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									                              Self-Test Questions
This link provides sample test questions for each chapter. (You can find the answers
at the end of the file, after the questions for Chapter 41.)

These are aimed at helping you organize your knowledge in a more formal, content-
oriented way. For questions that help you analyze and synthesize your knowledge, go
to the Study Questions section.

                          Chapter 1: What is Myth?
1. __________ insights in myth help explain the origin or cause of a custom or a fact
   of the physical universe.

2. The Trojan War began because Paris, a Trojan, kidnapped __________, a Greek

3. In a futile attempt to protect her son __________ from death in the Trojan War,
   Thetis had Hephaistos make him a set of armor.

4. All the while Odysseus was trying to get home from the Trojan War, his wife
   __________ had to fight off young men who wanted to marry her to take over
   Odysseus’ kingdom.

5. __________ is a Greek word whose root words give it the sense of the pain you
   feel in trying to achieve a homecoming.

6. __________ insights from myths deal with the struggles of individuals to become
   useful members of society.

                 Chapter 2: Ways of Understanding Myth
1. Extensive repetition of words and phrases is a characteristic of __________

2. Ancient master storytellers would provide long lists of __________ to
   demonstrate their knowledge and virtuosity.

3. In __________ storytelling, the audience does not expect temporal or logical
   connections between incidents.
4. __________ storytelling provides connections between the incidents in the story.

5. In his Ages of Man, __________ provides stories about the origin of the human

6. Each story in Ovid’s __________ describes or refers to a shape change.

7. __________, which occurs often in myths, is the process of making something
   more logical or reasonable, usually by adding a made-up reason.

                     Chapter 3: Greek Creation Stories
1. Hesiod’s two great poems are __________ and __________.

2. Hesiod’s __________ describes how the world was made.

3. The Greek word ―__________‖ means ―gap‖ or ―space,‖ not ―disorder.‖

4. Hesiod explains how Ournos (Heaven) turns against the children he fathered with
   __________ (Earth).

5. Kronos is the son who overpowers his father, __________.

6. __________ is the son who overpowers his father, Kronos.

7. __________ is the son of Rhea and Kronos.

8. The Greek gods live on Mt. __________.

9. __________ was born from the head of her father, __________.

10. Hephaistus created __________ by mixing clay with water.

                     Chapter 4: Ovid’s Creation Story
1. __________’s story of creation is a serious work that deals with the underlying
   principles that govern the universe and the underlying moral principles for human

2. On the other hand, __________’s story of creation aims to amuse and delight the
3. To the ancient Greeks, __________ was considered a part of philosophy.

4. For Ovid, the first age of man was an age of __________.

5. __________ is the Roman god equivalent of the Greek Zeus.

                    Chapter 5: Biblical Creation Stories
1. __________ is the traditional author of Genesis.

2. Biblical scholars have identified three different authors: the __________, the
   __________, and the __________.

3. The Jehovist or Yahwist writer is so called because he used the word
   ―__________‖ for God.

4. The Priestly writer used the word ―__________‖ to refer to God.

5. The Priestly account of creation begins with the creation of __________.

6. The J-E (Jehovist-Elohist) account of creation begins with the creation of

7. The only rule that God gave to Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden was not to
   eat of the tree of __________.

              Chapter 6: The Prose Edda’s Creation Stories
1. Snorri Sturluson, the author of the Prose Edda, lived in __________.

2. The Prose Edda can be characterized as __________ because one version of a
   story often follows directly upon another, without much logical connection.

3. In the Prose Edda are six versions of the story of __________.

4. The Prologue of the Prose Edda begins with a summary of the story of creation in

5. Snorri explains that the Æsir originated in __________.

6. __________ is the name that King Gylfi used when he visited Asgard.
7. ―All-Father‖ is another name for __________.

8. High One tells Gylfi that in the beginning there was only __________, the Void.

9. Third tells Gylfi that __________ was the first world to exist.

10. In the fifth account of creation in the Prose Edda, the world is made from
    __________’s body.

               Chapter 7: Native American Creation Stories
                  from the Southwestern United States
1. The Zuni call their ancestors __________, meaning ―the Old Ones.‖

2. In the Zuni emergence myth that we read, __________ lead the people out of the
   dark world, up into the world of light.

3. In the Zuni emergence myth that we read, __________ are made of aspen, pine,
   spruce, and silver spruce.

4. Until the brothers cut them off, the people still have __________ and __________
   in the fourth world.

5. In the Zuni emergence myth that we read, __________ helps the people find
   ―where the middle is.‖

6. In the Hopi Creation Story, we learn that a __________ is an opening that allows
   passage from one world to another.

7. In the Hopi Creation Story, the clans used the ritual of __________ to decide
   where they should settle.

8. In the Navajo Creation Story, the __________ People were expelled from their
   original world because they broke the laws of society.

9. In the Navajo Creation Story, these people were punished by a __________.

10. In the Navajo Creation Story, humans are created from __________ and given life
    by the __________.
                    Chapter 8: African Creation Stories
1. For the Dogon people of Mali, __________ is the egg-shaped god of creation.

2. The Bambara people of Mali tell of the creation spirit, __________, who gives
   birth to other creation spirits.

3. For the Dahomy people of Benin, creation arises from the androgynous spirit

4. __________ is the ancient Egyptian originator of creation.

5. __________ was the first king of Uganda, whose story has become interwoven
   with the legendary figure involved with the creation of the world.

6. In the Bura myth ―The Origin of Death,‖ a __________ is sent by the sky god to
   tell the people how to banish death.

7. In the Bura myth, the people do not believe this message from the sky god
   because Agadzagadza, a __________, gets to them first with a bogus story.

8. In the Ugandan creation stories that we read, Nambi and her sister are the
   daughters of __________, the sky god.

9. In the Ugandan creation stories that we read, __________ is the first man.

                             Chapter 9: Ragnarok
1. In Icelandic myth, the final battle of the gods is called __________.

2. In this battle, __________ is devoured by Fenrir.

3. __________ is the name of the rainbow bridge connecting heaven and earth.

4. At the end of the world, Surt’s army will come from __________ and burn the

5. ―Odin speaks with __________’s head‖ refers to the fact that he consults the head
   of a wise slain leader, which is kept at the spring of wisdom.

