Chapter 8 Stocks Sauces by richman10

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									Chapter 8 Stocks & Sauces

Stocks
*They can be defined as a clear, thin liquid flavored by soluble substances extracted from meat poultry, fish, bones, vegetables and seasonings.    Fond (French word for “stock): foundation or base. Preparing good stock is the most basic of all cooking skills. Stocks are like sauces almost never served by themselves but are components of many others preparation. *Why stocks lose importance in the modern American kitchen    Increasing portion control – meats has made bones for stock a rarity. Extra labor Many dishes are served without sauces and stocks.

Major Ingredients Of Stocks  Bones
 Most of the flavor of stocks comes from.  Their collagen (connective tissues) and cartilage (gelatin, especially from knuckle bones) give body to a stock. A well-made stock will thicken or even solidify when chilled.  Bones should be cut into pieces (about 3 inches each piece) for exposing more surface area and aids extraction.

 Mirepoix
 Aromatic vegetables are the second most important contributors of flavor to stocks. (They are the most important ingredients in vegetable stocks, of course.)  A combination of onions, carrots (are not used on colorless stocks making) and celery. Leeks, fresh herbs and other vegetable are also used in classical mirepoix.

 Vegetables are not necessary to cut neatly. Smaller pieces can help for releasing flavors in short time.

 Meats
 They are rarely used in stock making anymore because of their costs. Broth (a flavorful liquid) is produced as a result of simmering meats, poultries and vegetables.

 Acid Products
 They help to extract flavor and dissolve connective tissues from bones.  Tomatoes contribute great flavor and acid to brown stocks, but they should be careful on amount because overuse may make the stocks cloudy.  Wines are occasionally used. Its flavor contribution is probably more important than its acidity.

 Scraps & Leftovers
 A stockpot is not a garbage disposal, so scraps and leftovers have to be clean, wholesome and appropriate. Proper usage of trimmings can help on cost control. 

Seasoning & Spices
 Salt is very lightly used because it aids in extracting flavor.  Herbs & spices are also used lightly because overuse might dominate the flavor of sticks.  They are usually put is a sachet (French for “bag”) so it can be removed easily.  A “bouquet garni” is an assortment of fresh herbs and other aromatic ingredients like leek, celery, thyme spring, bay leaf, parsley stems, peppercorns, clovers and garlic, etc.

*Basic Proportion of Ingredients: Bones 50%
Mirepoix 10% Water 100%

Procedures Of Making Stocks Reasons Of Blanching Bones
 To rid of the impurities that cause cloudiness to stocks (bones of younger animals are highest in blood and other impurities that cloud and discolor stock).  Fish bones are not blanched because of their very short cooking time .

Preparation Steps
a) Cut ingredients into pieces b) Do not blanch bones for making stocks because moisture would hinder browning. c) Roast bones with or without oil in a hot oven to get color before making brown stocks. Bones for white stocks do not need this procedure. d) Put bones in a pot, add cold water to cover, bring water to a boil, and then reduce to a simmer. e) Skim the scum. f) Add chopped mirepoix, herbs and spices. Chopped mirepoix can be stir fried with the reserved fat (brown drippings) in the roasting pan before they are added to make brown stocks. g) Keep skimming the scum when necessary. h) Keep water lever above the ingredients. i) Skim the surface and strain off the stock through a china cap lined with several layers of cheesecloth. j) Cool the stock as quickly as possible.  Venting: set the pot in a sink with running cold water and occasional stirs.

