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					Reading and Organizational Instruction:
          Deeper Understanding




                November, 2002




            John Dellegrotto, Ed. D.
             Educational Consultant

            Pennsylvania Training and
           Technical Assistance Network
           6340 Flank Drive Suite 600
            Harrisburg, PA 17112-2764

                 800-360-7282
               Fax 717- 541-4968
               TTY 800-654-5984
              www.pattan.k12.pa.us
                                  Reading and Organizational Instruction
                                            Table of Contents
A. Organizing Information-Specific Note Taking Instruction                                                                   3
      Prereading Predictions .......................................................................................4
      Cornell Note Taking Strategy ............................................................................5
      Question Matrix .................................................................................................6
      T-CHART ..........................................................................................................7
      Reader’s Response .............................................................................................8
      Retelling .............................................................................................................9
      Textbook Activity Guide .................................................................................10
      Monitoring Comprehension .............................................................................11
      Question Answer Relationships .......................................................................12

B. Obtaining Meaning From Text                                                                                       13
      Beyond the Facts: Student Note Taking Format ..............................................13
      Reading Stances ...............................................................................................14
      READING ASSESSMENT RUBRIC .............................................................16
      Reading Rubric Worksheet ..............................................................................17
      Reading/ Listening Comprehension .................................................................19

C. Vocabulary Instruction 20
      Vocabulary Instruction Worksheet ..................................................................21
      New Vocabulary consists of three sets of words: ............................................22
      Skills involved in learning a new word: ..........................................................23
      New Vocabulary Introduction Skill Sequence .................................................25
      Vocabulary Teaching Worksheet .....................................................................26

D. Speech to Print-Written Language                                                                                    27
      Essay Outline ...................................................................................................27
      Essay Criteria Checklist ...................................................................................30

E. Speech to Print for Written Language ...............................................................31

F. Specific Attention to Poor Readers-
      Decoding and Comprehension .........................................................................31
      Group Reading Structures ................................................................................31
      Trio Reading .....................................................................................................31
      Bump Reading ..................................................................................................32
      Repeated Reading .............................................................................................33
      Differentiated Groups of Students in the ..........................................................34
      Middle and High School for Reading: Assessment Profile ..............................36




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                                                     2
A. Organizing Information-Specific Note Taking Instruction

   Organizing Information-There is a need to teach students specific note taking strategies in the
   different grades and courses so that they form a well rounded notebook as they progress
   through each course. The notebook should consist of study guides, specific note taking
   methods taught by teachers, graphic organizers and questions that guide students from basic
   facts to concepts to higher order thinking skills, such as cause-effect, inference and
   prediction.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                    3
                                 Prereading Predictions

What is it?
Prereading Predictions is useful for activating prior knowledge and making predictions about
story content. In addition, teachers can use the strategy to have students analyze correct usage
and effective word choice.

How to Use It:

1. Before students read a piece of content, the teacher selects approximately twenty to thirty
   colorful, unusual, and/or unfamiliar vocabulary words used by the author. The teacher lists
   these terms in columns, grouping them by words that are specific to the subject and by words
   that are central to understanding the author’s intent. Each student examines this list of words
   and may work in a group of three or as a class to review the meanings of any familiar terms
   and to make some guesses about unfamiliar words’ meanings.

2. Next, the teacher models for students a few ways the words in different columns might be
   combined to form simple sentences. The teacher asks students to explain which
   combinations ―make sense‖, which do not, and why.

3. Based on the lists, students are asked to predict what the content might be about.

4. After reading the content, students revisit their lists and identify how the author actually used
   these words. At this point, the teacher may encourage students to discuss why the author
   might have chosen those words to express the content, whether the students would have
   chosen different words than the author did, and what effect wording can have on a subject
   area content meaning.


