJECTIVES
    Generally, the study aimed to determine             2. evaluate the effects of different rooting
the response of some bamboo species to                      media on the growth and survival of
branch marcotting using different rooting                   bamboo propagules; and
media. Specifically, it aimed to:                        3. assess the cost and return of producing
    1. determine the best rooting media for                 bamboo propagules through marcotting
       marcotting five bamboo species;                       using different media.

                                        METHODOLOGY
Locale of the Study                                 annual rainfall ranging from 1500 to 2000 mm.
                                                    The province of Cagayan, on the other hand,
      The marcotting experiments were set-up        belongs to Type III climate characterized as
in two locations. The experiments on four           having no pronounced maximum rain and
species (Buddha, kauayan tinik, bayog and giant     only shot dry season lasting only from one to
bamboo) were conducted in Batac, Ilocos             three months.
Norte, while the experiment on Machiku was
conducted in Claveria, Cagayan. The locations       Research Design and Treatments
were selected based on the availability of
clumps of the species being studied. All the            The study involved three phases:
marcotting experiments were set-up during           marcotting, nursery observation, and field or
the rainy season.                                   outplanting phases.
     The rooted marcots were grown at the               The first phase involved the setting-up of
MMSU Central Nursery and outplanted at the          marcotting experiments in the selected bamboo
MMSU Forest Reserve in Payao, Batac, Ilocos         stands. Separate experiment was set-up for
Norte. The province of Ilocos Norte belongs         each species using a Completely Randomized
to Type I climate with two distinct wet and dry     Design (CRD) with three replications. The
seasons. Rainy season often starts from the         rooting media used as treatments were:
later part of May to October with an average        sphagnum moss, coco-coir, and sawdust.

52
                                                         Branch marcotting propagation of bamboo species

Twenty branches per treatment per replication           Care of the marcots in the nursery. The
were marcotted for each species. The marcots       marcots were individually planted in 7” x 7” x
were observed for two months.                      11” black polyethylene bags containing the soil
     The second phase involved the evaluation      medium composing of a mixture of soil and
of the growth and survival of the marcots in the   rice hull at 1:1 ratio. The potted propagules
nursery until these were ready for outplanting.    were arranged in seedbeds partially shaded
As in the first phase, the experiments were laid    with black fish net. These were watered twice
out in CRD using the three rooting media as        a week during the first month, after which the
treatments.                                        propagules were watered once a week until they
     The third and last phase involved five field    were ready for transplanting. The beds were
experiments laid out in Randomized Complete        weeded once a month.
Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three
times. The three rooting media were retained            Outplanting and maintenance of the
as treatments.                                     propagules in the field. The planting site
                                                   was prepared using the strip clearing method,
Variables of the Study                             wherein all the vegetation along a one-meter
                                                   wide strip was removed. Outplanting was
    The response of the five bamboo species         done in July 2000 using 30 cm wide and 30
to the treatments was evaluated based on           cm deep planting holes, spaced at 5 m x 5 m.
rooting efficiency, growth and survival of the      One month after outplanting, the test plants
rooted marcots in the nursery, and growth          were fertilized at a rate of 20-10-10 kg NPK
performance of the propagules under field           ha-1. This is equivalent to one cup full of a 1:1
conditions.                                        mixture of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) and
                                                   urea (46-0-0). Weeding was done monthly to
Establishment and Management                       prevent weeds from competing with the test
Practices                                          plants on the use of resources such as soil
                                                   moisture, nutrients and sunlight.
     Marcotting and separation of the marcots.
Branches of one to two-year old culms with         Data Gathered
good branching habits were selected for
marcotting. Transparent plastic sheet filled             The responses of the five bamboo species
with moist rooting medium was attached at the      to marcotting and different rooting media were
basal portion of the branch. The plastic sheet     evaluated in terms of the number of days to
was tightly wrapped around the branch and          rooting and percentage of rooted marcots.
tied with a plastic straw at the lower and upper   The survival and growth performance of the
portion to prevent spillage and desiccation of     propagules were also evaluated, both under
the rooting medium.                                nursery and field conditions. The economics
     Two months after marcotting, all the          of producing bamboo propagules using
marcotted branches that developed roots            different rooting media was also estimated
were separated from the culms using a sharp        taking into account all the materials and labor
bolo. Extra care was observed so as not to         inputs and their unit cost at the time the study
dismantle the ball containing the roots and        was conducted.
rooting medium.




