Affirmative Action

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					  The Modern Civil Rights
Movement, Social Critics, and

     Address to First Montgomery
      Improvement Association
   Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
    emerged as a leader in
    the Civil Rights
   He gained prominence in
    the 1950s after the
    Montgomery bus boycott
   He gave this speech the
    day Rosa Parks was
   He discusses the civil
    rights of all people.

The Birth of a New Nation
                Dr. King delivered this sermon
                 at Dexter Avenue Baptist
                 Church in Montgomery
                 Alabama on April 7, 1957.
                He speaks about Africa and
                 the many struggles African
                 countries went through to get
                 their independence from other
                 countries like Great Britain.
                He then compares this to the
                 struggle of African-Americans
                 to gain freedom in the United
                Dr. King discusses his
                 dedication to the principles of

                Give Us the Ballot
   Dr. King gave this address at
    the Prayer Pilgrimage for
    Freedom in Washington, D.C.
    on May 17, 1957.
   It is about African-Americans
    gaining the right to vote that
    was supposed to be
    guaranteed to them with the
    passage of the 13th
    Amendment after the Civil
   Dr. King says that if the African
    Americans are given the right
    to vote, they will no longer
    have to bother the federal
    government with their civil

Supreme Court Rejects Plea Of
                 In June a federal court ruled
                  segregated seating
                  unconstitutional, and the case
                  went on appeal to the U.S.
                  Supreme Court.
                 The United States Supreme
                  Court later decided that the
                  Alabama and Montgomery
                  laws requiring segregated
                  buses unconstitutional.
                 The boycott of the buses had
                  lasted for 381 days.

    Statement on Ending the Bus
   This speech was given by
    Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
    after the court ruled that
    segregation laws were
   His statement officially
    ended the Montgomery Bus
    Boycott in Alabama.
   African-Americans could
    now sit where they wanted
    to on the bus.
   There was no longer a
    “black” and “white” section.

Brown v. Board of Education
                 This landmark decision of
                  the United States
                  Supreme Court
                  overturned Plessy v.
                 It declared once and for
                  all the separate is not
                 Te decision was handed
                  down on May 17, 1954.
                 This victory paved the
                  way for integration and
                  the Civil Rights

         Integration of Central High
   LRCHS was the focal point of the
    Little Rock Integration Crisis of
   Nine black students, known as
    the Little Rock Nine, were denied
    entrance to the school in defiance
    of the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court
    ruling ordering integration of
    public schools.
   This provoked a showdown
    between the Governor and
    President Dwight D. Eisenhower
    that gained international
   It was the first fundamental test of
                                           A National Guard Member sits outside
    the national resolve to enforce          of Central High School during the
    black civil rights in the years                     integration.
    following the Brown decision.
House Un-American Activities
                                      HUAC was an investigative
                                       committee of the US Senate.
                                      In 1947 HUAC investigated
                                       alleged communist infiltration
                                       of the motion picture industry.
                                      Hearsay, innuendo, and rumor
                                       were perfectly acceptable
                                       forms of evidence.
                                      HUAC decided the Fifth
                                       Amendment did not apply in its
                                       hearings so those refusing to
                                       testify, branded the “Hollywood
                                       Ten”, were imprisoned for
Ronald Reagan testifies to HUAC.      Through pressing witnesses to
                                       “name names,” HUAC claimed
                                       to have identified 324
                                       communists working in the 9
        Senator Joseph McCarthy
   Elected to the Senate from
    Wisconsin in 1946.
   Rabid anti-communist and
    alleged communist infiltration
    into the American government.
   On 20 February 1950,
    McCarthy made a six hour
    Senate speech claiming that
    the Democratic Party had been
    engaged in twenty years of
   In 1952, the Republicans
    gained control of the Senate.
   The Republicans named
    McCarthy as Chairman of the
    Senate Sub-Committee on
McCarthy Hearings
           In the Senate Sub-
            Committee for
            Investigations, Senator
            McCarthy applied the
            methods of HUAC to the
            American government,
            military, and defense
           According to McCarthy’s
            own numbers, his
            investigations drove 400
            suspected communists
            from the American
            government, though, in
            reality, few were guilty of   11
      Opposition to McCarthyism
   Senator Margaret Chase Smith, a
    Republican from Maine, criticized
    his tactics as being detrimental to
    individual freedom.
   In March 1954, McCarthy began to
    investigate Annie Lee Moss, a
    middle aged African American
    woman who worked for the Army
    Signal Corps.
   For this, Moss lost her job with the
    Army, was dragged before
    McCarthy’s hearings, and publicly
    interrogated on national television.
   Senator Symington pointed out that
    there were four Annie Lee Mosses
    listed in the Washington D.C.
    phonebook and that there was no
    indication that this was the proper    Margaret Chase Smith

The Feminine Mystique
              Throughout the 1950’s and
               60’s, women’s rights activists
               continued to blow the whistle
               on the problems and inequities
               in society.
              In her book The Feminine
               Mystique, Betty Friedan
               showed the hidden side of a
               housewife, one that is;
                   Bored
                   Uninspired
                   screaming for change
              This was a very different image
               of what advertisements,
               television, and society in
               general portrayed.

              Equal Pay Act of 1963
   The issue of equal pay became one
    of the main focal points for the
    second stage of the women’s
   Arguments were made to the Senate
    regarding unfair wages for retail
   In passing the bill, Congress
    denounced sex discrimination for the
    following reason:
       It depresses wages and living
        standards for employees necessary
        for their health and efficiency;
       prevents the maximum utilization of
        the available labor resources
       tends to cause labor disputes, thereby
        burdening, affecting, and obstructing
       burdens commerce and the free flow
        of goods in commerce;
       constitutes an unfair method of
Shirley Chisholm
           Shirley Chisholm was the first
            African-American women
            elected to Congress.
           Chisholm acknowledged the
            strides being made in regards
            to discrimination based on
           But she called attention to the
            fact that gender discrimination
            is so ingrained in society few
            leaders fail to realize the full
            weight of the issue.
           Chisholm also argues for the
            passage of the Equal Rights
            Amendment that Congress had
            failed to pass for years.

                      Counter Culture
   During the 1950s a counterculture
   They were called the Beat
    Generation when the term beatnik
    was coined.
   Some time during the 1960s, the
    "Beat Generation" gave way to
    "The Sixties Counterculture."
   With this came a change in the
    terminology referring the
    members of the counterculture
    from "Beatnik" to "hippie".
   This group questioned American
    society and was seen in the
    literature, art and songs written by
    the Beatniks.
   Jack Kerouac was the most
    famous beat writers.
   His 1957 On the Road helped to
    define the generation.                 16
                                 Media Citations
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