* Recommended length of simmering time for full flavor while getting good gelatin:
  

Beef and veal bones Chicken bones Fish bones

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6 to 8 hours 3 to 4 hours 30 to 40 minutes

Reductions & Glazes  Reduction:  Glazes:
Concentrating stocks by boiling or simmering them to

evaporate part of the water for producing a more flavor product and body. Glace (French for “glaze”) is a stock that is reduced until it coats

the back of a spoon and concentrated by ¾ or more, so stocks become solid and rubbery when chilled. Glazes do not taste like the stocks they were because of long cooking time. Glace de viande Glace de volaille Glace de poisson = = = Meat glaze Chicken glaze Fish glaze

Steps for preparing glazes a) Reduce the stock over moderate heat b) Skim the surface frequently c) When reduce by half to 2/3, strain into a smaller, heavy saucepan and continued to reduce over lower heat until it is syrupy and coats a spoon. d) Pour into containers, cool, cover and refrigerate. e) Glazes will keep for several weeks or longer if properly stored. They can also be frozen.

Convenience Bases
    Convenience bases are widely used in the modern kitchen due to limited time and the reason of cost control. Glazes were used as bases before manufacturers produced convenience products widely. Bases are perishable products and need to be refrigerated. They are the bet if they are composed mainly of meat extracts. Bases need to be diluted before using because they are made primarily form salt.

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Bases can be given a fresher, more natural taste by simmering the diluted or made-up products for a short time with some mirepoix, a sachet, and few bones or meat trimmings.

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Bases and stocks can be ideal supplements to each other if skill of taste and judgment are practiced well; otherwise, quality of cooking can detract.

Sauces
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A sauce works like a seasoning. It enhances and accents the flavor of the food; it should not dominate or hide the food

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Functions of Sauces

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A sauce may be defined as a flavorful liquid, usually thickened, which is used to season, flavor, and enhance other foods. A sauce adds the following qualities to foods: 1). Moistness 2). Flavor 3). Richness 4). Appearance (color and shine) 5). Interest and appetite appeal

Structure of Sauces

 A liquid, the body of the sauce
A liquid ingredient provides the body or base of most sauces. There are 5 liquids or bases on which most sauces are built, and the resulting sauces are called Leading Sauces or Mother Sauces. 1). White stock (chicken, veal, or fish)- for Veloute Sauces 2). Brown stock-for brown sauce or Espagnole (ess pahn yohl) 3). Milk-for Bechamel 4). Tomato plus stock-for Tomato Sauce 5). Clarified butter-for Hollandaise

 The most frequently used sauces are based on stocks.  Thickening Agents
A sauce may be thick enough to cling lightly to the food. Otherwise it will just run off and lie in a puddle in the plate. Starches are still the most commonly used thickening agents, although they are used less often than in the past.

 Additional seasoning and flavoring ingredients
Although the liquid that makes up the bulk of the sauce provides the basic flavor, other ingredients are added to make variations on the basic themes and to give a finished character to the sauces. Adding specified flavoring ingredients to basic sauces is the key to the whole catalog of classic sauces. As in all of cooking, sauce making is largely a matter of learning a few building blocks and then building with them.

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Starches as Thickeners
1. Starches are the most common and most useful thickeners used in sauce making. Flour is the principal starch used in sauce making. 2. Starches thicken by gelatinization. It is the process by which starch granules absorb water and swell to many times their original size. Acids inhibit gelatinization. Whenever possible, do not add acid ingredients to sauces until the starch has fully gelatinized. 3. Starch granules must be separated before heating in liquid, to avoid lumping. Starch granules are separated in two ways: - Mixing the starch with fat.

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Mixing the starch with a cold liquid

Roux Ingredients
 Roux is a cooked mixture of equal parts by weight of fat and flour.

Fat

 The cooking fats employed for making roux are as follows:
1. Clarified butter is preferred for the finest sauces because of its flavor. 2. Margarine is widely used in place of butter because of its lower cost.

3. Animal fats, such as chicken fat, beef drippings, and lard, are used when their flavor is appropriate to the sauce.
4. Vegetable oil and shortening can be used for roux but since they add no flavor, they are not preferred.

 Today, roux-thickened sauces are often condemned for health reasons because of the fat content of the roux.
Flour
  The thickening power of flour depends in part on its starch content. Flour is sometimes browned dry in the oven for use in brown roux.

Incorporating the Roux
 Combing the roux and liquid to obtain a smooth, lump free sauce is a skill that takes practice to master.