                                                                                                  53
CL Samsam, et al

Data Analysis                                        field survival and growth of the seedling were
                                                     analyzed using the ANOVA for RCBD. Means
    Data on the rooting performance and
                                                     of parameters with significant results were
growth and survival in the nursery were
                                                     further compared using the Least Significant
analyzed using the analysis of variance
(ANOVA) for CRD, while the data on the               Difference (LSD) at 5% level of significance.


                                   RESULTS ANDDISCUSSION
Rooting Performance                                       On the contrary, no significant effect of
                                                     the different rooting media was observed on
     Number of days to rooting. Results              the rooting percentage of bayog, kauayan tinik,
showed significant effect of rooting media on         machiku, and giant bamboo. A relatively
the number of days to rooting of Buddha and          high rooting percentage was observed from
bayog (Table 1). Buddha and bayog branches,          marcotted bayog (85.0 - 91.7%) and kauayan
marcotted with sphagnum moss had the                 tinik (80.7 - 85.8%) branches (Table 1). This
shortest period to produce roots at 8.9 and          implies that the two species can be propagated
38.0 days, respectively; while those treated with    through marcotting using any of the three
sawdust took the longest at 26.3 and 48.22 days,     rooting media studied, provided moisture is
respectively. These show that Buddha and             sufficient. It should be mentioned that rainfall
bayog can be propagated by branch marcotting         was sufficient during the study. According
and using sphagnum moss as rooting medium            to Ushimura (1978), rainfall is the only
can shorten the rooting duration.                    environmental factor that limits the growth
     On the other hand, the rooting media used       of bamboo marcots. On the other hand, the
did not affect the number of days to rooting of      rooting percentage exhibited by machiku (6.7
kauayan tinik, machiku, and giant bamboo. The        -13.3%) and giant bamboo (26.7 - 28.3%)
marcotted branches of kauayan tinik, machiku,        were very low, which imply that these species
and giant bamboo took 23.3 to 24.2 days, 31.7        did not respond favorably to marcotting, and
to 37.0 days, and 35.2 to 42.1 days, respectively,   the three rooting media used were not able to
to develop roots (Table 1). The non-significant       enhance root development of the marcotted
results denote that the three rooting media had      branches.
comparable effect on the rooting duration of
marcotted branches.                                  Performance of marcotted
                                                     branches in the nursery
     Rooting percentage. The rooting medium
showed significant effect on the percentage of            Results revealed no marked effects of
rooted marcots of Buddha (Table 1). Branches         the three rooting media on the percentage
of Buddha marcotted using sphagnum moss              survival of the rooted marcots of the five
had the highest rooting rate (93.3%) but were        bamboo species under nursery conditions
comparable to the rooting rate of the coco-          (Table 2). Likewise, the rooting media used
coir treated branches (90.0%). The lowest            did not affect the height growth of the rooted
rooting rate was observed from the sawdust           marcots of bayog, kauayan tinik, machiku, and
treated branches (75.0%). The results show           giant bamboo. The results indicate that the
the apparent advantage of sphagnum moss and          rooting media used no longer influence the
coco-coir as rooting medium for marcotting           survival of the five species studied after these
Buddha bamboo.                                       are transplanted and grown under favorable
54
                                                                   Branch marcotting propagation of bamboo species

Table 1. Rooting performance of the marcotted branches of the five bamboo species as
         affected by three rooting media.
     BAMBOO SPECIES/                        NO. OF DAYS TO                     ROOTING PERCENTAGE
    ROOTING MEDIUM                            ROOTING
 Buddha1                                           **                                        **
     Sphagnum moss                                8.9 c                                    93.3 a
     Coco-coir                                   15.5 b                                    90.0 a
     Sawdust                                     26.3 a                                    75.0 b
 CV (%)                                           16.9                                      5.1
 Bayog1                                               *                                      ns
     Sphagnum moss                                  38.0 c                                  91.7
     Coco-coir                                      40.7 b                                  88.3
     Sawdust                                        48.2 a                                  85.0
 CV ( %)                                             9.2                                    4.2
 Kauayan tinik1                                       ns                                     ns
     Sphagnum moss                                   23.3                                   85.8
     Coco-coir                                       24.2                                   80.7
     Sawdust                                         24.2                                   83.1
 CV (%)                                              9.4                                    4.4
 Machiku2                                             ns                                     ns
     Sphagnum moss                                   31.7                                   13.3
     Coco-coir                                       36.0                                   10.0
     Sawdust                                         37.0                                   6.7
 CV (%)                                              7.7                                    37.3
 Giant Bamboo1                                        ns                                     ns
     Sphagnum moss                                   35.2                                   28.3
     Coco-coir                                       42.1                                   26.7
     Sawdust                                         40.0                                   33.3
 CV (%)                                              10.0                                   25.9