Billmeyer, R. & Barton, M. (1998). Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Then
Who? Aurora, CA, McRel.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                       4
                           Cornell Note Taking Strategy

      Key Topics                                    Notes




                                           Summary or
                                           Paraphrase




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                5
                                       Question Matrix
1.              2.               3.            4.            5.            6.

 What is?       Where/When         Which is?   Who is?       Why is?            How is?
                    is?

7.              8.               9.            10.           11.           12.

What did?       Where/When        Which did?    Who did?      Why did?      How did?
                   did?

13.             14.              15.           16.           17.           18.

What can?       Where/When Which can?           Who can?      Why can?      How can?
                   can?

19.             20.              21.           22.           23.           24.

     What       Where/When            Which          Who           Why           How
     would?       would?              would?        would?        would?        would?

25.             26.              27.           28.           29.           30.

What will?      Where/When Which will?          Who will?     Why will?     How will?
                   will?

31.             32.              33.           34.           35.           36.

     What       Where/When            Which          Who           Why           How
     might?       might?              might?        might?        might?        might?




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                              6
                                               T-CHART
                         An activity based on Stance 2, Developing Interpretation


Have your child list things that the characters in a story have in common on one side of the chart. List
the differences that set the characters apart on the other side.

                 Similar                                        Different

1.                                             1.




2.                                             2.




3.                                             3.




4.                                             4.




5.                                             5.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                     7
                                  READER'S RESPONSE


This is what I read:                           This is what I thought or felt about this reading:




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                        8
                                           RETELLING


Use this form to help your student retell the story in sequence (order in which it happened).

CHARACTER(S):




SETTING: (Time and Place)




PROBLEM:




EVENTS:




RESOLUTION - HOW DID IT END?:




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                    9
                               Textbook Activity Guide
1.Skim & PP                                    Identify pages _____
Predict
Partner


2.WR                                           Key words & definitions
Write
Read


3.RR
Read
Retell


4.WR
Write
Response


5.Skim                                         Identify pages
PP
Predict

_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                             10
_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction   11
                                 Monitoring Comprehension

Questions to Ask as I Read


1. Do I know the meaning of this
word?




2. Does this sentence make sense
to me?




3. How does this sentence fit with
others?




4. What is the author’s main
point?




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                12
                              Question Answer Relationships

Question:


1. Right there                                      Key words used to create
                                                    the question




Answer                                              Find answer
2. Think & Search




3. On my own                                        Own words




Relationship
4. Writer & Me




     _____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                         13
   B. Obtaining Meaning From Text
   In many instances we teachers may actually have to teach the concepts directly, since they
   are missing from many textbooks.

                      Beyond the Facts: Student Note Taking Format
Subject: ____________________________________________________

Unit, Topic or Standard Indicator:
______________________________________________________________________________
______

______________________________________________________________________________
______
Facts-- A simple association of a name, event object, date, or place stimulus. Facts entail only
one example or instance.




Concepts-- A class of events, names, dates, objects, places, etc. that share a common set of
defining attributes or characteristics. Concepts involve three components: a label, the set of
defining attributes and, multiple examples or exemplars-a consistent relationship among events,
objects, or behaviors. Concepts generally can be stated as ―if-then‖ or ―when-then‖ statements.
Concepts generally involve multiple applications in which the fundamental relationship is
constant across examples. To be coded in a textbook passage, the fundamental relationship must
be stated explicitly, regardless of whether or not examples are provided.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                 14
_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction   15
                                        Reading Stances

Readers interact with text in various ways as they use background knowledge and understanding
of text to construct, extend and examine meaning. These stances are not meant to describe a
hierarchy of skills or abilities. Rather, they are intended to describe behaviors that readers at all
developmental levels should exhibit.

Understanding the main idea and details is not enough to demonstrate reading or reading
comprehension proficiency. It is necessary to go beyond these areas for deep understanding and
comprehensive understanding of subject area material.