Ingredient Proportions
   Correct amounts of fat and flour-equal parts by weight-are important to a good roux. There must be enough fat to coat all the starch granules, but not too much. A good roux should be stiff, not runny or pourable. A roux with too much fat is called a slack roux.

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Preparing Roux
  A roux must be cooked so that the finished sauce does not have the raw, starchy taste of the flour. There are three kinds of roux

1. White roux-is cooked for just a few minutes, just enough to cook out the raw taste. 2. Blond roux, or pale roux-is cooked a little longer, just until the roux
begins to change to a slightly darker color. 3. Brown roux is cooked until it takes on a light brown color and a nutty aroma.

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Starches
1. Beurre manie a mixture of equal parts soft, raw butter and flour worked together to form a smooth paste.

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3. Cornstarch-produces a sauce that is almost clear, with a glossy texture. 4. Arrowroot-is used like cornstarch, but it gives an even clearer sauce. 5. Waxy maize- is used for sauces that are to be frozen. 6. Pregelatinized or instant starches-have been cooked, or gelatinized, then
2. Whitewash is a thin mixture of flour and cold water. redried. 7. Bread crumbs and other crumbs will thicken a liquid very quickly because they have already been cooked, like instant starches. 8. Vegetable purees, ground nuts, and other solids. A simple tomato sauce is basically a seasoned vegetable puree.

Egg Yolk & Cream Liaison
  Egg yolks have the power to thicken a sauce slightly due to coagulation of egg proteins when heated. Caution must be used when thickening with egg yolks because of the danger of curdling. This happens when the proteins coagulate too much and separate from the liquid.

Egg Yolk Emulsification
Egg yolks are also used as thickening agent for Hollandaise and related sauces.

Reduction



Simmering a sauce to evaporate some of the water thickens the sauce because only the water evaporates, not the solids. As the solids become more concentrated, the sauce becomes thicker 1. Using reduction to concentrate basic flavors- if we simmer a sauce for a long time, some of the water is evaporated. 2. Using reduction to adjust textures concentrating a sauce by reduction also thickens it, because only the water evaporates, not the roux or other solids.

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3. Using reduction to add new flavors- this is one of the most important techniques in sauce making.

Straining
  Straining through a china cap lined with several layers of cheesecloth is effective. Straining is usually done before final seasoning.

Deglazing
 To deglaze means to swirl a liquid in a sauté pan or other pan to dissolve cooked particles of food remaining food on the bottom.

Enriching with butter and cream

1. Liaison-in addition to being a thickening agent, the liaison of egg yolks and cream is used to finish a sauce by giving it extra richness and smoothness. 2. Heavy Cream- has been used to give flavor and richness to sauces. 3. Butter- to finish a sauce with butter, simply add a few pieces of softened butter
to the hot sauce and swirl it until it melts.

Seasoning
1. Salt is the most important seasoning for sauces. Lemon juice is also very important. Cayenne and white pepper are perhaps the third and fourth in importance. 2. Sherry and Madeira are frequently used as final flavorings.

Small Sauces
1. Secondary Leading White Sauces these three sauces-Allemande, Supreme, and white wine-are really finished sauces, like other small sauces. 2.

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-Demiglaze- is defined as half brown sauce plus half brown stock, reduced by

half. -Some modern chefs feel that Espagnole is too heavy for modern tastes and that lighter sauces are required. 3. Small sauces listed twice- notice, for example, that Mushroom Sauce is listed under both Chicken Veloute and Fish Veloute.

4. Hollandaise and Bearnaise these are essentially two variations of the same kind of sauce, with different flavorings.

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Standards of Quality for Sauces

1. Consistency and body- smooth, with no lumps. 2. Flavor-distinctive but well-balanced flavor. 3. Appearance- smooth, with a good shine.
Other Sauces
1. Simple and compound butters including simple browned butter as well as butter combined with different flavorings.

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2. Pan gravies-or sauces made with the pan drippings of the meat or poultry they are served with. 3. Miscellaneous hot sauces- which are not made like any of the five basic
sauces.

