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					magazine for international information management                               news
                                                                                focus
                                                                                strategy
                                                                                solutions
                                                                                business culture
                                                                                community
                                                                                directory

                                                                                70906
                                                                                November/
                                                                                December 2008




          The translation market in ten years’ time –
          a forecast
          How companies can prepare themselves for the increasing demand for translations



          Intercultural management at Škoda Auto
          How the tradition-based car manufacturer maintained its local values while going
          global




Overcoming the
global downturn
Why the technical communication
and language sectors buck the trend
         Time to

                  Change!




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                                                                                     Across Systems GmbH
                                                                                     Phone +49 7248 925 425
                The No. 1 independent technology                                     international@across.net
                for the linguistic supply chain.                                     www.across.net
imprint                                                                                                           editorial
publisher

TC and more GmbH
in collaboration with tekom,
Europe’s largest association for
technical communication
managing director
Dr. Michael Fritz
Rotebühlstraße 64
                                                    These days the historic city of Wi-     Organizations will be confronted
70178 Stuttgart
                                                    esbaden will once again become the      with an increased amount of docu-
ph: +49(0)711-6 57 04-0
fax: +49(0)711-6 57 04-99                           arena of an international gathering     ments for translation as well as a
                                                    of technical communicators, lo-         greater number of languages. To
www.tekom.de
info@tekom.de                                       calization experts and information      avoid bottlenecks the author advises
                                                    managers. The growing number of         companies to get prepared early on
advertising                                         participants at the tekom Annual        for the challenges of the future.
                                                    Conference and tcworld conference       As the creation and translation of
TC and more GmbH                                    reflects the health of the industries   technical documents are usually not
Ursula Wirtz
                                                    they represent. While many sectors      part of a company’s core business,
Rotebühlstraße 64
70178 Stuttgart                                     have been affected by the down-         they have become typical areas for
ph: +49(0)711-6 57 04-44                            turn of the global economy, three       outsourcing. However, a successful
fax: +49(0)711-6 57 04-99                           industry sectors represented at the     outsourcing experience requires
www.tekom.de                                        conferences have been spared from       thorough planning and support.
u.wirtz@tekom.de                                    any loss: the technical communica-      Rob Heemels and Sabine Grosser
                                                    tion, localization and translation      give an overview (page 17).
layout                                              industries. Ironically, these three     José Gambín and Igor Zubicaray
                                                    sectors might have even been fueled     elucidate the differences between
Atelier Schmidt-Römhild
                                                    by the recession in other industries:   US Spanish, Latin American Span-
Werner Knopp
Mengstraße 16                                       The worldwide economic downturn         ish and the so-called International
magazine for international information management
23522 Lübeck                                        has proven to many companies how        and Neutral Spanish (page 24).
ph: +49(0)451-70 31-0                               important professional and tailor-      Lenka Bilá gives an interesting
fax: +49(0)451-70 31-284                            made communication really is.           insight into the successful manage-
www.schmidt-roemhild.de                             However, while thriving on the          ment of Škoda Auto. The Joint Ven-
grafik@schmidt-roemhild.com
                                                    abundance of work, these sectors        ture partner of German Volkswagen
tcworld is published every two
                                                    are facing a different challenge: The   AG has maintained its Czech values
months. Subscriptions can                           lack of skilled workers.                and traditions much to the approval
be ordered at the publishing                        Featuring new industry research,        of its employees and customers
house. For tekom members                            this issue of our magazine focuses      (page 20).
the price for the tcworld
                                                    on the economic developments of         For more information regarding the
magazine is included in the
membership fee.
                                                    localization, translation and techni-   tcworld conference, please refer to
                                                    cal communication (page 10).            our conference preview on page 29.
editor                                              On the translation market the           We wish you an enjoyable and suc-
                                                    workload will become even bigger        cessful conference!
TC and more GmbH                                    over the next years, predicts Astrid
Corinna Ritter                                                                              Corinna Ritter
magazine for international                          Hager in her article (page14).
Rotebühlstraße 64
information management
70178 Stuttgart
ph: +49(0)711-6 57 04-41
fax: +49(0)711-6 57 04-99
www.tekom.de
tcworld@tekom.de




magazine for international
information management



                                                                                                                              3
e
                                                                                                                                 content
                                                                                                                                 strategy



Overcoming the global
                                                 6    news                                         solutions
downturn
While many industries have suffered severe                                                    20   Intercultural management
losses in earnings and staff members, the             focus                                        at Škoda Auto
localization and translation industry as well
as the technical communications sector have      10   Overcoming the global
marked significant growth. New research               downturn                                     business culture
reveals interesting facts and figures.
                                                 11   Language and localization               24   Spanish for local and global
page 10
                                                      industry shows robust growth                 markets
                                                                                                   Localizing for different Spanish target
                                                 13   Technical communication                      groups
                                                      sector faces new challenges

                                                                                                   community
                                                 strategy
                                                                                              28   International information
                                                 14   The translation market in                    management – a sector with a
                                                      ten years’ time – a forecast                 promising future
                                                                                                   A preview of the tcworld conference 2008
                                                 17   Change Management – an
                                                      underestimated success factor           31   tcworld calendar
                                                      Enabling a smooth outsourcing project
                                                      through thorough planning and support
                                                                                              32   directory
                                                                                              3 editorial
                                                                                              3 imprint
The translation market
in ten years’ time – a
forecast
The expansion of the EU contributes to the
rising volume of documents for translation.
How can companies prepare themselves to
avoid bottlenecks?

page 14




Intercultural manage-
ment at Škoda Auto
The merger with VW AG confronted Škoda
Auto with the challenges of globalization.
Today the Czech company has become a glo-
bal player while maintaining its local values.

page 20



  DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                             5
news




IT budgets in US more likely to be cut than those in Europe


Impact of economic downturn on tech
spending varies by region and sector
More than 40 percent of large busi-     in the global economy, while 24        ment, and leisure industry, where       President and Principal Analyst
nesses have cut their IT budgets this   percent of firms have put discre-      only 39 percent of respondents said     John C. McCarthy. “With regard to
year due to the global economic         tionary spending on hold. Twenty-      they have had to reduce spending.       the services sector, the slowdown
slowdown, according to a new sur-       eight percent of respondents said      IT departments in North America         has firms renegotiating rates, being
vey by independent research firm        the economy has had no impact on       have been affected by the econ-         more selective in choosing vendors,
Forrester Research, Inc.. The For-      their IT budgets.                      omy more than their European            and examining spending plans
rester Business Data Services report    Asked how the economy will affect      counterparts: 49 percent of North       more thoroughly, but they are still
“The State of Enterprise IT Services:   IT services spending, 70 percent       American firms have cut their IT        expecting to pay more for services.
2008” surveyed nearly 950 senior        of respondents said they will          budgets compared with 31 percent        The demand for enterprise IT serv-
IT managers across North America        likely negotiate lower rates with      of respondents in Europe; although      ices has not dropped significantly.”
and Europe regarding their IT serv-     suppliers, and 16 percent said they    it should be noted that the Forrester   The report also illustrates a number
ices spending and overall services      have already cut their IT services     survey was fielded in Q2 2008 prior     of trends regarding the state of
strategies and priorities.              spending.                              to the deteriorating economic con-      spending on enterprise IT services.
The economy’s effect on IT spend-       IT departments in the financial        ditions in Europe.                       “The State Of Enterprise IT Serv-
ing is evident in some specific data    services industry were hit hardest –   “This is not an across-the-board        ices: 2008” is currently available to
points contained in the report:         49 percent of IT shops in the finan-   spending slowdown; the impact of        Forrester RoleView™ clients and can
Forty-three percent of firms have       cial services sector have cut their    the economy on IT budgets varies        be purchased directly at
already cut their overall IT budgets    budgets. At the other end of the       widely by industry and geogra-
in 2008 in reaction to the slowdown     spectrum is the media, entertain-      phy,” said Forrester Research Vice      www.forrester.com.




6                                                                                                                                         DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                              news




Automated translation                                                                                                            WoRDFAST AND
                                                                                                                                 TRANSLATIoNS.CoM


becomes key strategic enabler
                                                                                                                                 ExpAND ALLIANCE
                                                                                                                                 Wordfast LLC, provider of transla-
                                                                                                                                 tion memory software, and Trans-
                                                                                                                                 lations.com, a provider of trans-
                                                                                                                                 lation workflow solutions, have
SDL, provider of Global Information         mate”, said Laurie Gerber, President of   translation (62 percent), followed by
                                                                                                                                 expanded their existing alliance.
Management (GIM) solutions, has             the International Association for Ma-     support and knowledge-based con-
                                                                                                                                 Under the new agreement, the two
announced the results of a survey           chine Translation. “Expectations and      tent (49 percent).                         companies will cooperate with re-
on trends in automated translation.         demands concerning quality remain         Over 70 percent of respondents             gard to joint marketing programs,
Completed by over 385 individuals in        high, with a large number of partici-     named French, Italian, German and          a tighter integration of products,
global businesses – of which over 71        pants requiring high-quality output       Spanish (FIGS) as their main target for    and collaboration with Alchemy
percent were of managerial level and        from automated translation. This is       usage. Asian languages accounted for       Software Development.
above – the survey highlights a stark       understandable as the majority see it     just over 50 percent and Eastern Euro-
increase not just in the motivation of      as part of a human translation process,   pean languages accrued 42 percent.
businesses to use automated trans-          to improve productivity and reduce        The full details of the research can be
lation compared to two years ago,           costs without sacrificing quality.”       read at
                                                                                                                                 WELoCALIzE STARTS
but also in the actual deployment of        Technical documentation was the
                                                                                                                                 GLobALSIGHT opEN
the technology. SDL conducted the           main anticipated usage of automated       www.sdl.com/atsurvey
                                                                                                                                 SoURCE INITIATIVE
research in conjunction with the In-
ternational Association for Machine                                                                                              Welocalize, Inc., a provider of inte-
                                                                                                                                 grated globalization services, and
Translation (IAMT) and Association
                                                                                                                                 twelve industry thought leaders
for Machine Translation Americas                                                                                                 have joined together to spear-
(AMTA).                                                                                                                          head the GlobalSight open Source
Most respondents were familiar with                                                                                              Initiative. The GlobalSight Steering
the concept of automated translation,                                                                                            Committee is promoting collabora-
with nearly 25 percent either using it                                                                                           tion to create a competitive enter-
or planning to use it. Furthermore, 40                                                                                           prise-class, open source Translation
                                                                                                                                 Management System (TMS).
percent of companies said they were
                                                                                                                                 Representatives from AoL; Au-
more likely to utilize it now. These two                                                                                         todesk Inc.; Cisco Systems; EMC;
statistics alone point to a substantial                                                                                          NetApp; Sun Microsystems and TI-
industry shift in perception, as inter-                                                                                          bCo are participating.
est and trust in this technology and
its uses increase.
Over half of the respondents – 55
percent – wanted to use automated                                                                                                CoMMoN SENSE ADVI-
translation for producing general for-                                                                                           SoRy RESEARCH LEADS
eign language versions of company                                                                                                To TooL DEVELopMENT
content. Reflecting modern business                                                                                              In Common Sense Advisory’s recent
practices, particularly where instant                                                                                            sizing exercise for the worldwide
communication is required, the other                                                                                             interpreting market, the research
areas of potential usage were fairly                                                                                             firm surveyed 17 US hospitals to
                                                                                                                                 obtain information regarding an-
evenly distributed between integra-
                                                                                                                                 nual spending on both outsourced
tion with chat tools, in e-mail, Micro-
                                                                                                                                 and in-house interpreting services.
soft Word documents, on wikis and                                                                                                based on this research and experi-
blogs, integrated into a web page and                                                                                            ence with language and business-
for conducting research on foreign                                                                                               related measurements, Common
language documents.                                                                                                              Sense Advisory has developed a
“We conducted the survey on a global                                                                                             new tool - the language access ra-
                                                                                                                                 tio - to enable hospitals to see how
scale so that we could gain a world-
                                                                                                                                 their spending compares to that of
wide perspective of automated trans-
                                                                                                                                 their peers.
lation in business, and to also identify
                                                                                                        Photo: Enrique Sallent
its role within the current business cli-

DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                                         7
news

    SEMANTIC MAp oF ENGLISH
    Cognition Technologies, a company with se-
    mantic natural language processing tech-



