Writing and Presenting Scientific Papers by P-IndependentPublish


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									Writing and Presenting Scientific Papers
Author: Birgitta Malmfors
Author: Phil Garnsworthy
Author: Michael Grossman

Edition: 2nd
Table of Contents


Preface xi
1 Communicating Science 1
The ABC of science communication 1
Scientific versus popular science writing 3
The sections of a scientific paper reflect the
research process 5

2 Sections of a Scientific Paper 9
Major headings 9

3 Tables and Figures 17
Tables 17
Figures 20

4 Other Types of Scientific Writing 23
Literature review 23
Conference paper and abstract 27
Thesis or dissertation 28
Popular science article 29
Research proposal 32

5 Getting Started in Writing 37
Making an outline facilitates writing 38
Use a computer for your writing 39
Start with the sections you find easiest to write 40
Write a draft - review and revise 42

6 Improving Your Writing 45
How to make your writing easier to read 45
Do I or don't I? 53
Writing correctly 54

7 Writing Statistics 67
Materials and methods 67
Results 72
Writing mathematics 73
Writing numbers, dates and time 74

8 Literature Searching and Referencing 79
Search strategies 79
Manual searching 82
Recording your search 82
Referencing published work 83
Referencing web addresses 85
Copyright 86

9 Getting a Paper into Print 89
Preparing your manuscript for submission 89
Authorship and addresses 90
Submission 91
Editor’s and referees' reports 92
Author proofs 93

10 Oral Presentation and Visual Displays 99
Planning the oral presentation 99
Preparing the oral presentation 101
Visuals support your talk 105
Creating visuals 110
Performing the oral presentation 114
11 Poster Presentation 121
Attract viewers and show the essentials 121
Designing the poster 122
Presenting the poster 127

12 Training Students in Writing and Presentation 129
Undergraduate and Masters level 130
Postgraduate level 135
Training communication skills - in summary 139

13 Reviewing Papers and Presentations 141
Written papers 142
Students’ written work 143
Book reviews 144
Assessment of presentations 145

Further Reading 147
Books 147
Journal articles 148
Web sites 148
Index 151

This dynamic manual provides guidelines for written and oral scientific presentations, including how to
effectively prepare and deliver papers and presentations, how to find reliable research, and how to write
research proposals.

Communicating science The aim of research is to contribute to knowledge, so that every new result
adds to the previous state of knowledge, forming a basis for new thinking
and interpretation, new implications, identification of needs for further
research, etc. Research results, however, do not contribute to knowledge
and development unless they are communicated effectively. Effective
communication of science, to scientists and to other audiences, is an important
component of the research process. Communication is needed, not only
to spread research results, but also to
articulate results. Writing or talking
about your research helps to clarify
your thoughts and to put your research
into a deeper and wider context.
Therefore, start writing and talking
about your research early in the
research process. Scientific communication occurs in many forms, such as papers in scientific
journals, reports, conference papers and abstracts, theses and dissertations,
review papers, proposals, popular science and newspaper articles, computermediated
information, oral and poster presentations, interviews and discussions.
Various forms of communication may differ, e.g. in purpose and audience
addressed, but they also have a great deal in common – they communicate
science. A good knowledge of how to handle various forms of scientific
communication is needed in many professions, not only for scientists. It is
essential, therefore, to include training in scientific communication at every
level of education. The ABC of science communication Communicating science usually means
communicating new knowledge or
summarising the present state of knowledge. It is important, therefore, that
what is written or said is unambiguous, so that the audience understands the
The ABC of science communication is that it should be:

• Accurate and Audience-adapted

• Brief

• Clear Science is international. This means that many of those who read a scientific
paper or listen to a scientific presentation will be doing so in a foreign
language. This further emphasises the need for clarity and for the presentation
to be logical, consistent and coherent. Communication is a two-way process.
Information cannot merely be delivered - it must be received and understood
as well. The message delivered may be accurate, brief and clear, but may still
not be received and understood. This can happen if what you write or say
does not relate to the frames of reference of the audience. Adapting to the
audience, therefore, is important. A basis for the scientific process is to formulate a hypothesis, which
that you pose a question and a hypothetical answer. Questions and answers are
the basis for communication as well. For effective communication you cannot
just think of your own topic and the message you want to deliver. You must
also consider what questions your audience might have. Some components
of effective communication are indicated in Figure 1:1. When preparing to write a paper or a report, or to
make an oral or poster
presentation, start by asking yourself the questions: Who? - Why? - What?
- How?

• Who are you addressing: scientists who are specialists in your field of
research, a wider group of scientists, fellow students, or public audiences?

• Why is your message important? Why are you communicating it?
Presumably you are not doing it...
Author Bio
Birgitta Malmfors
Birgitta Malmfors is an Associate Professor in Animal Breeding and Genetics at the Swedish University
of agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. She has written many scientific papers, reports and articles.
She also has authored textbook chapters in animal breeding and a Swedish handbook on writing and
presenting scientific papers. She regularly makes presentations at national and international meetings.
She has taught students successfully for thirty years, and has been given a distinguished award for
teaching and communication skills.<br/>

"This is (by far) the best writing guide I have reviewed. . . . It really is an impressive manual." —Dr. Daniel
Franklin, director of studies, Centre for Forensic Science, University of Western Australia

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