6. At the end of the world, Modi and Magni, sons of __________, will inherit his
   hammer, which is called __________.

7. As the world burns, two human beings are hidden in __________, waiting to start
   a new race.
                     Chapter 10: Biblical Flood Stories
1. In Genesis, only __________ and his family escape the flood.

2. The story of __________ in the Mesopotamian tradition and the __________
   Creation Story in the Native American tradition also contain flood narratives.

3. The __________ in the Genesis flood story shows God’s love for human beings.

4. Genesis refers to the __________, the mighty ones, who existed before the flood.
   Their presence shows that this was a time of violence and impiety.

5. __________ gave Noah specific directions for how to build the ark.

6. After the flood subsided, the first thing Noah did was to __________.

7. The physical sign of God’s covenant with humans is the __________.

8. We read in Genesis that after the flood, Noah became the first __________.

                       Chapter 11: Ovid’s Flood Story
1. Ovid’s flood story is contained in his work called __________.

2. In Ovid’s account of the flood, the sole survivors are __________ and his wife,

3. In his flood story, Ovid reports that __________, the chief Roman god, orders the

4. Ovid’s flood occurs during the __________ Age of Man.

5. Jupiter’s (Jove’s) lightning bolts were forged by __________.

6. __________ was the Roman god of the winds.

7. The Roman god __________ causes the storm that results in the flood.

8. In Ovid’s flood story, Deucalion is the son of __________, and Pyrrha is the
   daughter of __________.
              Chapter 12: The Hero with a Thousand Faces
1. __________ believed that psychologists need to focus on the male aspects of
   every human being’s nature.

2. __________ believed that psychologists need to focus on the female aspects of
   every human being’s nature.

3. Joseph Campbell synthesizes and expands on Rank and Jung to investigate what it
   is to be human through his analysis of the journey or adventure of the

4. Rank and Jung were both students of __________.

5. Like Jung, Campbell suggests that myth is the result of a __________
   unconsciousness of human beings.

6. Campbell believes that the mythological adventure of the hero is related to
   initiation rituals called rites of __________.

7. According to Campbell, the hero’s journey begins with __________ from his
   external world to the internal world.

8. When the hero faces the challenge to which he is called, he sometimes needs and
   receives special help, which Campbell calls __________.

9. __________ is Campbell’s term to describe how the hero achieves understanding
   as a result of the quest.

10. For Campbell, the hero’s __________ gives him the opportunity to apply his new
    understanding of the world.

                     Chapter 13: The Epic of Gilgamesh
1. The story of Gilgamesh originated in the area called __________.

2. The story was found written in __________ on clay tablets.

3. __________ guards the Cedar Forest.

4. Gilgamesh despairs when he realizes he cannot save __________’s life.

5. Gilgamesh is part human and part god: his mother is the goddess __________.

6. Gilgamesh is king of __________, a walled city.
7. __________ is the Mesopotamian sky god, whose Greek counterpart is Zeus.

8. __________ is the wise man who is described as the only man to whom ―the gods
   gave everlasting life.‖

9. As __________ tells how the gods directed him to build a boat to escape the
   flood, we realize that he is a counterpart of Noah in Genesis.

10. A __________ snatches away the plant of life from Gilgamesh as he bathes.

                 Chapter 14: A Levi-Straussian Analysis of
                          the Epic of Gilgamesh
1. Claude Levi-Strauss’ profession was __________.

2. In his analysis of the Epic of Gilgamesh, J. S. Kirk identifies __________ with
   culture and __________ with nature.

3. Levi-Strauss calls the relationship of words to each other in phrases, sentences,
   and paragraphs a __________ relationship.

4. According to this structure, words that can be substituted or plugged into any
   specific part of a sentence have a __________ relationship.

5. Kirk notes that for Levi-Strauss, __________ is a form of communication among
   contemporaries or across generations. Its purpose is ―to provide a logical model
   capable of overcoming contradiction.‖

6. The two principal versions of the Gilgamesh are written in __________ and

7. Each of these versions portrays a different type of relationship between
   __________ and __________.

8. Because his analysis is based on Levi-Strauss, Kirk’s discussion emphasizes the
   importance of the __________ opposition in the actions of Gilgamesh and

9. Ultimately, after trying to avoid it himself and spare others from it, Gilgamesh
   resigns himself to __________.
                          Chapter 15: The Ramayana
1. __________ is the Hindu principle that deals with correct behavior.

2. __________ is the most important, supreme Hindu god.

3. __________ is the Hindu god of destruction, represented by his bow.

4. Rama and his brothers, sons of King Dasaratha, are incarnations of __________.

5. Rama’s home and place of veneration today is __________.

6. Rama’s brother __________ is noted for being most faithful and therefore
   exhibiting __________ most positively.

7. __________ is the term meaning to represent a thing or person by using a word or
   object closely identified with them, such as Rama’s shoes during his exile.

8. __________ is the monkey-king who helps Rama and Lakshmana find Sita.

9. Sita was abducted and held by __________.

10. When __________ visits the captive Sita, she gives him a jewel as proof he has
    seen her.

                    Chapter 16: Heroes in the Prose Edda
1. Third tells Gangleri ―__________ is the highest and oldest of the gods.‖

2. Odin sends all who die as warriors to __________.

3. __________ was killed when a piece of mistletoe was thrown at him.

4. __________, known for his courage, had his hand bitten off by Fenrir.

5. Fenrir is a __________.

6. The __________ are Odin’s servants who go out to the battlefield to choose slain
   warriors to bring to Valhalla.

7. In the contest in which Thor cannot lift a cat, the cat is actually the __________.

8. In the contest in which Thor cannot successfully wrestle the old woman, she is
   actually __________.
9. In the contest in which Thor cannot completely drain the drinking horn, it is
   because the horn is attached to the __________.

10. Hermod goes to __________ in his attempt to rescue Baldr.

                         Chapter 17: Oedipus the King
1. Oedipus the King was written by the Greek dramatist __________.

2. In ancient Greek plays, a principal role of the __________ was to support the
   main character.

3. __________ is Oedipus’ mother.

4. __________ is Oedipus’ father.