                                                         Report illuminates buyers’
    nologies, has released a “Semantic Map of the
    English language”. The electronic dictionary
    includes more than ten million semantic con-
    nections that comprise semantic contexts,
    meaning representations, taxonomy, and word
    meaning distinctions. Cognition Technologies’
    lexical resources encode semantic, morphologi-
                                                         views of translation quality
    cal, and syntactic information about the words
    contained within documents and their relation-
    ships to each other.                                 For Global 2000 companies, it’s no longer enough       Key findings include:
                                www.cognition.com        to just convert information into another language      ● Buyers cite six major themes in their definitions
                                                         – large-scale buyers of translation services are be-     of quality – and the elements buyers deem
                                                         coming more ambitious with their globalization           most critical often differ from what vendors be-
                                                         plans and demanding a higher quality of service.         lieve is important to their customers.
    KUDoz ARCHIVE SURpASSES                              This finding is highlighted in the recent report       ● Global brands that frequently translate their
    TWo MILLIoN TERMS                                    “Buyer-Defined Translation Quality”, published by        marketing, technical data sheets, materials,
    proz.com, a community of translation profes-         research firm Common Sense Advisory (CSA). The           software products, and websites reveal their
    sionals, has announced that the “Kudoz” archive      publication zeroes in on quality from the perspec-       most common sources of frustration regarding
    of terms and their translations has now grown        tive of large-scale buyers of translation services.      quality.
    to a size of over two million terms. proz.com’s      CSA conducted interviews with 28 companies             ● The two most important elements of quality –
    Kudoz network provides a framework for trans-
                                                         that pay to translate hundreds of millions of words      technical accuracy and a vendor’s willingness
    lators to assist each other with translations or
                                                         into an average of 30 languages. It also surveyed        to implement feedback – are even more im-
    explanations of terms and short phrases. Ku-
    doz, proz.com’s archive of tough terms and their     55 major buyers of translation services – 70 per-        portant to buyers than linguistic quality.
    translations, has been built one term at a time,     cent work in companies that employ 500 individu-       ● Global firms follow seven key practices for de-
    by tens of thousands of translators, over the past   als or more, and 60 percent spend in excess of one       veloping and implementing translation quality
    nine years.                                          million US dollars on translation services annually.     metrics.
                               www.proz.com/kudoz        The report captures the results of interviews from     ● Broad consensus exists across interviewees on
                                                         high-profile global brands across seven industries:      having in-country reviewers participate in the
                                                         automotive, life sciences, high-tech, retail, travel     quality evaluation process.
                                                         and leisure, consumer manufacturing, and heavy
    KILGRAy MEMoQ 3.0
                                                         manufacturing.                                         www.commonsenseadvisory.com
    Kilgray Translation Technologies, a developer of
    translation productivity tools, has announced
    the release of MemoQ 3.0. The upgrade includes
    a new termbase and provides new terminol-
    ogy features such as forbidden terms. It intro-
    duces full support for xLIFF as a bilingual format
    and offers the visual localization of RESx files.
    MemoQ 3.0 is available in English, German, Jap-
    anese and Hungarian.
                                    www.kilgray.com




    Abbyy LINGVo x3
    Abbyy, a developer of language software and
    document recognition and forms processing
    technologies, has launched Abbyy Lingvo x3,
    the latest version of its dictionary application.
    Compared to the previous version, the size of
    the Abbyy Lingvo x3 dictionaries has grown by
    about 20 percent and now stands at over 8.7
    million entries. It includes 150 dictionaries. Ab-
    byy Lingvo x3 offers effective language learning
    tools and contains learner’s dictionaries, a gram-
    mar reference, and audio pronunciations.
                                     www.lingvo.com                                                                                                         Photo:
                                                                                                                                                     Avner Richard



8                                                                                                                                               DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                         MLad0607.pdf   8/7/07    12:49:00 PM




                                                                          news




Localization
e-learning course
Imperial College London has an-            Topics will include introduction to the
nounced a new 11-week e-learning           key concepts of localization; localiz-
program for professional translators       ing resource (software) files; localizing
on software and games localization.        Help files (WinHelp and WebHelp);
The course will be held from January       screenshooting and localizing graph-


                                                                                               Do you have
12, 2009, through March 30, 2009. It       ics; and localizing games.
is geared toward those who want to
further their career in the translation


                                                                                               something to say
industry and are also considering soft-    www3.imperial.ac.uk/humanities/
ware localization.                         languageservices




                                                                                               to the world?
IAOP announces                                                                   C



                                                                                 M




The 2009 Global                                                                  Y



                                                                                 CM            We can help you say it—
                                                                                               the way you mean it!
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                                                                                               MultiLing Corporation has established itself as one of
The International Association of Out-      the top consultant, legal, and related
                                                                                 K             the premier full-service translation companies in the
sourcing Professionals™ (IAOP™) has        advisory firms globally, and will be a              world. By combining the best in language technology
announced the launch of The 2009           valuable reference tool for companies               with incomparable customer service, MultiLing delivers
Global Outsourcing 100™, its fourth        needing expert advice and guidance                  the highest quality while saving you time and money.
annual ranking of the world’s best         with their outsourcing projects.                    You have big challenges as you compete in a global
outsourcing service providers. As part     The independently judged evalua-                    market. We have the right solution and the right
of The Global Outsourcing 100, IAOP is     tion process mirrors the Request for                tools to make sure your message is heard correctly.
also introducing a new list, the World's   Proposal process employed by many                   There's an easier and friendlier way to translate
Best Outsourcing Advisors. The Global      top customers and considers four key
                                                                                               your product into other languages. Call or visit us at
Outsourcing 100 and its select sub-        criteria: size and growth, customer ex-
                                                                                               www.multiling.com.
lists are references for companies         perience, depth and breadth of com-
seeking new and expanded relation-         petencies and management capabili-
ships with companies in the industry.      ties. Companies are ranked on quality               Translation
The lists include service provider and     based on the information provided                   Localization
advisory companies from around the         by each company in its application
                                                                                               Globalization
world that provide the full spectrum       in combination with independent re-
of outsourcing services.                   search and customer references.                     Translation Technology
The World’s Best Outsourcing Advi-         The 2009 Global Outsourcing 100
sors, new for 2009, is geared specifi-     and select sub-lists and the World’s
cally at companies that are outstand-      Best Outsourcing Advisors will be
ing global outsourcing advisors and        published by IAOP and recognized in
consultants. In addition to being part     a special advertising feature in FOR-
of The Global Outsourcing 100 main         TUNE® magazine’s 2009 FORTUNE
list and sub-lists of service provid-      500 issue.
ers, the new list of advisors will rank    www.outsourcingprofessionals.org                                                              MultiLing Germany GmbH
                                                                                       Tel: +49 (8151) 65 20 90 | info-germany@multiling.com | www.multiling.de
DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                            9
focus




                   Overcoming the
                   global downturn
                   Translation, localization and technical communication
                   – three sectors weathering the storm caused by the
                   international economic depression




Photo: Ben Goode



10                                                              DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                             focus



                                                                                                     Not surprisingly, employee growth is also
                                                                                                     very strong. More than 75 percent of GALA


       Language and
                                                                                                     members who responded to the survey indi-
                                                                                                     cated employee growth; one fourth have had
                                                                                                     employee growth of more than 20 percent.


       localization industry
                                                                                                     Among those GALA members who responded,
                                                                                                     TransPerfect/Translations.com of New York has
                                                                                                     experienced 38 percent growth and is hiring
                                                                                                     in many areas. Another major language service

       shows robust growth                                                                           provider, thebigword, based in the U.K., added
                                                                                                     25 new positions in China last year and is add-
                                                                                                     ing another 25 positions in New York this year.

       As the 2008 tcworld conference and Trade Fair gets underway in Wiesbaden, fear                Economic downturn increases the need
       and uncertainty cloud the global economy. But one industry heavily represented                to communicate successfully
       at the conference is bucking the trend, showing signs of strong growth that is                “The downturn in the global economy means
       expected to continue for years to come.                                                       that it is that much more important to commu-
                                                                                                     nicate to customers – wherever they are in the
                                                                                                     world – effectively and in their native language,”
                                                                                                     said Bob Donaldson of McElroy Translation,
                                                                                                     a GALA member that has also seen a boost
   By James Hollan                                                                                   in work volume and employee numbers. At
                                                                                                     tcworld, Donaldson will present a case study
   The language services and technology industry     tion that encourages local communication        highlighting how a major accounting firm used
   is seeing increases in work volume and jobs.      as an indispensable component to a global       software localization strategically to gain com-
   The positive outlook is expected to continue as   strategy. In September, GALA released results   petitive advantage of its software suite.
   more companies see the importance of com-         of a survey of its 300 member companies that    In all, 46 GALA members will exhibit at the
   municating locally in the worldwide market-       showed major growth in work volume. Over        tekom Trade Fair, which will accompany the
   place.                                            85 percent of the respondents have seen work    tcworld conference. Additionally, GALA is
   Recent news of growth comes from the              volume increase in the past year, and more      hosting the Localization Forum at the confer-
   Globalization and Localization Association        than half have had increases of 20 percent or   ence along with a group exhibit featuring
   (GALA), an international non-profit associa-      more.                                           twelve member companies and a new initiative




Flare without Help is like Help without Flare




                                                                                                                   single package!

                                                                                                            Request your free demo versions now!
                                                                                                                      www.cognitas.de




   DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                   11
                                                                                                        c      c
focus



dubbed the “Localization Chill Zone” which                   - Seventy percent of respondents said they do        the market for outsourced language services to
will be a quiet inviting space outside of the Lo-            not currently provide a machine translation          be US $12 billion worldwide in 2007. Based on
calization Forum workshop and session rooms.                 (MT) offering for their customers; twenty per-       the trendline over the last five years, Common
                                                             cent said they plan to provide an MT offering        Sense Advisory’s analysts predict that the mar-
                                                             in the near future.                                  ket will reach US$24 billion by 2012, equating
Technology spendings continue to
                                                             - Over 60 percent of the companies that              to a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of
increase
                                                             responded have been in business for more than        14.6 percent over the next five years. The firm
Some of the members exhibiting at the Trade                  ten years and operate in an average of four of-      also reports that in 2007, the average year-over-
Fair took part in the GALA member survey,                    fices (including headquarters).                      year growth rate of the top 20 language service
which asked the association’s 300 members to                 “GALA has made a point of getting a pulse            providers was 26.68 percent.
provide information on their business growth                 on the industry by surveying its extensive
and technology use. Surveys were completed by                membership regularly,” said Kim Harris, board
                                                                                                                  Service providers add more languages
44 percent of GALA members. In addition to                   chairperson. “These latest figures are significant
                                                                                                                  to their portfolio
the growth statistics, the survey revealed other             in that they show overall growth in the industry
interesting findings:                                        despite a worldwide downturn in the economy.”        While survey respondents were not asked to
- Technology budgets have increased over last                In fact, GALA member growth has tracked              provide reasons for the growth, results from an-
year for 39 percent of the respondents (by more              with growth numbers for the industry. Com-           other GALA survey earlier in the year indicated
than ten percent for almost a quarter of the                 mon Sense Advisory, a market research firm           a significant boost in the number of language
group).                                                      specializing in business globalization, estimated    pairs being handled by language service provid-
                                                                                                                  ers. In that survey, language pairs handled
                                                                                                                  by respondents increased by 43 percent in
                                                                                                                  two years, and 42 percent of respondents had
                                                                                                                  worked on a language pair never handled by
                                                                                                                  them before.
                                                                                                                  Additionally, recent research indicates a grow-

               Global Locations                                                                                   ing understanding that multilingual com-
                                                                                                                  munications should be a strategic factor in
               Since the early 1990s, we pioneered                                                                global growth. In August, the Gilbane Group
               centralizing back-office functions in hubs
               in cost attractive regions, supported by                                                           completed a survey of multinational companies
               worldwide offices located close to our                                                              from around the world in which more than 89
               customers. Today we have large production
               centers in Argentina, China and the Czech                                                          percent of respondents believe that multina-
               Republic, and supporting locations through-                                                        tional communications is a factor in corporate
               out North America, Europe and Asia.
               Our clients get the best of both worlds:                                                           business initiatives.
               optimum outsourcing locations with
               same time-zone support. We can take
               you there – wherever there is for you.




                                                                                                                  contact


                                                                                                                                         James Hollan is
                                                                                                                                         Executive Director at
                                                                                                                                         the Globalization and
                                                                                                                                         Localization Association
                                                                                                                                         (GALA).


