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					Group: Team Cyan

                  - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Executive Summary:
The Cyan group goal was to utilize user research to assist in improving existing self-
check out lane systems. This study was conducted to append previous studies, which was
used to establish a baseline. The methods used in this study are the following:

      Informed Consent was given to persona representative’s prior to study.

      Scenarios with are stories that describe how a person behaves or thinks about a
       task or situation. They contain the narrative of what the person does along with
       his or her motivations, expectations, and attitudes. (Kuniavsky p149)

      Constraint Direction Diagram which given x constraint on persona and given the
       knowledge we have y behavior or result might happen. Using this in a bubble
       layout diagram is important to determine which values drive the persona’s
       decision-making process.

      User Shadowing: This was an observational field study using the shadowing
       method. Shadowing is a qualitative technique that does not necessarily involve the
       use of statistical analysis of data. In shadowing, observers follow the subjects
       unobtrusively and take notes of what, why, and how the subjects perform their
       routine tasks in real world settings. (Interruptions in Workflow for RNs in a Level
       One Trauma Center, methods.)

      Diaries: Diary studies are, as the name implies, based on having a group of people
       keep a diary as they use the product. They track which mistakes they make, what
       they learn, and how often they use the product. (Kuniavsky p369)



Methodology/Procedure
The objective of this project is to complement and introduce “new” findings from our
previous studies. This is an observation study in which we will observe the participant
using users shadowing. The participant will complete the task of using the self-check out
system in a real live setting. The conductor will be overlooking on the side and taking
notes while the participant completes each task. The setting will be in a grocery store.
All the materials that are needed will be prepared before the participant arrives. The
entire users shadowing process will not take longer than 30 min.




                                                                                          1
Group: Team Cyan

                - Project 3: User Shadowing -
     Step 1 - Participant Greeting and Orientation

     The participant of this users shadowing will be personally greeted by the
     conductor of this observation study. This will help the participant feel more
     relaxed and comfortable when they arrive. The conductor will start with a small
     verbal debriefing with the participant of the purpose and objective of this
     interview. In addition, the conductor will state that there are no correct or
     incorrect answers in this observations study. The main goal of this study is to get
     a better understand of the participant experience when using the Self Check-Out
     system and complement findings from out previous study. If the participant
     wants to take a break, stop at anytime, or withdraw from the observation study, let
     the interviewer know and there will be no questions asked. Finally, I will confirm
     to the participant that they are not obligated in anyway to complete the
     observation study if he/she feels uncomfortable. All data that was collected be
     used for educational purposed only will be destroyed.

     Step 2 - Informed Consent Form

     The participant will be then given the Informed Consent Form to read over and
     sign. In addition, the participant will have the opportunity to ask any questions
     he/she has regarding the interview or the Consent Form

     Step 3 - Begin User Shadowing

     The participant will then begin with the observation study when he/she is ready.
     All the material the users need will be ready at the self check-out counter. During
     the entire user shadowing observation study, the conductor will be located on the
     side recording the participant action while he/she completes the task. I will not
     interfere with what the participant is doing, unless a problem occurs and she needs
     assistance. The observation study will end when the participant have completed
     the entire task.

     Step 4 - Debriefing

     The conductor at the end the users shadowing study will ask the participant if
     he/she has any questions. The participant will have an opportunity at the point to
     ask questions and state anything else he/she has regarding this observation study.
     Then the conductor will hand out the Problem Report Dairy form where the
     participant will complete. All the necessary instruction will be on the form.
     Finally, we will thank the participant for participating in this interview, and the
     information we have collected will help us better understand the entire self-check
     out system and improvements that is need so the users will have a better
     experience when using the self check-out system.




                                                                                         2
Group: Team Cyan

                 - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Scenarios Method
The Scenarios Method was used prior to conducting the user shadowing method to role-
play with the different personas. Here is some sample role-playing:

      Elderly man has trouble inserting money into machine
      Stay at home mom kid touches cash payment when mom wants credit
      Student credit card is denied.
      Successful businessman forgets salad dressing for his salad.