5. Oedipus was raised by __________.

6. At the beginning of the play, __________ is ravaged by a plague, and people are
   looking to Oedipus to help them.

7. The fact that Oedipus does not know he is the murderer (until the last scenes) and
   the audience does know the truth is called dramatic __________.

8. Kreon is Jocasta’s __________.

9. Because of his wisdom, __________ is called in to help solve the mystery.

10. __________ is the isolated place where Oedipus was to be left to die as an infant.

11. At the end of the play, the blind Oedipus is led off by his __________.

                 Chapter 18: The Structural Study of Myth
1. For Levi-Strauss, to understand a myth, one must include all __________ in the

2. Levi-Strauss sees myths as a form of __________.

3. For Levi-Strauss, the fact that Oedipus kills his father is an example of the
   __________ of blood relationships.
4. For Levi-Strauss, the fact that Oedipus marries his mother is an example of the
   __________ of blood relationships.

5. Because the Spartoi were born from the earth, not a mother and father, Levi-
   Strauss classifies them as __________ beings.

6. Levi-Strauss notes that the Zuni emergence myth essentially represents a
   __________ mediation.

7. In Greek mythology, Zeus, in the form of a __________, carries off Europa.

8. In Greek mythology, Theseus kills the __________ and elopes with Ariadne.

9. Perseus, the founder of Mycenae, is a son of __________ and the human Danae.

10. Eteocles and Polyneices are Oedipus’ __________ and also his __________.

            Chapter 19: Raven: A Native American Trickster
1. Because he is a trickster deity, Raven can be seen as a counterpart to the Greek
   trickster god __________.

2. Because tricksters can bring much good to their own kind, they are also called
   __________ heroes.

3. Raven let the stars, moon, and daylight escape from the lightkeeper’s bags so they
   could illuminate the earth. This is an example of Joseph Campbell’s __________
   function of myth.

4. Raven steals water for his world from __________.

5. In the Tlingit stories, the first of all beings was __________.

6. In the Tlingit stories, __________ made people.

7. The story of Nas-ca’ki-yel tells how humans die because they are like
   __________ rather than like rocks.

8. As Raven flies along on his creation journey, he spits out drops of water that
   become __________ and grains of sand that become __________.

9. Like Prometheus in Greek mythology, Raven also brings __________ to his
                         Chapter 20: The Mwindo Epic
1. The Mwindo epic comes from the __________ people of central Africa.

2. __________ is Mwindo’s father.

3. __________ is Mwindo’s mother.

4. The water serpent __________ comes to Tubondo to ask Iangura to marry him.

5. Iangura is Mwindo’s __________.

6. Mwindo is recognized as special because he was born with a __________ in his
   right hand.

7. Mwindo’s father tries to get rid of him by sealing him in a __________ and
   throwing it into the water.

8. __________ is an ally of Shemwindo who tries many times to kill Mwindo after
   he escapes from the drum.

9. __________ is the god of lightning who attacks Mwindo.

10. In Nyanga myths, __________ is the god of the underworld.

11. Mwindo carries a magic __________ that he uses to communicate with Iangura.

12. Mwindo’s three tasks during his pursuit of his father are: cultivating bananas,
    gathering honey, and __________.

13. __________ is the name of the Nyanga creator god.

14. When Kirimu, the __________, tried to eat Mwindo, Mwindo beat him to death
    with his scepter.

     Chapter 21: African and African-American Trickster Stories
1. In Africa and America, __________ tales are very often a response to scarcity and

2. Trickster tales derive from a tradition based on __________ storytelling.

3. In the story told in St. Vincent, the teller gets people’s attention by shouting
   ―__________,‖ meaning ―Look here!‖.
4. The story ―Why the Hare Runs Away‖ gives an __________ explanation of the
   world and can therefore be classified as a How and Why Tale.

5. In a trickster story, a __________ is a character who falls prey to the trickery.

6. The element in ―Why the Hare Runs Away‖ in which the hare gets stuck while
   hitting the bird-limed image is known as the __________ motif.

7. In ―The Ant’s Burden,‖ Anansi’s punishment for killing the king’s jester is to
   carry his __________ on his head forever.

8. In ―Why They Name the Stories for Anansi,‖ Master King agrees to his proposal
   because Anansi has succeeded in tricking __________.

9. Because the scenes of ―Tricking All the Kings‖ shift from plantation to the sea to
   the jungle, Massa King is first represented as a __________, then as a

10. ―A Boarhog for a Husband‖ can be considered an __________ story because of
    what Old Witch Boy finds out about his sister’s husband.

              Chapter 22: Prometheus: The Greek Trickster
1. Prometheus became a culture hero because he stole __________ from the gods
   and gave it to humans.

2. Because he stole from the gods, Prometheus is not only a culture hero, but also a
   __________ hero

3. A trickster is a __________ creature because he lives on the threshold between
   two worlds.

4. __________ is the god that Prometheus tricks.

5. In his Prometheus story in Theogony, __________ presents a rather negative
   portrait of Prometheus.

6. Prometheus is the son of __________.

7. Prometheus’ first trick against Zeus was giving him the __________ of the
   sacrificed ox.

8. As punishment, Zeus commands that Prometheus be __________.

9. Prometheus Bound is a drama written by the Greek __________.
10. __________ rescues Prometheus.

11. __________ is the Titan god who holds up the universe on his shoulders.

12. Aeschylus raises __________ as the founder of ―all ages of man.‖

                   Chapter 23: Looking Back at Heroes:
                    The Different Versions of a Myth
1. Oedipus the King by Sophocles is an example of a __________ version of a myth.

2. A __________ version of a myth is one that is reworked by an individual who
   wishes to express personal perspectives or experiences.

3. A __________ version of a myth is one that has been influenced by scholars and
   is used to draw inferences about people and societies.

4. A __________ version of a myth is one that has become associated with a
   particular ritual or ceremony in a society.

5. __________ is a literary device that is used to convey the opposite of what is
   actually being said.

6. The name ―Oedipus‖ is Greek for __________.

7. For Sophocles’ contemporaries, the pessimism of the times led them, like
   Oedipus, to rely on __________.

8. __________, a Roman dramatist in the first century C.E., wrote an Oedipus drama
   in Latin.

9. Otto Rank saw the Oedipus story as an expression of the __________, a concept
   that he defined and supported.

10. Claude Levi-Strauss believed that myth is a kind of language, and the
    __________ of myths are the events that take place in a story.