                                                                                                                   jhollan@gala-global.org
               moraviaworldwide.com                   AMERICAS          EUROPE        ASIA                         www.gala-global.org



12                                                                                                                                                 DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                             focus




Technical communication
                                                                                                     language to correspond with partners, custom-
                                                                                                     ers or colleagues – in most cases English. This
                                                                                                     shows how important foreign language skills


sector faces new                                                                                     are for technical editors in German companies.
                                                                                                     The survey also revealed that intercultural
                                                                                                     competencies, such as the ability to communi-

challenges                                                                                           cate with people from other cultures, are very
                                                                                                     important to technical editors. If cultural dif-
                                                                                                     ferences are not accounted for, entire projects
                                                                                                     might fail due to so-called cultural incidents.
With topics at the tekom Annual Conference and tcworld conference becoming more
                                                                                                     Despite these increased demands within their
and more diversified, the image of the technical editor is also changing. Research                   job as technical editors, almost all survey par-
reveals that today’s technical editors not only have to know their business, they also               ticipants predicted a positive future regarding
                                                                                                     their job.
need to have intercultural competencies. Those who are proficient in both are entering
into a prosperous field with a promising future.
                                                                                                     A growing demand for skilled workers
                                                                                                     Judging from the latest figures, technical editors
                                                                                                     have every reason to see the future of their
                                                                                                     profession in a positive light. In spring 2008
                                                                                                     tekom marked a minimum of 84.571 employ-
                                                                                                     ees holding a position in the field of technical
                                                                                                     communication. A study conducted in 2002
                                                                                                     only calculated around 67.000 workers spend-
                                                                                                     ing more than 75 percent of their work time
                                                                                                     on topics related to technical communication.
                                                                                                     This indicates a rise of 26 percent over the past
                                                                                                     six years.
                                                                                                     Service providers offering technical communi-
                                                                                                     cation services marked the strongest increase in
                                                                                                     their demand for skilled personnel. Forty-two
                                                                                                     percent of service providers had added at least
                                                                                                     one new team member over the past year.
                                                                                                     Thirty-three percent of the surveyed technical
                                                                                                     communication departments in enterprises had
 Photo: Cathy Yeulet
                                                                                                     marked an increase in employees.
                                                                                                     According to tekom, this increase is mainly
                                                                                                     due to the fact that the technical communica-
By Corinna Ritter                                  but also provide a global vision and aspects of   tions sector has become a specialized corpo-
                                                   international collaboration.                      rate division: A couple of years ago, technical
For decades, tekom has promoted the occupa-                                                          documentation was left in the hands of the
tional image of technical communicators and                                                          product developers. Nowadays most companies
                                                   An increased need for foreign
supported their education and training. With                                                         employ staff with specialized skills in technical
                                                   languages
ongoing research and periodically conducted                                                          communication.
studies, the association captures trends and       A study conducted by the University of Applied    Specialists in the field of technical commu-
developments shaping the occupational image        Sciences in Hannover (Germany) in 2007            nication are rare. tekom found out that there
and adjusts its services and topics accordingly.   found that almost half of the surveyed German     are currently up to 4,000 job vacancies on the
The latest developments in the fields of           technical editors have already worked in an       German market. However, there is a dramatic
technical communication and information            international team. German remains the most       shortage of qualified people. There are no exact
management are reflected in the program of         commonly used language in technical com-          figures showing the demand for skilled workers
the upcoming tekom Annual Conference and           munication departments in Germany, however,       in developing markets around the world. But
tcworld conference. Speakers offer a compre-       only 40 percent of German technical editors       there is one thing that’s for sure: there is no
hensive look not only at topics related with       communicate solely in their mother language.      quality communication without qualified staff.
the mere production of technical documents,        Around 60 percent use at least one foreign

DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                   13
strategy




How can companies prepare themselves for the changing market?




The translation market in
ten years’ time – a forecast




Photo: Elena Elisseeva



14                                                              DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                         strategy



By Astrid Hager                                         globally sold products are already only distrib-          major projects. In the future, it will therefore be
                                                        uted in English, if the legislation permits it. This is   decisive for companies to work with a translation
                                                        due to the fact that today recipients and consum-         agency that is able to cover the broadest possible
                                                        ers worldwide have an improved knowledge of               language and technology spectrum.
The analysts agree: the volume of documents for         the English language. English will continue to
translation will increase within the next ten years,
even if opinions differ as to the extent to which
                                                        assert itself as the common language in science
                                                        and internal corporate communications.
                                                                                                                  Technological develop-
this will happen. The language variety created by       However, a well-considered selection of texts             ments
the expansion of the EU, for example, not only          intended for translation will by itself not be suf-       Many companies may be concerned with
leads to a larger translation volume within the Eu-     ficient to successfully face the expected lack of         regard to the increasing volume of translations
ropean institutions like the translation of minutes     translators.                                              and documents for translations, but the large
from meetings or legal drafts. It also increases the    With languages spoken only by a relatively small          amount could also be regarded as an advantage.
demand for translations at commercial firms and         population like e.g. Estonian, it will be rather          A high number of repetitive text blocks will
manufacturing companies, as the EU dictates that        difficult to counter the lack of translators, as the      result from the large quantities of translations.
all technical documents are to be translated into       number of people who call this their native lan-          It will therefore become increasingly significant
the national languages (RL 79/112/EWG).                 guage will probably not increase at an explosive          to prepare documentation in such a way, that
Globalization and the associated growth will            rate. Supporting better and more consistent               existing text elements are available not only for
provide the GILT sectors (Globalization, Interna-       training opportunities for translators, is one way        further documentation but also for translations
tionalization, Localization and Translation) with an    to help bridging the gap. Translators and transla-        and thus do not require repetitive translations.
enormous boom. The European Union of Associa-           tion agencies offering language training are              An efficient Data Management System (DMS)
tions of Translations Companies (EUATC) assumes         strongly dependent on the support of companies            and Content Management System (CMS) are the
that the translation market will observe an annual      with their practical orientation and concrete             basic prerequisites to enable cost-saving and
growth of approximately five percent during the         product materials.                                        terminologically consistent translations. This is the
next few years.                                         Also, companies buying translation services               only way to fulfill the growing demand for quality
Irrespective of the use of the English language as      will be required to display a higher degree of            in the future.
lingua franca, a further development is also be-        transparency towards the translators in the future.       The application of CAT tools will become impera-
coming apparent – the protection of cultures and        This will enable translators to gain an overview          tive to create terminology databases, glossaries
languages. The translation market will without a        of the processes and the corporate language.              and the like. Although terminology management
doubt profit from this tendency. In addition, the       Companies should regard translation services as           may initially seem an enormous time-consuming
growing recognition of an ever more multilingual        an investment and not merely as costs.                    effort, the advantages for both translators and
population in the US and elsewhere will further         A further option for countering the lack of               companies are obvious: While translators are able
increase the demand for language services.              translators is outsourcing. For example, numerous         to manage a higher translation volume faster and
Apart from these developments, technological in-        translations into English are produced in India
novations and a continuously increasing product         today. However – even if we are mostly satisfied
portfolio require a better quality of translations as   with the quality of these translations – we should
well as more flexible translators and translation       question if cultural specifics, for example from
agencies.                                               the American cultural area, could be accommo-
                                                        dated in translations done offshore. Furthermore,

preparing for the lack of                               outsourcing is mainly an option for translations
                                                        into English.
translators                                             In light of the rapid increase of language com-           contact
The rising demand for translations in the near          binations required for translation and the ever-
future is intensified by an existing lack of transla-   shorter delivery deadlines, professional project
tors for numerous specialized fields and particular     and quality management will become more sig-                                      Astrid Hager is account
language combinations. International companies          nificant in future. With the use of the latest tech-                              manager at Skrivanek
making use of translation services must therefore       nologies, translations will be performed directly                                 berlin GmbH.
be ready to adjust to these developments or             in the client’s CMS system. Translation agencies
take adequate measures to avoid any shortages.          could directly adopt a part of project manage-
Within the scope of its strategic alignment for the     ment tasks, which currently are performed by
future, a company should first determine which          the companies. This will probably decrease the
texts will require translation within the next five     cooperation between companies and freelancers,             astrid.hager@skrivanek-gmbh.de
to ten years and which languages are required.          and increase the cooperation with translation              www.skrivanek-gmbh.de
Some written material like advertising texts,           agencies, as only the latter can bring in the tech-
presentations or even operating instructions for        nological and organizational requirements for

DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                                    15
strategy



with less effort, the client gains more control over
the quality of the translation into a language of
                                                       Common terminology                                    results with more sophisticated MTs, which - of
                                                                                                             course - only become printable after human
which he usually has no command.                       pools                                                 post-editing.
The CAT tool market has changed rapidly over           To ensure terminological consistency and to           We basically distinguish between two types of
the last years. A few large providers are now          simplify terminology work companies are now           MTs: rule-based systems and statistical systems.
dominating the market. Does this give rise to the      making their translation databases accessible to      The latter use predominantly word alignment
assumption that companies will have to decide          other companies. Skrivanek, together with 42          techniques to receive matching pairs. The basic
on a CAT tool from a large manufacturer to en-         other leading companies, recently founded the         requirement for statistical systems is the availabil-
sure that it will still be used in ten years’ time?    so-called TAUS Data Association (TDA), which          ity of a sufficient volume of bilingual documents.
Many forecast that the few larger providers such       enables its members to share translation files. All   Large companies are especially predestined
as SDL, software manufacturer of the leading           members load their language combinations onto         for statistical translation systems due to the
software SDLX-Trados, will have to face competi-       a server in the form of Translation Memories or       enormous data volumes in different language
tion from smaller companies such as Alchemy,           multilingual glossaries and can in return down-       pairs and the documents’ often purely technical,
MultiCorpora and Lingotek in the next few years.       load the language pairs of other members. This        simplified style.
Recent software developments provide good              creates an immense volume of linguistic data.         The common platform TDA can also contribute
alternatives to the established programs, some of                                                            significantly to improve statistical translation sys-
which exist on account of their high technologi-
cal standards. Thanks to the spread of standards
                                                       Machine translation                                   tems, as it is able to deliver the enormous volume
                                                                                                             of topic related text with which the developed
for projects (TTX, XLIFF), Translation Memories        Another solution for managing the growing             MT system is “fed”.
(TMX) or dictionaries (TBX), the choice of a           translation volume is the further development         The rule-based systems are generally based on
translation program is less significant today than     of machine translations (MT). MT, developed and       bilingual word lists and language transfer rules.
it used to be. XML went through a similar devel-       used since the late 1940s, suffers from a rather      The basic components with which these systems
opment several years ago. The program used to          doubtful reputation: The often fragmentary trans-     work are words and rules on their combinability
process XML files no longer plays a crucial role.      lation attempts by some freeware tools available      to sentences, sections and entire texts. Every
When choosing a CAT tool, companies should             on the internet are all too often devoid of any       document to be translated must therefore be dis-
therefore place more emphasis on their specific        meaning and may only bring tears of laughter to       sected into words, figures and punctuation.
demands regarding the functionality of the tool        our eyes. However, large companies such as IBM,       Many machine translation systems, however,
and less on its compatibility.                         Sun, SAP etc. are already achieving considerable      fail in rebuilding the target language structure
                                                                                                             due to the strongly varying syntax and grammar
                                                                                                             between source and target language.
                                                                                                             The so-called “controlled language” could solve
                                                                                                             these obstacles. The main characteristics of
                                                                                                             “controlled language” are simplified grammar
                                                                                                             with repetitive, recognizable structures and a
                                                                                                             vocabulary, which only contains a fraction of
                                                                                                             the words from the entire vocabulary. Language
                                                                                                             providers are already developing regulations to
                                                                                                             achieve significantly better results in MTs.
                                                                                                             Anyhow, we would advise companies, who will
                                                                                                             not work with MT in the near future, to still collect
                                                                                                             information today on how data, texts and docu-
                                                                                                             ments could be prepared in such a way as to
                                                                                                             enable rapid processing from the MT technology
                                                                                                             at some stage.
                                                                                                             Even in the future the human being will still be
                                                                                                             required as the controlling instance. With regard
                                                                                                             to MT, the task of a translator will comprise far
                                                                                                             more post-editing. Specially trained post-editors
                                                                                                             are already working with MT, their work differing
                                                                                                             fundamentally from pure translation or editing.
                                                                                                             This, however, can only be successful if it is ap-
                                                                                                             proved and recognized by all sides, not only by
                                                                                                             the translators but also by the clients.



