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Introduction                             some of the factors which can make
Restaurants       and     fast   food    pest management difficult.
establishments present a major
challenge in terms of preventing pest    Factors Favouring Pests
problems. This is partly because         Factors Favouring Pest Entry
they are highly vulnerable to pest       • Food provisions infested with
invasion, and because they contain          pests may be brought in.
many resources to sustain pests          • Cases of canned or bottled drinks
which have entered. But it is also          may be a source of pests.
because       some      pest   control   • Contract laundry services may
measures which are suitable in other        introduce pests on infested table
situations are not permissible or are       linen.
ineffective in commercial kitchens.      • Employees from infested homes
Despite regulations and official            may introduce cockroaches on
inspection procedures aimed at              personal belongings.
minimizing      hygiene    and   pest    • Pests may enter from adjoining
problems in these establishments,           buildings through cracks in
many continue to have longstanding          common walls.
problems       with   insect    pests,   • Exterior lighting may attract flying
particularly German cockroaches. In         insects.
some cases, the management and           • Hot      and     steamy     kitchen
employees in these establishments           conditions encourage employees
have given up all hope of having            to open exterior doors and
freedom from pests and simply focus         windows, thus allowing pest
on concealing the situation from their      entry.
clientele.                               • Ornamental foundation plantings
                                            provide pest harbourages close
Fortunately, cockroaches, flies and         to doorways and make pest
other    pests    found    in  these        invasion more likely.
establishments can be controlled’,
and future problems can be avoided       Factors Favouring Pest Survival
by using the latest pest management      • Warm buildings and hot spots
materials and methods. However,             near stoves, steam kettles, etc.
before tackling the pest problems, it    • Food supplies of many kinds,
is important to understand the              including garbage.
factors which favour pests in            • Water from taps, condensation,
restaurants     and      fast   food        drains, toilets, etc.
establishments, and to recognize

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•   Numerous            harbourages,          causing some runoff or bounce-
    including     false      ceilings,        back.
    machinery voids and hollow table      •   There may be employee and
    legs.                                     management apathy about pests,
                                              and thus, a reluctance to make
Factors Favouring Pest Dispersal              an effort to get rid of them. /1
Within Building
• Conduits for water, electricity and     Planning A Pest Management
   heating or cooling systems allow       Program
   concealed movement of crawling         There are no quick and easy ways of
   pests.                                 solving    pest   problems     in   a
• Ceiling     voids    allow     easy     restaurant, particularly if the pests
   movement around kitchen and            include a well-established population
   dining areas.                          of German cockroaches. An effective
• Constant       employee       traffic   pest management program involves
   between kitchen areas and dining       hard work, both by the pest
   areas allow migration of pests in      management professional and by the
   restaurants.                           on-site staff.
• Food scraps dropped by patrons
   provide        pest        feeding     If previous pest programs have failed
   opportunities away from kitchen        to solve the problem, it is likely it will
   areas.                                 take more time and more money
• Dim lighting in some restaurant         (perhaps five or ten times more
   bars     and     dining      areas     money) to do an effective job. Some
   encourages the activity and            clients who have seen nothing but a
   spread of nocturnal insects.           token post control effort may be
                                          surprised at how much effort it takes
Factors   Making                 Pest     to effectively deal with pests. They
Management Difficult                      may have heard of companies
•   It is difficult to treat 24-hour      specialising in pest elimination and
    establishments without disturbing     figured they must use some magic
    the clientele.                        remedy. But there are no magic
•   Grease deposits in kitchens can       remedies and no substitutes for
    quickly      render     insecticide   hard, thoughtful work. When the
    deposits ineffective.                 amount of time, materials and know-
•   High kitchen temperatures speed       how necessary to carry out an
    the degradation of insecticides.      effective pest management program
•   Cleaning measures can quickly         is thoroughly explained to the client,
    remove surface deposits of            price objections can usually be
    insecticides.                         overcome. If objections remain, they
•   Most residual insecticides are        can often be overcome by explaining
    only permitted as crack and           the dangers of a pest problem in
    crevice applications in food          terms      of    potential      disease
    areas, but such applications are      transmission, loss of reputation, and
    virtually    impossible     without   by assuring a client that even