11. __________ is an example of a myth still being told by the members of the
    society that created it.

12. Many working versions of myths are evident in a society because they are
    connected with a __________ or religious ritual.
                                Chapter 24: Ritual
1. Victor Turner defines __________ as ―a stereotypical sequence of activities
   involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and
   designed to influence preternatural entities or forces on behalf of the actors’ goals
   and interests.‖

2. For Turner, ritual is a symbolic __________.

3. The __________ dimension of ritual is the way an insider explains it to someone
   outside the ritual.

4. The __________ dimension of ritual is the way an anthropologist records what is
   done and who participates in it.

5. The __________ dimension of ritual is the way an anthropologist describes
   connections between the symbols in a ritual with others found in the culture.

6. A __________ ritual honors a culturally defined moment of change, such as
   planting or harvesting, or the inauguration of an activity.

7. Turner says that __________ rituals are those ―held in response to an individual
   or collective crisis.‖

8. In __________, the candidates are first separated from the society, then live at the
   margins secluded from the group, and finally return to the group.

9. __________ and costumes are important in rituals, especially during the liminal
   phase, because of their symbolic power.

10. Turner’s concept of __________ cannot be applied to our modern, diverse society
    as effectively as to traditional societies.

11. Turner explains how __________ is important to societies because it is liminal—
    occurring between the structural, occupational, familial, or civic activities
    required of members of the group.

12. Leisure activities like art, sport, and hobbies are __________, rather than liminal,
    because each is practiced only by some segments of the society.

                   Chapter 25: Demeter and Persephone:
                      The Homeric Hymn to Demeter
1. Demeter’s major shrine was at __________ in Greece.
2. In the Hymn to Demeter, __________ is the season when the fields were
   becoming green.

3. The ceremonies at Eleusis at which the Hymn to Demeter was read were called
   the __________ because they involved practices known only to the cult members.

4. In religious belief, the Greeks of Homer’s time tended to be __________, because
   they believed that a soul and body are really only one inseparable substance.

5. Because it suggests that the soul is saved through the knowledge obtained by
   experiencing the mysteries, the myth of Demeter can be characterized as

6. __________ is a form of gnosticism that maintains that life on earth is only a
   shadow of real, divine life.

7. __________ is Demeter’s daughter.

8. ―Slender-ankled‖ is an example of an epithet, a poetic device often used by
   __________, whose style dominated the Hymn to Demeter.

9. Persephone is abducted by __________, also known as Hades.

                          Chapter 26: Isis and Osiris
1. Before spreading to the Graeco-Roman world, the myth of Isis and Osiris
   originated in __________.

2. The cult of Isis shares characteristics with that of __________ because it involved
   an elaborate initiation ceremony into secret mysteries.

3. __________, who represents the setting sun, was a sun god of Heliopolis in
   Lower Egypt.

4. __________ was an Egyptian mother goddess who was represented with the
   attributes of a cow.

5. __________ was an Egyptian sky god with a falcon shape.

6. __________ was the Egyptian god who conducted the final judgment of the dead
   before Osiris.

7. Osiris’ return from the dead may have provided the rationale for the Egyptians’
   practice of __________ the bodies of the dead.
8. The __________ Stone contains an Egyptian creation story.

9. The oldest texts available as sources for Egyptian mythology are called The
   __________ Texts and The __________ Texts.

10. The mother of Osiris is __________.

11. __________, Osiris’ brother, is the cause of death in the world.

12. __________ was a Greek poet who wrote a version of the Isis and Osiris story
    that mixes Egyptian gods with the Greek.

13. In Plutarch’s story, __________ cuts up the body of Osiris, making Isis’ search
    much more difficult.

14. A Roman ritual of Isis is described in __________, a work by Apuleius.

                     Chapter 27: “Deciphering a Meal”
1. Mary Douglas uses meals and eating as a structure for explaining __________ in
   modern life in the West and ancient life among the Hebrews.

2. Borrowing from fellow anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, Douglas applies the
   concept of __________ to meals.

3. __________ is her term for the relationship of the individual servings that form
   the courses and the courses that form meals.

4. __________ is her term for the relationship of the various foods that might fit into
   one of the servings.

5. Serving __________ is a much less structured activity than serving a meal.

6. For Douglas, meals are more __________ than drinks because we also share
   drinks with those with whom we do not share meals.

7. Douglas uses __________ dietary laws to explain why the Hebrews did not marry
   outside their group.

8. For the Hebrews, animals who were fit for the table were also fit for the

9. For the Hebrews, animals considered __________ were not to be sacrificed or
10. For the Hebrews, animals that were denizens of the __________ were not fit for
    the altar.

11. In the Mosaic code, every degree of holiness in animals corresponds to whether it
    may be __________.

               Chapter 28: The Rituals of Northern Europe
1. Because H. R. Ellis Davidson was an __________, she uses ancient artifacts and
   structures to study the peoples of northern Europe.

2. Gods are considered __________ when they remain more or less aloof and

3. Gods are considered __________ when they interact with the world of their

4. Davidson also collected information from the early historical works called

5. Because works like the Prose Edda are composed by poets attempting to create an
   artistic piece as well as to reflect the beliefs of the people, they fall into the
   category called __________ versions of a myth.

6. __________ is the process of combining and blending separate religious

7. __________ is the term used by some scholars of ancient cultures for the theory
   that people invent the old gods by looking backward and deifying their old
   historical and legendary heroes.

8. __________ is a Latin work written by the Roman historian Tacitus that describes
   the tribal cultures at the northern reaches of the Roman Empire.

9. The most remarkable characteristic of __________’s horse, Sleipnir, is that it had
   eight legs.

10. Davidson describes the relationship of the Germanic war gods Tiwaz,
    __________, and Odin to the Roman gods.

11. The __________ were special companions of Odin who had the power to fly
    through the air.
12. The __________, also companions of Odin, are known for their frenzied fighting
    and for terrifying their enemies by looking dreadful and sometimes by changing

13. __________ was the champion god of the Æsir.

14. Thor’s hammer was called __________.

15. The ritual of __________ at Uppsala included an elaborate performance including
    clapping, bells, and men dressed as women.