16                                                                                                                                             DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                             strategy




Change Management –
an underestimated success
factor
Although the creation and translation of technical documents are essential parts of the product lifecycle they still
play a subordinate role in most international organizations. Many companies are therefore leaving these tasks to an
outsourcing provider. To ensure a smooth collaboration and guarantee high quality technical documents, the out-
sourcing process needs to be planned and supported thoroughly.




                                                                                                        Photo: Pavel Losevsky



DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                         17
strategy



By Rob Heemels and Sabine Grosser                  due to insufficient preparation and support          has been coached during the transition into the
                                                   during the transition process. Even more             new service provider’s company. Océ Business
Globalization is understood as the process         diligence is required if the outsourcing proc-       Services as an experienced outsourcing service
of increasing international activities. Many       ess involves the transfer of staff. If the service   provider in the document area, has intensely
medium-sized businesses have first-class tech-     provider, whose core business is the techni-         dealt with the question of what values are
nological know-how and high-quality products,      cal documentation process, takes over all the        important to staff that will be transferred into
which are sold in more and more markets. Al-       employees involved (authors, translators and         a new company culture and how to take these
though the creation, translation and production    production staff) under TUPE (Transfer of            into consideration during the transition.
of the technical documents for these products      Undertakings Protection of Employment                In a continuous effort to increase customer
are essential, they are often not very popular     Regulations), high-quality change management         satisfaction as well as the satisfaction of its
tasks. Every new market entry requires the sup-    is becoming a necessity. In such an outsourc-        own staff working at customer locations, Océ
port of another language, causes faster product    ing project the goal of the change management        Business Services has studied the value systems
development cycles and increased process           process is to steer the complex integration          of customers and of individual staff to answer
complexity. Although the lifecycle of technical    of two company cultures – the one of the             questions like:
documentation is closely interlinked with the      customer and the one of the service provider.        Why do two organizations behave so differently
product development process, it is not part of     However, how can we reach the agreed business        in a similar situation?
the core business of a manufacturing company.      goals and fulfill the obligations towards the        What are the requirements for success in
Many organizations are therefore leaving their     acquired staff?                                      change situations?
technical documentations and translations to       Companies thinking of outsourcing a part of          What are the values and drivers of individuals
the hands of an outsoucing provider.               their business aim at long-standing commer-          in an organization?
                                                   cial relations with their service providers. In
                                                   order to reach the expected advantages and
Transferring staff                                                                                      Plan carefully
                                                   cost reductions, contract terms of five to seven
However, simply giving the work to a profes-       years are no rarity. An essential and often          There are many sad examples of failed change
sional provider will not necessarily deliver the   underestimated success factor for long-term          processes, mergers or outsourcing projects.
desired results. Outsourcing projects often fail   and satisfying business relations is how the staff   Even if all conditions appear excellent for out-
                                                                                                        sourcing during the due diligence phase, reality
                                                                                                        might still prove disappointing: As soon as the
                                                                                                        integration of the acquired departments and
                                                                                                        staff starts, executives are very much occupied
                                                                                                        with themselves and the staff and the business
                                                                                                        are neglected in their new surroundings. The
                                                                                                        expected business upswing is not setting in.
                                                                                                        The meaning of a carefully planned change
                                                                                                        management process becomes clear with the
                                                                                                        transition of long-term employees from the
                                                                                                        buying company to the outsourcing service
                                                                                                        provider: They might still feel obliged to their
                                                                                                        former employer, who has now turned into
                                                                                                        their customer. The new values of the outsourc-
                                                                                                        ing provider cannot simply be prescribed to the
                                                                                                        new employees. They can only be incorporated
                                                                                                        during a well-accompanied learning process.


                                                                                                        Protecting the interests of staff and
                                                                                                        service provider – a contradiction?
                                                                                                        A company’s prime interest when taking over
                                                                                                        staff is to reach certain business goals through
                                                                                                        cost savings while at the same time increasing
                                                                                                        service levels.
                                                                                                        The staff might be primarily interested in
                                                                                                        aspects like job security and being able to rely
                                                                                                        on their employer. Other interests include


18                                                                                                                                     DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                          strategy



personal success and independence at the work




                                                      Productivity
place. Values, thinking and behavioral patterns
also vary within different work environments.
For example, certain values might be lived
and also communicated more strongly in                                                                                                            cooperation
different work environments. It is therefore
essential to find out which values were strongly
communicated at the old employer and how
the value system differs from the one at the new
                                                                                                                                          support
employer. Company culture influences how
people behave: Does the old employer have
a rather informal, cooperative style or does it
                                                                     unconsciousness                                           acceptance
practice an authoritarian management? What
are the differences in the companies’ policies
– which written laws and rules are lived in the                          consciousness                          understanding
companies? How are the companies structured?
Check collaboration models and find out
how added value is achieved and how well
developed their processes are.
If the values do not match and this is not ac-
                                                                          Individual and organisational change model                                      Time
counted for during the change process, you
might experience resistance from the acquired          will enforce employees’ resistance and lead to                     employees. Clearly communicate roles and
staff.                                                 anger and resignation. Emotional and cultural                      responsibilities to any employees, whose
                                                       factors play an important role in the transi-                      positions are affected by the change.
                                                       tion stage. Especially in international projects                3. Stabilizing the new situation: Create a train-
Easing resistance
                                                       where opposing cultures often collide enough                       ing program to help employees, managers,
To enable a smooth integration of the acquired         time must be planned for this stage of raising                     and the organization understand how to deal
staff, it is important to make all parties involved    consciousness.                                                     with the new situation.
aware of the different value systems. Gaining          Personal communication with the new staff will
the acceptance of the new staff can only be            clarify goals and values. Common gatherings
                                                                                                                       Conclusion
achieved by choosing the right kind of com-            e.g. location visits will contribute to acceptance.
munication. Lacking or false communication             Clear workplace and job descriptions and a                      The key to success is to identify the values of
                                                       transparent integration of the staff into the new               the staff at an early stage and to accompany the
                                                       organization are important to gain understand-                  new employees actively throughout the change
                                                       ing and acceptance from the transferred staff.                  process. An outsourcing project is not success-
                                                                                                                       ful if only the business goals of the customer
                                                                                                                       are achieved. Establishing long-term relations
contact                                                The right change management strategy
                                                                                                                       with the new staff and motivating them is also
                                                       An effective change management program                          part of the success.
                                                       should at least include the following compo-                    As result of the thorough support of projects
                                                       nents:                                                          at Océ Business Services, the attrition rate of
                    Rob Heemels and Sabine                                                                             transferred staff is significantly lower than the
                    Grosser work for New               1. Creation of a change climate: Establish a                    industry standard. In the course of the affilia-
                    business Development at               clear entrepreneurial vision and set up a                    tion the employees recognize that they belong
                    océ-Deutschland business              strong team to be able to carry out an effec-                to the core business of the new employer
                    Services GmbH in Mülheim,             tive staff transfer.                                         with all advantages that come with it, like job
                    Germany.                           2. Preparing the organization for change:                       security, possibilities for advanced training, new
                                                          Identify and address all stakeholder groups                  tasks and responsibilities and recognition of
                    obs-de@oce.com                        in the company (internal and external) to                    their achievements through variable reimburse-
                    www.oce-business-services.            get broad support for the staff transition.                  ment components.
                    de                                    Create a widely accepted communication                       A structured and people-oriented change man-
                                                          strategy for each key stakeholder group in                   agement strategy is advantageous to all parties:
                                                          the organization including not only human                    the outsourcing company, the absorbing com-
                                                          resources but also executives, managers, and                 pany and the staff in their new environment.

DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                                     19
solutions




Intercultural management
at Škoda Auto
The merger of Škoda Auto and Volkswagen AG in 1991 compelled the tradition-bound Czech company for the first
time to face the challenges of internationalization. Today Škoda is the largest industrial undertaking in the Czech
Republic as the company sells its products in 100 countries worldwide. The Joint Venture with VW is regarded by the
company as a successful marriage between the systematic, methodical and dependable approach of the Germans
and the creative, improvising and proficient disposition of the Czechs.




Photo: Andres Rodriguez



20                                                                                                     DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                      solutions



By Lenka Bila
                                                        Foundation of                                             ance of hierarchy motivate him only when he un-
                                                                                                                  derstands their meaning and purpose, which he
                                                        intercultural coalescence                                 then internalizes.
A tradition of more than                                In order to achieve innovations through the fusion        Secondly, the Czech is relationship-oriented. He

113 years                                               of both cultures – but without falling into the trap
                                                        of overstated dominance of the one or excessive
                                                                                                                  is not particularly open to criticism; nor does he
                                                                                                                  throw himself candidly into solving social conflicts.
In 1895, when Vaclav Laurin and Vaclav Klement          assimilation of the other culture – highly motivated      Work and leisure go hand in hand – in the same
set up a bicycle repair workshop in the outskirts of    German experts were present right from the start          way as rationality and emotionality. Formal and
Mlada Boleslav in Central Bohemia, people in the        of the Joint Venture. Their number increased from         informal structures are equally important to him,
neighboring places thought it to be just another        20 in 1991 to 146 in 1994. Following the successful       with the informal sometimes taking precedence.
small event in their lives. A few years later the       implementation of the Tandem Management and
mechanics graduated to bicycle and motorcycle
construction and, by 1905, they presented their
                                                        due to the introduction of a strong endorsement
                                                        program for a younger generation management
                                                                                                                  Tandem management
first automobile, the Voiturette. In 1925 a merger      as well as talent management the number of the            and talent management
of sorts took place with Škoda Pilsen and between       German experts was cut down gradually to 52 in            Tandem management is a practical instrument
1946 and 1949 the main works in Mlada Boleslav          2007.                                                     based on intercultural sensitivity that is used
was extended to the ancillary units in Vrchlabí and     Since 1991 these experts included a team of hu-           for the integration of foreign experts and local
Kvasiny.                                                man resources specialists who had a track record          partners. It was employed at Škoda Auto in order
After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolu-      of international experience, modern know-how in           to prepare the local managers for accepting the
tion of the Soviet Union the Czech government           the field of human resources, a visionary outlook         help from the German experts aimed at enabling
looked for a strategic partner so as to secure for      and a distinct performance and target orientation.        them to better cope with their new technical
Škoda a short and medium-term expansion of its          Thanks to a methodical approach and an exem-              and managerial tasks. In Tandem everyone is ex-
automobile market in Central and Eastern Europe.        plary and humane dimension of all members of              pected to manage jointly a domain or a depart-
The decision to establish a Joint Venture with Volk-    the team, the team had a favorable effect on the          ment for a period of one to three years. Initially
swagen in 1991 is regarded by insiders as a very        Czechs. Thus, it was able to impart enthusiasm, vi-       the German experts played a dominant role. In
successful match between the two parties.               sion and knowledge to the Czech workers.                  a phased manner of transferring the know-how
The 100 percent ownership of Škoda Auto by VW           A valuable initiative came also from the involve-         they gradually allowed the Czech managers to
AG since 2000 notwithstanding, the company’s            ment of Czech emigrants living in Germany. Dur-           take on the reins. The Tandem was regarded as a
management continues to uphold its tradition of         ing the first few years of the Joint Venture it was       bicycle for two that requires mutual acceptance,
more than 100 years, which in fact has a positive       these people in particular who helped to develop          willingness to learn and intercultural awareness.
influence both on the Czech customers and on            suitable and feasible concepts and to build a well-       Today talent management is employed in the in-
the Czech workers’ motivation.                          balanced bridge between the German experts                ternational facilities of Škoda Auto. This time the
Since 1991 Škoda Auto has transformed itself            and the Czech managers and workers.                       Czech unit assumes the role of an expert. The suc-
from a “brand with tradition without future“ into       The team had the necessary instruments which              cess of its local partner depends on its aptness
a ”brand of the future with tradition”.                 often proved to be truly ground-breaking and              and, consequently, also on Škoda Auto abroad.
                                                        their beneficial effects are still deeply felt today.