STANCE 1: INITIAL UNDERSTANDING Retelling
   Summary
   Main idea of a passage
   The gist
   The sequence of events
   A broad understanding of the text read

STANCE 2: DEVELOPING AN INTERPRETATION
   Link information across the text
   Make inferences
   Interpret characters’ actions
   See cause and effect
   Chart change across B-M-E (Beginning - Middle - End)

STANCE 3: RESPONDING PERSONALLY
   Make personal connections to the text
   Use knowledge gained from other texts and from personal experiences and connecting
    this information to the passage read
   Activate prior knowledge

STANCE 4: RESPONDING CRITICALLY
   Form a critical judgement about the text
   Stand apart from the text and reflect on it
   Appreciate literary elements (imagery, symbolism)
   Challenge the author’s facts or perspective




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                      16
              Areas                            Student Response
1. Initial Understanding—topic,
   main idea, theme.




2.    Developing Interpretation—
     extend ideas found in the text;
     take information across parts of
     the text as well as focus on
     specific information. Includes
     inferential responses, such as
     drawing conclusions,
     interpreting characters, and
     cause-effect.

3. Respond Personally—connect
   information from the text with
   personal background knowledge
   and experience. Reflect on
   either the author’s point of
   view, and then respond from a
   personal perspective. Explain
   ―Why‖ the passage was
   interesting or not.

4.    Respond Critically—form
     critical judgment about the text.
     Stand apart from the text and
     reflect upon and judge it. This
     stance may require the reader to
     appreciate literary elements
     such as imagery, mood, or
     symbolism, and even to
     challenge an author’s facts or
     perspective.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                      17
                Areas                          Student Response




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                      18
                           READING ASSESSMENT RUBRIC
LEVEL 4
   Demonstrates a thorough understanding of the complexity of the text through detailed
    elaboration and extensions of text with sophisticated ideas, insights and reflections. There
    are no errors in text-based facts.
   Exhibits a level of comprehension that extends beyond the literal, to the personal, critical
    and/or evaluative responses.
   Cites evidence, makes a variety of strong connections to other experiences, texts,
    concepts, issues and/or cultural settings.

LEVEL 3 *
   Demonstrates confident, coherent, and adequate understanding and interpretation of the
    text through some elaboration and extension.
   There are no major errors in text-based facts.
   Exhibits a level of comprehension that reflects extensions that are more literal or
    personal.
   Makes connections to personal experiences, other texts and/or background knowledge.

LEVEL 2
   Demonstrates a limited understanding and/or interpretation of the text. There may be
    errors in text-based facts.
   Exhibits a level of comprehension that consists primarily of literal responses to the text.
   Makes connections between other experiences and text that are disjointed, fragmented,
    limited and not integral to the text.

LEVEL 1
   Demonstrates an attempt to respond with very limited evidence of understanding of the
    text.
   There may be errors in text-based facts.
   Exhibits a level of comprehension that consists of disjointed, incomplete or irrelevant
    responses.
   Might use relevant copied text.
   Makes only distant connections to the text, using sketchy details.

LEVEL 0 – consists of three types of responses:
    Non-Scorable (NS) papers are blank.
    Off-Task (OT) papers show no relationship to task and text, are illegible, irrelevant,
       copied text or written in a language other than English.
    Intentionally Off-Task (IO) papers are ones that have unrelenting profanity, are a
       refusal to perform, state a baseless charge of too personal or are drawings, scribbling, etc.
*Note – Level 3 (or higher) is to be viewed as the performance standard for all students.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                     19
                             Reading Rubric Worksheet

LEVEL 4

                  Component                                    Student Response
      Demonstrates a thorough understanding
       of the complexity of the text through
       detailed elaboration and extensions of
       text with sophisticated ideas, insights
       and reflections. There are no errors in
       text-based facts.

      Exhibits a level of comprehension that
       extends beyond the literal, to the
       personal, critical and/or evaluative
       responses.

      Cites evidence, makes a variety of
       strong connections to other
       experiences, texts, concepts, issues
       and/or cultural settings.


