A campaign led by the
International Diabetes Federation
What is diabetes?
The premier awareness campaign
The premier awareness campaign What is diabetes?
of the diabetes world
the diabetes world Diabetes is a chronic condition that arises either when the pancreas does not produce
Diabetes is a chronic disease that arises when the pancreas
enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin
does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot
is a hormone made by the pancreas that enables cells to take up glucose from the blood
effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone
When does World Diabetes Day take place?
does World Diabetes Day take place? healthcare professionals, healthcare and use it for energy. Failure of insulin production, insulin action or both leads to increased
made by the pancreas that enables cells to take in glucose
decision-makers and the media. Numerous local and sugar levels in the blood. This is a method used to determine whether a person has
World Diabetes Day takes place on 14 November every from the blood and use it for energy. Failure of insulin
World Diabetes Day takes place on 14 November everymarks the was chosen of national events are organized by the member associations production, insulin action the blood associated raised glucose
diabetes or not. This high sugar level inor bothisleads to with long-term damage
year. The date was chosen because it year. The date birthday and failurein the blood (hyperglycaemia). This is associated
because it marks the birthday of Frederick Banting, Charles Best, is credited
Frederick Banting, who, along with who, along with Charles Best, is
of the International Diabetes Federation and by other levels of various organs and tissues.
creditedthe discovery ofinsulin. While many events take place ontake place diabetes representative organizations, healthcare
with with the discovery of insulin. While many events or around the professionals, healthcare authorities, and individuals who
with long-term damage
Types of diabetes: to the body and the failure of
day itself, a themedthe day runs throughout the year.
on or around campaign itself, a themed campaign various organs and tissues.
want to make a difference. World Diabetes Day unites the
runs throughout the year, with actions planned to Type 1 diabetes
Understand diabetes: Know the warning signs*
global diabetes community to produce a powerful voice for
inﬂuence political opinion and support the goals of diabetes awareness.
How did it all begin?
the campaign. 1 diabetes is an autoimmune
TypeFrequent urination disease characterized by the destruction of the insulin-
producing cells in the pancreas. Consequently, people with type 1 diabetes produce very
World Diabetes Day was introduced by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) or no insulin hunger
littleIncreasedand must take insulin by injection or insulin pump to survive. There have
How did it all begin?
and the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991, in response to concern over the been recent advances in delivering insulin in other ways. Type 1 diabetes, which used
World incidence of Day was introduced by the
escalatingDiabetes diabetes around the world. Since then, the event has grown in to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, is most commonly diagnosed in children and young
popularity every year.
International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the adults. of interest and concentration
World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991, in Vomiting and stomach pain (often mistaken as the ﬂu)
response to concern over the escalating incidence A tingling sensation or numbness in the hands or feet
Why the Blue Circle? Since then, the event
of diabetes around the world. Type 2 diabetes
Other signs include blurred vision, frequent infections
has grown in popularity every year. and slow-healing wounds
The blue circle signifies the UNITY of the global diabetes community in response to The development of type 2 diabetes is marked by insulin resistance. This resistance to
the diabetes pandemic. insulin action is mostlymild or absentpeople with thiswith type overweight or
Where does it take place? *These can be due to the fact that in people diabetes are 2
obese. In this state, the patient cannot use the insulin that they produce effectively. They
World Diabetes Day is celebrated worldwide. can often manage the condition through exercise and diet. However, in many cases oral
It brings together millions of people in over drugs are needed and often insulin is required. Type 2 diabetes accounts for over 90%
160 countries to raise awareness of diabetes, of the 250 million cases of diabetes worldwide. Of major concern is that type 2 diabetes
including children and adults affected by diabetes, The Table of Silence, Targa Jiu, Romania prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate in children.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)
Type 1 diabetes A global epidemic
Diabetes education is particularly lacking in developing
countries. Even in developed countries, many people
Type 1 diabetes (GDM) is a type of diabetes in disease characterized
Gestationaldiabetes is an autoimmune which women, without previously cannot are more education because diabetes worldwide. The majority
Today, there access than 250 million people withthere are not enough
by the destruction of the insulin-producing cells in the
been diagnosed with diabetes, have high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. GDM educators or centres to around not knowing that they have diabetes.
of the other people may be walking cope with the rising number
pancreas. Consequently, people with type 1 diabetes of people with diabetes. The International Diabetes
affects about 4% of all pregnant women. Maternal body weight during pregnancy Therefore, within the next 20 years, this number is expected to grow to 380 million.
produce very little or no insulin and must take insulin to Federation is working to identify and ﬁll the gaps in the
Diabetes is a global epidemic with debilitating and life-threatening complications.