Facts & figures
Today Škoda Auto is the largest industrial under-       Cultural differences                                      contact
taking in the Czech Republic and on 31.12.2007
it recorded 23,559 regular and 4,194 contract
                                                        between Czechs and
workers.                                                Germans
The annual vehicle production has increased             A Czech-German partnership can profit from two                                    Lenka Bila has worked
steadily from 172,000 p.a. in 1991 to 630,000 p.a. in   important pieces of information:                                                  for Škoda Auto since
2007. In 2007 the products were sold in 100 mar-        First of all, the Czech likes improvisation: he is                                1992. After holding
kets – as opposed to a mere 30 in 1991. In 2007         mostly averse to universal rules, formalized proce-                               an expert position at
the export share of Škoda Auto accounted for 7.5        dures and standards; he wants to have free space                                  Volkswagen Slovakia
percent of the national total.                          for creativity to let out his inventive abilities. And     from 2000 to 2006, she is now back in the parent
The company is not only a prestigious forerun-          yet, or just for that very reason, he is capable of ad-    company in the Czech Republic where she has
ner of the Czech industry but it is regarded as the     justing to circumstances, willing to learn, is broad-      headed the education department since 2006.
role model in the socio-cultural arena as well. The     minded and considerate – which may sometimes
international product portfolio is fittingly comple-    make him appear phlegmatic or disorganized.                lenka.bila@skoda-auto.cz
mented by the company’s policy of Corporate So-         Maximum risk prevention and organization, sys-             www.skoda-auto.com
cial Responsibility & Corporate Governance.             tematic approach, detailed thinking and accept-

DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                                   21
solutions




Conditions for                            Today’s challenges
success                                   Internationalization in foreign
Three important aspects are consid-       plants
ered absolutely essential for success:    Today Škoda Auto is an example of
1. The expert must possess the ability    the successful transformation and
and willingness to gradually recede       consolidation of a brand from a local
into the background and let his local     manufacturer to an international play-
colleagues have the precedence.           er, which, in the course of its growth,
2. The local manager must have the        expanded its vehicle assemblies to
necessary potential and ability to wid-   international facilities in China, India,
en his know-how, be willing to learn,     Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Bos-
cooperate and gradually assume re-        nia & Herzegovina.
sponsibilities.                           For this reason, competent, flexible,
3. Common goals, solutions, imple-        mobile and cosmopolitan-condi-
mentation and reflection on what          tioned Czech managers are selected
was accomplished every day.               and prepared for short, medium or
The following typical errors may          long-term overseas appointments.
hinder a successful process:              At present there are about 80 experts
– Faulty selection of personnel or        working at Škoda Auto facilities in
    faulty assessment of potential        other countries.
– Non-cooperation by one of the           The local managerial and technical
    tandem partners                       personnel are hired, motivated and
– Unclear roles                           trained at Škoda Auto for short and
– The expert wants to be in the lime-     medium-term tenures. Currently 30
    light.                                managers assigned to plants in India
– The local partner is reluctant to as-   and Russia receive training at Škoda
    sume responsibility.                  Auto.
– Vertical division of functions
– No systematic human resources           Internationalization in local
    development                           plants
– No objective agreement on tan-          Whereas the demographic curve was
    dem development                       not truly reassuring, the rapid increase
– No counseling or coaching               in the number of investors and the
– Impatience                              opening of Czech borders made it            Photo: The Czech project team WE are Škoda is implementing Volkswagen’s
– “Old boys“ network: conservative        difficult to find adequately qualified      indicator of the work atmosphere (Stimmungsbarometer) in the Czech Skoda
    structures refuse to be changed.      domestic workers.                           locations. Photos: Škoda




22                                                                                                                                            DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                      solutions



Škoda Auto is, therefore, happy when-
ever foreign workers show interest in
                                            medium or long-term basis – the in-
                                            tercultural sensitivity of all workers
                                                                                       – through innovative future-orient-
                                                                                         ed projects like WE are Škoda, the
                                                                                                                              Concluding
working in Czech industries.                plays an important role. However, if         promotion of corporate culture,      remark
At present, there are 28 nationalities      tradition is to be maintained the com-       respect for foreign cultures,
represented at Škoda Auto, on aver-         pany must retain its integrity.            – and through language training:       The complexity of intercultural aware-
age amounting to nearly 20 per cent         This happens thanks to the awareness         one-to-one or in groups, within      ness is steadily increasing. It is not only
of the total workforce.                     creating efforts by the superiors            the country, abroad or by e-         about awareness of other nationalities
For Škoda Auto itself, internationaliza-    – through target-group-specific in-          Learning; in 2007, 55.1 percent of   but also of genders, religions, indus-
tion has enormous influence on the              tercultural Training & Coaching:         the management, 66.2 percent of      trial segments, departments, teams
sentiment and lifestyle of people in            with general orientation, specifi-       the high potentials and 12.4 per-    and finally of the individual. At Škoda
the small town of Mlada Boleslav, as            cally GERMAN-CZECH, and tailor-          cent of other regular employees      Auto the steady internationalization
almost half of its population is work-          made for a particular country,           participated in language courses.    process is endorsed with a simple
ing for Škoda Auto and the foreign          – through promoting international            More than half of the workforce      formula: “Any ignorance about the
workers too are expected to be inte-            rotations,                               is learning German, about 40 per-    foreign mentality can be counterbal-
grated into the society there.              – through instruments of internal            cent English and the rest Russian,   anced with acceptance, respect and
                                                communication like work news-            Spanish, Czech, French or other      responsiveness while continuing to
Sensitization of Czech workers                  letter, work committee newsletter,       languages.                           learn something new“.
In the process of integrating new               weekly newsletter, info center , the
foreign workers – whether on short,             behavioral code of Škoda Auto,




   VAW-arvato
                                                                                                                              ...the spirit of information




    The challenge of global business
    needs more than just products


    VAW-arvato is a global technical information services company and part of Bertelsmann
    international media corporation. We create, manage and deliver product information to
    your global audience in the right language, the right media and right on time.




     VAW-arvato | Pastoratshof 27-29 | D-47929 Grefrath
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DECEMbER 2008
     Germany, Netherlands, Spain, Czech Republic, Brazil, South Africa, China
                                                                                                                                                                    23
business culture




Spanish for local
and global markets
In the translation and localization business we often come across the terms US Spanish and Latin American Spanish. Are there any dif-
ferences between them? In what way do they differ from International Spanish and Neutral Spanish? Despite the slight variations that
may occur in US Spanish, Latin American (LA) Spanish, International Spanish and Neutral Spanish, they all have one thing in common:
none of them actually exist.



By José Gambín & Igor Zubicaray                          ever, even within the same country, the Spanish         a very heterogeneous group made up on the
                                                         spoken in Central and South America is a medley,        one hand of Spanish speakers born in the United
Many will argue that Spanish is essentially the          showing as many differences among them as can           States, who use different Spanish varieties accord-
same all over the Spanish-speaking world and             be found between Castilian Spanish and any of           ing to the variant of the Spanish language spoken
that the main differences can be found in casual         these American variants.                                in the country of origin of their parents or other
speech and not in written formal speech. It is true      According to Professor John Lipski in an invited        ancestors and whose Spanish is influenced by
that as the register becomes more formal, Span-          lecture at the University of Chicago (2007), three      English to a greater or lesser extent. On the other
ish tends to become more uniform. Everyday               main factors explain this diversification: the varie-   hand, there is always ongoing immigration of
words, however, which are the most prone to              ties spoken by Spanish settlers; contact with other     people from different countries and backgrounds,
experience variations due to the constant use            languages, namely indigenous languages, African         who also use different Spanish varieties and are
we make of them, can also be widely found in             languages spoken by slaves and languages                not aware of new words created by American-
written texts.                                           spoken by immigrants of the latest centuries; and       born Hispanics. It must certainly be hard for many
Translations should sound natural, as though             the catalytic effect that emerging cities in Spanish    of these newcomers to understand Voy a vacunar
there were no source text. Setting aside certain         America exerted on regional varieties of Spanish.       la carpeta as the Spanglishized “I am going to
types of translations (literary, sworn and under                                                                 vacuum the carpet.” That sentence will just have
certain circumstances, legal translations), the ideal
translation should sound as if it were indeed an
                                                         It never rains but it                                   the ludicrous old-country meaning “I am going to
                                                                                                                 vaccinate the folder.”
original text, written by the audience to which it is    pours                                                   In the middle of this confusion one question still
addressed, and thus containing no “alien” terms. Is it   The misconception underlying the idea of LA             remains: How can one tackle a translation into US
then possible to produce good-quality translations       Spanish has spread beyond the Mexican border,           Spanish or LA Spanish?
when translating into US, LA, International or Neutral   propagating from Maine to Washington.
Spanish? In the end, isn’t translation about choosing
the right word?
                                                         With a population of 44 million, which accounts
                                                         for almost 14.8% of the total US population (data
                                                                                                                 Solutions for translations
                                                         from the American Community Survey 2006 of              into US and LA Spanish
                                                         the US Census Bureau), and a growing purchasing         The first thing that should be considered before
LA Spanish: too good to                                  power, US Hispanics — and sometimes by exten-           beginning a translation is its purpose (skopos) and

be true                                                  sion larger Hispanic markets — have become a
                                                         target for an increasing number of companies
                                                                                                                 the target audience, which depends, among other
                                                                                                                 things, on the type of text and target market.
Anyone asked to translate a text into LA Spanish         that now see them as potential buyers. As a result,     For instance, when translating a user manual, it is
would be happy as a pig in mud if there were             these companies ask for translations of their ad-       important to take into account whether the product
such a thing as a standard LA Spanish. Unfortu-          vertising material and their product documenta-         will be used by specialized technicians (as in the
nately, nothing could be further from the truth.         tion. But these translations are usually demanded       case of a milling machine) or by ordinary people (as
The idea of LA Spanish comes from the popular            in US Spanish.                                          in the case of the user manual of an inkjet printer).
misconception of Spanish as a unity in every             Like LA Spanish, US Spanish is not a reality; it is     As a rule, specialized technical terminology is more
Spanish-speaking country in the Americas, as             only the reflection of businesses’ needs to reduce      unlikely to deviate from a standard version of Span-
opposed to European (Castilian) Spanish. How-            costs. Hispanics in the United States represent         ish. It may be accompanied in the same text, how-


24                                                                                                                                                 DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                          business culture



ever, by common words that can vary substantially         translator had information relating to the market        almost 14.8% of the total US population. Of these,
depending on the country (see sidebar on page             to which the product or text is addressed. That          34 million declared speaking Spanish at home, of
36). The main purpose of these texts is to provide        way, if a company is, for example, planning to           which 16 million declared speaking English less
a description and clear instructions about the            market a product for the upper class in Argentina,       than “very well.”
product, so it is extremely important to choose the       Paraguay and Peru, the ideal solution, providing         Data from the American Community Survey 2006
right terminology and keep it consistent throughout       that the budget is limited and cannot cover the          also revealed that the main country of origin of
the whole translation. As companies try to minimize       expenses of three different translations, would not      Hispanics in the United States is Mexico (28 million),
expenses and maximize income, we won’t tell you           consist in requesting a translation into LA Spanish,     followed by Puerto Rico (nearly 4 million) and Cuba
that to avoid any risk of misunderstanding you            but rather in taking into account the purchase           (1.5 million). The remaining 10 million come from
should use an editor for any or all Spanish variations.   expectations of that product in each country and,        different origins. The map in Figure 1 is a simplified
Instead, make sure that your language provider uses       accordingly, hiring a translator from the country        version of this data.
a translator/editor native to your most important         where the purchase expectations are higher. This         When facing a translation into US Spanish, this
market (that is to say, if you sell more machines in      translator should avoid the use of localism, and         variety of backgrounds certainly poses a problem
Mexico, use a Mexican native speaker) and that the        the translation will sound as unnatural to the           in terms of choice of the most appropriate vocabu-
editor uses the most neutral expressions whenever         other two countries as LA Spanish does, but at           lary. In other words, imagine you sell car trunks
possible.                                                 least it will satisfy the main purchasers of the prod-   to the Hispanic market in the United States: Is it a
The same rule applies for marketing material:             uct. This solution could also be applied to the US       better choice to use Puerto Rican baúl for the car
words have to be chosen carefully because                 Hispanic market.                                         trunk or Mexican cajuela? Given the overwhelming
they contain cultural references, puns and other                                                                   majority of Hispanics of Mexican origin, it seems
wordplays.                                                                                                         logical that Mexican Spanish should be used as
All in all, the chosen terminology and vocabulary         A demographic                                            the default variant for translations into US Spanish.
are essential to all sorts of translations if we want
them to sound natural and not lead to misinter-
                                                          approach to US Spanish                                   However, two things should also be taken into
                                                                                                                   account: the operating area of the company that
pretation. How could a lemon juice commercial             The Hispanic population has grown dramatically           orders the translation and the target audience of
be translated into a single LA Spanish when               in the United States over the last 20 years. Accord-     the translation.
lemon is limón in Argentina but lima in Mexico            ing to the US Census 1990 and 2000, the number           The first approach lies in the locale where the
or Peru? Not a huge difference, but when one              of Hispanic population rose from 22 million in           company plans to offer its products. If we take a
knows that lima is Argentinean Spanish for lime           1990 to 35 million in 2000, an increase of 57.9%.        look at the map (Figure 1), the population of Mexi-
and the Mexican and Peruvian word for this citrus         The data gathered in the American Community              can origin is clearly predominant in some states.
is limón, the situation becomes a bit more confus-        Survey 2006 showed that the Hispanic or Latino           For instance, in Arizona it represents up to 88.8%
ing. Thus, it would be highly advisable that the          population had reached 44 million, representing          of the total Hispanic population. Accordingly,
                                                                                                                   one could think that hiring a Mexican translator
                                                                                                                   would be the preferable decision if the company
                                                                                                                   desired to market its products in the Western
                                                                                                                   region. On the other hand, a Puerto Rican would
                                                                                                                   best suit the needs of a company operating in
                                                                                                                   the Northeastern region. It goes without saying
                                                                                                                   that the translator should try to avoid words that
                                                                                                                   are too local, mainly in those cases when there
                                                                                                                   is no highly-predominant minority in the region.
                                                                                                                   Although this approach could be enough in many
                                                                                                                   cases, especially when translating texts not related
                                                                                                                   to specific companies, a second, more restrictive,
                                                                                                                   approach should also be considered.
                                                                                                                   Taking the potential buyers of a given product
                                                                                                                   into account represents a more specific approach
                                                                                                                   to solving the problem of this sort of translations
                                                                                                                   into US Spanish. Sometimes, the origin of the
                                                                                                                   potential buyers does not match the origin of the
                                                                                                                   main minority, as can happen, for example, with
                                                                                                                   luxury items such as an expensive sports car. In
                                                                                                                   such cases, the most advisable solution would
Figure 1: Map of US Hispanic population distribution. Source: US Census Bureau American Community                  consist of hiring a translator with the same origin
Survey 2006                                                                                                        as the targeted community, regardless of what

DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                                     25
business culture



the largest minority is in that particular region.    standable everywhere and is not offensive to any     As Microsoft products are marketed worldwide,
This way, he or she will definitely know if the       Spanish speaker. This includes choosing a term       it is cheaper to produce only one version of the
word to use is cajuela, baúl or something else.       or expression not used anywhere but under-           product in Spanish.
                                                      standable in every country (equipo for computer),

Software localization:                                choosing the most widespread expression or           What to consider when
Microsoft approach
                                                      term (mouse instead of ratón, this last term being
                                                      used exclusively in Spain) or prohibiting the use
                                                                                                           ‘neutralizing’ Spanish
Most software is originally developed in English,     of certain words or expressions (such as coger, a    One of the main problems and source of mis-
so over the years different Spanish-speaking          tabooed word in many Latin American countries,       understandings when translating into any kind
countries have provided different translations for    where it has a sexual connotation, although per-     of Neutral Spanish comes from the local use of
new terms. Microsoft’s approach to this situation     fectly normal and used every day in Spain, where     polysemic words, that is, words with different
has been quite the opposite. Through its Spanish      it innocently means to take).                        meanings. For example, when Mexicans cook
Style Guide and terminology database (TRES), the      However, Microsoft reckons in its Spanish Style      la comida, they cook lunch, whereas Peruvians
company has aimed to provide a single transla-        Guide that this approach often entails rejection     or Colombians will be cooking dinner instead.
tion for each new term that arises as well as to      from users for whom the terminology is foreign,      A Mexican can take a camión (“bus” in Mexican
unify already existing terminology across the         simply because it does not sound natural to any      Spanish) to go home for his comida, but a Colom-
Spanish-speaking world. It has also tried to follow   Spanish speaker. The idea behind this neutral        bian will never expect a camión (truck) to take him
a Neutral Spanish — a Spanish that can be under-      Spanish is again commercial and not linguistic.      anywhere. If he decides to take the bus, he will
                                                                                                           coger el autobús. Here we come across the classic
                                                                                                           misunderstanding of the verb coger, harmless
                                                                                                           and used constantly in some countries to mean

           Stay current in a chan in                                                                       take, while tabooed in others, like Argentina or
                                                                                                           Uruguay, where it is a rude word for having sexual
                                                                                                           intercourse. So, while a Spaniard coge el autobús

                      world with                                                                           or a Cuban coge la guagua (be careful with this
                                                                                                           expression in Chile, where guagua means baby),
          Your source for answers                                                                          an Argentinian toma el colectivo and a Mexican
          and information on:                                                                              toma/agarra el camión.

           • Internationalization                                                                          When a word becomes taboo, usually due to sexual
                                                                                                           connotations, its use in its original meaning or
           • Globalization                                                                                 meanings tries to be avoided and it is consigned to
           • Localization                                                                                  the sphere of the forbidden. For example, the word
           • Language technology                                                                           pico (peak or beak) represents one of the ways to
                                                                                                           designate the male sex organ in Chile. Therefore,
           • Translation
           • Web globalization
           • Writing for translation                                                                       contact
                                                                                                                                 José Gambín, managing
          tekom members may enjoy a free half-year digital                                                                       director at AbroadLink,
          subscription (new subscribers only). Subscribe online                                                                  has worked as a freelance
          at www.multilingual.com/promo and use promotional                                                                      translator, in-house transla-
          code D74TEK.                                                                                                           tor, desktop publisher and
                                                                                                                                 project manager.
          Not familiar with MultiLingual magazine?
          Go to www.multilingual.com/digital to see a sample
                                                                                                                                 Igor Zubicaray is Spanish
          Looking for industry news?                                                                                             senior translator at Abroad-

          Sign up for our free electronic newsletter at                                                                          Link with a degree in law
                                                                                                                                 and a degree in translation
          www.multilingual.com/news                                                                                              and interpreting.




26                                                                                                                                          DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                      business culture



contrary to what happens in many Latin American
countries, a Chilean will never say hora pico to
refer to the peak hour, but hora punta or even hora
                                                           When commonly used words in
peak. The film Danteís Peak, whose dubbed version
was titled El Pico de Dante in many Latin American
                                                           technical texts become a problem
countries, was, for obvious reasons, marketed in           Although specialized technical terminology                     terms llanta de refacción (spare wheel) and
Chile under the name La Furia de la Montaña (The           does not usually show important variations                     cajuela (trunk) would be difficult to understand
Anger of the Mountain). Continuing with misinterpre-       among the different variants of Spanish, it goes               in Argentina or Spain, as well as the Puerto
tations, the word polla has different meanings in the      without saying that some words usually found in                Rican terms guía (spare wheel) and tapabocinas
Spanish-speaking world besides female chicken: bet         technical texts are commonly used in everyday                  (hubcap). Hypothetically, these sorts of terms
in general, lottery in Chile, crib in Ecuador or gob (of   speech. As a result of this use in oral speech,                could be avoided in a translation targeted at a
spit) in El Salvador, to name a few; but it has become     the differences become greater. Let’s focus, for               wide Spanish-speaking public, but the terms
increasingly tabooed in Spain where it again refers        instance, on the automotive industry.                          chosen would almost certainly sound unnatural
to the male sex organ (so yes, we only have male           Being products used across the world, not only                 to the affected countries.
chickens in our farms now). In Argentina, the word         do cars receive different names depending on                   Finally, some terms specific to certain countries
concha (shell) is a tabooed word used to refer to the      the region (auto, carro, coche), but their main                would probably be understandable in others,
female genitals. Therefore, it is not very advisable to    parts are also subject to significant variations,              although they could sometimes represent an
say that you are going to the beach to coger conchas       which may hinder communication and even                        obstacle to communication or sound odd, to a
(gather shells) unless you want to provoke outright        lead to misunderstandings.                                     greater or lesser extent.
hilarity or be taken for a sex maniac. In other            One of these sources of misunderstandings can                  Table 1 is only an example of the variations
countries, though, it is even used as a nickname for       be found in Table 1, which includes examples of                that may be found among the different vari-
Concepción. A last piece of advice: when asking for        some variations with their respective transla-                 ants of Spanish in the same field of knowledge.
plastic bags in Ecuador or the Dominican Republic,         tions in English. The table only aims to illustrate            The automotive industry is not, however,
do not ask a man if he tiene bolsas or you will be         the most commonly used terms in each of                        the only field in which these differences are
questioning his manliness. You’d better ask for            the countries chosen, but differences may be                   evident. For instance, another field in which
fundas.                                                    found among different regions within the same                  differences are marked is the nutrition industry.
As we can see, words or expressions that are               country. If we look at the terms tire and rim, we              As shown with the lima/limón example in
completely normal in some countries can lead to            will see that the Spanish llanta designates the                the main Gambín/Zubicaray article, fruits and
confusion or hilarity, or even be offensive in oth-        rim in Argentina and Spain, but Colombians,                    vegetables receive different names in different
ers depending on the context in which they are             Mexicans or Peruvians will rather use this term                countries. What for a Mexican is a chícharo
being used. This is one of the drawbacks of any            to refer to the tire. In other words, the same term            (green pea), for an Argentinean is an arveja
artificial sort of Spanish such as LA or US Spanish:       refers to different realities depending on the                 and for a Spaniard a guisante. On the other
as these words need to be replaced by others, the          country, representing a major problem when                     hand, in Spain chícharo is a term unknown in
result is a clumsy speech that can be understood           trying to produce a translation into LA Spanish,               some regions, whereas in some others it refers
by anyone but which nobody feels is theirs. Coger          US Spanish or any other one-size-fits-all version              to a chickpea. Other differences include cha-
el autobús may sound odd or funny to Argentin-             of Spanish.                                                    bacano (Mex) vs. damasco (Arg, Chi, Peru) and
ians, but it is the most common way to take the            Another source of problems is terms that would                 albaricoque (Spain); toronja (Mex) vs. pomelo
bus in Colombia.                                           be hardly understandable in some countries                     (Arg), aguacate (Mex) vs. palta (Arg); or fresa
                                                           although not misleading. For example, Mexican                  (Mex) vs. frutilla (Arg), to name a few.
Final word                                                   Argentina        Colombia       Mexico          Peru         Puerto Rico     Spain        Venezuela       English
Although Neutral Spanish, LA Spanish and US                     volante          timón       volante     timón, volante      guía         volante        volante     steering wheel
Spanish are sometimes unavoidable, in those                                                                                                              cloche,
                                                              embrague           clutch       clutch       embrague         clocher      embrague                        clutch
                                                                                                                                                        embrague
cases where the company has a limited budget                  neumático,
and is targeting a widespread market, companies                                  llanta       llanta         llanta          goma       neumático        caucho         tire, tyre
                                                                goma
should consider clearly defining their markets in               llanta              rin        rin           aro             aro          llanta          rin              rim
order to request the translation that best fits their            baúl              baúl      cajuela       maletera          baúl        maletero        maleta        trunk, boot
                                                                              parachoques,
needs rather than automatically going for a trans-            paragolpes                     defensa     parachoques        bumper      parachoques    parachoques      bumper
                                                                                 bómper
lation into any of these artificial Spanish variants            bocina            bocina       claxon        claxon          bocina        claxon         corneta         horn
at the high expense of quality.                              auxilio, rueda     llanta de    llanta de     llanta de        goma de       rueda de      caucho de
                                                                                                                                                                      spare wheel
                                                               de auxilio       repuesto     refacción     repuesto         repuesto      repuesto       repuesto
Reprinted with permission of MultiLingual                         taza             copa         copa          vaso        tapabocinas    tapacubos      tapa, copa      hubcap
Magazine, Copyright September 2008                         Table 1: Automotive terms in Spanish-speaking countries
www.multilingual.com

DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                      27
community




 tekom Annual Conference and tcworld conference 2008



 International information
 management – a sector
 with a promising future
 With 2700 participants in 2007 and similar numbers expected this year, the tekom conference and tcworld conference 2008
 promise to once again become a great success. The world’s biggest event in the field of technical communication and informa-
 tion management will take place from November 5th to 7th on the familiar premises of the Rhein-Main-Hallen in Wiesbaden,
 Germany.