16. Baldr is an ancient Norse god of __________.

17. __________ is a Norse trickster god who can change his shape.

                    Chapter 29: Heracles and Dionysus
1. Heracles and Dionysus are sons of __________.

2. Heracles’ mother was __________.

3. The name ―__________‖ means ―Joy of Hera.‖

4. As a youth, Heracles killed the __________ of Cithairon and from then on wore
   its skin.

5. Heracles performs his labors to atone for killing his __________.

6. Heracles kills the __________ with the help of Iolaos.

7. The Cerynitian hind was sacred to __________, goddess of hunting.

8. On his hunt for the Erymanthian boar, Heracles accidentally mortally wounds
   __________ the Centaur.

9. Eurystheus would not accept Hercules’ labor of cleaning the stables of
   __________ because he claimed Heracles had done it for pay.

10. Heracles was able to drive away the Stymphalian birds with noisemakers given to
    him by __________.

11. After Heracles captured the Cretan bull and showed it to Eurystheus, he
    __________ it.

12. The horrifying characteristic of the __________ was that they ate humans.
13. Hippolyte was queen of the __________.

14. Heracles transported Geryon’s cattle across the sea in the __________ given him
    by the Sun.

15. In order to get the Apples of the Hesperides, Heracles held up the sky while
    __________ actually collected them.

16. __________ is the three-headed dragon-tailed dog that guards Hades.

17. __________ was the mother of Dionysos.

18. Dionysos was rescued from Hera’s wrath by Zeus, who gave him to __________.

19. Dionysos was raised by nymphs, whom Zeus later turned into the constellation
    named the __________.

20. Lycourgos, who had been driven mad by __________, chopped up his son
    because he believed the boy was a tree.

21. When he is not recognized as a god, or is mistreated, Dionysos protects himself
    by __________ his oppressors.

                      Chapter 30: Man and His Symbols
1. C. G. Jung was a student of __________.

2. For Jung, the process of __________ is the conscious coming-to-terms with one’s
   own center, or Self.

3. __________ can be described as manifestations of images produced by the mind
   that help humans deal with life issues in common.

4. The Wise Old Man, the Great Mother, and the Significant Animal are examples of

5. For Jung, the __________ is a basic ability of the human mind to create images
   that help individuals deal with issues common to all in one form or another.

6. Jung considers both myths and __________ to be dramatic representations of
   human dilemmas.

7. As an archetype, the __________ represents qualities and impulses that one
   denies personally but observes in other people.
8. Basically, Jung’s __________ archetype is the female personification of a man’s

9. Basically, Jung’s __________ archetype is the male personification of a woman’s

10. Sometimes the __________ archetype takes the form of a wise old man or wise
    old woman.

11. The __________ archetype may also take the form of an object, such as a disc, a
    crystal, or a stone.

12. Jung used the Hindu concept ―__________,‖ meaning ―magic circle,‖ to represent
    the Self mythologically.

             Chapter 31: How to Perform a Jungian Analysis
                         of a Myth or Fairy Tale
1. C. G. Jung believed that dreams have __________ meaning and don’t simply
   reflect directly the people and forces operating in our daily lives.

2. We might interpret a fairy tale as if it were a __________ experienced by one of
   the characters.

3. For Jung, dreams and stories are symbolic representations of aspects of the
   process of __________.

4. The __________ archetype is the same sex as the person, but has the opposite
   personality and self-image.

5. The __________, the ―male personification of the unconscious in a woman,‖ is
   basically influenced by her father.

6. The __________ is a same-sex figure representing the totality or inner part of the

7. When performing a Jungian analysis of a tale, the third step, after deciding the
   point of view and assigning archetypes, is __________.

8. The main reason for dividing the story into events is to determine the pattern of
   interactions in the story among archetypal figures, with a view to retelling the
   story in __________ terms.
9. For a successful Jungian analysis of a tale, the retelling must focus on the

                Chapter 32: The Morphology of the Folktale
1. Vladimir Propp focuses on the __________ of the folktale as a basis for
   classifying and comparing stories.

2. Propp describes a __________ as an act of a character, defined from the point of
   view of the significance for the course of the action.

3. Propp calls the characters in a tale __________.

4. Propp uses the term ―__________‖ to describe groups of functions assigned to a
   particular character.

5. The beginning of a tale, called the __________ situation, is represented by the
   Greek letter alpha.

6. Command, request, order, suggestion, and advice are examples of the function
   that Propp calls ―__________.‖

7. __________ is the function in which the villain receives an answer to his

8. The fact that Cinderella’s mother has died is an example of the Proppian function
   called __________.

9. __________ help the hero, although they may be unfriendly or deceived.

10. Modes of __________ include flying, walking or sailing, being shown the route,
    and following bloody tracks.

11. In a Proppian analysis, a __________ is defined generally as a development from
    villainy or lack through marriage or another terminal function.

          Chapter 33: A Proppian Analysis of The Wizard of Oz
1. The film __________ has a more formal Proppian structure than the book from
   which it was derived.
2. The first step in a successful Proppian analysis is to identify the __________ of
   the story.

3. The next step is to identify the function that Propp calls __________ or harm.

4. In the opening Kansas scene, the __________ is Miss Gulch’s taking away
   Dorothy’s dog Toto.

5. In agreeing to tell Dorothy’s fortune—giving her information—Professor Marvel
   is a __________ in the Proppian sense.

6. Because he is revealed as a fraud, the Wizard is a Proppian __________.

7. The guard admits Dorothy and her companions to the Emerald City when he sees
   she is wearing the ruby slippers. This is an example of the Proppian function
   called __________.

8. Finally, Dorothy is in her bed in Kansas. This is an example of the Proppian
   function called __________.

                         Chapter 34: Household Tales
1. The Grimm brothers published their folktales under the title __________, which
   provides a hint they were not only meant for children

2. French storytellers in the salons reworked their stories to conform to the concept
   of __________, a kind of standard for morally and socially correct living.

3. The Grimm brothers’ tales are best considered __________ versions rather than
   true folktales, since the brothers periodically reworked them.

4. Psychologist Bruno Bettelheim considers __________ in children’s tales as
   positive, because it provides them an outlet for feelings that are an important part
   of growing up.