** - significant at 0.01 level       ns - not significant                    Marcotted in Batac, Ilocos Norte
                                                                           1

* - significant at 0.05 level        CV - coefficient of variation           Marcotted in Claveria, Cagayan
                                                                           2


   In a column and within the same species, means marked with a common letter do not differ significantly at
0.05 level using DMRT.




                                                                                                              55
CL Samsam, et al

Table 2. Percentage survival and height increment of the rooted marcots of the five bamboo
         species in the nursery as affected by three rooting media.
     BAMBOO SPECIES/                            SURVIVAL                      HEIGHT INCREMENT
    ROOTING MEDIUM                                 (%)                                cm
 Buddha1                                            ns                                **
     Sphagnum moss                                 92.9                             37.7 a
     Coco-coir                                     90.7                             38.9 a
     Sawdust                                       86.6                             26.0 b
 CV (%)                                            3.3                               11.5
 Bayog1                                               ns                                   ns
     Sphagnum moss                                   94.4                                 27.8
     Coco-coir                                       88.9                                 29.5
     Sawdust                                         92.1                                 29.4
 CV ( %)                                             6.6                                  9.6
 Kauayan tinik1                                       ns                                   ns
     Sphagnum moss                                   83.8                                 74.5
     Coco-coir                                       83.6                                 65.5
     Sawdust                                         75.8                                 62.4
 CV (%)                                              16.7                                 13.7
 Machiku2                                             ns                                   ns
     Sphagnum moss                                   77.8                                 57.1
     Coco-coir                                       66.7                                 44.4
     Sawdust                                         75.8                                 49.6
 CV (%)                                              62.9                                 17.9
 Giant Bamboo1                                        ns                                   ns
     Sphagnum moss                                   88.6                                 82.5
     Coco-coir                                       75.6                                 88.1
     Sawdust                                         86.3                                 81.7
 CV (%)                                              12.2                                 19.8

** - significant at 0.01 level       ns - not significant                  Marcotted in Batac, Ilocos Norte
                                                                         1

* - significant at 0.05 level        CV - coefficient of variation         Marcotted in Claveria, Cagayan
                                                                         2


   In a column and within the same species, means marked with a common letter do not differ significantly at
0.05 level using DMRT.




