ROLE OF NONI IN ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder caused when antibodies -- immune system cells that fight off bacteria and viruses -- mistakenly attack healthy body tissues and organs. In APS, specific antibodies activate the inner lining of blood vessels, which leads to the formation of blood clots in arteries or veins. APS is sometimes called “sticky blood syndrome,” because of the increased tendency to form blood clots in the veins and arteries. The symptoms of APS are due to the abnormal blood clotting. Clots can develop in the veins of the legs and lungs, or in the placenta of pregnant women. One of the most serious complications of APS occurs when a clot forms in the brain and causes a stroke. Other neurological symptoms include chronic headaches, dementia (similar to the dementia of Alzheimer’s disease), and seizures. Infrequently, individuals will develop chorea (a movement disorder in which the body and limbs writhe uncontrollably), cognitive dysfunction (such as poor memory), transverse myelitis, depression or psychosis, optic neuropathy, or sudden hearing loss. In pregnant women, clots in the placenta can cause miscarriages. APS is diagnosed by the presence of a positive antiphospholipid antibody and either a history of blood clots in an artery or vein or a history of multiple miscarriages or other pregnancy problems. Some individuals will have a characteristic lacy, net-like red rash called livedo reticularis over their wrists and knees. Role of Noni Noni has been reported to have a broad range of health benefits for various diseases and complains. Major components – Noni contains all the vitamins like Vitamin A , Vitamin B complex, vitamin C, Vitamin E. It contains aall the trace minerals. A number of major components have been identified in the Noni plant such as scopoletin, octoanoic acid, potassium, vitamin C, terpenoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones (such as nordamnacanthal, morindone, rubiadin, and rubiadin-1-methyl ether, anthraquinone glycoside), sitosterol, carotene, vitamin A, flavone glycosides, linoleic acid, Alizarin, amino acids, acubin, L-asperuloside, caproic acid, caprylic acid, ursolic acid, rutin, and a putative proxeronine. Retired biochemist, Ralph Heinicke, states that the Noni fruit contains a natural precursor for Xeronine that he named Proxeronine. Proxeronine is converted to the alkaloid, Xeronine, in the body by an enzyme he calls Proxeroninase. His hypothesis is that Xeronine is able to modify the molecular structure of proteins. Thus Xeronine has a wide range of biological activities. When a protein such as an enzyme, receptor, or signal transducer is not in the appropriate conformation, it will not work properly. Xeronine will interact with the protein and make it fold into its proper conformation. The result is a properly functioning protein. Whenever a problem arises in the cell due to a protein structural problem, Xeronine's presence would be beneficial. His hypotheses may explain why Noni can help in many health problems in different ways. Antibacterial activity Acubin, L-asperuloside, and alizarin in the Noni fruit, as well as some other anthraquinone compounds in Noni roots, are all proven antibacterial agents. These compounds have been shown to fight against infectious bacteria strains such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus morgaii, Staphylococcus aureus, Baciillis subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Shigela. These antibacterial elements within Noni are responsible for the treatment of skin infections, colds, fevers, and other bacterial-caused health problems Immunological activity – Noni act as an immune modulator. Asahina found that Noni at various concentrations inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), which is an endogenous tumor promotor. Hirazumi found that noni-ppt contains a polysaccharide- rich substance. Noni-ppt may suppress tumor growth through activation of the host immune system. Noni-ppt was also capable of stimulating the release of several mediators from murine effector cells, including TNF-, interleukin-1beta (IL-1), IL-10, IL-12, inter feron-gamma (IFN- ) and nitric oxide (NO). The thymus is an important immune organ in the body, which generates T cells, involved in the aging process and cellular immune functions. Noni may enhance immune function by stimulating thymus growth, and thus affecting anti-aging and anticancer activities, and protecting people from other degenerative disease. Antioxidant property of Noni – Endogenous antioxidants and role of Noni - Our body has evolved with endogenous defense mechanisms to protect against free radical induced cell damage. Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and Superoxide dismutases are three primary antioxidant enzymes in our body, which involved in direct elimination of free radicals or reactive oxygen species from our body. They require micronutrient such as selenium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese as cofactors for their formation and optimum catalytic and effective antioxidant activity. Noni contain all the trace minerals that help for optimum catalytic activity of those three important antioxidant enzymes for an effective antioxidant defense mechanism. Glutathione, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, bilirubin, selenium, dihydrolipoic acid, reduced CoQ10, melatonin, uric acid etc., as a whole play a homoeostatic or protective role against ROS produced during normal cellular metabolism and after active oxidation insult. Noni contains all the above phyto chemicals and vitamins in abundant quantity. Glutathione (GSH) is the most significant component which directly quenches Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) such as lipid peroxides and plays major role in xenobiotic metabolism. Glutathione is a tripeptide made up of the amino acids gamma-glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. Noni contain all those glutathione making amino acids in abundant number. Thus Noni increases the body’s glutathione level. Noni stimulates more melatonin secretion from the pineal body. It also maintains ascorbate (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), in their reduced form, which also exert an antioxidant effect by quenching free radicals. Exogenous antioxidants: Contribution from Noni A number of other dietary antioxidants known as phytonutrients or phytochemicals that are being increasingly appreciated for their antioxidant activity. One example is flavonoids which are a group of polyphenolic compounds. They are responsible for the different brilliant colors such as blue, scarlet, and orange. Noni contain 150 above phytochemicals including all flavonoids. Flavonoids exhibit several biological effects such as antitumoural, anti-ischaemic, anti-allergic, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-ulcerative, and anti inflammatory activities. These are also known to inhibit the activities of several bad enzymes like lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, monooxygenase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione-S transferase, mitochondrial succino-oxidase, and protein kinases. Many of the biological activities of flavonoids are attributed to their antioxidant properties and free radical scavenging capabilities. Noni is rich with many flavonoids.
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