*Example of Constraint Diagram




                                                                                       3
Group: Team Cyan

                   - Project 3: User Shadowing -
User Shadowing Method
The User Shadowing Method, which was conducted in Jewel Grocery Store; each team
member used the same or very similar representative from their persona to shadow. Here
is a summary of notes team members found:

      3 out of 4 personas reported the time to use the self-check out machine was
       longer.
      Repetitions with the same self-check out screens decreased check out time i.e. the
       machines users adapted to the screens not meaning the screens were easy to use.


Diary Method
The Diary Method, which was giving to the user to fill out with no time limit after the
shadowing method. Here is a summary of what persona representatives told us:

      Difficulty in scanning the grocery items e.g. Trouble with bar reader confirming
       item, or with the stay at home mom’s case having to retrieve items from kids then
       scan the items.
      Placing items in bag or replacing bag with another i.e. Self-check out machine
       audio voice tells you “Place item in bagging area” and “Item was removed from
       bag.”
      Selecting menus for perishable items e.g. onions and vegetables was frustrating
       and the semantics of words was not clear.


Conclusion:
The User Research the Cyan Team conducted indicates that the self-checkout machine is
an alternative to the regular check out process; better understanding of how the user
interacts and performs tasks is needed in order for this device to become a significant
choice for grocery shoppers.




                                                                                          4
Group: Team Cyan

                     - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Appendix

Informed Consent Form

Project title: Self Check-Out User Shadowing

Please read this consent agreement carefully before you decide to participate in the
study.

Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this User Shadowing interview is to getting a
better understanding of how an individual will use the self check-out system and making
improvements.

What you will do in the study: The participant will be will completing the task of using the
self-check out system in a real live setting. The conductor will be overlooking on the side and
taking notes while the participant completes each task. The setting will be in a grocery store. All
the materials that are needed will be prepared before the participant arrives. Have in mind that
there is no correct or incorrect answer. The information we collect from this interview will help
us in better understand the demand and usage of the Self Check-Out system. The entire users
shadowing process will not take longer than 30 min.

Time required: 30 min

Risks: There are not anticipated risks.

Benefits: There are no direct benefits to you for participating in this research study.

Confidentiality:
The information that we collect from the User Shadowing will be handled confidentially. When
the User Shadowing is completed and analyzed, all data will be destroyed. Your name will not be
used in any report or made public in any way.

Voluntary participation:
Your participation in the User Shadowing is complete voluntary.

Right to withdraw from the study:
You have the right to withdraw from the User Shadowing at anytime without penalty.

How to withdraw from the study:
If you decide to withdraw from the User Shadowing, simple leave or state that you wish to end
this interview. There is no penalty for withdrawing. If you choose to withdraw, all data we
collected will be destroyed.

Payment:
You will receive no payment for participating in this User Shadowing.

Who you can contact if you have questions about the study: Steve Lee



                                                                                                  5
Group: Team Cyan

                    - Project 3: User Shadowing -

Agreement: I agree to participate in the research study described above



Signature: ________________________________ Date: ________________
You will receive a copy of this form for your record.




Use Case Scenario—Business Person
       User will scan each item

       User will look up vegetable code(s) to scan the vegetable(s)

       User will place each item in bagging area

       User will have a problem with placing an item in the bagging area (example: User
        may place item in bagging area and machine will say “please place item in
        bagging area” when user has already done so)

       User will ask sales representative for help

       Sales representative will fix interface problem

       User will swipe debit card in card machine

       User will enter pin code

       User will gather grocery bags and exit




                                                                                       6
Group: Team Cyan

             - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Use Case Diagram
                                               Scan each Item



                                                   Type veggie
                                                   code



                                                    Bag each
                                                      Item




                                       Bagging each item
                                       causes problems




                                      Clerk
                                      provides
                                      assistance




                          Pay with
                          debit card




                   Enter pin
                   number


                   Gather groceries
                   and exit store




                                                                 7
Group: Team Cyan

                  - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Businessman Shadowing
Description of tasks: grocery items were collected while shopping at the Jewel Osco
grocery store located off Broadway and Addison in Wrigleyville, Chicago. Participant
will be shadowed while the process of the self-check out machine is observed.