28                                                                                                                DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                               community



By Corinna Ritter



Hardly any product can go without a compre-
                                                    Experience the charms
                                                    of Wiesbaden
hensive manual – self-explanatory appliances
and user-interfaces still remain dreams of the
future. In order to break into international mar-
kets, companies need to translate these manu-       Did you just have an exciting and successful day at the conference? Then it is time for a bit of relaxation.
als and other documents into a multitude of         Check out some of Wiesbaden’s many sites and attractions. For example, the Kaiser-Friedrich-baths, a
languages as well as to localize according to       modern city spa on the site of an antique bath house. This hot spring with its curative water was dis-
the legal and cultural requirements of the tar-     covered by the Romans some 2000 years ago but still remains a hot tip today. one among 26 hot water
get market. The tcworld conference, held from       springs, it is an oasis of relaxation. Another place of retreat is the thermal spa at Aukammtal, which has
November 5th to 7th in the Rhein-Main-Hallen        re-established itself as a modern health spa, following intensive modernization.
in Wiesbaden, draws the attention to the wide       tekom has also organized a number of tours and events for conference attendees. For more information,
spectrum of international information manage-       please visit the conference office in the Rhein-Main-Hallen.
ment.
                                                    THE MARKET CHURCH – SIGHTSEEING AND oRGAN
                                                    RECITAL
A unique pool of knowledge
                                                    Come and visit the city‘s tallest building, which was built in
Whoever wants to compete in this rapidly            the Neo-Gothic style. After the guided sightseeing tour enjoy
growing market requires state-of-the-art and        musical delights of organ composition.
comprehensive information. This includes
keeping up-to-date with regards to strategic,       THE SpRINGS oF WIESbADEN – A GUIDED WALK
methodical and technological aspects. The tc-       The Romans were the first to recognize Wiesbaden´s special
world conference and tekom annual confer-           qualities and knew very well how to use the thermal water for
ence offer a platform for experienced special-                                                   treatments and
ists as well as for young professionals to gain a                                                their well-being.
broader perspective and draw from a unique                                                       Already in 120 AD
pool of knowledge. In more than 100 presenta-                                                    the first Roman
tions, workshops, tutorials and tool presenta-                                                   settlements were
tions of exhibiting companies all relevant fields                                                established under
of knowledge are discussed.                                                                      the name “Aquae
                                                                                                 Mattiacorum”. Learn
                                                                                                 everything about
Guest of honor: Japan
                                                    the history, the origin and the use of the mineral springs dur-
The significance of cultural differences should     ing this guided tour.
not be underestimated, also with regard to tech-
nical communication. That is why tekom is plac-     VISIT oF THE MARMALADE AND MUSTARD FACToRy
ing more and more emphasize on international        Everybody is familiar with them, and most love them, but
information management and intercultural            hardly anyone knows how marmalade and mustard are made.
communication. This year, the “guest of honor”      The “Wiesbadener Marmeladen- und Senfmanufaktur”, also
Japan will take center stage during the confer-     called „the princess revolution“, offers groups a look behind
ence. Representatives of tekom’s sister organi-     the scene. After a home-made fruity vinegar aperitif you will
zation JTCA (Japan Technical Communicators          be introduced to the art of marmalade and mustard cook-
Association) give answers to your questions in      ing and preserving. you will learn how to recognize suitable
two main podium discussions: “Localization for      fruits and how treats are created from standard fruit varieties
Japan” and “Legal aspects of exporting products     by adding fresh herbs, spices or alcohol. The manufacture of
to Japan”. Furthermore, a member of JTCA’s ex-      mustard, vinegar, oil and even liquor is also demonstrated.
ecutive board will introduce the winner of the      A social gathering rounds off the visit during which unusual
“Japan Manual Award”. One highly interesting        preserves, mustards, aperitif-digestive vinegars, special oils
aspect here is the different use of visual com-     and liquors can be sampled. Try them out and discover which
munication: Comics are commonly used in             sorts of fruity preserves or mustard go best with meat, sau-
Japanese manuals, while they remain a rarity in     sage or cheese.
Europe.

DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                                   29
       community



       Forums at tcworld                                    writing techniques and text comprehensibility       XML Applications, Automation
                                                            are among the topics.                               This forum provides a meeting point for all those
       Localization Forum                                                                                       who use XML in daily business or are planning
       Next to Japan, tekom also enters uncharted wa-       User Assistance                                     to use it. You will learn about the application
       ters during the Localization Forum in coopera-       Here you will find information about the trends     of this technology, basic principles of technical
       tion with the Globalization and Localization As-     and techniques of online help tools and stand-      communication with XML as well as standards
       sociation (GALA): Experts give advice on how         ards, including the latest test and evaluation      like DITA, S100 D, Office Open XML, DocBook
       to find business partners in Asia and give an        procedures for user-friendly interfaces. User-      and OASIS Open Document.
       overview of the Latin American market. Further       centered engineering, rules for the design of
       topics of this forum include strategic aspects of    user-friendly interfaces and analysis of user be-
                                                                                                                tekom-Trade Fair
       localization management and quality assurance,       havior will be discussed among other topics.
       proofreading and editing, E-Learning, project                                                            The tcworld conference is accompanied by the
       management, automation and process optimiza-   Terminology and Language Technology                       tekom-Trade Fair, the biggest industry exhibi-
                                                      Using consistent terminology is very important
       tion as well as basic skills like writing coherent                                                       tion within the field of technical communication
       and translatable English source documents.     for the efficient creation of technical informa-          and information development. All the important
                                                      tion. Renowned experts show how a compa-                  technology suppliers and service providers are
     Technical Authoring                              ny-wide terminology base can be created and               present at this international fair. More than 150
     This track imparts key knowledge for the daily   managed, what software can be used and which              companies present software and services that
     business in technical authoring. Research and    organizational measures should be implement-              help you cope with the production and manage-
     interview techniques, didactics of instructions, ed. Among the topics are terminology extraction           ment of documentation and information.
ID_RZ_englisch 13.12.2007 16:40 Uhr Seiteand research as well as language technology and
                                                        1
                                                      methods for technical communication.




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                calendar
  when           what                              where

  October        International Conference on       Portland, USA
  24-25          Translation Studies, Cross-
                 cultural Communication and
                 Chinese Pedagogy                                          Many viewers have more and more choice in what, when and where they watch,
                 http://ci.oia.pdx.edu/                                    use and interact with audiovisual media. others, however, are excluded for a
  October        CeBIT Asia 2008                   Shanghai, China         variety of reasons, including language.
  27-30          www.cebit.de/                                             Cost, volume and quality can seem to be a contradiction in terms. Although pro-
                                                                           grams are available globally, their accessibility is often restricted.
  October        Languages & The Media             Berlin, Germany         What language reversioning is required to reach specific audiences? Is technol-
  29-31          www.languages-media.com                                   ogy the only answer to reducing costs? What quality standards are adequate
  November 3     The Global Customer               Barcelona, Spain        and acceptable for global, national and regional media distribution in order to
                 Experience Colloquium                                     reach diversified local audiences?
                 http://www.commonsenseadvi-                               The media world is changing rapidly. The 7th International Conference and Exhi-
                 sory.com/training/training.php                            bition on Languages and the Media is a chance for you to voice your opinion
                                                                           and join the discussion.
  November       tcworld conference                Wiesbaden, Germany
  5-7            www.tekom.de/conference

  November 17    Canadian Language Industry        Gatineau, Canada
                 Showcase 2008
                 http://ailia.4poyntzdezign.com/
                 content.php?sec=4

  November       International EUATC               Paris, France           The Online Information Conference runs in the olympia Conference Centre
  20-21          Conference 2008                                           alongside the Information Management Solutions 2008 exhibition covering all
                 www.euatc.org                                             aspects of the information industry including:
  December       Gilbane Boston 2008               Boston, USA             •	 Understanding enterprise 2.0
  2-4            http://gilbaneboston.com/                                 •	 Impact of web 2.0 in organizations
                                                                           •	 Improved service delivery in the digital age
  December       Information Management            London, Great Britain   •	 Information dynamics and information logistics
  2-4            Solutions 2008 and Online                                 •	 eDiscovery the new search
                 Information Conference                                    •	 Information structuring for improved sharing, management and access
                 www.ims-show.co.uk/

  December       LISA Forum Europe                 Dublin, Ireland
  8-11           www.lisa.org                                              The LISA Forum Europe will be concentrating on the business impact in the
                                                                           globalization industry of operating without standards. Multiple tracks, case stud-
  December       World Congress on Special-        Havana, Cuba            ies and end-user presentations will focus attention on the executive issues, skill
  8-13           ized Translation: Languages                               sets and business challenges associated with implementing standards to meet
                 and Intercultural Dialogue in                             worldwide customer requirements.
                 a Globalizing World                                       Key topics include
                 http://dtil.unilat.org/cmte2008                           •	 Concrete steps for incorporating standards into enterprise Content Manage-
                                                                             ment Systems
  December 9     I International Conference on     S. Mamede Infesta,
                                                                           •	 benchmarking your globalization engineering and workflow processes
                 Intercultural Studies             Portugal
                                                                           •	 Translation Automation standards: what is feasible today and what will it take
                 www.iscap.ipp.pt/~cei/con-
                                                                             to implement?
                 gresso.htm
                                                                           •	 How can standard methods (best practice) enable more companies to use MT
  December       2nd International Symposium       Osaka, Japan              more efficiently?
  15-16          on Universal Communication                                •	 Content creation standards: current practices for product globalization
                 www.is-uc.org/2008


DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                             31
directory



Associations


                                        Technical Communication                                                          ComponentOne Doc-To-Help is
                                        in Europe                                Centrum Lokalizacji C&M, one of         the premier authoring and publish-
GALA is an international non-           With the foundation of TCeurope          the leading translation companies       ing tool in the market. It enables
profit association that promotes        nine European associations of tech-      in Poland with more than 10 years       technical communicators, policy
translation services, language tech-    nical writers promote the quality        experience, provides linguistic         writers, and other content creators
nology and language management          of technical communication across        services to customers from around       to author in Doc-To-Help’s XML-
solutions. The 200+ member com-         borders, popularize the occupa-          the world. C&M’s portfolio in-          based editor, Microsoft Word or
panies worldwide include transla-       tional image, advance educational        cludes: software localization includ-   HTML, and publish to the Web,
tion agencies, localization service     opportunities and support the            ing translation of documentation,       Help systems, or printed manuals
providers, globalization consultants    interests of their members all across    website localization, translation       with a single click. ComponentOne
and technology developers. GALA         Europe.                                  of technical, IT, medical, life sci-    is the only vendor that gives you
companies share a commitment to         To enhance these goals TCeurope          ences, legal, financial and marketing   everything you need to create your
quality, service and innovation in      organizes an annual colloquium on        texts into all CE languages. C&M        documentation deliverables in one
helping clients reach global markets.   user friendly product information,       provides terminology database           application. You are encouraged to
   www.gala-global.org                  in which cross-border topics are         management as well as automated         visit them during the show in Hall
   info@gala-global.org                 discussed and viewed from a politi-      glossary generation and proofread-      10 Booth No. 171, and find out all
                                        cal, strategic, economic and techni-     ing. Our team consists of verified      that’s new in Doc-To-Help 2009.
                                        cal point of view.                       employees and freelance translators,       www.doctohelp.com
                                           www.tceurope.org                      but also of various partner compa-         sales@componentone.com
                                           info@tceurope.org                     nies in other countries. We think
tekom Gesellschaft für technische                                                globally, but act locally.
Kommunikation e.V. is the largest                                                   www.cmlocalization.eu/
association in Europe representing                                                  cm@cmlocalization.eu
                                        Service Providers                                                                DOCUFY
technical communicators, illustra-
tors and translators. tekom is a                                                                                         time for information
neutral platform for the exchange                                                                                        Push your documentation qual-
of information, knowledge and                                                                                            ity and save time and money with
expertise and promotes profes-          Across Systems is the manufacturer       cognitas – these are more than          DOCUFY editorial solutions.
sional education and training in the    of the No. 1 independent technology      80 experienced employees like           COSIMA: The powerful and flex-
field of technical communication.       for the linguistic supply chain. The     technical writers, designers, trans-    ible XML editorial system that fits
Founded in 1978, tekom currently        Across Language Server provides a        lators, online-specialists and tool     perfectly into your it-infrastructure.
represents around 6000 members in       central software platform for all cor-   developers. cognitas is one of the      COSIMA go!: The cost efficient
all industrial branches. tekom coop-    porate language resources and for        largest certified service providers     XML editorial system that is ready
erates with associations of related     controlling translation processes and    of technical documentation in many      for use without much project over-
professions, educational institu-       workflows. It includes a translation     different sectors like information      head.
tions, industry organizations and       memory, a terminology system, and        and communication technology,           Almost all of your special require-
standards bodies worldwide.             powerful project management and          the aerospace industry, defense and     ments can be supported by custom-
   www.tekom.de                         translation workflow control tools.      automotive engineering. Our range       izing and extending our COSIMA
   info@tekom.de                        Product managers, translators, and       of services is based on a system of     standard solution. Benefit from our
                                        proofreaders all work in one system.     modules, we accompany you from          more the 10 years experiences in
                                        Across Systems provides several          the first concept phase through         optimizing editorial processes.
                                        partner programs e.g. for LSPs and       rollout and on to implementa-              www.docufy.de
                                        consultants as well as a Software        tion. The company is situated in           info@docufy.de
                                        Development Kit for system integra-      Munich, and has subsidiary of-
                                        tors and technology partners. Across     fices in Paderborn and Stuttgart.
                                        clients access the server via LAN,          claus.noack@cognitas.de
                                        WAN or Web. The software is avail-          www.cognitas.de
                                        able as a Hosted Service, too.
                                           info@across.net
                                           www.across.net