LEVEL 3        Note – Level 3 (or higher) is to be viewed as the performance standard for all
students.


                  Component                                    Student Response
Demonstrates confident, coherent, and
adequate understanding and interpretation of
the text through some elaboration and
extension.

There are no major errors in text-based facts.

Exhibits a level of comprehension that reflects
extensions that are more literal or personal.

Makes connections to personal experiences,
other texts and/or background knowledge.



LEVEL 2


_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                    20
                   Component                          Student Response
Demonstrates a limited understanding and/or
interpretation of the text. There may be errors
in text-based facts.

Exhibits a level of comprehension that consists
primarily of literal responses to the text.




LEVEL 1

                 Component                          Student Response
Demonstrates an attempt to respond with very
limited evidence of understanding of the text.
There may be errors in text-based facts.

Exhibits a level of comprehension that consists
of disjointed, incomplete or irrelevant
responses.

Might use relevant copied text.

Makes only distant connections to the text,
using sketchy details.


LEVEL 0 – consists of three types of responses:

               Component                            Student Response
Non-Scorable (NS) papers are blank.

Off-Task (OT) papers show no relationship to
task and text, are illegible, irrelevant, copied
text or written in a language other than
English.

Intentionally Off-Task (IO) papers are ones
that have unrelenting profanity, are a refusal to
perform, state a baseless charge of too personal
or are drawings, scribbling, etc.



_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                             21
_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction   22
                           Reading/ Listening Comprehension

What can we do to increase comprehension of material?

 Ask students to tell you what the main idea or overall main point of
  the lesson was yesterday or today, etc. This could be a quick review
  or a quick closure for a lesson.

 Ask students to summarize the main points in their own words so you
  know they really understand what they are saying rather than simply
  parroting back information they have just heard or simply memorized.

 Ask students to provide specific examples or details that might
  support the main idea they pick out or that you give them.

 Periodically, ask students to answer the following questions about
  main ideas. This constant reminder and discussion about main ideas
  will eventually become so routine and ingrained that students will be
  able to have this discussion automatically as they read/ listen.

          What is a ―main‖ idea?
          How is a main idea different from a supporting detail?
          Where might you find a main idea when you are reading/
           listening?
          How can you check to be sure you have really found a
           main idea?

 Ask students to write down the main ideas in their own words to turn
  in periodically so you know every student is going through this
  process. We don’t want to let some students ride on other students’
  work and answers in class. We need to be sure every student is
  participating in this thinking process.



_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                          23
C. Vocabulary Instruction
   Introduction of New Vocabulary-When new words are introduced in a particular unit or
   lesson, it is necessary to teach the words in an explicit manner. There are two kinds of words
   necessary to be taught. One kind is the obvious new words specific to the topic. The other
   kinds of words are what the unit asks students to do, such as compare, contrast, synthesize,
   interpret. Often these words are assumed to be understood by the student.

       Teaching vocabulary needs to be direct and on-purpose to make sure that the students
       know the words. They need to be able to read the words and also know that they mean.
       Effective ways of accomplishing this task include graphic organizers, word analysis,
       word pronunciation, using the word in specific examples and non-examples and using the
       word in context. Ineffective ways include having the student write the word followed by
       a definition because these practices lead to memorization.


Contextual clues do nothing to assist the student with learning the word. They only serve to
assist the student with the word’s meaning in that particular situation. When the student
encounters the word again in another context, he still does not know how to say and define the
word.

Explicit word instruction is necessary to teach the word to the student. The student needs to
know how to say, spell, write and use the word if he is to learn it effectively. This instruction
involves the teacher modeling how to say the word and how to spell it, as well as how to break it
down into syllables and providing examples of how to use the word. Just telling the students
what the word is will not teach it to them.

In addition to the most obvious words in a subject’s new lesson or unit, there are a significant
number of other words that we assume students know because they can say them. The teacher
needs to identify these words and be certain that students can relate their meaning by using the
words correctly.


