Cataloging Professionals in the Digital Era: An Examination of Job Descriptions from 2005 through 2006 Dr. Jung-ran Park & Caime Lu Jungfirstname.lastname@example.org Drexel University Research supported through IMLS award (2006-2009) Job Description Analysis Assessment of the current state of cataloging professionals’ responsibilities and skill sets and identification of emerging responsibilities and competencies geared toward the digital environment. Comprehensive content analysis of 349 job descriptions advertised in AUTOCAT in 2005 and 2006. Job Titles with Highest Frequency Job Titles Cataloger/Cataloging Librarian/Catalog Librarian [Special Formats] Cataloger Serials & E-Resources Cataloger Head, Cataloging Metadata Librarian Catalog & Metadata Librarian Cataloging Coordinator Head, Cataloging & Metadata Services Serials Cataloging Coordinator Project Cataloger Serials Librarian Frequency 104 21 13 9 9 6 6 4 4 3 3 % 29.81 6.02 3.72 2.58 2.58 1.72 1.72 1.15 1.15 0.86 0.86 Emerging Job Titles Title Metadata Librarian Catalog & Metadata Librarian Head, Cataloging & Metadata Services Serials & E-Resources Cataloger Cataloging/Database Management Librarian Digital Projects Metadata Librarian Music Catalog/Metadata Librarian Cataloger/E-Resource Analyst Cataloger/Metadata Specialist Cataloging & Metadata Management Librarian Cataloging & Metadata Services Director Cataloging & Metadata Services Librarian Frequency 9 6 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Emerging Job Titles (Cont.) Cataloging/Electronic Collections Librarian Chinese E-Resource Cataloger Digital Collections Librarian Digital Resources Cataloger Digital Services Librarian Digital/Tangible Media Cataloger Electronic Resource Cataloger Electronic Resources/Serials Cataloger Electronic Resources/Special Formats Cataloger Electronic Resource Librarian E-Resources Cataloger/Coordinator E-Resources Librarian Head, Cataloging & Metadata Librarian Head, Digital Resources Metadata Section 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Emerging Job Titles (Cont.) Head, Metadata & Content Management Head, Serials/E-Resources Cataloging Metadata & Copy Cataloger Metadata Analyst/Head, Cataloging Section Metadata Catalog Librarian Metadata Services Librarian Metadata Service Cataloger Metadata Specialist Metadata/Cataloging Librarian Metadata/Databases Management Specialist Metadata/Electronic Resources Catalog Librarian Web/Metadata Librarian Webmaster/Cataloger Total 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 60 Categories of Required Skills Category Label Terms and Phrases Frequency Percentage Collaborate, Cooperate, Interact, INTERPERSONAL & Collegial, Communication, Oral and COMMUNICATION SKILLS Written CATALOGING AACR, MARC, DDC,LCC, LCSH, STANDARDS LCRI, MESH, CONSER BIBLIOGRAPHIC UTILITIES OCLC, RLIN, CONNEXION Coordinate, Leadership, Head, MANAGEMENT Guide, Organizational, Supervise Automated Library System, Integrated Library System, Horizon, III, Siris, Innovative Interfaces, INTEGRATED LIBRARY INNOPAC, Unicorn SYSTEMS Hardware, Software, Office Applications, Word Processing, COMPUTER SKILLS Spreadsheet, Windows Changing Environment, Dynamic FLEXIBILITY Environment Databases, Digital Collections, ELECTRONIC RESOURCES Online Resources, CD-ROM INITIATIVE Independent, Self-Motivated Current Trends, Emerging Trends, TRENDS Evolving 264 75.60% 244 190 161 69.90% 54.40% 46.10% 117 33.50% 112 110 106 100 99 32.10% 31.50% 30.40% 28.70% 28.40% Categories of Required Skills (Cont.) Category Label PROBLEM SOLVING Terms and Phrases Frequency Percentage 98 92 82 82 70 63 60 28.10% 26.40% 23.50% 23.50% 20.10% 18.10% 17.20% Analytic Skills, Troubleshoot Asian Languages, Western European FOREIGN LANGUAGES Languages, Spanish, German, French Dublin Core, EAD, MODS, OAI, TEI, METADATA VRA Core AUTHORITY CONTROL Authority Records, NACO, SACO Efficiency, Proficiency, Schedule, TIME MANAGEMENT Timely Clients, Customer Service, Patrons, PUBLIC SERVICES User, Service-Oriented ATTENTION TO DETAIL Detail-oriented, Meticulous, Accuracy FTP, Network, WWW, HTML, SGML, WEB KNOWLEDGE XML PROJECT Project Planning, Implement Projects, MANAGEMENT Complex Projects Professional Development, PRFESSIONAL Professional Growth, Professionally COMMITMENT Active, Research Skills, Scholarship STAFF TRAINING Teaching, Training CREATIVITY Innovation, Inventive 57 45 16.30% 12.90% 41 37 21 11.70% 10.60% 6.0%% Dendrogram of Required Skills MDS Map of Required Skills Categories of Preferred Skills CATEGORY LABEL TERMS AND PHRASES Automated Library Systems, Horizon, VOYAGER, ALEPH, Innovative Interfaces, INNOPAC, Unicorn Asian Languages, Western European Languages, Spanish, German, French Frequency Percentage Integrated Library System FOREIGN LANGUAGES 142 85 80 63 55 54 43 35 40.70% 24.40% 22.90% 18.10% 15.80% 15.50% 12.30% 10.00% BIBLIOGRAPHIC UTILITIES OCLC, RLIN, CONNEXION Databases, Digital Collections, ELECTRONIC RESOURCES Online Resources, ERMS AACR, MARC, DDC,LCC, LCSH, LCRI, CATALOGING STANDARDS MESH,CONSER Lead, Guide, Supervise, Oversee, MANAGEMENT Budget Dublin