Zimbabwe Zimbabwe By Ashley Youngblood Friday by liwenting


By: Ashley Youngblood
 Friday, Nov. 2, 2007

I have chosen to
inform you on
Zimbabwe. I
chose this topic
because I feel
most people do
not understand
the true life of
most Africans.
In this
presentation I
would like to
share with you
what life is like

In this presentation you will learn about
the country of Zimbabwe. You will learn
about the Zimbabwean government,
ethnic groups, religions, languages,
economy, customs & courtesies, and the
 Zimbabwe is the home
  to Victoria Falls, one of
  the greatest natural
  wonders of the world.
 Encloses the stone of
  Great Zimbabwe, which
  is a remnant of a past
 It is the home to herds
  of elephants and other
  roaming game in vast
  stretches of wilderness
                                    Facts continued…
 Zimbabwe has endured rampant inflation and critical
  food and fuel shortages
 Most Zimbabweans survive on grain handouts
 The government’s urban slum demolition drive in 2005
  drew more international condemnation. The president
  said is was an effort to boost law and order and
  development; critics have accused him of destroying
  slums housing oppositions supporters
    Regardless, the razing of ―illegal structures‖ left some
     700,000 people with out jobs or homes, according to UN
 Zimbabwe has had a rocky relationship with the
  Commonwealth – it was suspended after President’s
  Mugabe’s controversial re-election in 2002 and later
  announced that it was pulling out for good
                                  Facts continued…
 Location: Southern Africa
 Total land area of 390,580 sq km
 Land locked country
      Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia
      The Zambezi forms a natural riverline boundary with
       Zambia; in full flood the massive Victoria Falls n the
       river forms the world’s largest curtain of falling water
 Tropical climate moderated by altitude; rainy
  season is November to March
 Recurring Droughts with flood and severe
  storms rare
 (Zimbabwe, 2-3)
 The government faces a wide variety of
  difficult economic problems as it struggles
  with an unsustainable fiscal deficit, an
  overvalued exchange rate, soaring inflation
  and bare shelves.
 There is a high rate of unemployment which is
  putting pressure on Zimbabwe’s cities as
  hundreds of thousands of people are looking
  for work
 Crime is on the increase and more people are
  living as squatters in poor conditions
 In 2005 there was an estimated 80%
  unemployment rate
 In 2004 there was an estimated 80% of the
  population under the poverty line
 The economy is basically agricultural although it was
  formerly strong commercial farming until the
  government through out the white-farmers in 2000
 Zimbabwe formerly exported multiple food items but
  not must import grains.
 Corn is the main food source, with cotton and tobacco
  as principal cash crops
 Other products include sorghum, peanuts, wheat,
  sugarcane, soybeans, coffee, tea, and dairy farming.
 Zimbabwe has good road and rail networks and
  domestic international air source
 South Africa and Great Britain are the largest
  trading partners
 Zimbabwe is a member of the Southern African
  Development Community
 (Zimbabwe, 1)
 Politically, Zimbabwe is a time bomb waiting to
 Zimbabwe is governed by President Robert Bugabe
  and his Zimbabwean African National Union-Patriotic
  Front (ZANU-PF) which had dominated the legislative
  and executive branches since independence in 1980
 The president, which is elected by popular majority
  vote, is the head of state and head of government
 In September 2005 the government used its two-
  thirds majority in parliament to pass a constitutional
  amendment that established a 66 member senate.
 The Zimbabwean constitution institutionalizes
  majority rule and protection of minority rights. The
  elected government controls senior appointments in
  the public service which includes military and police
  and the independent Public Service Commission which
                     (Background Note:
  is in charge of making appointments at lower levels on
                                   A Recent Time Line
                                      of Important
 February 2000                          Events
      Squatters seize hundreds of white owned farms in an ongoing
       and violent campaign to reclaim what they say was stolen by
      President Mugabe suffers defeat in referendum on draft
 July 2001
      Finance Minister Simba Makoni publicly acknowledges economic
       crisis, saying foreign reserves have run out and warning of
       serious food shortages
      Most Western donors, including World Bank and IMF, have cut
       aid because of President Mugabe’s land seizure programme
 April 2002
      State of disaster declared as worsening food shortages
       threaten famine
      Government blames drought, the UN’s World Food Programme
       says disruption to agriculture is a contributing factor
 June 2002
      45 day countdown for some 2,900 white farmers to leave their
       land begins, under terms of a land-acquisition law passed in May
                                   A Recent Time Line
                                      of Important
 January 2005                     Events continued…
      The US labels Zimbabwe as one of the world’s six ―outposts of
      Zimbabwe rejects the statement
 March 2005
      Ruling ZANU-PF party wins two-thirds of the votes in
       parliamentary polls
      Main opposition party says election was rigged against it
 May 2006
      Year-on-year inflation exceeds 1,000%
      New banknotes, with three noughts deleted from their values
       are introduced in August
 December 2006
      Ruling ZANU-PF party approves a plan to move presidential polls
       from 2008 t 2010, extending Mr. Mugabe’s rule by two years
 May 2007
      Warning of power cuts for up to 20 hours a day while electricity
       is diverted towards agriculture
     (Timeline: Zimbabwe, 3-6)
                               Ethnic Groups &
 African – 98%               English is the
      Shona 82%               official language
      Ndebele 14%
                              Shona
      Other 2%
                              Sindebele (the
 Mixed & Asian – 1 %
                               language of the
 White less than 1%           Ndebele)
                              Numerous but minor
                               tribal dialects