Environment: 2:00, Saturday, March 04, 2006; a crowed and busy Saturday afternoon,
with many grocery shoppers gathering items over the weekend. There were four checkout
machines in total, but one was out of service.

Tools Used:
    Self Check out machine
    Grocery Cart
    Grocery items

Process observed:
    Items were taken from grocery cart and scanned.
    Items were placed in a bag.
    Method of payment was decided e.g. cash or credit.


Results of tasks:
Participant was observed having difficulty removing and scanning items and placing the
items in the bagging area. Because the participant had a lot of groceries and it all
wouldn’t fit in the bagging area, he placed some of the bags on the ground. This caused
some sensitivity in the system and was repeatedly telling him to place the items in the
bagging area. The participant also had difficulties scanning the items. He had to swipe
some groceries several times before it was actually processed in the system.

The weighing of grocery items and entering of codes was time consuming for the
following reasons:
     Difficulty scanning each item.
     Difficulty placing bags in bagging area.
     Because one machine was out of service, the wait in line was longer.

Payment of grocery items included the following steps:
    Selecting cash payment or credit payment
    Swiping credit card in machine slot
    Selecting Yes for amount to be charged

The payment process seemed to go quickly and without incident.




                                                                                          8
Group: Team Cyan

                   - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Self-Checkout Diary - Business Person
Today’s Date: 3/4/06                  The Current Time: 3:00p.m

Total number of items checked out: 9

Goal for using Self-Checkout: to process items quickly

Please describe your experiences while using the Self-Checkout interface. Your
description may include:

          What you checked out: pasta sauce, foil, eggs, soup, cookies, protein shakes,
           baking ingredients

          How long it took: 6-7 minutes (for self-checkout)

          Your procedure for completing the task: scanning by discount card, scanning
           items, swiping credit card, bagging groceries

          Any difficulties: scanner would not pick up bar code on first try

          Unexpected incidents (describe what you had expected and what you actually
           got): bag would fill up, and I’d remove the bag to start a new one and the
           scanner would say “goods remove” and pause

Please describe any problems in detail:
 I would place goods in bag, and when I removed the full bag from the counter to start a
new one, a screen would appear saying bag was removed and to place it back on the
counter or press the “continue” button. This was frustrating.

Problem feature name/description:

Severity 1-5: 3.5
( A severity of 1 means that it’s an annoyance or an observation, and 5 means that it’s a
catastrophic problem that prevents you from accomplishing your goal)

Insight/Solution—If you were able to find a solution, please describe how you solved
it:
Remove the “removed goods” screen. The language was confusing.

What is your opinion of the Self-Checkout interface as a service?
The credit card swipe was located far away to the right of the center console. It should be
closer.



                                                                                            9
Group: Team Cyan

                    - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Has your opinion changed since the last time you used it? No
Other comments:
Are there any other issues you’d like to tell us about or questions you’d like us to
answer? I this took longer than having the checkout clerk swipe and buy in the regular
checkout lines.

Use Case Scenario—Elderly Person
      At 5:00 PM brother Leo goes to the Jewel store to buy food for needy families,
       this is one of his activities every week. Before leaving, he makes a list of items he
       has to buy according to the number of people in the family; he prepares his credit
       card, which will be using for payment.
      In the store, he gathers the items and start scanning one after another. As he wants
       to avoid making errors, he watches carefully when he scanning items.
      He buys fruits, vegetables, ice cream, cookies and put in different bags.
      Check the list to be sure that he got everything he wanted to buy.
      He uses his credit card to pay and then leave the store after 45 minutes

Elderly Person Shadowing
Description of the task: At 5:00 PM, Brother Leo is shopping at Jewel grocery store
located at Clark, using self-check out machine. He has been shadowed while he was
shopping. He checked out 30 items.

Environment: many people walking in the store waiting in line. This was a good
occasion to use the self-checkout. Even there, those who decide to use it had to line up.

