Civil -Military Relations in th

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					FoG:IS
         Civil-Military Relations
         in the Information Age

         Ralf Bendrath, Berlin
         FoG:IS
         Forschungsgruppe                         Research Group
         Informationsgesellschaft und             Information Society and
         Sicherheitspolitik                       Security Policy




         International School on Disarmament and Research on Conflicts
         ISODARCO
         Trento/Italy, August 2002
FoG:IS   Overview

             What are civil-military relations?
             Are they in a crisis?
             Are they changing?
             Some theory (only some!)
             Examples
                C4ISR / “system of systems”
                critical infrastructure protection
                information warfare
             Conclusion
FoG:IS   Civil-Military Relations (CMR)
              Traditionally understood as:
                  relations between military commanders and
                   the civilian government
                  clear distinction btw. civil and military
                   spheres, roles, duties etc.
                  professional identity of the soldier as the
                   exclusive “manager of organized violence” (S.
                   Huntington: The Soldier and the State)
                  “Politicians decide about war, Soldiers wage
                   war”
                  aim: civilian control of the military
FoG:IS   CMR in a Crisis? Not really!
              1990s: “Crisis of CMR” all over

              but: just some generals too much
               interested in politics and some president
               not too much interested in war
              simple solutions: fire the CJCS, elect a
               new president, throw money at it, ...
FoG:IS
         “We give special
         thanks to Mr. Bush and
         all the allies:
         the British, the French,
         the Egyptians, CNN.”
         A Man from Kuwait, 1991
FoG:IS   CMR in a Crisis? Well...

            maybe not that simple?

            political impact of military action
             in times of worldwide media
FoG:IS
FoG:IS
         “If you spend all day on a
         computer typing,
         that warrior ethos goes
         away, and pretty soon
         you´re just a diary clerk or a
         supply guy.”
         Master Gunnery Sgt. Cardo Urso,
         chief instructor at the Marine Corps´
         Martial Arts Training Program
FoG:IS   “Our future leaders of command
         must understand the
         interrelationships among
         military power, diplomacy, and
         economic pressure, as well as
         the role of various government
         agencies and non-
         governmental actors, in
         achieving our security
         objectives.”
         Joint Chiefs of Staff: Joint Vision
         2010, Washington D.C. 1996
FoG:IS
         “IO greatly expands the
         commander’s battlespace,
         including interaction with the
         media, industry, joint forces,
         multinational forces and
         computer / satellite
         networks worldwide.”
         Arneson/Starry, FM 100-6:
         Information Operations, in:
         Military Review, 1996
FoG:IS
         “We are not in the
         business of killing.”

         General Norman Schwarzkopf
FoG:IS   CMR in a Crisis? Well...

            post-heroic / no direct combat / tooth-to-tail
            military profession & exclusivity
            C4ISR / micro-management
            intelligence
            information warfare
            national security and defense / CIP

            Information age: systemic crisis of CMR?
         Theory I: Crisis
FoG:IS
              Crisis of
                 man (identity / the subject)
                 the state (networked state)
                 war (postmodern, info, cyber, high-
                  tech, hyperreal, ...)
              Crisis of modernity?
                 ”The most significant fact
                  about civil-military relations is
                  the modernity of the concept”
                 (Amos Perlmutter, Political Roles and Military
                 Rulers, London 1981)
         Theory II: The system of CMR
FoG:IS
              Crisis as a property of the system

              individual
                    military profession
                    role / identity / exclusivity

              social agents:
                      state, military - and others?
              systemic norms:
                      civilian control of the military -
                       what else?
FoG:IS   Change - What Change?


              change within the military

              change within the system of CMR

              change of the system of CMR
FoG:IS   Examples

             C4ISR / “system of systems”
              for conventional war

             critical infrastructure protection

             information warfare
FoG:IS   C4ISR / “System of Systems”
             Network of everything
                  from individual soldier to White House
                  political micro-management

                  the end of mission tactics

                     • less command, more control
                  Air Force without pilots?
                  FOFI for the single soldier



             Real-time
                  computer-aided warfare
                  formal models of professional war
FoG:IS   C4ISR / “System of Systems”
             Computer-mediated perception
                  reducing complexity
                  dissemination, need-to-know

                  simulation & over-specialization

                  C4KISR: control by machines?