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longstanding      problems     can   be    sequence would need to be repeated
solved.                                    so that in effect it becomes a cyclical
                                           process. However, the details of
The details of pest management             each cycle would vary because
programs will vary from place to           actions in the previous cycle would
place, depending on such factors as        have changed the pest situation.
climate, construction methods and
materials, the presence of adjoining       1. ObtainIng Management Co-
buildings, maintenance standards,          operation
sanitation levels and the level of         The level of co-operation and
commitment        of      the    client.   commitment of the site management
Maintaining total freedom from pests       will influence the whole program. For
will require a much greater                instance, management co-operation
commitment from the client than if a       will be needed to gain site access
low level of pests is tolerated.           when the premises are closed to the
                                           public, and to get into locked storage
The following guidelines indicate the      areas.     Moreover,     without   co-
kind of approach needed to deal with       operation at the highest level, it is
an existing problem and to minimize        unlikely that people at lower levels
future problems. This approach             will co-operate and make necessary
involves the integrated use of non-        changes.
control agent methods and a range
of insecticides which are especially       Management co-operation can be
suited for use in restaurants and fast     encouraged by pointing out the
food establishments. The Pest              benefits of a successful program.
Management Systems contains the            These benefits not only include
following elements in the sequence         freedom from worry about customer
they would take place:                     complaints and loss of reputation.
    1. Obtaining management co-            There is also the spin-off benefit that
       operation.                          employees often develop a new
    2. Inspection of premises.             sense of pride, duty and loyalty when
    3. Developing recommendations          they work for management who
       for      non-control     agent      maintain     a    wholesome       work
       measures.                           environment and care about the well-
    4. Developing recommendations          being of the clientele.
       for control agent treatments.
    5. Obtaining co-operation of on-       2. Inspection of Premises
       site staff.                         An initial inspection of the premises,
    6. Implementation       of   initial   inside and outside, must be
       treatments.                         conducted to identify the type and
    7. Implementation of follow-up         extent of pest problems, and factors
       treatments.                         contributing to those problems. In
    8. Monitoring the results.             small premises an inspection may
In most cases, because of the              take no more than 30 minutes, but in
possibility of reinfestation from          large premises it may require many
incoming materials, the above              hours. In either case, how well this

Restaurants.doc              Page 3 of 3
inspection is conducted will largely       drainage traps), drains, toilets, drip
determine      the    suitability   and    pans beneath bar pumps, wet floors,
effectiveness of later efforts.            and unfinished drinks.
Equipment for inspection should            Harbourages might include the
include a good flashlight and              following: wall crevices around
extension mirror for aiding inspection     plumbing fixtures or work tables,
of       hard-to-reach        locations,   hollow legs of tables, corners and
screwdrivers and other tools for           crevices in worktops, cabinets, food
gaining     access      to      possible   carts or shelving, dark corners of
harbourages, pyrethrum aerosol or          rooms, conduits or junction boxes,
dust for flushing hidden insects, and      machinery voids, power outlets, wall
a notebook for recording data.             voids, ceiling voids, behind notice
                                           boards, and inside food packaging.
After first becoming familiar with the
general layout of the premises, it is      The inspection is often the most
important to talk with personnel who       challenging part of the whole
work on the premises. Asking them          program. Key findings regarding pest
where they have seen pests and             invasion routes, factors favouring
when they first started seeing them        pests and actual pest locations
my give clues as to their origin.          should be recorded to form a
Identifying the origin of pests is         baseline for future comparisons and
valuable, because countermeasures          to help by recording such factors as
will be quite different if insects         cleaning methods and schedules,
entered through crevices or conduits       when the kitchen is in use, when the
from an adjoining building than if         premises are open to the general
they were carried into a restaurant        public and special areas of risk, such
on food provisions.                        as live fish or lobster tanks.

No matter how the pests originally         3. Developing
entered, the inspection must identify      Recommendations for Non-
any factors which enable them to
survive and multiply once they have
                                           Control agent Measures
                                           Based on the inspection, a range of
arrived. This involves identifying
                                           non-control agent pest management
food, water and harbourages needed
                                           measures will be developed which
by pests.
                                           may include the following:
                                           • Fitting tight, self-closing exterior
Food sources for insects might
                                              doors, particularly for the kitchen.
include the following:
                                           • Caulking crevices around doors,
exposed       food      (e.g.      fresh
                                              windows and vents.
vegetables), food spills, buildup of
                                           • Fitting insect-proof screens on
food debris in crevices and drains,
                                              windows and vents.
grease deposits, garbage, and
                                           • Trimming grass around building.
rodenticide bait.
                                           • Establishing a bare strip of
Water sources might include the
                                              gravel, crushed stone, tarmac or
following:        dripping         taps,
                                              concrete against the foundations
condensation,      sinks      (including
                                              of the building.