Issurvive. Type 1 diabetes, which used to be called juvenile-
a risk factor for GDM. It has few symptoms and usually disappears at the end of provision of diabetes education worldwide. In 2003, the
onset diabetes, risk to both mother and unborn child. Babies children
pregnancy. GDM poses ais most commonly diagnosed inof mothers Federation produced International Standards for Diabetes
and young adults.
with GDM are at increased risk of being large for gestational age (which can lead to Prevention
Education. Revised and updated in 2009, these standards
delivery complications), are at higher risk for some other medical complications after can be found online at www.idf.org/diabetes_education
Type 2 diabetes
delivery and often have an increased life-long risk of glucose intolerance and obesity. along type IDF’s cannot be prevented. The environmental triggers that
At present,with1 diabetesInternational Curriculum for Diabetes are
Women previously diagnosed with GDM have a significantly higher risk of developing Health Professional Education.
thought to generate the process that results in the destruction of the body’s insulin
The development of type 2 diabetes is marked by insulin
type 2 diabetes in the future. Reduction of body weight during pregnancy leads to Complications include: producing cells are still under investigation. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented through
resistance. People with type 2 diabetes cannot use the Gestational diabetes
insulin that they produce types of diabetes also exist.
prevention of diabetes. Other more rareeffectively. They can often Diabetes education is best provided by a 2 diates prevention.
the following steps obtained from the IDF Consensus on typemultidisciplinary
manage their condition through exercise and diet. Cardiovascular diabetes (GDM) is a condition in which women
•Gestational disease, which affects the heart and blood vessels and may cause team. While multidisciplinary education is available in
fatal complications such diagnosed disease (leading to heart blood
without previouslyas coronary heartdiabetes have ahigh attack) and some countries, in many others it is not available and its
However, in many of diabetes
Complications cases oral drugs are needed and often glucose levels during their pregnancy. GDM affects about
stroke. value is not fully recognized by the medical of type The
Three-step plan for the preventionprofession.2
insulin is required. Type 2 diabetes accounts for over 90%
Diabetes ismore than 250 million peoplecareful monitoring and control.
of the a chronic, life-long condition that requires living with diabetes Kidney disease (diabetic women. It has few symptoms and
•4% of all pregnant nephropathy), which may result in total kidney failure and diabetes
World Diabetes Day campaign sets out to challenge this.
in the need for dialysis or kidney the pregnancy ends. However,
usually disappears whentransplant. It is hoped that the awareness raised by the campaign will
Without proper management it can lead to very high blood sugar levels. These are GDM poses a risk to both child and mother. Babies of
• Nerve disease (diabetic neuropathy), which can ultimately lead to ulceration and encourage healthcare systems everywhere to at high risk
1. Identification of those who may be at higher risk - People recognize
Both type 1 and type 2 and failure various organs and both
associated with long-term damagediabetesofare serious and tissues. can mothers with GDM are at increased risk of being large for
amputation of the feet and lower limbs. the of developing diabetes must be identified through opportunistic screening
need to provide structured diabetes education and
affect children. It is important to know the warning signs gestational age (which can lead to delivery complications), by doctors, nurse and pharmacists, and through self-screening using a
help establish access to skilled diabetes education as the
• Eye disease (diabetic retinopathy), characterized by damage to the retina of the eye
of diabetes. are at higher risk for some other medical complications right of every person with diabetes.
which can lead to vision loss.
after delivery and often have an increased life-long risk of 2. Measurement of risk - Individuals at high risk must have their blood sugar
glucose intolerance and obesity. Women who have had levels measured by a health professional. This will detect cases of undiagnosed
GDM have a signiﬁcantly increased risk of developing type
diabetes and those who are pre-diabetic (with impaired fasting glucose or
“There is no such thing as mild diabetes.” impaired glucose tolerance)
3. Intervention to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes – Achieving a
Other rarer types of diabetes also exist. healthy body weight and moderate exercise can help prevent the development
of type 2 diabetes. Exercise at least 30 minutes daily by brisk waking, swimming,
cycling or dancing should be the initial intervention for all people at risk.