Tools used:
    Self-checkout machine
    Grocery items
    Credit cart

Process observed:
    Gathering items and scan
    Putting items in bags
    Entering the code for credit card for payment

Results of tasks:

The participant did not have a problem to find what he needed because he knows very
well store and could easily find easily with the list he made. He did not waste time. He
processed correctly when he uses the self-checkout machine, but he needed only his
glasses.



                                                                                            10
Group: Team Cyan

                   - Project 3: User Shadowing -
For payment, the first time he swiped his card nothing happened because he used the
wrong side. The second time it was fine.


Self-Checkout Diary - Elderly Person
Today’s Date: 3/03/06                                         The Current Time: 5:00 PM

Total number of items checked out: 30

Goal for using Self-Checkout: Increase customer satisfaction and provide greater ease of
access to service and save time..

Please describe your experiences while using the Self-Checkout interface. Your
description may include:
Self-checkout machine is the facility provided by the grocery stores to the clients for easy
checking out the goods. Almost once a week I use self-checkout machine to buy foods for
a family of five people. I usually buy food and fruits in Jewel and Dominick’s; it takes me
about 30, it depends of the number of items
To complete the task, I need to go to the store with a list of good I want to buy, and then I
have to pick up items in order. When I cannot find items, I ask help and I always get
someone who can help.
Using a self-check out machine is the way to avoid being in line waiting for a long time. I
scan every item and place in the bag. I usually use my credit card.

Please describe any problems in detail:
It happens sometime that somebody ahead you do not understand how to use the
machine, because of him you have to wait for a long time more than you expected.

Severity 1-5: 3
( A severity of 1 means that it’s an annoyance or an observation, and 5 means that
it’s a catastrophic problem that prevents you from accomplishing your goal)

Insight/Solution-If you were able to find a solution, please describe how you solved
it
To solve the problem, you need to find a store person, watching for people in need help.

What is your opinion of the Self-Checkout interface as a service?
I can say that even the system is good, but it is taking away jobs. Instead of machine,
some people can be there.

Has your opinion changed since the last time you used it?
No , my opinion has never changed




                                                                                          11
Group: Team Cyan

                  - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Other comments. Are there any other issues you would like to tell us about or
questions you’d like us to answer?
No, I do not have any other comment.


Use Case Scenario—Stay at Home Mom

      Stay at home mom will simultaneously watch children while scanning grocery
       items.
      Mom will use credit card as method of payment.
      Mom will try to prevent children from interfering with the process of checking
       out e.g. Put a stop to children placing hands on scale while fruits and vegetables
       are being weighed.
      Mom will try to place items in separate grocery bags according to food type.
      Mom will put fruits and vegetable on scale for weighing while searching for code
       to enter.




                                                                                       12
Group: Team Cyan

             - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Use Case Diagram




                                             13
Group: Team Cyan

                   - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Stay at Home Mom Shadowing
Description of tasks: 42 grocery items were collected while shopping at dominicks
grocery store located near Hollywood beach in downtown Chicago. Participant will be
shadowed while the process of the self-check out machine is observed.

Environment: Thursday evening March 2 at 6:30pm; a crowed and busy evening, with
many grocery shoppers gathering items on their way home from work. All self-checkout
machines are functioning properly with an attendant near by.

Tools Used:
    Self Check out machine
    Grocery Cart
    Grocery items

Process observed:
    Items were taken from grocery cart and scanned.
    Items were placed in a bag.
    Groceries were weighed if needed and codes entered
    Method of payment was decided e.g. cash or credit.

Results of tasks:
Participant was observed having difficulty removing and scanning items together with
overseeing the safety of her children. Participant developed a “steady flow” i.e. children
would hang onto mommy’s leg while she scanned two or more items. When scanner did
not read a grocery item properly, the “steady flow” was interrupted was lead to
frustration and the amount of time to complete checkout process to increase.

As noted in our prototype a four-bag arrangement rather than the one bag would have
contributed to the “steady flow” by helping mom with organization of grocery items.