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•   Eliminating     organic    mulches     These         non-control       agent
    around outdoor plantings and           recommendations         should      be
    indoor planters and substituting       reported to the client and an action
    crushed shell, stone or gravel.        plan discussed. However, it is the
•   Cleaning gutters and outside           proper role of the pest management
    drains.                                professional to help prioritize such
•   Ensuring good drainage under air       work from a pest viewpoint. Failure
    conditioners.                          to implement the non-control agent
•   Keeping rubbish bins closed, and       recommendations will force a greater
    cleaning and emptying them             reliance on control agent treatments
    regularly.                             and reduce the chances of improving
•   Eliminating outside bird-roosting      the pest situation. For instance,
    sites.                                 regularly cleaning floor drains is a
•   Replacing any exterior insect-         surer way of reducing problems of
    attracting lighting with sodium        drain flies than periodic applications
    vapour lamps which have low            of insecticide.
•   Sealing crevices and other insect      4. Developing
    accesses        from       adjoining   Recommendations for
•   Sealing       crevices       around
                                           Control agent Treatments
                                           Control agent treatments will be
    plumbing fixtures, work surfaces,
                                           based on the findings of the
    etc. in food handling areas which
                                           inspection and will be tailored to the
    may harbour pests.
                                           particular pests and the target sites.
•   Repairing grouting in wall and
                                           Modern products are labelled for use
    floor tiles.
                                           against most insect pests and for
•   Repairing plumbing leaks
                                           most sites of use in and around
•   Checking incoming supplies for
                                           restaurants. However, in common
    pests and immediately disposing
                                           with other pesticides, they should not
    of cardboard boxes.
                                           be used in ways which result in
•   Upgrading food storage, waste
                                           contamination of food, drinks, food
    handling and cleaning programs
                                           preparation        surfaces,      food
    to reduce the food available to
                                           containers or dishes and utensils.
•   Replacing       wooden        racks,
                                           For pests invading from outside,
    shelves, cabinets, etc. with metal
                                           recommendations might include
    ones to discourage pests such as
                                           locating and treating ant nests. If
    cockroaches which like wooden
                                           rubbish bins are being used as an
                                           insect food source, they can be fan
•   Identifying and isolating slow-
                                           sprayed as necessary, paying
    moving items which have been a
                                           particular attention to inner and outer
    past source of stored product
                                           surfaces around the openings.
    pest problems (e.g. spices).
                                           Perimeter sprays on foundation
•   Using electrocuting light traps
                                           plantings      and       around     the
    outdoors for flying insect control.
                                           foundations,       eaves,     windows,
                                           doorways and vents will control

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occasional invaders such as ants,            should be used instead of
spiders       and      outdoor-living        insecticide dust since dust may
cockroaches. In addition, it may be          later migrate to non-target
necessary to inject weep holes and           surfaces during maintenance
exterior cracks and crevices around          work.
doors, windows, plumbing and air         • Of these four types of application,
vents (if these are points of insect         treatments of cracks and crevices
entry).                                      and voids will be most useful for
                                             insects    such     as     German
For pests which have already                 cockroaches which hide a lot or
entered or been carried into the             avoid light. Even with maximal
building, it may be necessary to plan        sealing of cracks, crevices and
insecticide applications of the              voids, there will always be some
following four types:                        of these hiding places because of
• Treatment of exposed insects on            the need for vented motor
    surfaces with directed contact fan       housings, air conditioning ducts
    sprays. For exposed flying pests,        and accessible ceiling voids.
    pyrethrum aerosols can be used.      No plans should be made to treat
• Spot treatments of surfaces for        very hot surfaces with any residual
    residual control of insects which    insecticide because the heat will
    crawl across these surfaces          quickly degrade the product. In such
    searching for food or water, using   situations, and in very wet situations,
    fan sprays. Target sites might       insects can be killed with a
    include wall/floor or wall/ceiling   pyrethrum aerosol or flushed to
    junctions, around doorways, the      cooler, drier surrounding places
    underside of tables and sinks,       previously treated.
    around insect accesses to food
    stores and equipment, and            5. Staff Co-operation
    Surfaces around serving lines        While some caulking of pest
    and dining areas.                    harbourages can be carried out by
• Crack and crevice treatment of         the pest management professional,
    shallow harbourages in which         the help of on-site staff is essential to
    cockroaches or other insects may     deal with most sanitation and
    hide,     using   low    pressure    maintenance        problems       which
    pinstream applications to avoid      contribute to pest problems. In
    wasteful runoff.                     addition, staff efforts are helpful in
• Deep treatment of wall and             preparing the site for insecticide
    ceiling voids, conduits, crawl       applications.     Such       preparation
    spaces, hollow legs of tables,       includes ensuring that all food is
    behind and under stoves and          removed or covered; cleaning work
    refrigerators, and other voids       surfaces, shelving, food machinery,
    where insects may hide, using        floors and drains; and disposing of
    insecticidal dust. For voids in      garbage. Such prior cleaning serves
    food machinery and for ceiling       two purposes: it reduces the risks of
    voids above food preparation         insecticide       deposits        being
    surfaces, pyrethrum aerosols         immediately removed by cleaning,

