PS 310 Fall 2006 Final Review Sheet Congress What are the president’s legislative powers, according to the Constitution? What are his informal legislative powers? What are Congress’ constitutional powers? In what ways is Congress on equal footing with the president? In what ways does Congress dominate lawmaking? Who has the upper hand in legislative negotiations? How does public opinion affect those negotiations? When is a president more likely to be successful in his negotiations with Congress? Is the passage of major legislation affected by divided government? When will we see Congress and the President compromise? When will we see them fail to compromise? Terms: Half a loaf, Veto Bait, Successive approximations, unified government, divided government Impeachment What are the Constitutional provisions respecting impeachment? What did the Framers think about when deciding on that language? What are the three cases of impeachment? Of the three crises described in the Pfiffner piece, which is the most egregious? Which is the least? Why? Is the cover-up worse than the original action? What distinguishes Nixon’s actions from those of other presidents who did or did not face impeachment? Is the impeachment process a tool that Congress can use against all presidents who deserve it? Or does it require specific a political environment to be effective? War Powers How did the framers design the president’s and Congress’ constitutional war powers? How did early presidents conceive of the president’s war powers? Of Congress’ war powers? How did they interpret the commander-in-chief clause? What example sticks out most for you? How do modern presidents conceive of the president’s war powers? Of Congress’ war powers? Why did that change in interpretation take place? What role do modern international institutions play in our domestic war powers disputes? What examples of modern uses of war powers stick out most for you? Does the War Powers Resolution empower or constrain the president? Did Congress have enough input in the decision to go to war in Iraq? What are some examples of presidents’ use of prerogative power in wartime? How would you evaluate President Bush’s uses of prerogative power? Terms: commander in chief, UN Participation Act, Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, War Powers Resolution, Authorization for the Use of Military Force, Prerogative Power Executive Branch How does Congress make it hard for the president to control the bureaucracy? Why does Moe think that the president is in a better position to control the bureaucracy than Congress is? Why might it be important for the president to have his own staff? What are the three strategies that the President can use to control the bureaucracy? What advantages and disadvantages to the president, and to the system at large, come with a large presidential bureaucracy? Is the cabinet currently a resource for the president? Are his White House advisers assets to him? How do presidents weigh loyalty vs. competence? Which side do they usually take? How do presidential management techniques differ? Is there one that you think is best? Why do presidents take unilateral action? Are there reasons why or ways in which they should not take unilateral action? Terms: Bureaucratic capture/cabinet capture, Senior Executive Eervice, Office of Management and Budget, Regulatory Review, Executive Orders, Brownlow Committee, Executive Orders, Presidential Memoranda, Presidential Proclamations, National Security Directives, Signing Statements, Recissions, Federal Administrative Procedures Act Judiciary In what ways is the judiciary independent of the president? In what ways is it shaped by him? In what ways does the President have the upper hand over the judiciary? What should the president be able to do to protect the United States from terrorist attacks? Do terrorists have rights? Should they have access to judicial review of executive branch action?? How would you feel if a court let a person go free, and that person later committed a terrorist act? How would you feel if a completely innocent person, or many innocent people were held by the government without access to legal recourse? Are judges in a better position to decide such issues than the president? Terms: Court packing, Worcester v. Georgia, Ex parte Merryman, US v. Nixon, Marbury vs. Madison, Mississippi vs. Johnson, US v. Curtiss Wright Export Corporation, Youngstown Sheet and Tube v. Sawyer, Zone of Twilight, Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, Executive privilege Informal Constraints Why does Neustadt argue that presidential power is the power to persuade? What does Greenstein think of Eisenhower’s skill as a leader? What are the elements of what he calls “hidden hand leadership?” What do you think of his strategy of hidden hand leadership? What would you think if Bill Clinton or George W. Bush employed the same strategy? What would the press think? What presidential personal qualities did we discuss? What, according to that list, are Bill Clinton’s strengths and weaknesses? How did Bill Clinton’s personal characteristics affect his presidency? What was his management style? How were the parties, the press, the public, and Congress checks on Bill Clinton’s uses of presidential power? What are Joe Klein’s biases and how do they affect the story he tells? Which do you think is a more important determinant of presidential success: the president’s personality or his political environment? Can you briefly describe Skowronek’s theory of Political Time? Where does George W. Bush fall in political time? What in the political environment constrained the last five presidents? What in the political environment empowered them? Is there such a thing as a great president? Who would you rate as the best president of all time? On what basis do you make that decision? How do you think the future judgment of history affects a president’s thinking? Terms: Power to persuade, Hidden hand leadership, Regimes, Reconstructive president, Preemptive president, Orthodox Innovator, Disjunctive president Comparative Executives How powerful is the American president compared to the executives in other democracies? What are the relative strengths of a president in a separated system? What are the relative strengths of a prime minister in a parliamentary system? Terms: Westminster system, Prime minister in a PR system Your final exam will have six short answer questions (10 points each) and two essay questions. The exam will be cumulative, with an emphasis on the second half of the semester. My office hours before finals will be: Friday, Dec. 15: 12-2:30pm Monday, December 18: 10-11am Friday, December 22: 8-11am I will also be available by email, as usual, during finals week.
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