32                                                                                                                                           DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                             directory




                                                                               Locatech has helped multinational        Founded in 1990, Moravia World-
JustSystems is a leading global        Kothes! is your competent partner       companies develop, adapt and             wide is a leading globalization
software provider with three dec-      for legally compliant and CE con-       launch their products into interna-      solution provider, enabling compa-
ades of successful innovation in       forming technical documentation.        tional markets since 1993. Technical     nies in the information technology,
office productivity, information       Kothes! meets the needs of compa-       writers, software developers, locali-    life sciences, manufacturing and
management, and consumer and           nies of any size providing services     zation engineers, expert linguists       financial industries to enter global
enterprise software. With over 2,500   such as technical writing, transla-     and project managers provide local       markets with high quality multilin-
customers worldwide and annual         tions, risk assessments, conformity     and off-shore services for every         gual products. Moravia’s solutions
revenues over $110M, the company       assessments, consultancy, training      step in the multilingual content life    – delivered into over 90 languages
is continuing a global expansion       and software solutions. Further-        cycle: from documentation creation       and locales – include localization
strategy that includes the launch of   more we offer in-house seminars         and software development through         and product testing services, inter-
its new enterprise software offering   and workshops as well as the op-        translation and localization to deliv-   nationalization, multilingual pub-
called xfy (pronounced ‘x-fye’), and   tion of having your documentation       ery of final, market-ready materials.    lishing and technical translation.
XMetaL content lifecycle solutions.    evaluated.                              Locatech co-founded LCJ EEIG in          With global headquarters in Brno,
A Gartner “Cool Vendor” selec-         Consequently, Kothes! is not fo-        1999, is a Microsoft Premier Locali-     Czech Republic, Moravia has local
tion in 2008, he company currently     cused on any one particular field. In   zation Vendor, and provides high-        offices in Ireland, Central Europe,
employs over 1,000 people.             fact, we manage all kinds of docu-      quality, cost-efficient IT outsourc-     the United States, Japan, China and
   www.justsystems.com.                mentation projects from “small”         ing solutions through Locatech           Argentina.
                                       consumer products to “large” plants.    Trisoft Services Pvt. Ltd. India.           www.moraviaworldwide.com
                                       Based in Kempen, Berlin, Bremen            info@locatech.com                        europe@moraviaworldwide.
                                       and Zurich, Kothes! covers the             www.locatech.com                         com
                                       German-speaking market and
For 40 years, KERN Global Lan-         beyond.
guage Services has assisted com-          www.kothes.de
panies in translating, tailoring and      info@kothes.de
adapting their documentation and                                               Logrus provides multilingual trans-      Plunet BusinessManager is the
products for international markets.                                            lation, software engineering and         complete management solution for
Take advantage of our linguistic and                                           testing services into large number       the translation and documentation
technical expertise in terminology                                             of languages, including complex          industry. On a web-based platform,
and translation memory manage-                                                 scripts and rare tongues.                the system – INCLUDES business
ment (data migration, term extrac-     Established in 1989, Lloyd Inter-       We specialize on Russian, Ukrain-        management as well as process
tion, compilation and maintenance      national Translations specialises in    ian, Kazakh, Azeri and other CIS         and document management – IN-
of firm-specific terminology) and      assisting and supporting companies      languages.                               TEGRATES translation software,
optimize your workflow with our        to achieve their global success         Focus areas of expertise are: operat-    financial accounting systems and
fully-integrated customer solutions.   by providing first-class transla-       ing systems, Enterprise Resource         existing software environments
KERN Global Language Services is       tion and localization services.         Planning, business software, and         – FOR LSPs, translation and docu-
your partner for technical transla-    Offering a full range of language       general-purpose software localiza-       mentation departments, organiza-
tions and multilingual DTP.            translation services, from transla-     tion into Russian, Ukrainian and         tions and government agencies.
We look forward to seeing you at       tion, website and software locali-      other languages of the former            Plunet BusinessManager impresses
our booth 931 in hall 9.               zation, glossary and terminology        USSR.                                    with its significant time and money
   www.e-kern.com                      management and development,             We render marketing content              savings, high adaptability to indi-
   info@e-kern.com                     to translation memory manage-           and business printing services for       vidual workflows, optimal quality
                                       ment and full multilingual content      companies willing to break into the      control and effective CRM. Func-
                                       management, Lloyd International         market of Russia and Ukraine.            tions include quotation costing,
                                       is committed to ensuring that all       We record sound in 25+ languages,        order/job/workflow management,
                                       translations are tailored to meet and   and render and master video. We          schedule and document manage-
                                       exceed the needs of our customers.      create web banners and presenta-         ment, invoicing, financial reports
                                          www.lloyd.co.uk                      tions with video and animation in        and much more.
                                          mail@lloyd.co.uk                     Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight.         www.plunet.de
                                                                                  management@logrus.ru                     info@plunet.de
                                                                                  www.logrus.ru

DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                                                                         33
directory




                                        tcw
                                          the content

                                                                                As one of the world’s leading
                                            wrangler




PTC provides leading product            TheContentWrangler.com is a             language services providers the-          Looking to get in touch with Scan-
lifecycle management (PLM), con-        popular online resource for techni-     bigword delivers efficient, global        dinavia? Then look no further than
tent management and dynamic             cal and business writers with an        solutions to clients across the world.    Translator Scandinavia. Based in
publishing solutions to more than       interest in content management.         We constantly provide high quality        Stockholm, Sweden, we’ve been
40,000 companies worldwide. PTC         Become a member of TheContent-          and cost effective translation, locali-   successfully marketing the world’s
customers include the world’s           Wrangler.com community. It’s free!      sation and interpreting solutions         products and services in the Nordic
most innovative companies in            Members receive:                        through experienced teams and             region for more than 15 years. We
manufacturing, publishing, serv-        x Our monthly email newsletter          utilising our own industry leading        offer a wealth of in-house expertise,
ices, government and life sciences      x Discounts on training, confer-        technology.                               Scandinavia’s most talented transla-
industries. PTC is included in the         ences, books, and more               thebigword’s success is due to our        tors, cutting-edge technology, and
S&P 500 and Russell 2000 indices.       x Access to an influential net-         team’s knowledge and expertise of         our own layout and graphic design
PTC solutions for dynamic                  work of content professionals        individual industries and our ap-         department. Translator Scandinavia
publishing enable companies             x Invitations to participate            proach to providing bespoke solu-         has been around since 1991 and
to automate the assembly and               in industry surveys                  tions by understanding our clients’       specializes in high-quality transla-
publishing of product or service        x Access to survey results              businesses, goals and existing proc-      tions in the fields of advertising, IT,
information in multiple languages       x Content placement consideration       esses. We help to reduce the time         finance, medicine, technology and
and formats. These solutions are           on TheContentWrangler.com            and cost normally required through        subjects related to the European
made up of the Arbortext prod-             www.TheContentWrangler.com           effective project management, the         Union.
uct family and are used by 30%             scottabel@mac.com                    use of translation memories and              office@translator-scandinavia.se
of Fortune 500 companies.                                                       innovative technology.                       www.translator-scandinavia.se
   www.ptc.com                                                                  For more information on our
   techpubs@ptc.com                                                             services call thebigword on
                                        TOIN Corporation is a full-service      +44 (0)870 748 8000.
                                        localization provider with serv-           www.thebigword.com
                                        ices encompassing authoring,               info@thebigword.com                    VAW-arvato is a global service
                                        localization, content management                                                  provider for the creation, manage-
                                        and workflow / process consult-                                                   ment and delivery of technical
SalfTrans is a highly experienced       ing. TOIN offers global reach and                                                 information.
technical translation company,          exceptional strength in Asia, with      ACP TRADUCTERA is based in                From information sourcing to
specialising in providing accu-         headquarters in Tokyo and ad-           the Czech and Slovak Republic.            global delivery, we help make work-
rate and consistent translations        ditional operations in the United       Our local experience and strong           flows more efficient and use latest
of the following items across           States, Europe and China. The           focus on appropriate language             technology to achieve optimum
a wide range of languages:              company has more than 40 years’         use makes us reliable partner for         cost savings, shortened production
   •	 User	guides                       experience helping Global 1000          providing high-quality translations       times and consistent quality.
   •	 Technical	manuals                 companies in industries such as au-     into Central and Eastern European         Our core industries are automotive,
   •	 Help	systems                      tomotive, information technology,       languages.                                engineering, energy and medical.
   •	 Websites	                         life sciences, engineering, electron-   We offer document translations,           Over 200 experts in 9 locations on 4
   •	 Software	programs                 ics, training, publishing, software     review, revision, legal certification,    continents produce
Founded in 1986, SalfTrans of-          development, manufacturing, semi-       website and software localization,        •	 Owners	literature
fers you the benefit of over 20         conductors and consumer products.       Desktop publishing, etc.                  •	 Service	and	repair	manuals
years' experience in the technical      Languages: Japanese, Simplified         ISO 9001:2000 certificate by TÜV          •	 Training	literature
translation sector. We specialise in    Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Ko-       NORD. Our translation process is          •	 Diagnostic	procedures
translating your technical literature   rean, Vietnamese, Thai, Malay, and      in compliance with DIN EN 15038.          •	 Spare	parts	catalogues
to publication standard, including      some European languages.                THE EUROPEAN REGIONAL DE-                 and translate these documents
a full multilingual DTP service.           www.to-in.com                        VELOPMENT FUND AND THE                    in more than 30 languages. Our
We have in-depth expertise of              Europe:                              MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY AND                  own Content Management System
software localisation. We offer you        michael-stephenson@to-in.co.jp       TRADE OF THE CZECH REPUB-                 allows intelligent integration into
a consistent quality solution, deliv-      North America:                       LIC SUPPORT INVESTMENT IN                 your software environment.
ered on time and within budget.            aki-ito@to-in.co.jp                  YOUR FUTURE.                                 www.vaw-online.com
   www.salftrans.co.uk                     Asia:                                   www.traductera.com                        peter.lahner@bertelsmann.de
   info@salftrans.co.uk                    toshihito-hattori@to-in.co.jp           info@traductera.com


34                                                                                                                                            DECEMbER 2008
                                                                                                 confe            re n ce
                                                                                 w w w.tekom.de/




     Book now:
      Your exhibition space at the tekom-
      Trade Fair *, the biggest event in
      Technical Communication worldwide



         * Meet more than 2,700 professionals from                                           “The organizers at tekom were
                                                                                             extremely helpul. The big gathering
             the fields of Technical Communication and                                       of exhibitors gave me many oppor-

             Information Management                                                          tunities to interact extensively.“
                                                                                                        Shirley Yeng, Beijing E-C Translation




                                                                                             “For us the tekom Annual Conference
                                                                                             is the leading trade fair in the area of
                                                                                             Technical Communication. It presents
                                                                                             the entire spectrum of new trends and
                                                                                             technologies. We are de nitely going
                                                                                             to participate again this year.“
                                                                                                     Martina Tomaschowski, empolis GmbH




conference 2008
C O N F E R E N C E F O R I N T E R N AT I O N A L I N F O R M AT I O N M A N AG E M E N T



November 5-7, 2008; Rhein-Main-Hallen Wiesbaden, Germany
Further information: www.tekom.de/conference

				
DOCUMENT INFO