 56
                                                           Branch marcotting propagation of bamboo species

conditions in the nursery. These further             less than two shoots per clump, while giant
indicate that the rooting medium used is no          bamboo produced more than two per clump.
longer a factor in the growth of the marcotted       For machiku, only the propagules marcotted
branches of bayog, kauayan tinik, machiku, and       using sphagnum moss produced shoots at 1.3
giant bamboo in the nursery.                         per clump.
     On the other hand, the rooting media used            The non-significant results indicate that
affected the height increment of the rooted          the growth performance of the five bamboo
marcots of Buddha. Buddha propagules                 species in the field is no longer influenced by
marcotted with the use of sphagnum moss and          the different potting media used.
coco-coir had comparable height increments
(37.7 and 38.9 cm, respectively), and were           Cost Analysis
significantly higher than the height increment
of the propagules marcotted with sawdust                  The estimated cost of production, gross
(26.0 cm) [Table 2]. This might be due to            income, and net return in producing 1,000
earlier and faster development of roots of           propagules of the five bamboo species using
the propagules treated with sphagnum moss            sphagnum moss, coco-coir, and sawdust as
and coco-coir, which ultimately contributed          rooting media are presented in Table 4. The
to the faster growth of the propagules in the        use of sphagnum moss as rooting medium for
nursery.                                             marcotting Buddha, bayog, and kauayan tinik
                                                     branches incurred the lowest cost (P14,814,
Performance of Marcotted                             P18,155 and P20,188, respectively), which
Branches In the Field                                eventually gave the highest net return of
                                                     P19,266, P19,845 and P15,372, respectively.
     The outplanted propagules of the five            The derived net incomes using coco-coir and
bamboo species had 100 percent survival rate         sawdust were lower by P322.00 and P300.00
throughout the five-month observation period.         for Buddha; P6,399.00 and P8,466.00, for
This implies that the marcotted branches             bayog; and P1,173.00 and P1,747.00, for kauayan
could attain good survival regardless of the         tinik.
rooting medium used. The effects of rooting               For giant bamboo, the use of sawdust as
media on culm height increment, number of            rooting medium had the lowest expenditure
shoots developed, and diameter and height of         of P2,120.00. The net income derived from
shoots of the five bamboo species under field          the use of sawdust was P41,800.00, which was
condition were not significant (Table 3). Five        higher than sphagnum moss (11,720.00) and
months after outplanting, the height increment       coco-coir (37,851.00).
of the species ranged from 15.5 - 17.4 cm for             For machiku, only the use of sphagnum
Buddha; 19.1 - 25.3 cm, for bayog; 9.7 - 13.6        moss as rooting medium resulted to a positive
cm, for kauayan tinik; 1.8 - 2.4 cm, for machiku;    net return (P7,912.00 per 1000 propagules).
and 29.1 - 32.8 cm for the giant bamboo              The use of coco-coir and sawdust yielded
propagules. Culm diameter (cm), on the other         negative net returns due to the very low
hand, ranged from 0.04 - 0.05 for Buddha; 0.1        survival rates of the marcotted branches in the
- 0.03, for bayog; 0.08 - 0.10, for kauayan tinik;   nursery. Thus, more inputs are required and
0.08 - 0.09 for machiku; and 0.09 - 0.12 cm,         more culms should be marcotted in order to
giant bamboo. The outplanted propagules              produce 1000 plantable propagules.
of Buddha, bayog, and kauayan tinik produced

                                                                                                    57
CL Samsam, et al

Table 3. Growth performance of the rooted marcots of the five bamboo species five months
         after outplanting in the field as affected by three rooting media.

    BAMBOO                                                                       HEIGHT
                         HEIGHT         CULM
    SPECIES/                                           NO. OF          DIAMETER     OF
                       INCREMENT      DIAMETER
    ROOTING                                           SHOOTS           OF SHOOTS SHOOTS
                           (cm)          (cm)
    MEDIUM                                                                         (cm)
 Buddha1                         ns       ns               ns                ns       ns
  Sphagnum moss                17.4     0.05              1.3              0.73    147.7
  Coco-coir                    15.5     0.04              1.2              0.80    136.2
  Sawdust                      15.8     0.04              1.0              0.74    145.7
  CV (%)                       7.93     9.32             12.6             22.02     17.1
 Bayog1                          ns       ns               ns                ns       ns
  Sphagnum moss                25.3     0.03              1.2              1.03    195.4
  Coco-coir                    19.1     0.01              1.1              0.85    182.0
  Sawdust                      19.2     0.01              1.2              0.90    168.0
  CV (%)                       28.7    26.35             13.9             15.20     19.6
 Kauayan Tinik1                  ns       ns               ns                ns       ns
  Sphagnum moss                13.6     0.10              1.3              0.90    156.1
  Coco-coir                    11.2     0.08              1.4              0.87    151.3
  Sawdust                       9.7     0.09              1.2              0.90    122.4
  CV (%)                       16.3     3.93             23.4             35.53     30.3
 Machiku2                        ns       ns
  Sphagnum moss                 2.4     0.09              1.3               0.33    33.0
  Coco-coir                     2.0     0.09                0                  0       0
  Sawdust                       1.8     0.08                0                  0       0
  CV (%)                       20.0    12.01
 Giant Bamboo1                   ns       ns               ns                 ns      ns
  Sphagnum moss                32.8     0.12              2.7               1.25   266.4
  Coco-coir                    29.1     0.09              2.4               1.16   220.7
  Sawdust                      29.2     0.11              2.2               1.19   227.1
  CV (%)                       17.4    24.05             29.8               2.28    14.7
ns - not significant                      Marcotted in Batac, Ilocos Norte
                                         1

CV - coefficient of variation             Marcotted in Claveria, Cagayan
                                         2




58
                                                                Branch marcotting propagation of bamboo species

Table 4. Cost and return of producing 1000 marcotted propagules of five bamboo species
         using sphagnum moss, coco-coir and sawdust.

