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Zimbabwe By: Ashley Youngblood Friday, Nov. 2, 2007 Introduction I have chosen to inform you on Zimbabwe. I chose this topic because I feel most people do not understand the true life of most Africans. In this presentation I would like to share with you what life is like for Overview In this presentation you will learn about the country of Zimbabwe. You will learn about the Zimbabwean government, ethnic groups, religions, languages, economy, customs & courtesies, and the lifestyle. Informative Facts Zimbabwe is the home to Victoria Falls, one of the greatest natural wonders of the world. Encloses the stone of Great Zimbabwe, which is a remnant of a past empire It is the home to herds of elephants and other roaming game in vast stretches of wilderness Informative Facts continued… Zimbabwe has endured rampant inflation and critical food and fuel shortages Most Zimbabweans survive on grain handouts The government’s urban slum demolition drive in 2005 drew more international condemnation. The president said is was an effort to boost law and order and development; critics have accused him of destroying slums housing oppositions supporters Regardless, the razing of ―illegal structures‖ left some 700,000 people with out jobs or homes, according to UN estimates Zimbabwe has had a rocky relationship with the Commonwealth – it was suspended after President’s Mugabe’s controversial re-election in 2002 and later announced that it was pulling out for good Informative Facts continued… Location: Southern Africa Total land area of 390,580 sq km Land locked country Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia The Zambezi forms a natural riverline boundary with Zambia; in full flood the massive Victoria Falls n the river forms the world’s largest curtain of falling water Tropical climate moderated by altitude; rainy season is November to March Recurring Droughts with flood and severe storms rare (Zimbabwe, 2-3) Economy The government faces a wide variety of difficult economic problems as it struggles with an unsustainable fiscal deficit, an overvalued exchange rate, soaring inflation and bare shelves. There is a high rate of unemployment which is putting pressure on Zimbabwe’s cities as hundreds of thousands of people are looking for work Crime is on the increase and more people are living as squatters in poor conditions In 2005 there was an estimated 80% unemployment rate In 2004 there was an estimated 80% of the population under the poverty line Economy Continued… The economy is basically agricultural although it was formerly strong commercial farming until the government through out the white-farmers in 2000 Zimbabwe formerly exported multiple food items but not must import grains. Corn is the main food source, with cotton and tobacco as principal cash crops Other products include sorghum, peanuts, wheat, sugarcane, soybeans, coffee, tea, and dairy farming. Zimbabwe has good road and rail networks and domestic international air source South Africa and Great Britain are the largest trading partners Zimbabwe is a member of the Southern African Development Community (Zimbabwe, 1) Government Politically, Zimbabwe is a time bomb waiting to explode. Zimbabwe is governed by President Robert Bugabe and his Zimbabwean African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) which had dominated the legislative and executive branches since independence in 1980 The president, which is elected by popular majority vote, is the head of state and head of government In September 2005 the government used its two- thirds majority in parliament to pass a constitutional amendment that established a 66 member senate. The Zimbabwean constitution institutionalizes majority rule and protection of minority rights. The elected government controls senior appointments in the public service which includes military and police and the independent Public Service Commission which (Background Note: is in charge of making appointments at lower levels on A Recent Time Line of Important February 2000 Events Squatters seize hundreds of white owned farms in an ongoing and violent campaign to reclaim what they say was stolen by settlers. President Mugabe suffers defeat in referendum on draft constitution July 2001 Finance Minister Simba Makoni publicly acknowledges economic crisis, saying foreign reserves have run out and warning of serious food shortages Most Western donors, including World Bank and IMF, have cut aid because of President Mugabe’s land seizure programme April 2002 State of disaster declared as worsening food shortages threaten famine Government blames drought, the UN’s World Food Programme says disruption to agriculture is a contributing factor June 2002 45 day countdown for some 2,900 white farmers to leave their land begins, under terms of a land-acquisition law passed in May A Recent Time Line of Important January 2005 Events continued… The US labels Zimbabwe as one of the world’s six ―outposts of tyranny‖ Zimbabwe rejects the statement March 2005 Ruling ZANU-PF party wins two-thirds of the votes in parliamentary polls Main opposition party says election was