The weighing of grocery items and entering of codes was time consuming for the
following reasons:
     Children had removed fruits and vegetables from bags so items that were found
       later in the checkout process had to be weighed and codes entered again.
     Difficulty in finding “correct” codes.
     Children were pressing on scale as it was being used

Payment of grocery items included the following steps:
    Selecting cash payment or credit payment
    Swiping credit card in machine slot
    Selecting NO for cash back
    Selecting Yes for amount to be charged




                                                                                        14
Group: Team Cyan

                   - Project 3: User Shadowing -
The payment process seemed to go quickly and without incident.

Self-Checkout Diary – Stay at Home Mom
Today’s Date: 3/03/06                                        The Current Time: 1:00 PM

Total number of items checked out: 42

Goal for using Self-Checkout: To speed the process of checking out grocery items,
avoid crowds, and to save time.

Please describe your experiences while using the Self-Checkout interface. Your
description may include:
    What you checked out: Items for doing laundry, various food items for breakfast,
       lunch and dinner to last one to two weeks. Household cleaning supplies. Personal
       hygiene products for mom and dad. Magazines.
    How long it took: 27 min
    Your procedure for completing the task: Items were taken from grocery cart and
       scanned.
    Items were placed in a bag.
    Groceries were weighed if needed and codes entered
    Method of payment was decided e.g. cash or credit.
    Any difficulties: Interference caused by kids made the amount of time to check out
       doubled. Difficulty in entering codes for fruits and vegetables.

Unexpected incidents (describe what you had expected and what you actually went
though.
In my delusion state of mind I expected the kids to stay near me and not to interfere with
mommy checking out the grocery items. I had to weigh fruits and vegetables twice or
three times because the items were out of the bag and spread out.

Please describe any problems in detail:

Problem feature name/description:
Severity 1-5_______

Find codes to enter          Lack of multiple            Having to do Tasks
for fruits and               bag containers for          multiple times i.e.
vegetables                   organization of             having to re-scan
                             groceries                   fruits and vegetables.
Rating                  5                           3                             5




                                                                                         15
Group: Team Cyan

                   - Project 3: User Shadowing -
( A severity of 1 means that it’s an annoyance or an observation, and 5 means that it’s a
catastrophic problem that prevents you from accomplishing your goal)

Insight/Solution—If you were able to find a solution, please describe how you solved
it

What is your opinion of the Self-Checkout interface as a service?
Needs some improvements but it does have benefits that can benefit the customer and the
business.

Has your opinion changed since the last time you used it?
This time was worse and the amount of time to check out was doubled.

Other comments:
 Are there any other issues you’d like to tell us about or questions you’d like us to
answer?




                                                                                        16
Group: Team Cyan

                   - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Use Case Scenario—Student

       Student would complete the check out system as fast as he/she can
       Student will use credit card or cash as method of payment.
       Student will have a problem with his/her credit card
       Student may encounter a problem with the baggage claim
       Student will try their best to solve the problem before asking for help
       Student will scan all item
       Student will weight all vegetable and/or fruit
       Student will have very little problem completing each task
       Student will pay with their debit card and enter their pin
       Student has completed the transaction and will get their grocery and receipt.



Use Case Diagram

   Scan Each
     Items                  Ask for
                             help               Gather bag
                                                and take
                                                receipt
    Weight/               Credit card
    Lookup
   Perishable
                           Problem
                          with credit
      Bag Items              card


      Baggage               Ask for
       causes                help
      problem




                                                                                        17
Group: Team Cyan

                   - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Student Shadowing
Description of tasks: All grocery items were collected before completing the self-
checkout lane. Participant will be shadowed while the process of the self-check out
machine is observed.

Environment: 4:00pm Saturday night on March 4, 2006. There was a good amount of
people on both the self-check out and regular lanes. There was 4 regular check lane open
and 6 self check out system.

Tools Used:
    Self check-out machine
    Grocery Cart
    Grocery items

Process observed:
    Items were taken from grocery cart and scanned.
    Items were placed in a bag.
    Method of payment was decided e.g. cash or credit.