5. Victor Turner sees ―The Goose Girl‖ as a tale of growing up, which he calls a

6. __________, the talking horse in ―The Goose Girl‖ is an example of an animal
   with magical powers.

7. In ―The Raven,‖ Propp’s function called __________ is represented by the child-
   become-bird who flies away into the woods.
8. ―Go deeper into the wood,‖ ―Accept no drink,‖ and ―Wait on the tan heap‖ are
   examples of Propp’s __________ function.

9. The man in ―The Raven‖ is able to rescue the princess after he gets three
   __________ objects from the robbers.

10. The dying old king’s directions that Faithful John not show the prince the hidden
    picture of the Princess of the Golden Palace is an __________ in the Proppian

11. Faithful John demonstrates very special powers in the scene with the ravens: he
    can __________ them.

12. Faithful John was turned to stone because he threw __________ into the fire.

13. The king revives Faithful John using the __________ of his children.

                      Chapter 35: “Cupid and Psyche”
1. The story of Cupid and Psyche is part of a second-century-C.E. novel called
   __________ by Apuleius.

2. An earlier work with the same name, also in Latin, was written by __________.

3. __________ punishes Psyche because she is jealous that people have abandoned
   her and now perform rituals that treat Psyche as a goddess.

4. Lucius, the main character of Apuleius’ Metamorphoses, is turned into an
   __________ as a result of his curiosity about magic.

5. Traditionally, Cupid and Psyche were visualized as winged creatures representing
   love and the __________.

6. In answer to Psyche’s father’s request, __________ says she should be placed
   upon ―some mountain-top / adorned in fullest mourning for the dead.‖

7. Psyche’s sisters convince her that her husband is a __________ and so she must
   kill him.

8. To penalize Psyche for trying to kill him, Cupid __________.

9. __________, the shepherd god, advises Psyche to try to win back Cupid ―with
   grateful offers of compliance.‖
10. Venus asks __________, the messenger god, to announce the reward for turning
    Psyche in.

11. Psyche is helped in her seed-sorting task by __________, ―born from Great
    Mother Earth.‖

12. Venus’ second task for Psyche is for her to bring back __________ from

13. In Psyche’s third task, Jove’s __________ helps her by filling the crystal vial with
    the Stygian waters.

14. In the box that Proserpina gave her in the Underworld, Psyche found not Beauty,
    but __________.

15. __________ calls the gods together to announce the marriage of Cupid and

16. Psyche becomes immortal by drinking a cup of __________.

17. __________ is the daughter born to Cupid and Psyche.

            Chapter 36: Using Multiple Analyses to Highlight
                  Different Aspects of the Same Tale
1. Victor Turner describes three different points of view from which to describe
   __________: operational, exegetical, and positional.

2. The __________ perspective is the way an insider would explain what is

3. The __________ perspective is the way an anthropologist would explain what is

4. The __________ perspective refers to the role of the ritual in the whole complex
   of symbols and meanings found in the culture.

5. __________ analyses of a story can highlight aspects of its meaning that occur
   inside or outside a culture.

6. __________, who has a long connection with women storytellers, may actually
   have been one of these women.

7. The Grimm brothers’ story ―The Goose Girl‖ may actually be connected to a
   historical personage, __________, the mother of Charlemagne.
8. __________ is the clever storyteller of ―A Thousand and One Nights.‖

9. Of the scholars of myth whom we’ve studied, Jung, Rank, Campbell, and Propp
   deal with psychological insights; __________ does not.

10. In the Grimms’ story ―The Raven,‖ __________ is an anima figure for the hero.

11. In the Grimms’ story ―The Raven,‖ the giant can be considered a Jungian
    __________ figure.

12. In showing why Los Angeles has such an extreme ―car culture‖ at the expense of
    a viable public transportation system, the movie ―Who Framed Roger Rabbit‖
    provides __________ insights.

 Chapter 37: A Study of the Construction of the Daniel Boone Myth
1. Daniel Boone is best known as the trailblazer who prepared the way for
   colonization of the present state of __________.

2. Because she managed alone during her husband’s long and frequent absences,
   Rebecca Boone can be compared with Penelope, the wife of __________.

3. For Richard Slotkin, __________ provides a representation of historical
   experiences as well as the subconscious forces underlying them.

4. The ―fire-hunt legend‖ places Rebecca Boone on the __________ side of the
   nature–culture conflict.

5. Slotkin argues that, to justify their actions, the American colonists had to fashion
   an ideology that attached a positive moral value to __________ the Indians.

6. The Boone narrative, although said to be Boone’s own, is actually a __________
   myth, not a folk legend.

7. In his Boone narrative, Filson revolutionizes the Puritan goals by substituting
   __________, or the wilderness, for their Jehovah as a form of deity.

8. Victor Turner might say that, because Boone is naïve and unsure, his first forays
   into the wilderness are a __________.

9. Voltaire and Rousseau are cited by Slotkin because they were eighteenth-century
   thinkers interested in philosophical truths that were to be learned through contact
   with __________.
                 Chapter 38: Star Trek and The X-Files
               The Changing Views of Science and Religion
1. Henry Jenkins III cautions that studying the meaning of a television show can be
   meaningful only if the viewpoint of the __________ is considered.

2. The television show The X-Files belongs to the genre __________.

3. In The X-Files, the frame story, or __________, represents the long-term narrative
   aspect of the series.

4. Within the frame story, __________ allow the weekly viewer to experience at
   least some degree of closure.

5. __________ is the science most essential to the story lines in the series Star Trek.

6. The political agenda of The X-Files includes ongoing questioning of __________
   and encouraging __________ in which social organizations that are viewed as
   corrupt are overcome.

7. In the political agenda of Star Trek, the __________ is always right, and the good
   of the group is more important than that of an __________.

8. In The X-Files, the science of __________ is the most powerful source of

9. Of the two series, The X-Files and Star Trek, __________ presents a more
   positive view of organized religion.

10. Of the two series, __________ presents a story closer to Joseph Campbell’s
    hero’s journey as the preeminent model of the mythological story.

                Chapter 39: Mythological Themes in Poetry
1. A __________ poem projects the ideas and feelings of its author into stories about
   shepherds and rural life.