World Diabetes Day Theme 2009-2013
The International Diabetes Federation DIABETES EDUCATION & PREVENTION
Diet for diabetics is a healthy balanced diet which is vital for diabetes treatment. For optimum results, use
the food pyramid for guidance on the foods required. The regulation of blood sugar in the non-diabetic This 2009–2013 campaign calls on all those responsible for diabetes care to understand diabetes and take control.
The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is an umbrella The content of this booklet draws on the following
organization of to whatever national diabetes associations
is automatic, adjusting over 200 foods are eaten. But, for the diabetic, extra caution is needed to
balance food intake with exercise, insulin injections and any other glucose altering activity. A) Diabetes caregivers and educators:
in over 160 countries. It represents the interests of the Understand Diabetes & Take Control
growing number of people with diabetes and those at Riley P, McClaughlyn K. Understand diabetes and take
risk. The Federation diabetes through education:
Management ofhas been leading the global diabetes control: World Diabetes Day 2009. Diabetes Voice, June B) People with Diabetes:
community since 1950. IDF’s mission is to promote 2009. Empower yourself through education about diabetes
diabetes care, person with diabetes a their worldwide. provider
It is important for theprevention andthatcurefamily, healthcare Led and diabetes caregiver
workthe International Diabetes Federation, the Unite for
by together to develop a diabetes management plan. Metzger B, et al. New ﬁndings in gestational diabetes – the
HAPO Study. Diabetes Voice, Special Issue: May 2009. Implement effective strategies and policies for the prevention and management of diabetes to ensure that our citizens
Diabetes campaign secured a United Nations Resolution
Whydiabetes in December 2006. The Federation continues
diabetes education? with and at risk of diabetes receive the best possible care.
on McGill M, McGuire H. The IDF framework for diabetes
to lead the informed decisions
• To take properglobal effort to implement Resolution 61/225 D) Healthcare professionals:
education – current status and future prospects.
under the Unite changes
• To make behavioural for Diabetes banner. The Resolution Diabetes Voice. March 2009. Improve your knowledge of diabetes so that evidence-based recommendations are put into practice.
encourages psychosocial issues presented by diabetes
• To address the UN Member States to develop national policies
International Diabetes Federation: a consensus on Type E) The general public
for be empowered to manage diabetes effectively
• Tothe prevention, treatment and care of diabetes in line
2 diabetes prevention. Diabetic Medicine, 2007: 24, 451- understand the serious impact of diabetes,
with the sustainable development of their health-care
know how to identify the condition;
Poor management results in poor health outcomes, and increased development of complications 463.
systems, taking into account the internationally agreed
know how to avoid or delay diabetes and its complications.
development goals, including the Millennium Development Patient Education and psychological care. Diabetes
Understand diabetes: Know the warning signs*
• Frequent urination Voice, Supplement September 2006. Find your campaign-
Everyone including diabetes patients should follow the above food pyramid Key messages of the campaign
• Excessive thirst
The International Diabetes Federation is engaged in action
• Increased hunger
Diabetes Atlas 3rd Edition, International Diabetes
toolkit online at:
to tackle diabetes from the local to the global level from
• Weight loss
• Know the diabetes risks and know the warning signs www.worlddiabetesday.org/toolkit
programmes at community level to worldwide awareness • Know how to respond to diabetes and who to turn to for help
• Tiredness • Know how to manage diabetes and take control
and advocacy initiatives. IDF’s activities aim to inﬂuence
policy, interest and public awareness and encourage health
• Lack of increase concentration
improvement, promote the exchange u)
• Vomiting and stomach pain (often mistaken as the flof high-quality World Diabetes Day
• A tingling sensation or numbness in the hands or feet education for
information about diabetes, and provide • Promote the importance of structured diabetes education programmes in the
people with diabetes and frequent infections and providers.
• Other signs include blurred vision, their healthcare slow-healing wounds prevention and control of diabetes.
• Advocate for opportunities for diabetes education within healthcare systems and
21 *These can be mild or absent in people with type 2 diabetes. communities 22
All the information in this pamphlet was obtained from the World Diabetes Day website:
International Diabetes Federation
For further information, contact:
MRC/UWC Diabetes Research Group
Private Bag X17
7535, South Africa
Phone: 021 959 3327
Fax: 021 959 3311
The World Diabetes Day campaign in 2009 aims to:
Empower the diabetic patient to manage the disease effectively
Raise awareness of the warning signs of diabetes
Educate people without diabetes on how to prevent or delay the disease
Distribute materials to request government to implement strategies and policies for the prevention and
management of diabetes
Promote healthy lifestyles to help prevent type 2 diabetes