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ROLE OF NONI IN ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME

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ROLE OF NONI IN ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME Powered By Docstoc
					        ROLE OF NONI IN ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder caused when antibodies --
immune system cells that fight off bacteria and viruses -- mistakenly attack healthy body
tissues and organs. In APS, specific antibodies activate the inner lining of blood vessels,
which leads to the formation of blood clots in arteries or veins. APS is sometimes called
“sticky blood syndrome,” because of the increased tendency to form blood clots in the veins
and arteries. The symptoms of APS are due to the abnormal blood clotting. Clots can
develop in the veins of the legs and lungs, or in the placenta of pregnant women. One of
the most serious complications of APS occurs when a clot forms in the brain and causes a
stroke. Other neurological symptoms include chronic headaches, dementia (similar to the
dementia of Alzheimer’s disease), and seizures. Infrequently, individuals will develop chorea
(a movement disorder in which the body and limbs writhe uncontrollably), cognitive
dysfunction (such as poor memory), transverse myelitis, depression or psychosis, optic
neuropathy, or sudden hearing loss. In pregnant women, clots in the placenta can cause
miscarriages. APS is diagnosed by the presence of a positive antiphospholipid antibody and
either a history of blood clots in an artery or vein or a history of multiple miscarriages or
other pregnancy problems. Some individuals will have a characteristic lacy, net-like red rash
called livedo reticularis over their wrists and knees.

Role of Noni

Noni has been reported to have a broad range of health benefits for various diseases and
complains.

Major components – Noni contains all the vitamins like Vitamin A , Vitamin B complex,
vitamin C, Vitamin E. It contains aall the trace minerals. A number of major components
have been identified in the Noni plant such as scopoletin, octoanoic acid, potassium, vitamin
C, terpenoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones (such as nordamnacanthal, morindone, rubiadin, and
rubiadin-1-methyl ether, anthraquinone glycoside), sitosterol, carotene, vitamin A, flavone
glycosides, linoleic acid, Alizarin, amino acids, acubin, L-asperuloside, caproic acid, caprylic
acid, ursolic acid, rutin, and a putative proxeronine.

Retired biochemist, Ralph Heinicke, states that the Noni fruit contains a natural precursor for
Xeronine that he named Proxeronine. Proxeronine is converted to the alkaloid, Xeronine, in
the body by an enzyme he calls Proxeroninase. His hypothesis is that Xeronine is able to
modify the molecular structure of proteins. Thus Xeronine has a wide range of biological
activities. When a protein such as an enzyme, receptor, or signal transducer is not in the
appropriate conformation, it will not work properly. Xeronine will interact with the protein
and make it fold into its proper conformation. The result is a properly functioning protein.
Whenever a problem arises in the cell due to a protein structural problem, Xeronine's
presence would be beneficial. His hypotheses may explain why Noni can help in many health
problems in different ways.

Antibacterial activity Acubin, L-asperuloside, and alizarin in the Noni fruit, as well as some
other anthraquinone compounds in Noni roots, are all proven antibacterial agents. These
compounds have been shown to fight against infectious bacteria strains such as Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Proteus morgaii, Staphylococcus aureus, Baciillis subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and
Shigela. These antibacterial elements within Noni are responsible for the treatment of skin
infections, colds, fevers, and other bacterial-caused health problems

Immunological activity – Noni act as an immune modulator. Asahina found that Noni at
various concentrations inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), which
is an endogenous tumor promotor. Hirazumi found that noni-ppt contains a polysaccharide-
rich substance. Noni-ppt may suppress tumor growth through activation of the host immune
system. Noni-ppt was also capable of stimulating the release of several mediators from murine
effector cells, including TNF-, interleukin-1beta (IL-1), IL-10, IL-12, inter feron-gamma (IFN-
) and nitric oxide (NO).

The thymus is an important immune organ in the body, which generates T cells, involved in
the aging process and cellular immune functions. Noni may enhance immune function by
stimulating thymus growth, and thus affecting anti-aging and anticancer activities, and
protecting people from other degenerative disease.

Antioxidant property of Noni –

Endogenous antioxidants and role of Noni - Our body has evolved with endogenous
defense mechanisms to protect against free radical induced cell damage. Glutathione
peroxidase, catalase, and Superoxide dismutases are three primary antioxidant enzymes in our
body, which involved in direct elimination of free radicals or reactive oxygen species from our
body. They require micronutrient such as selenium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese as
cofactors for their formation and optimum catalytic and effective antioxidant activity. Noni
contain all the trace minerals that help for optimum catalytic activity of those three important
antioxidant enzymes for an effective antioxidant defense mechanism.


Glutathione, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, bilirubin, selenium, dihydrolipoic
acid, reduced CoQ10, melatonin, uric acid etc., as a whole play a homoeostatic or protective
role against ROS produced during normal cellular metabolism and after active oxidation
insult. Noni contains all the above phyto chemicals and vitamins in abundant quantity.
Glutathione (GSH) is the most significant component which directly quenches Reactive
Oxygen Species (ROS) such as lipid peroxides and plays major role in xenobiotic metabolism.
Glutathione is a tripeptide made up of the amino acids gamma-glutamic acid, cysteine, and
glycine. Noni contain all those glutathione making amino acids in abundant number. Thus
Noni increases the body’s glutathione level. Noni stimulates more melatonin secretion from
the pineal body. It also maintains ascorbate (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), in
their reduced form, which also exert an antioxidant effect by quenching free radicals.


Exogenous antioxidants: Contribution from Noni


A number of other dietary antioxidants known as phytonutrients or phytochemicals that are
being increasingly appreciated for their antioxidant activity. One example is flavonoids which
are a group of polyphenolic compounds. They are responsible for the different brilliant colors
such as blue, scarlet, and orange. Noni contain 150 above phytochemicals including all
flavonoids. Flavonoids exhibit several biological effects such as antitumoural, anti-ischaemic,
anti-allergic, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-ulcerative, and anti inflammatory activities. These are also
known to inhibit the activities of several bad enzymes like lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase,
monooxygenase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione-S transferase, mitochondrial succino-oxidase,
and protein kinases. Many of the biological activities of flavonoids are attributed to their
antioxidant properties and free radical scavenging capabilities. Noni is rich with many
flavonoids.

				
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posted:4/23/2010
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