Teaching vocabulary needs to be direct and on-purpose to make sure that the students know the
words. They need to be able to read the words and also know that they mean. Effective ways of
accomplishing this task include graphic organizers, word analysis, and word pronunciation, using
the word in specific examples and non-examples and using the word in context. Ineffective ways
include having the student write the word followed by a definition because these practices lead to
memorization.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                       24
                              Vocabulary Instruction Worksheet

Unit or Topic:

  Vocabulary                 Words from Text to Fit the Vocabulary Area
     Area
New Words
Specific to the
Subject-include
both concepts and
facts




Words Central to
Understanding the
Subject Words,
such as connecting
words




Words Students
Have Difficulty
Saying and
Reading




                        Proceed to Vocabulary Instruction Specifics

_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                              25
                    New Vocabulary consists of three sets of words:


   1. Words students cannot pronounce.

   2. Subject specific words students can say but do not know the meaning


   3. Words we assume the student knows because he can say them


       Main idea
       Inferences
       Concept versus fact
       Sequencing
       Supporting opinion or information
       Research information




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                26
                          Skills involved in learning a new word:


   1. Say-read the word

   2. Definition using examples and non examples

   3. Use word in context

   4. Connections to known and new

   5. Draw a picture of the word

   6. Spell-write in context

   7. Syllabicate decode

   8. Fluently read the word aloud

   9. Provide a concept word




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                        27
The least effective way to teach a new word is to
list the word with the definition next to it and
then students memorize. We think that they have
learned the word but they have not.
Billmeyer, R. & Barton, M. (1998). Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Then
Who?
Aurora, CA, McRel.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                28
                     New Vocabulary Introduction Skill Sequence




   1. say it decode it

   2. word within a word

   3. visualize or picture it

   4. word configuration

   5. spell it oral and written

   6. word in context

   7. use word in sentence

   8. give not examples

   9. synonyms

   10. antonyms

   11. actual meaning

However we do it, the least effective step in
vocabulary development and teaching new
words is to list the word and definition
beside it.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                      29
                                Vocabulary Teaching Worksheet
   Target Word: __________________________________________


   1. Say and read the word.


   2. Give an example and
      non-example.



   3. Use the word in context.


   4. Connect the word to
      known words.


   5. Draw a picture of the
      word.




   6. Spell the word.

   7. Analyze the word:
      syllabicate, spell, word
      within a word, prefix,
      suffix, root words.




   8. Fluently (easily and
      quickly) read the word.


   9. Provide the definition.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                    30
D. Speech to Print-Written Language

The first step in producing written language is to have student take good notes
from teacher lectures, handouts and from reading assignments. The note
taking interventions from the first sections of this handout precede any
writing assignment.

                                          Essay Outline


Name__________________________________       Date______________
Period_____Teacher___________
Assignment_____________________________________________________
________

Introduction Paragraph:

Attention Getter: _______________________________________________

Background Info (definition, etc.) ___________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

Thesis Statement: ______________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

Main Points:___________                _____________      _____________

Clinching Statement:




Body Paragraphs:

_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                 31
Topic/ 1st Main Point: _______________________________
Details: _______________________

           _______________________

           _______________________

Clinching Statement

Topic/ 2nd Main Point:________________________________

Details: _______________________

           _______________________

           _______________________

Clinching Statement


Topic/ 3rd Main Point:_________________________________

Details: _______________________

            _______________________

            _______________________

Clinching Statement

Conclusion Paragraph:

Re-statement of main points:__________ __________ _________


_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                  32
Re-statement of Thesis Statement:__________________________

______________________________________________________

Leave your reader with something to think about: Why should your
reader be concerned, interested, etc.?

Clinching Statement:_____________________________________

______________________________________________________



J. Dove, 2001.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                       33
                                Essay Criteria Checklist
Introduction
____ Attention Getter (grab your readers’ attention/ interest)
____ Background information (definitions of key terms, history, etc.)
____ Three main points/ reasons
____   Thesis Statement (What are you arguing for or against?)