Results of tasks:
Participant stopped for a while when deciding how to check out the onion. He had to
choose from two options, enter bar code or select from a list of items. Participant was
confused on why he was asked how the onion was contained. You can select from a
variety of options like “No container” to “In a Bag”.

Participant had a little problem with the baggage claim. It was telling him that the item
was removed from the bag when it was not. The participant took the item out and re-bag
the item will a little more force.

The participant had a little confusion at the end of the transaction. He paid in cash and
the change where it was dispensed was visible but the bills where located under the
scanner. It would make more sense if those were located in the same area. In addition
the receipt was also located in the different place. It would make more sense if they were
all at the same area and was dispense in logical order. Good thing that the machine
reminds the users to take their money and receipt. I can tell that some people can be in
rush a not get their receipt or money, especially when there is distraction like people in
line waiting to use the self-checkout.

You can tell that the participant was trying to complete his transaction really quickly. He
wanted to be in an out of the grocery store fast. At some point you can tell that the
participant was familiar with the system and had no patient to really look at all the
options but selected what came to him first.



                                                                                          18
Group: Team Cyan

                    - Project 3: User Shadowing -
Self-Checkout Diary – Student
Today’s Date: 03/05/06                                       The Current Time: 2:07pm

Total number of items checked out: 5

Goal for using Self-Checkout: Convenience and easy check out lane. I would like to be
n and out of the store ASAP.

Please describe your experiences while using the Self-Checkout interface. Your
description may include:

What you checked out:
Onion, tortillas, can of salsa, baking pan, ground beef.

How long it took:
Less than 10 minutes

Your procedure for completing the task:
Take the item from the car, scan each item, then put it in the baggage section, and finally
paid with cash.

Any difficulties:
Yes

Unexpected incidents (describe what you had expected and what you actually got)
The baggage claims that I item was remove from the baggage even though it was
not.

Selecting how the onion was contained was confusing.

When checking out the onion… it asked to select by finding the item or entering the bar
code. I did not select the bar code but selected to find the item from a list. My only
concern was that 1, how would I know what the bar code is for the item if it does not have
a bar code sticker on it. Was I supposed to remember it or write it down before I go and
check-out. 2, it also gave me the option to select the item, well I was checking out an
onion and on the list it had more than one type of onion. How would I know what onion I
got?


Please describe any problems in detail:
The baggage claims that the item was removed from the baggage when it was not. To
correct the problem I took the item back out of the bag and placed in the bag with some
force so it can sense that the item was bagged.



                                                                                         19
Group: Team Cyan

                   - Project 3: User Shadowing -
When checking-out the onion, it asks how the onion was contained and I selected that
there was not container. They had other selection but I choose from the first one. I was
not expecting the machine to ask that question. I do not know if it was the correct one to
select or not but it let me proceed to scan the next item.

I was confused with which onion on the list do I selected and to me it seem like I can
choose which ever I want to. I can literally scam the check-out and choose an item on
the list that cost less that what I have purchase. It seem like there is no verification
except the person overlooking the check-out Lane.

Problem feature name/description:

Severity 1-5:
( A severity of 1 means that it’s an annoyance or an observation, and 5 means that
it’s a catastrophic problem that prevents you from accomplishing your goal)

Baggage – 2, it was annoying

Container – 2 just because it let me proceed but I was not sure if that was the correct one
to select from. It really did not make sense to me.

Select from list – 3 just because there is no validation of what item is and you can select
from a list of item.

Insight/Solution—If you were able to find a solution, please describe how you solved
it:
I was able to find a solution but there was some uncertainty. It was not a major problem
and it did not affect me not to complete my transaction.

What is your opinion of the Self-Checkout interface as a service?
Ok… maybe be confusing at time but I am sure if I took my time and not rush I might not
have much of a problem, but the only point was that I wanted to use the self-check out for
convenience so I did not have time to study each section of the self-check out. I selected
what I thought looked correct and allowed me to complete my transaction. Take a bit
longer then the server does at times.

Has your opinion changed since the last time you used it? Nope

Other comments. Are there any other issues you’d like to tell us about or questions
you’d like us to answer?

No additional Comments




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