                     (Zimbabwe, 5)
 Population 12,311,143                    HIV/AIDs
 Median Age                                  35% of the population
     Total: 20.1 years                        carry the virus
     Male: 19.9                              At 700 people die a week
     Female: 20.2                             from AIDs
 Population Growth Rate                      One million children (10%
     0.595%                                   of the population) have
 Birth Rate                                   been orphaned because
     27.72 births per 1,000                   their parents have died
      population                               of AIDs
 Death Rate                                     adult prevalence rate
     21.76 deaths per 1,000
      population                                    • 24.6%
 Infant Mortality Rates                         People living
     51.12 deaths per 1,000 live                   • 1.8 million
 Life Expectancy at birth
                                                 Deaths
     Total population: 39.5 years                  • 170,00
     Male: 40.62 years
                        (Zimbabwe, 3-4)
     Female: 38.35 years
Syncretic – 50%
    Part Christian, part indigenous beliefs
Christian – 25 %
Indigenous beliefs – 24%
Muslim and other – 1%

                   (Zimbabwe, 5)
 Religion is driven by the twin axes of fear and
 Everything had a religious significance
 Life is lived in the present
 God is distant, not close
 God is approached through mediators
 People of power are respected and sought in
  times of trouble
 Magic protects me and affects others
 Magic is real and to be respected
 Africans are emotive and enjoy worship in
                                  Customs and
 Greetings
  Strangers are greeted with a single handshake where
   as friends are greeted with a longer handshake.
  As a sign of respect, the right arm is supported with
   the left hand.
  Rural Shona have a slow, patterned hand clap as an
   additional show of respect.
  A simple greeting is never enough, one must always
   inquire about one’s family.
  Children are addressed on a first name basis.
  Rural parents may be referred to by their the name
   of their oldest child.
  Elderly are addressed as grandmother or
  An elderly person is always shown great respect,
   greeted first, and obeyed by all children.
  (Republic of Zimbabwe, 722-723)
                                  Customs and
 Gestures                         continued…
  Items are passed and accepted with both hands.
  As a gesture of gratitude or politeness, Shona may
   clap their hands.
  To show respect, one must lower themselves; there
   forth people will sit when they converse
    Women will sit on floor mats where men are
      higher up on stools or chairs
  You do not rise when an elder enters the room
  It is considered rude when you make direct contact
   with an elder.
  It is inappropriate for one to show public displays of
   affection; although it is appropriate for friends of
   the same sex to hold hands while walking.
  Personal space is very limited
  (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723)
                                  Customs and
 Visiting
  Time is a flexible concept in the villages where as in
   the city, people are expected to arrive on time
  Unannounced visit are common in the villages but a
   greeting is called out first asking permission to enter
  It is important for Zimbabwean quest to feel
  Hosts always offer refreshments
  It is impolite to refuse refreshments or meals
  A small gift is appreciated by the hosts and in return
   often give a departing gift; for example, a garden
  Rural hosts usually accompany their guest much of
                                    Customs and
 Eating                             continued…
  Breakfast at ate before work, lunch is light, with
   their main meal in the evening
  Rural residents normally eat with their right handed
  All hands are washed before and after a meal using a
   washbasin passed from person to person
      The water for an older person is poured by someone
  Rural families eat together
      However, if guests are present, children eat separately
  Drinks are taken after all the food is eaten
  Guest are served first and given meat with their
  To show respect and indicate one has been well
   provided for, one will clap softly and says Ndaguta
                               Lifestyle -
 The father is the head of the family
  He makes all the final decisions
  He supports his family, including children, wives, and
   any mistresses financially
 The mother does have influence in the home
 Polygamy is still practiced although is
  becoming less common
 Women care for the children and the
  They often sell produce and other items at roadside
  (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723)
                          Lifestyle – Family
 Extended family is strong and provides a
  social safety net
 Financial support can be expected by relatives
  in hard times and must share in prosperous
 Borrowing between relatives is common and
  more in the form of giving
 Rural families often share households
 Children care for their parents as the age,
  because elderly family is considered a
 (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723)
                               Lifestyle – Dating
                                  & Marriage
 Young Zimbabweans meat at school or social function
  although dating is more common in the cities