Core, EAD, METS, MODS, OAI, METADATA TEI, VRA Core AUTHORITY CONTROL Authority Records, NACO, SACO Categories of Preferred Skills (Cont.) CATEGORY LABEL TERMS AND PHRASES Internet, Mark-up Languages, HTML, SGML, OPENURL Hardware, PC, Software, Office Applications, Word Processing, Spreadsheet Collaborate, Cooperate, Interact, Collegial, Team, Oral and Written Communication Current Trends, Emerging, New Teaching, Training Frequency Percentage WEB KNOWLEDGE 33 9.50% COMPUTER SKILLS 30 8.60% INTERPESONAL SKILLS TRENDS STAFF TRAINING 30 29 23 8.60% 8.30% 6.60% PROJECT MANAGEMENT Project Planning, Project Development Clients, Customer Service, User, PUBLIC SERVICE Reference Service Changing Environment, Dynamic FLEXIBILITY Environment 22 16 14 6.30% 4.60% 4.00% Dendrogram of Preferred Skills MDS Map of Preferred Skills X Y Categories of Responsibilities CATEGORY LABEL CATALOGING using relevant standards TERMS AND PHRASES AACR, MARC, DDC,LCC, LCSH, LCRI, Copy Cataloging, Descriptive Cataloging, Original Cataloging, Subject Analysis Administer, Coordinate, Lead, Head, Monitor, Guide, Oversee, Supervise, Policy-making, Strategic Planning, Hire Question answering, Problem-solving, Troubleshoot, Resource Person OCLC, RLIN Authority Records, Authority Files, Name Authority, NACO, SACO Digital Collections, Digital Resources, Digital Objects, Electronic Formats, Electronic Journals, Online Resources Current Trends, Emerging, Evolving, New, Up-to-date, Maintain Currency Frequency Percentage 211 60.50% MANAGEMENT 199 57.00% PROBLEM SOLVING BIBLIOGRAPHIC UTILITIES AUTHORITY CONTROL E-RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AWARNESS OF TRENDS 171 169 145 49.00% 48.40% 41.50% 141 126 40.40% 36.10% Categories of Responsibilities (Cont.) CATEGORY LABEL STAFE TRAINNING METADATA TERMS AND PHRASES Training Staff Metadata Services, Metadata Schemes, Dublin Core, EAD, MODS, TEI Archival, Government Documents, Map, Pamphlets, Rare Books Media, Audio-visual, Microform, Music Scores, Photographs, Soundrecordings, Video Serial Publications, Serials Cataloging Automated Library System, Integrated Library System, Horizon, III, Siris, Innovative Interfaces, INNOPAC Acquisition, Collection Management Customers, Patrons, Users, Circulation Frequency Percentage 109 95 31.20% 27.20% SPECIAL CATALOGING 94 26.90% NONPRINT CATALOGING SERIALS MANAGEMENT 90 88 25.80% 25.20% Integrated Library System Collection Development PUBLIC SERVICES 77 73 62 22.10% 20.90% 17.80% Categories of Responsibilities (Cont.) CATEGORY LABEL DATABASE MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE PARTICIPATION REFERENCE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPEMNT TERMS AND PHRASES Database Administration, Database Maintenance, Database Quality Control Serves on Committees, Library Committees, University Committees, Task Forces Reference Desk, Research Assistance Conferences, Professional Organizations, Professional Development, Research and Publication, Scholarly Communication, Digital Initiatives, Digital Projects, Digitization Projects Frequency Percentage 60 17.20% 58 57 16.60% 16.30% 55 15.80% DIGITAL LIBRARY 49 39 37 29 25 14.00% 11.20% 10.60% 8.30% 7.20% DEPARTMENT LIAISION Liaison FLEXIBILITY INSTRUCTION WEB DEVELOPMENT Changing, Dynamic Bibliographic Instruction, Teach Web Page, Website, Web Presence Preliminary Conclusion Advancement of technology has impacted every aspect of cataloging: job titles, competencies, skills and responsibilities. A group of new job titles is ascendant: titles such as “metadata cataloger”, “electronic resource cataloging”, and “digital project” reflect the emerging roles of cataloging professionals in the development of digital collections and repositories. Skills and competencies related to electronic resources management, metadata creation and computer and web application are being sought in the cataloging professions. Current and evolving trends in relation to the development of metadata standards and information technologies demand close attention from cataloging professions. Preliminary Conclusion In regard to responsibilities: metadata creation, eresources management, database maintenance, digital project management and web development are emerging and being integrated into established tasks such as cataloging, bibliographic and authority control and ILS management. Preliminary Conclusion There is no indication that skills and competencies geared toward traditional resources have become less in demand. Traditional job titles such as cataloger, cataloging librarian, technical services librarian are still predominant. Cluster analysis and the MDS map indicate that skills and competencies such as authority control, bibliographic utilities, cataloging standards, and ILS for traditional resources constitute one of the largest clusters. Behavioral and nontechnical aspects of cataloging such as interpersonal skills, public service and flexibility are also critical competencies and form one of the largest clusters in MDS maps of required and preferred skills. Results of job description analysis evinces also the importance of managerial skills.