Body Paragraph
____ Topic sentence (main reason or point that refers to the thesis statement)
____ Three supporting details (examples, descriptions, etc.)
____ Clinching sentence (Re-state or emphasize main point)


Body Paragraph
____ Topic sentence (main reason or point that refers to the thesis statement)
____ Three supporting details (examples, descriptions, etc.)
____ Clinching sentence (Re-state or emphasize main point)



Body Paragraph
____ Topic sentence (main reason or point that refers to the thesis statement)
____ Three supporting details (examples, descriptions, etc.)
____ Clinching sentence (Re-state or emphasize main point)


Conclusion
____ Restatement of the thesis statement & main points (re-emphasize and summarize)
____ Leave your reader with something to think about (Why should your reader be
     concerned, interested, etc?)


Mechanics
___ Correct punctuation, spelling, and capitalization


Content
___ Used accurate facts
___ Explained specific reasons and examples clearly

Overall Comments:                                  Grade:________


J. Dove, 2001



_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                          34
E. Speech to Print for Written Language
       Students who have an aversion to writing often have good thoughts on the
       particular subject that the teacher has assigned, but need to be shown that their
       thoughts are worthwhile and that they can transfer their thoughts onto paper.
       While written language is much more than “talk written down,” securing their
       spoken language statements about the topic is a starting point. When students
       realize that their statements around the different parameters that the teacher
       expects often translate into many paragraphs, they have a starting point for writing.
       The speech to print computer assisted programs on the marked provide an excellent
       way for students of all ages and abilities to get started with writing and to produce
       much more writing than they ever realized. Too often these students struggle when
       the pencil or keyboard is placed in front of them and they literally “freeze.” We
       need ways to unlock their thoughts about specific topics so that they can become
       more proficient writers.


F. Specific Attention to Poor Readers-Decoding and Comprehension
           Specific Attention to Poor Readers-Working with students who are having difficulty
           reading is recommended to start with students who have an oral reading fluency rate
           of below 100 words per minute in their course books. The expectation at the
           secondary level is actually closer to 140 words per minute, but below 100 words per
           minute significantly interferes with obtaining the content in text that the teacher
           wants the student to read.

                               Group Reading Structures

Trio Reading
Students are to form groups of three and number themselves 1-3. As one student reads a
designated (4-5 paragraphs) section aloud, a second student checks for accuracy and corrects the
student when errors occur. The third student checks each of the first two students for
comprehension by asking questions from the question matrix following the reading of the
designated section. Students then alternate so that each student obtains at least two cycles of
reading, checking and asking questions.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                  35
Bump Reading
Using a spinner the teacher assigns one student to begin reading. After reading at least a
paragraph, the reader may ―bump‖ to another person in their trio. The person who is bumped
must ask a question and choose one person in their trio to answer it. After the question is
answered the person who asked the question then reads and the process continues.

Management Tips:

1.     If the answerer can’t come up with the answer, the questioner waits five seconds and
       gives them the answer.

2.     Questioner uses fact questions during reading.

3.     The teacher may assign a time limit for the assignment to help keep the students on task.




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                   36
                                  Repeated Reading
The more a student practices reading the better he/she will be able to read. Repeated
reading is a strategy that can help develop fluency, comprehension, and improve a
student’s attitude toward reading. The following are directions for implementing the
repeated reading strategy. A major purpose of this strategy is to help the student feel
successful about reading.

1. Select (or have the student select) a passage with the teacher of at least 100 but not
   longer than 300 words. (One or two sentences are sufficient for beginning readers).

2. Tell the student he/she will be reading the passage several times so he will get better
   at reading it. You might use the analogy of the basketball player practicing shooting
   baskets over and over so that he/she can get really good.