 When a couple is ready for marriage, a representative
  of the groom will visit the bride’s family to negotiate
  gifs and a bride price which is known as lobola or
 A traditional lobola involves cattle, but it is more
  common to pay with cash
 Virginity in women is valued and will bring a higher
  bride-price; although when families demand higher
  prices, grooms are finding it difficult to pay
 Traditional weddings usually last more than a day
  which involves feasting, dancing, and drinking
 It is culturally acceptable for men to openly have
  extramarital affairs, which is consider necessary by
  men to prove virility. However this has contributed
                             Lifestyle –
                           Recreation and
                              the Arts
Soccer is the must common sport
Girls play netball
Most Zimbabweans like to dance
  Rural youth on Saturday nights dance to
   Zimbabwean music on the radio
  Chimurenga, which is one of the most popular
   local styles, combines traditional Shona with
   electric instruments
  (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723)
                                    Lifestyle -
 National Holidays                Heroes Day & Defense
    New Year’s Day                 Forces Day
                                      August 11 – 12
    Easter
                                      Honors causalities of
       Includes Good Friday
                                       liberation struggle
        and Easter Monday
                                   Christmas
    Independence day
       April 18                   Boxing Day
                                      Dec 26
    Workers Day
       May 1
    Africa Day                 Local religious
       May 25                   celebrations are also
                                 held throughout the
                                (Republic of Zimbabwe,
       U.S. Department of State
      Background Note: Zimbabwe
 http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5479.htm
 This website gives you an overview of the
  country of Zimbabwe
        •   Geography
        •   People
        •   Government
        •   Economy
        •   People and History
        •   Travel and Business Information
 This site would be useful for teachers,
  students, and parents wanting to find out
  general information on Zimbabwe
         CIA – The World Factbook
 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-
 This website gives you an in-depth overview with
  statistics about the country of Zimbabwe
    Includes
       Introduction
       Geography
       People
       Government
       Economy
       Communications
       Transportation
       Military
       Transnational Issues
 This site would be useful for teachers, students, and
  parents wanting to find out general information on
  Zimbabwe including statistics.
             BBC NEWS
      Country profile: Zimbabwe
This website gave a brief overview of
 Zimbabwe; particularly the facts,
 leaders, and media.
This site would be useful for teachers,
 students, and parents wanting to find
 out general information on Zimbabwe’s
 leadership and media.
              BBC NEWS
 Timeline: Zimbabwe A chronology of
              key events
This website gives you an overview of
 Zimbabwe through a chronology timeline
This site would be useful for teachers,
 students, and parents wanting to find
 out important events in Zimbabwe’s
      Zimbabwe – Information from
            Reference. com
 http://www.reference.com/search?q=Zimbab
 This website is great for looking up multiple
  references for Zimbabwe
      Land & People
      Economy
      Government
      History
 This site would be useful for teachers,
  students, and parents wanting to find out
  multiple overviews on Zimbabwe.
    CultureGrams World Edition 2004
          Republic of Zimbabwe
 Axiom Press, Inc
 This reference article provides us with an abundant
  amount of information on Zimbabwe
    Includes
       Background Information
       The People
       Customs and Courtesies
       Lifestyle
       Society
       At a Glance
 This article would be useful for teachers, students,
  and parents wanting to find out important information
  on Zimbabwe.
         African Kingdoms
        Great Ages of Man
 A History of the World’s Cultures
 By Basil Davidson and the Editors of Time-
  Life Books
 This book gives you an in-depth look at the
  history of Africa and its many countries
 This book was great in the form of the
  ancient history of Zimbabwe
 This site would be useful for teachers,
  students, and parents wanting to find out
  about the ancient history of Zimbabwe.
 I hope you have learned a quick overview of
  what life is like in Zimbabwe
 I hope you find the information on their
  customs, courtesies, and lifestyle particularly
                                       Reference Page
 BBC NEWS. (20, Sept. 2007). Timeline: Zimbabwe, A Chronology
  of Key      Events. Retrieved Oct. 23, 2007, from BBC NEWS
 BBC NEWS. (20, Sept. 2007). Country Profile: Zimbabwe.
       Retrieved Oct.        23, 2007, from BBC NEWS
 CIA – The World Factbook. (18, Oct. 2007). Zimbabwe.
  Retrieved Oct. 23, 2007, from CIA-The World Factbook—
  Zimbabwe Website:
 Bureau of African Affairs. (Sept. 2007). Background Note:
  Zimbabwe. Retrieved Oct. 23, 2007, from US Department of
  State Website:
                       Reference Page
Axiom Press, Inc. (2004). Republic of
 Zimbabwe [print version].
 CultureGrams World Edition, 2004,

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