2. ―Lycidas,‖ written by __________, laments the premature death of his young

3. Poets of the __________ movement aimed at presenting most powerfully their
   __________ about the subject of the poem or narrative.
4. In ―To Homer,‖ John Keats speaks of Neptune, the Roman god of the sea and
   counterpart to the Greek __________.

5. In Alfred Lord Tennyson’s ―Ulysses,‖ the ―aged wife‖ is __________.

6. The poetic form of William Butler Yeats’ ―Leda and the Swan‖ is __________.

7. Yeats’ poem ―__________‖ describes an apocalyptic event that is ―at hand.‖

8. In Hilda Doolittle’s ―Leda,‖ there is no mention of __________.

9. Anne Sexton’s ―Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs‖ maintains the __________
   of a traditional tale, as described by Vladimir Propp.

10. The events in Sexton’s ―Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs‖ are basically the
    same as in the tale by __________, but the ironic and comic elements give it a
    modern character.

  Chapter 40: Mythological Themes in Native American Literature
1. There is less old written literature by Native Americans than by Europeans
   because the first Americans had an __________ storytelling tradition.

2. Leslie Marmon Silko grew up in the __________ Pueblo in New Mexico.

3. In Silko’s view, __________ is a primary vehicle for transmitting cultural

4. Because Yellow Woman is lured away by a mysterious stranger, the story can be
   classified under the Aarne-Thompson motif ―__________.‖

5. Yellow Woman fits the parameters of Joseph Campbell’s __________ because
   she leaves home, travels to an unfamiliar place, goes through an initiation, returns
   home, and is recognized by her family.

6. Some view Silva as a __________, a trickster figure who operates in a mythical
   sphere at the edge of society, challenging authority.

7. Silko’s ―Yellow Woman‖ story is told by __________.

8. In the story, __________ calls the woman by the name ―Yellow Woman.‖

9. Silva reveals himself as a trickster when he reveals to her that his major activity is
10. When she returns home, the woman regrets that __________ is not still alive
    because he was the keeper and teller of their stories.

        Chapter 41: Mythological Themes in Modern Narrative
1. The main characters and episodes in James Joyce’s Ulysses are based on those in
   the ancient Odyssey by __________.

2. The Odyssey and its companion, the Iliad, were originally recited or __________.

3. All of the action in Joyce’s Ulysses takes place on one day, __________.

4. Leopold Bloom’s wife, Molly, who is having a love affair with Blazes Boylan, is
   a perverted representation of __________, Odysseus’ faithful wife.

5. The group riding in the carriage to Paddy Dignam’s funeral parallels ancient
   Greek mythological characters being ferried across the River Styx to __________.

6. In John Updike’s novel The Centaur, George Caldwell is a counterpart of the
   mythological Greek Centaur __________.

7. In the final scenes of The Centaur, George is saved from a life he hates by
   entering the grillwork of a 1936 Buick, which is actually the chariot of

8. Hummel, the garage owner, is a counterpart to __________, the limping Greek
   god who is a clever metal worker.

9. George’s father-in-law, whose idiosyncrasy is keeping many clocks, is a
   counterpart of the Greek god __________.

10. Angela Carter’s ―The Tiger’s Bride‖ could be classified as an __________ tale in
    the Aarne-Thompson index of motifs.

11. The tiger is always referred to as ―__________‖ by the valet.

12. The mechanized doll that the girl receives as a companion is a type of clockwork-
    based figure called an __________.
                                 ANSWER KEY

Chapter 1
1.   cosmological
2.   Helen
3.   Achilles
4.   Penelope
5.   nostalgia
6.   psychological

Chapter 2
1.   oral
2.   names and places
3.   paratactic
4.   syntactic
5.   Ovid
6.   Metamorphoses
7. rationalization

Chapter 3
1. Works and Days ; Theogony
2. Theogony
3. chaos
4. Gaia
5. Ouranos
6. Zeus
7. Zeus
8. Olympus
9. Athena
10. Pandora

Chapter 4
1.   Hesiod
2.   Ovid
3.   science
4.   gold
5.   Jupiter or Jove

Chapter 5
1. Moses
2. Elohist, Yahwist (Jehovist), Priestly
3. Yahweh
4.   Lord
5.   the world
6.   man
7.   the knowledge of good and evil

Chapter 6
1. Iceland
2. paratactic
3. creation
4. Genesis (the Bible)
5. Troy (in Turkey)
6. Gangleri
7. Odin
8. Ginnungagap
9. Muspell
10. Ymir

Chapter 7
1. Anasazi
2. two brothers
3. prayersticks
4. tails ; horns
5. Water Spider
6. sipapuni
7. selecting the corn
8. Air-Spirit
9. flood
10. two ears of corn ; wind

Chapter 8
1.   Amma
2.   Yo
3.   Nana Bokulu
4.   Atum
5.   Kintu
6.   worm
7.   lizard
8.   Mugulu
9.   Kintu

Chapter 9
1. Ragnarok
2. Odin
3.   Bifrost
4.   Muspell
5.   Mimir
6.   Thor ; Mjollnir
7.   Hodmimir’s Wood

Chapter 10
1.   Noah
2.   Gilgamesh ; Navajo
3.   covenant
4.   Nephilim
5.   God
6.   build an altar or offer sacrifice to God
7.   rainbow
8.   tiller of the soil or farmer

Chapter 11
1.   Metamorphoses
2.   Deucalion ; Pyrrha
3.   Jupiter or Jove
4.   Iron
5.   Vulcan
6.   Aeolus
7.   Neptune
8.   Prometheus ; Epimetheus

Chapter 12
1. Otto Rank
2. C. G. Jung
3. hero
4. Sigmund Freud
5. collective
6. passage
7. separation or departure
8. supernatural aid
9. apotheosis
10. return

Chapter 13
1.   Mesopotamia
2.   cuneiform
3.   Humbaba
4.   Enkidu
5. Ninsun
6. Uruk
7. Anu
8. Utnapishtim
9. Utnapishtim
10. serpent

1.   anthropologist
2.   Gilgamesh ; Enkidu
3.   syntagmatic
4.   paradigmatic
5.   myth
6.   Akkadian ; Sumerian
7.   Gilgamesh ; Enkidu
8.   nature :: culture or nature–culture
9.   death