rigged against it May 2006 Year-on-year inflation exceeds 1,000% New banknotes, with three noughts deleted from their values are introduced in August December 2006 Ruling ZANU-PF party approves a plan to move presidential polls from 2008 t 2010, extending Mr. Mugabe’s rule by two years May 2007 Warning of power cuts for up to 20 hours a day while electricity is diverted towards agriculture (Timeline: Zimbabwe, 3-6) Ethnic Groups & Language African – 98% English is the Shona 82% official language Ndebele 14% Shona Other 2% Sindebele (the Mixed & Asian – 1 % language of the White less than 1% Ndebele) Numerous but minor tribal dialects (Zimbabwe, 5) People Population 12,311,143 HIV/AIDs Median Age 35% of the population Total: 20.1 years carry the virus Male: 19.9 At 700 people die a week Female: 20.2 from AIDs Population Growth Rate One million children (10% 0.595% of the population) have Birth Rate been orphaned because 27.72 births per 1,000 their parents have died population of AIDs Death Rate adult prevalence rate 21.76 deaths per 1,000 population • 24.6% Infant Mortality Rates People living 51.12 deaths per 1,000 live • 1.8 million births Life Expectancy at birth Deaths Total population: 39.5 years • 170,00 Male: 40.62 years (Zimbabwe, 3-4) Female: 38.35 years Religion Syncretic – 50% Part Christian, part indigenous beliefs Christian – 25 % Indigenous beliefs – 24% Muslim and other – 1% (Zimbabwe, 5) Religion Continued… Religion is driven by the twin axes of fear and power Everything had a religious significance Life is lived in the present God is distant, not close God is approached through mediators People of power are respected and sought in times of trouble Magic protects me and affects others Magic is real and to be respected Africans are emotive and enjoy worship in community Customs and Courtesies Greetings Strangers are greeted with a single handshake where as friends are greeted with a longer handshake. As a sign of respect, the right arm is supported with the left hand. Rural Shona have a slow, patterned hand clap as an additional show of respect. A simple greeting is never enough, one must always inquire about one’s family. Children are addressed on a first name basis. Rural parents may be referred to by their the name of their oldest child. Elderly are addressed as grandmother or grandfather An elderly person is always shown great respect, greeted first, and obeyed by all children. (Republic of Zimbabwe, 722-723) Customs and Courtesies Gestures continued… Items are passed and accepted with both hands. As a gesture of gratitude or politeness, Shona may clap their hands. To show respect, one must lower themselves; there forth people will sit when they converse Women will sit on floor mats where men are higher up on stools or chairs You do not rise when an elder enters the room It is considered rude when you make direct contact with an elder. It is inappropriate for one to show public displays of affection; although it is appropriate for friends of the same sex to hold hands while walking. Personal space is very limited (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723) Customs and Courtesies continued… Visiting Time is a flexible concept in the villages where as in the city, people are expected to arrive on time Unannounced visit are common in the villages but a greeting is called out first asking permission to enter home It is important for Zimbabwean quest to feel comfortable Hosts always offer refreshments It is impolite to refuse refreshments or meals A small gift is appreciated by the hosts and in return often give a departing gift; for example, a garden produce Rural hosts usually accompany their guest much of Customs and Courtesies Eating continued… Breakfast at ate before work, lunch is light, with their main meal in the evening Rural residents normally eat with their right handed fingers All hands are washed before and after a meal using a washbasin passed from person to person The water for an older person is poured by someone younger Rural families eat together However, if guests are present, children eat separately Drinks are taken after all the food is eaten Guest are served first and given meat with their meal To show respect and indicate one has been well provided for, one will clap softly and says Ndaguta Lifestyle - Family The father is the head of the family He makes all the final decisions He supports his family, including children, wives, and any mistresses financially The mother does have influence in the home Polygamy is still practiced although is becoming less common Women care for the children and the household They often sell produce and other items at roadside markets (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723) Lifestyle – Family continued… Extended family is strong and provides a social safety net Financial support can be expected by relatives in hard times and must share in prosperous times Borrowing between relatives is common and more in the form of giving Rural families often share households Children care for their parents as the age, because elderly family is considered a treasure (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723) Lifestyle – Dating & Marriage Young Zimbabweans meat at school or social function although dating is more common in the cities When a couple is ready for marriage, a representative of the groom will visit the bride’s family to negotiate gifs and a bride price which is known as lobola or roora A traditional lobola involves cattle, but it is more common to pay with cash Virginity in women is valued and will bring a higher bride-price; although when families demand higher prices, grooms are finding it difficult to pay Traditional weddings usually last more than a day which involves feasting, dancing, and drinking It is culturally acceptable for men to openly have extramarital affairs, which is consider necessary by men to prove virility. However this has contributed Lifestyle – Recreation and the Arts Soccer is the must common sport Girls play netball Most Zimbabweans like to dance Rural youth on Saturday nights dance to Zimbabwean music on the radio Chimurenga, which is one of the most popular local styles, combines traditional Shona with electric instruments (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723) Lifestyle - Holidays National Holidays Heroes Day & Defense New Year’s Day Forces Day August 11 – 12 Easter Honors causalities of Includes Good Friday liberation struggle and Easter Monday Christmas Independence day April 18 Boxing Day Dec 26 Workers Day May 1 Africa Day Local religious May 25 celebrations are also held throughout the year (Republic of Zimbabwe, 724) U.S. Department of State Background Note: Zimbabwe http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5479.htm This website gives you an overview of the country of Zimbabwe Includes • Geography • People • Government • Economy • People and History • Travel and Business Information This site would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out general information on Zimbabwe CIA – The World Factbook Zimbabwe https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- factbook/geos/zi.html This website gives you an in-depth overview with statistics about the country of Zimbabwe Includes Introduction Geography People Government Economy Communications Transportation Military Transnational Issues This site would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out general information on Zimbabwe including statistics. BBC NEWS Country profile: Zimbabwe http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa /country_profiles/1064589.stm This website gave a brief overview of Zimbabwe; particularly the facts, leaders, and media. This site would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out general information on Zimbabwe’s leadership and media. BBC NEWS Timeline: Zimbabwe A chronology of key events http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/coun try_profiles/1831470.stm This website gives you an overview of Zimbabwe through a chronology timeline This site would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out important events in Zimbabwe’s history. Dictionary.com Zimbabwe – Information from Reference. com http://www.reference.com/search?q=Zimbab we This website is great for looking up multiple references for Zimbabwe Including Land & People Economy Government History This site would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out multiple overviews on Zimbabwe. CultureGrams World Edition 2004 Republic of Zimbabwe Axiom Press, Inc This reference article provides us with an abundant amount of information on Zimbabwe Includes Background Information The People Customs and Courtesies Lifestyle Society At a Glance This article would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out important information on Zimbabwe. African Kingdoms Great Ages of Man A History of the World’s Cultures By Basil Davidson and the Editors of Time- Life Books This book gives you an in-depth look at the history of Africa and its many countries This book was great in the form of the ancient history of Zimbabwe This site would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out about the ancient history of Zimbabwe. Conclusion I hope you have learned a quick overview of what life is like in Zimbabwe I hope you find the information on their customs, courtesies, and lifestyle particularly informative Reference Page BBC NEWS. (20, Sept. 2007). Timeline: Zimbabwe, A Chronology of Key Events. Retrieved Oct. 23, 2007, from BBC NEWS Website: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/18314 70.stm BBC NEWS. (20, Sept. 2007). Country Profile: Zimbabwe. Retrieved Oct. 23, 2007, from BBC NEWS Website: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/ 1064589.stm CIA – The World Factbook. (18, Oct. 2007). Zimbabwe. Retrieved Oct. 23, 2007, from CIA-The World Factbook— Zimbabwe Website: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- factbook/geos/zi.html Bureau of African Affairs. (Sept. 2007). Background Note: Zimbabwe. Retrieved Oct. 23, 2007, from US Department of State Website: Reference Page Continued… Axiom Press, Inc. (2004). Republic of Zimbabwe [print version]. CultureGrams World Edition, 2004, 721-724
"Zimbabwe Zimbabwe By Ashley Youngblood Friday"