Swine Brucellosis by decree


									                BROCHURE Swine Brucellosis
               Texas Animal Health Commission
Box l2966 •Austin, Texas 78711 •(800) 550-8242 • FAX (512) 719-0719
             Linda Logan, DVM, PhD, Executive Director

                                            eradication program has three stages.
  Swine Brucellosis                         Texas is in Stage 2, meaning infection
  Brucellosis in swine is caused by         has been detected within the past two
  Brucella suis, a bacteria that is dif-    years. To achieve Stage 3, a state can
  ferent, but related to, the one that      find no more than one brucellosis-
  causes brucellosis in cattle.             infected herd during a two-year period.
                                            As of early l999, Texas continues to de-
  Swine infected by the disease can de-     tect infected herds, and surveillance
  velop a number of signs, or they may      remains active.
  appear healthy, making laboratory
  tests an important diagnostic tool. In-       Infection Detection
  fection may move through the herd
  quickly, so it’s important to handle      In Texas, a "surveillance program" is
  swine brucellosis as a “herd disease.”    used to help find infection. At the
                                                               slaughter plant, blood
  Boars can shed                                               samples for disease
  the bacteria in                                              testing are collected
  their semen, so                                              from mature sows and
  it’s possible for                                            boars that can be
  disease to be                                               traced back to their
  transmitted                                                 herd of origin.
  during service.
  Infected swine of                                          To bring the Texas
  both sexes may                                             surveillance effort
  experience                                                 into compliance
  short-term or                                              with national
  permanent                                                  program standards,
  sterility. Infected                                        livestock market
  sows may abort or give birth to weak      surveillance was initiated on October
  piglets. In some cases, infection may     1, 1998, for swine six months of age
  cause lameness.                           and older that are used, or intended
  Historically, most of Texas’ infected     to be used for breeding purposes.
  swine herds have been in wastefood-
                                            During the cooler months--October
  feeding complexes in the Dallas/Fort
                                            through April--a market veterinarian or
  Worth area. Although complexes tra-
                                            a TAHC field staff representative draws
  ditionally involve many owners, from a
                                            a blood sample that is forwarded to the
  disease and regulatory standpoint, the
                                            state-federal laboratory for swine
  entire complex is considered as ONE
                                            brucellosis and pseudorabies tests.
           National                         After sample collection, cull breeding
   Swine Brucellosis Program                swine may be moved to slaughter.
                                            Non-slaughter breeding swine are
  The U. S. Department of Agriculture’s     permitted to their new premise under
  (USDA) national swine brucellosis         a TAHC-issued hold order.
Restrictions are released as soon as      Validation offers
negative test results are known.          several advantages:

To prevent undue heat stress on the         • animals can be
                                               moved with fewer
breeding swine, sampling at the
livestock markets is optional during           restrictions,
the warmer months, May through              • the stock is often
September.                                     considered to be
                                              more valuable,
Untested breeding swine are to be           • concerns about
moved to their new premise only                disease in breeding
under a hold order issued by the               animals are greatly
TAHC. Within 15 days after their               reduced.
arrival at the new site, the owner must   To begin the herd validation process, a
arrange to have an accredited private     producer signs an agreement with the
practitioner draw blood samples from      TAHC. (Record keeping and agree-
the animals for testing. The hold order   ments are provided by the TAHC at no
is released when the negative test        cost.)
results are known.
                                          To obtain an agreement for review,
  Infection Eradication                   make a free call to your TAHC area
                                          office or to the Austin headquarters at
When infection is detected, TAHC field    1-800-550-8242.
staff collects blood samples from the
                                          The collection of blood samples for
herd of origin and quarantines the
                                          validation testing is at owner’s cost
herd, if additional infection is found.   and must be conducted by an
Owners of infected herds will have a      accredited private practitioner. To
state or federal veterinarian             achieve or renew the validation all
assigned to work with them to develop     test results must be negative. The
a "herd plan" for getting rid of the      owner can select from one of three
disease.                                  testing schedules.
USDA funds have been made availa-         1. Every 10 to 12 months, test all sex-
ble for depopulation, making it easi-     ually intact swine six months of age or
er for an owner to sell out the infect-   older in the herd. For re-validation,
ed herd and start fresh with healthy      retest eligible animals every 10 to 12
stock. A state or federal veterinari-     months.
an can explain the depopulation op-       2. Incremental testing: Every 80 to
portunity in detail.                      105 days, test 25 percent of the herd's
                                          sexually intact swine that are six
Swine: Validated Brucellosis-Free         months of age or older. During the
A number of pro-                                           12-month validation
ducers don’t de-                                           period, all eligible ani-
pend on luck to                                            mals must be tested.
keep their herds
healthy. Their                                              3. Incremental testing:
stock undergoes                                             Every 25 to 35 days,
regular testing                                             test 10 percent of
and is validated                                            herd's sexually intact
disease-free by the                                         swine ages six months
TAHC.                                                       or older.
Each eligible animal in the herd must be
tested once during the 10-months test-
ing period.

   Brucellosis Can Affect
       Humans, Too!
Brucellosis bacteria can affect humans,
causing serious illness. That’s why it’s
so important to take precautions and to
recognize the signs of human infection.
In humans, brucellosis is called "undu-
lant fever" and this was a fairly common      gloves or throw them away. The same
ailment years ago. The name “undulant         goes for face masks and goggles or
fever” comes from the chills and fever        glasses, too.
that come and go--or undulate--
throughout a 24-hour period. Other            If a sow aborts, destroy fetuses by burn-
typical symptoms include fatigue, body        ing or burial. This will kill bacteria and
aches, headaches, weight loss or flu-like     prevent it from spreading to the other
malaise.                                      swine in the complex--or to you.
Disease transmission to humans
                                              Practice good hygiene after working with
If your swine herd has brucellosis, you       your herd. Wash your hands with an
may contract the disease by handling          antibacterial soap and change and wash
the newborn offspring or aborted fetuses      soiled clothing. This will help stop the
of infected sows. When an infected sow        spread of the brucellosis bacteria--or
delivers or aborts, the piglets are covered   any other "germs" your swine may have!
with millions of the brucellosis bacteria.
Wear plastic or rubber gloves when                  Diagnosing and treating
handling piglets or fetuses to prevent                 "undulant fever"
bacteria from entering your skin through
a scratch or cut.                             Laboratory tests can be run on blood
                                              samples collected from persons who
The bacteria can also be present in the       may have caught the disease. The tests
blood or abscesses of infected swine.         are similar to those used to diagnose
Protect yourself when slaughtering and        infection in cattle and swine!
processing swine. Cover your mouth and
                       nose with a simple     If you or your family suffer symptoms
                       dust mask to pro-      that may be suggestive of brucellosis, or
                       tect against           "undulant fever," tell your doctor if
                       breathing airborne     you’ve been handling livestock. The
                       blood particles.       earlier the infection is diagnosed, the
                       Safety goggles will    easier recovery can be achieved through
                       keep fluids out of     proper medication and rest.
                       your eyes, and
                       gloves will protect    Doctors usually prescribe a series of
                       any cuts or            specific antibiotics for several weeks to
                       scratches on your      fight off the brucellosis bacteria.
                                              Never treat yourself if you suspect
                       When you've            you’ve been infected! Physician care
                       finished a chore,      is crucial to prevent long-term health
                       disinfect the          problems!

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