                  Integration of intelligence systems

                  open source intelligence

                  tactical info for political bargains

                  intelligence units closer to fighters

                  Predator: CIA-operators as soldiers?
FoG:IS   C4ISR / “System of Systems”
             Civil providers
                   IT-contractors on the battlefield
                   NMCI example

                   post-heroic military profession?



             CIMIC
                     info-sharing with INGOs & NGOs
         Critical Infrastructure
FoG:IS   Protection
             New enemies and threats
                  Teenagers?
                  Hacktivists?

                  Criminals?

                  Terrorists?

                  States?



             Attack from at home or abroad?
         Critical Infrastructure
FoG:IS   Protection
             Who is in charge?
                   Military?
                   Law enforcement agencies?

                   Intelligence?

                   Owners of the infrastructures?



             What´s it in the end?
                   IT security
                   IT forensics

                   coordination
         Critical Infrastructure
FoG:IS   Protection
             protect your own network!
             info-sharing between LEA, Intelligence,
              private companies, IT-Sec community
             new complexity
             what is security?
                   national security?
                   economic security?

                   IT-security?

             „national security“ obsolete for
              transnational networks?
FoG:IS   Information Warfare

             distinctions become blurry:
             Targets: military / civilian?
FoG:IS




         Joint Chiefs of Staff: JP 3-13, Joint Doctrine for
         Information Operations, Washington D.C.,
         October 1998, p. I-17
FoG:IS   Information Warfare

             distinctions become blurry:
             Targets: military / civilian?
             Time: war - peace?
FoG:IS




         Joint Chiefs of Staff: JP 3-13, Joint Doctrine for
         Information Operations, Washington D.C.,
         October 1998, p. II-8
FoG:IS   Information Warfare

             Targets: military / civilian?
             Time: war - peace?
             Space: battlespace / info-environment /
              cyberspace?
             Operational: IO central, not only support
             Identity: hackers, journalists, ...?
         Info-Ops = Counterinsurgency?
FoG:IS
         “Low-intensity conflict is basically
         a struggle for people´s minds. (...)
         In such a battle, psychological
         operations are more important
         than fire power (...) Insurgencies,
         therefore, are primarily political
         and psychological struggles;
         military considerations are
         secondary.”
         U.S. Army TRADOC: Joint Low-Intensity
         Conflict Project Final Report, Vol. 1: Analytical
         Review of Low-Intensity Conflict, 1986
FoG:IS   Information Warfare

             Soft Power / Noopolitik
             Who targets information?
                  State Department?
                  White House?

                  Pentagon PA?

                  Pentagon Info-Ops?

                  VoA?

                  CNN?

                  MTV?

             parlamentary & public control?
FoG:IS   Change of CMR?

             Change within the military
                  end of mission tactics
                  de- / re-centralization

                  new tasks

                     • info-ops
                     • CIP
                  more tail than tooth
                  post-heroic soldiers



             change already halfway done
FoG:IS   Change of CMR?

             Change within the system of CMR
                   political fine-tuning of operations
                   but: some are like covert operations

                   parlamentary oversight?

                   politically / culturally educated soldiers

                   End of the “American Way of War”

                   intelligence closer to shooters



             still in the process of change
FoG:IS   Change of CMR?

             Change of the system of CMR
                  CIP: domestic / international security?
                  info-ops: non-physical violence

                  Soft Power

                  the end of war as we know it

                  cf. Foucault on domestic violence




             much resistance against change
FoG:IS




         It could be just junk mail, Colonel, or
         the beginning of a major enemy attack...
FoG:IS   Thanks for listening !

             Dipl. Pol. Ralf Bendrath

             mailto: ralf.bendrath@fogis.de

             http://www.fogis.de

             http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~bendrath

             http:// archive.infopeace.de