Chapter 15
1. dharma
2. Vishnu
3. Shiva
4. Vishnu
5. Ayodhya
6. Lakshmana ; dharma
7. metonymy
8. Sugreeva
9. Ravana
10. Hanuman

Chapter 16
1. Odin
2. Valhalla
3. Baldr
4. Tyr
5. wolf
6. Valkyries
7. Midgard Serpent
8. old age
9. sea
10. Hel
Chapter 17
1. Sophocles
2. chorus
3. Jocasta
4. Laius
5. Polybus
6. Athens
7. irony
8. brother
9. Teiresius
10. Cithairon
11. daughters

Chapter 18
1. versions or variants
2. language or communication
3. underrating
4. overrating
5. chthonian
6. life–death
7. bull
8. Minotaur
9. Zeus
10. sons ; half-brothers

Chapter 19
1.   Prometheus
2.   culture
3.   cosmological
4.   Petrel or Ganu’k
5.   Nas-ca’ki-yel or Raven
6.   Nas-ca’ki-yel or Raven
7.   leaves
8.   rivers and lakes ; islands
9.   fire

Chapter 20
1.   Nyanga
2.   Shemwindo
3.   Nyamwindo
4.   Mukiti
5.   aunt
6.   conga scepter
7.   drum
8. Kasiyembe
9. Nkuba
10. Muisa
11. rope
12. gambling with the creator god
13. Sheberungu
14. dragon

Chapter 21
1. trickster
2. oral
3. See-ah
4. aetiological
5. dupe
6. tar baby
7. coffin or a box
8. Mr. Blacksnake
9. shark ; lion
10. animal bridegroom

Chapter 22
1. fire
2. trickster
3. liminoid
4. Zeus
5. Hesiod
6. Iapetos
7. bones
8. chained to a rock
9. Aeschylus
10. Heracles
11. Atlas
12. Prometheus

Chapter 23
1.   literary
2.   literary
3.   rationalized
4.   working
5.   irony
6.   ―swollen foot‖
7.   chance
8.   Seneca
9.   family romance
10. constituent units
11. the Mwindo epic
12. ceremony

Chapter 24
1. ritual
2. language
3. exegetic
4. operational
5. positional
6. cyclic
7. contingent
8. rites of passage
9. masks
10. communitas
11. leisure
12. liminoid

Chapter 25
1.   Eleusis
2.   fall
3.   mysteries
4.   monists
5.   gnostic
6.   docetism
7.   Persephone
8.   Homer
9.   Aidoneus

Chapter 26
1. Egypt
2. Demeter
3. Atum
4. Hathor
5. Horus
6. Anubis
7. mummifying
8. Shebaka
9. Pyramid ; Coffin
10. Nut
11. Seth
12. Plutarch
13. Horus
14. The Golden Ass
Chapter 27
1. ritual
2. decoding
3. syntagmatic
4. paradigmatic
5. drinks
6. exclusive
7. Mosaic
8. altar
9. abominable
10. water
11. eaten

Chapter 28
1. archeologist
2. transcendent
3. immanent
4. sagas
5. rationalized
6. syncretism
7. euhemerism
8. Germania
9. Odin
10. Wodan
11. Valkyries
12. berserks
13. Thor
14. Mjollnir
15. Freyr
16. fertility
17. Loki

Chapter 29
1. Zeus
2. Alcmene
3. Heracles
4. lion
5. children
6. Lernaean hydra
7. Artemis
8. Chiron
9. Augeias
10. Athena
11. freed
12. Mares of Diomedes
13. Amazons
14. golden cup
15. Atlas
16. Cerberus
17. Semele
18. Hermes
19. Hyades
20. Dionysos
21. driving mad

Chapter 30
1. Sigmund Freud
2. individuation
3. archetypes
4. archetypes
5. collective unconscious
6. dreams
7. shadow
8. anima
9. animus
10. Self
11. Self
12. mandala

Chapter 31
1.   symbolic
2.   dream
3.   individuation
4.   shadow
5.   animus
6.   Self
7.   dividing the story into events
8.   symbolic
9.   archetypes

Chapter 32
1.   structure or form
2.   function
3.   dramatis personae
4.   spheres of action
5.   initial
6.   interdiction
7.   delivery
8. lack
9. donors
10. transference
11. move

Chapter 33
1.   The Wizard of Oz
2.   dramatis personae
3.   lack
4.   lack
5.   donor
6.   false hero
7.   recognition of the hero
8.   return

Chapter 34
1. Household Tales
2. civilité
3. literary
4. violence
5. rite of passage
6. Falada
7. absentation
8. interdiction
9. magical
10. interdiction
11. understand
12. the poisoned shirt
13. blood

Chapter 35
1. Metamorphoses
2. Ovid
3. Venus
4. ass
5. soul
6. Apollo
7. monster
8. flies away
9. Pan
10. Mercury
11. ants
12. golden wool ; wild sheep
13. eagle
14. Sleep of the Innermost Darkness
15. Jove
16. ambrosia
17. Joy

Chapter 36
1. ritual
2. exegetical
3. operational
4. positional
5. multiple
6. Mother Goose
7. Big-Footed Bertha
8. Scheherazade
9. Levi-Strauss
10. the raven
11. shadow
12. aetiological

Chapter 37
1.   Kentucky
2.   Odysseus
3.   myth
4.   nature
5.   defeating
6.   literary
7.   nature
8.   rite of initiation
9.   nature

Chapter 38
1. fans
2. science fiction
3. mytharc
4. free-standing episodes
5. physics
6. big government ; individualism
7. captain ; individual
8. biology
9. Star Trek
10. Star Trek
Chapter 39
1. pastoral
2. John Milton
3. Romantic; feeling
4. Poseidon
5. Penelope
6. sonnet
7. ―The Second Coming‖
8. Leda
9. moves
10. Wilhelm and Jakob Grimm

Chapter 40
1. oral
2. Laguna
3. storytelling
4. abduction
5. journey of the hero
6. ka’tsina
7. Yellow Woman
8. Silva or the man
9. stealing
10. Grandpa

Chapter 41
1. Homer
2. sung
3. June 16, 1904
4. Penelope
5. Hades
6. Chiron
7. Zeus
8. Hephaistos
9. Cronus
10. animal bridegroom
11. Milord
12. automaton

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