Butter Sauces

1. Melted Butter- the simplest butter preparation of all, and one of the most widely used, especially as a dressing for vegetables. 2. Clarified Butter- butter consists of butterfat, water, and milk solids. 3. Brown Butter- known as Beurre Noisette in French, this is whole melted
butter that has been heated until it turns light brown and gives off a nutty aroma. 4. Black Butter black butter, or Beurre Noir is made like Brown Butter but heated until it is a little darker, and flavored with a few drops of vinegar. 5. Meuniere Butter this is served with fish cooked a la Meuniere. 6. Compound Butters are made by softening raw butter and mixing it with various flavoring ingredients.

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7. Beurre Balnc is a sauce made by whipping a large quantity of raw butter into a small quantity of a flavorful reduction of white wine and vinegar, so that the butter melts and forms an emulsion with the reduction.

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Pan Gravies
 Pan Gravy is a sauce made with juices or drippings of the meat or poultry with which it is being served.

Chapter 9: Soups
1) Classification of Soups a) Clear Soups i) Based on clear, unthickened stock or broth ii) May be served plain or garnished with a variety of vegetables and meats (1) Broth and Bouillon (a) Simple clear soup without solid ingredients (b) by-product of simmering meat or poultry (2) Vegetable Soup (a) Clear, seasoned stock or broth with the addition of one or more vegetables and sometimes meat or poultry products and starches (3) Consommé (a) Rich, flavorful stock clarified to transparent (b) Perfect starter for an elegant dinner b) Thick Soups i) Adding thickening agents (1) Cream Soups (a) Thickened with roux, beurre manie, etc with an addition of milk and / or cream 、 (2) Purees (a) Naturally thickened by ingredient (b) Not as smooth and creamy (c) Based on starchy ingredients like potato, rice etc (3) Bisques (a) Thickened soup made from shellfish (b) Prepared like cream soup (4) Chowders (a) Hearty American soups made from fish, shellfish, and / or vegetables (b) Usually contain milk and potatoes (5) Potage

(a) Term associated with certain thick, hearty soups (b) General term for soup c) Special soups i) Turtle soup ii) Gumbo iii) Cold soup 2) Service of Soups a) Standard Portion size i) Appetizer portion : 6 to 8 oz ii) Main course portion: 10 to 12 oz b) Holding for Service i) Heat small batches frequently to refill the steam table with fresh soup ii) Consommé can be kept longer if vegetable garnish is added at service time c) Garnish i) In the soup (1) Vegetables, meats, poultry, seafood, pasta products and grains ii) Toppings (1) Clear soups : Chopped parsley or chives (2) Thick soups : Fresh herbs, cheese, sliced almonds, croutons d) Accompaniments i) Crackers, Melba toast, Breadsticks 3) Clear Soups a) Consommé i) “Completed” or “Concentrated” ii) Stock or broth must be strong, rich and full flavored iii) Clarification: time consuming (1) Coagulation of proteins iv) Basic Ingredients (1) Clarification/ Clearmeat: mixture of ingredients use to clarify stock (2) Raft: Coagulated clearmeat, floating on top of Consommé (3) Lean ground meat

(4) Egg white (5) Mirepoix & seasoning (6) Acid Ingredients 4) Thick Soups a) Cream soups i) Classic Cream Soups 、 、 (1) Veloute soups : Veloute sauce, white stock 、 (2) Cream soups : Bechamel sauce, milk/white stock ii) Curdling (1) Problem with cream soup (2) Causes: heat and other soup ingredients (3) To prevent (a) roux and other starch thickeners stabilize milk and cream (b) Thicken stock before adding milk (c) Do not add cold milk or cream to simmering soup (d) Do not boil soup after milk or cream has been added iii) Standards of Quality (1) Thickness : Consistency of heavy cream (2) Texture: Smooth; no graininess or lumps (3) Taste: Distinct flavor of main ingredient and no starchy taste


								
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