3. Have the student select a partner. Each student should have a different reading
   passage.

4. Decide who will read first.

5. Have the first reader read the passage aloud to his/her partner. (Partners may help the
   readers with unknown words).

6. The first reader reads the passage aloud to the partner or listener a second time.

7. The partner identifies at least one way the reader improved. Reading #2.

8. The first reader reads the passage aloud to the partner a third time.

9. The partner notes at least one way the reading improved the third time and marks
   ―How well did your partner finish reading?‖ Reading #3.

10. When the first reader is finished, the second reader reads his/her passage aloud and
    follows the same procedures as the first reader (#s 5-10).




_____ Reading and Organizational Instruction                                                37
                                     RETELLING
Purpose:
To determine if students understand how narrative texts are structured and whether or not
they use this structure to guide an oral recounting of a story. This is an excellent strategy
for helping students understand that stories have parts: themes, characters, settings,
events, and endings.


Class Wide Application:

Retelling generally consists of a dialogue between the teacher and the student about a
story. However, it can be easily adapted to partner and small group classroom situations.


Teaching Procedures:
The teacher explains that the students will be practicing the retelling of a story, parts of a
story or parts of text in subject areas.

Students are reminded to retell the story as if they were telling it to a friend, not leaving
out any important parts. They are encouraged to add details.


Follow-up:
There are several ways to initiate retellings on a class wide basis. The teacher explains
that at times students will be working with partners and at other times they will be
working in small groups.

Under partner reading, one reads while the other listens. When the reader stops, the
partner retells that portion of the story. They then switch roles with the reader becoming
the reteller and the reteller the reader.

A second way is to use a form of Trio Reading. In this method, one student is assigned to
be the reader and questioner; the second student is the answerer, and the third student is
the reteller. After reading, the reader poses a set of questions for the answerer. After the
questions have been answered, the reader asks the reteller to retell the story. This
approach focuses on forming questions related to the story, answering questions, and
retelling the story.




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The third arrangement calls for students to work in groups of four. Since stories have
themes, characters, settings, events, and conclusions, students are assigned to develop the
separate parts of the story in the following manner.

       The first student provides the beginning and main idea.
       The second student develops the characters.
       The third student describes the setting.

The teacher reminds the students to focus on their specific parts and to develop their parts
by providing supporting details.

After the story has been read, the students are given one minute to think about their
specific parts and to make mental notes. They are then given one minute to retell their
specific part. This is done in groups of four.

As a follow-up to this activity, students having the same parts are instructed to come
together and to share their views about their particular part. These groups are given three
minutes to formulate their thoughts. At the end of three minutes a spokesperson is
selected from each group to present the information back to the class based upon the
consensus of their specific group.

A combination of these three forms of retelling enables the teacher to develop the
different attributes of retelling and to accentuate the need for providing supporting detail.
It also enables the teacher to see how students grow in their ability to collectively use
these attributes in retelling stories.

In addition to students discussing and developing the different parts of stories orally, the
retelling structure provides an ideal format for encouraging students to write about the
different parts. Story webs and story maps are excellent vehicles for helping them collect
and organize their thoughts as they prepare to write about the attributes of different parts
of a story.




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                     Differentiated Groups of Students in the
                      Middle and High School for Reading:
                                     Assessment Profile


                    Skill                                 Student’s Ability with
                                                           Subject Matter Text
1. Unable to pronounce the words

2. Pronounces words with difficulty

3. Pronounces words slowly-below 120
   wcpm

4. Pronounces words at 120wcpm

5. Pronounces words         but   unable       to
   comprehend fully

6. Pronounces words but does not know
   meaning of content words

7. Pronounces words but does not know
   meaning of process and function words

8. Pronounces words but misses details

9. Pronounces words but misses inference

10. Pronounces words but misses cause and
    effect

11. Pronounces words but relates only
    literal text-based information using the
    text to respond

12. Pronounces words and relates only
    literal information not using the text as
    a cue




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