Restaurants.doc           Page 6 of 6
and it forces insects to wander
further to find food so that they are    In general, both for initial treatments
more likely to contact surfaces          and for follow- up treatments,
treated with insecticide.                working at night is preferable. Night
                                         treatments allow better access to
6. Implementation of Initial             harbourages and less risk of food
Treatments                               contamination or disturbance of
Implementation of all the non-control    people. But equally important is that
agent measures takes time, money         major pests, such as cockroaches,
and changes of attitude. Moreover,       are most active at night and more
non- control agent measures alone        likely to encounter insecticide
seldom, if ever, eliminate established   deposits when the deposits are
populations of pests such as             freshest and least degraded by
German cockroaches. To deal              cleaning measures or by the heat,
quickly with an existing pest problem    light and humidity of a working
requires an initial offensive based on   kitchen.
the control agent recommendations
which have been developed. This          To ensure complete treatment of all
offensive is best conducted over a       pest harbourages during the initial
short period of time (a few days at      treatment it is best to divide the
most) with the objective of reaching     building into treatment zones. Then
the entire hidden and exposed pest       after making sure the zone is
population within that time and          prepared (e.g. covering food or
achieving a population crash. It has     lobster     tanks,     etc.),    every
been found that populations of fast-     harbourage or potential harbourage
breeding insects such as German          in that zone is treated before going
cockroaches are much less likely to      to the adjacent zone. The size of
recover after such a crash than if the   these zones may range from a whole
same effort was spread over a            wall, or even a whole room, to just a
longer period. In effect, a thorough     four foot wide section of wall. The
treatment leaves no safe place for       zone size does not matter.. All that
any surviving insects to hide and        matters is that, if pest eradication is
breed.                                   the goal, every harbourage is
                                         systematically treated using either
Because this initial treatment will      crack and crevice, void or surface
require opening of ceiling voids,        applications, whichever are most
dismantling of equipment and other       appropriate.
disturbances, it can best be
conducted during shutdown periods        7. Implementation of Follow-
(such as over a holiday weekend or       up Treatments
over a series of nights). Ideally,       Follow-up inspections should be
arrangements will be made for the        made of any previously infested
customer’s staff to clean and leave      harbourages, as well as nest sites of
dismantled specified equipment prior     ants; where activity persists, they
to the pest management team’s            should be re-treated within four
arrival.                                 weeks of the initial treatment. In

Restaurants.doc           Page 7 of 7
addition, in a complex building where       Sticky traps can be routinely used or
there is a high risk of having missed       monitoring pests in areas not
some harbourages, it is good                accessible to the general public. Ln
practice to study the distribution of       addition,      inspections        using
dead insects on the first morning           pyrethrum aerosols to inject potential
after a treatment, before the cleaning      harbourages should be carried out at
staff has swept up the bodies. With         least monthly. Other means of
modern products, a heavy kill is            checking for the reappearance of
obtained by the next morning and, if        pests include checking catch trays of
concentrations of dead bodies               light traps, or simply looking for
appear in areas that were only              insects in regular light fittings. The
superficially treated, this indicates a     presence of spiders is further
nearby infested crevice or void which       evidence of the presence of insects,
should be indentified and injected          since spiders need insect prey. Often
with the appropriate formulation.           the type of insects can be
Where occasional invaders are likely        determined     by examining the
to periodically invade the building,        spider’s catch in a web.
periodic follow-up treatments will be
necessary      to     minimize     entry.
Depending on the weather and pest
pressure, these treatments can
usually be scheduled at monthly or
bimonthly         intervals.     Similar
protective      treated      zones     of
insecticide should be maintained in
goods receiving and storage areas to
ensure that any pests introduced in
provisions       do     not     become
established in these areas or spread
to new areas.

8. Monitoring the Results
The results of the initial treatment
and follow-up treatments should be
monitored by regular inspections and
by obtaining a regular feedback from
on-site staff. The staff should be
asked to record the time, place and
type of pest sighting in a log book.
This will not only help the pest
management professional to find
new problems, but will also help
maintain      the    interest    and
involvement of the staff.

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