    BAMBOO SPECIES/           GROSS INCOME3                  EXPENSES4                 NET INCOME
    ROOTING MEDIUM                  (P)                         (P)                         (P)
    Buddha1
     Sphagnum moss                  34,080.00                  14,814.00                   19,266.00
     Coco-coir                      34,300.00                  15,356.00                   18,944.00
     Sawdust                        34,280.00                  15,314.00                   18,966.00
    Bayog1
     Sphagnum moss                  35,999.00                  18,155.00                   19,845.00
     Coco-coir                      36,640.00                  23,734.00                   12,906.00
     Sawdust                        37,240.00                  25,881.00                   11,359.00
    Kauayan Tinik1
     Sphagnum moss                  35,560.00                  20,288.00                   15,372.00
     Coco-coir                      35,360.00                  21,161.00                   14,199.00
     Sawdust                        36,360.00                  22,735.00                   13,625.00
    Machiku2
     Sphagnum moss                 150,000.00                 142,088.00                    7,912.00
     Coco-coir                     150,000.00                 215,041.00                   -65,041.00
     Sawdust                       150,000.00                 285,000.00                  -135,980.00
    Giant Bamboo1
     Sphagnum moss                 115,690.00                 85,880.00                    30,080.00
     Coco-coir                     119,800.00                 115,851.00                   3,946.00
     Sawdust                       113,920.00                 72,120.00                    41,800.00
1
 Marcotted in Batac, Ilocos Norte
1
 Marcotted in Claveria, Cagayan
1
 Gross income includes the sale of the culm at P20/culm after separating the rooted marcots
1
 The expenses include cost of materials, labor and in procuring bamboo culms which are as follows: Buddha,
    Bayog and Kauayan tinik = P40.00; Machiku = P50.00; Giant Bamboo = P60.00

Selling price per marcotted propagule: Buddha, Bayog and Kauayan tinik = P30.00; Machiku = P150.00;
                                       Giant Bamboo = P100.00




                                                                                                         59
CL Samsam, et al

                       CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
     Based on the results of the study, the         suitable because the rooting percentage is
following conclusions are made:                     very low.

a) Marcotting can be used as an alternative           Marcotting is therefore recommended as
    method in the mass propagation of Buddha,    an alternative method in the propagation of
    bayog, and kauayan tinik propagules;         Buddha, bayog, and kauayan tinik. Sphagnum
b) Sphagnum moss, coco-coir, and sawdust can     moss should be used as rooting media
    be used as rooting media in the marcotting   for Buddha, bayog , and kauayan tinik in
    of these species, provided moisture is       order to maximize net return. It is further
    sufficiently available during and after the   recommended that marcotting activity should
    marcotting period;                           be done at the start of the rainy season to
c) The use of sphagnum moss is the most          ensure faster initiation and development of
    appropriate and economical material for      roots and eventually reduce the amount of
    marcotting Buddha, bayog, and kauayan        labor required in maintaining the required
    tinik branches;                              moisture level in the rooting medium. Lastly,
d) Propagation of machiku and giant bamboo       other propagation method for machiku and
    by marcotting using sphagnum moss,           giant bamboo must be studied such as the
    coco-coir or sawdust is practically not      tissue culture and shoot offset methods.


                                        REFERENCES
GONZALES, L. L., A. A. PIÑOL and R.              UCHIMURA, E. 1978. Ecological studies on
  D. UMALI. 1990. Notes on bamboo                  the cultivation of bamboo forest in the
  management and research in China and             Philippines. Cooperative Research Program
  Japan. Canopy International 21:12.               of Forest Products Research and Industries
                                                   Department Commission of the Philippines
HARTMAN, H. T. and E. KESTER. 1975.                and Tropical Agriculture Research Center
  Plant Propagation Principles and Practices.      of Japan. 57 p.
  3rd Edition. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood
  Cliffs, New Jersey. 457 p.




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