Role of the State in national system of innovation in Russia

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Role of the State in national system of innovation in Russia Powered By Docstoc
					           The role of the State
in national system of innovation in Russia




    Thiruvananthapuram,
     India, August 19-21
             2009
 Current socio-economic context –
 completing transition to the market economy and
 transforming of the socio-economic and political system


• Democratisation and liberalisation, lowering the level of
  social confrontation, development of civil society
  elements
• Implementation of market self-regulation instruments and
  institutions
• Setup of a new public administration system, lowering
  barriers for business activity
• Strengthening Russia’s global position


                                                           2
Current economic trends
(% of the previous year)


                                               2005    2006    2007    2000-   2008    March 2009 /
                                                                       2007    (est)   March 2008
GDP                                            106.4   107.4   107.6   107.0   105.6      90.5

Consumer price index                           109.9   109.0   112.0   113.6   114.1      101.3

Industrial production index                    104.0   104.4   106.0   105.8   102.1      86.3

Capital investment                             110.9   113.7   120.0   112.5   109.1       84.6

Real cash earnings                             112.4   113.3   110.3   111.6   102.7      99.9

Real average monthly wages                     112.6   113.3   115.8   115.0   109.7       94.3

Retail turnover                                112.8   113.9   115.0   111.6   113.0      96.0

Turnover of services purchased by the public   106.3   107.6   107.2   105.7   112.8       96.7

Exports                                        133.1   124.7   116.5   122.1   140.2        -

Imports                                        128.8   131.3   136.8   124.6   134.9        -

                                                                                                      3
 Internal restraints
 on the development of Russia’s economy

• Economic growth, quality of life – ensured by earnings from
  exporting oil, gas and raw materials;
• Structural misbalances, technological gap with leading industrial
  nations
• Monopolisation on local markets, low incentives to advance
  productivity and competitiveness
• Inadequate protection of ownership rights
• Lack of incentives for a “pragmatic coalition” between business,
  government and public
• High regional differentiation
• Significant inequality in income distribution and social infrastructure
  development
                                                                            4
Major indicators of the S&T complex


                                                                          2000   2003     2005     2006     2007

GERD at constant 1989 prices (bln roubles)                                3.3     4.8      4.6      4.9         5.6

GERD as a % of GDP                                                        1.05   1.28     1.07     1.08     1.12

FBA on civil S&T at constant 1991 prices (bln roubles)                    2.00   3.22     4.16     4.54         5.5

FBA on civil S&T as a % of GDP                                            0.23   0.31     0.36     0.36         0.4

R&D personnel per 10 000 employment                                       138     130      122      122         135

Patent applications with the indication of Russia in Russia (thousands)   28.7   30.7     32.3     37.7     39.4

Patents granted (thousands)                                               17.6   24.7     23.4     23.3     23.0

Technology balance of payments (mln of US dollars)                        20.6   -428.7   -564.8   -595.0   -796.0

R&D institutions                                                          4099   3797     3566     3622     3957

  among them industrial enterprises                                       323     264      231      255         265


                                                                                                            5
         Gross domestic expenditure on R&D

400000                                                                                                                                            371080.3   12000

                10898.2
350000
                                                                                                                                                             10000
                                                                                                                                       288805.2
300000

                                                                                                                                230785.2                     8000
250000                    7287.6
                                                                                                                        196039.9
                                                                                                                                                   5547.9
200000                                                                                                             169862.4                                  6000

                                                                                               105260.7    135004.5
150000                                                                                     3321.2                                               4918.0
                                                                                                                   4795.2             4550.9                 4000
                   3223.3          3056.3 2928.7                   2980.5            2863.1                                  4608.0
                                                   2485.4 2721.2            2578.1                           4344.7
100000
                                                                                                        3912.6
                                                                                                                                                             2000
 50000                                                                                        76697.1
                                                          19393.9
         13.1     20.0     140.6 1317.2 5146.1 12149.5                                  48050.5
                                                                    24449.7 25082.1
     0                                                                                                                                                       0
         1990     1991      1992   1993   1994     1995   1996     1997     1998     1999   2000   2001     2002      2003    2004    2005     2006   2007


                                      At current prices, mln roubles; before 1998 – bln roubles

                                      An constant 1989 prices, thousand roubles, before 1998 - mln roubles

                                                                                                                                                             6
 Interim conclusion


 R&D sector in Russia: still developing along rather conflicting trends

               “+”                                   “-”
• growth of funding                  • stagnation of the national S&T
• preservation of strong             • preservation of the Soviet
  position:                            model:
   – in basic R&D and                    – Russian science is relatively
   – in certain priority fields of         large (vis-à-vis its scientific
     applied R&D                           and technological outcomes)
                                         – centrally directed and
                                         – government-financed


                                                                             7
Organisational structure


The network of R&D-performing institutions and its scale have
         remained nearly intact over the recent years

• Their number – 3,957 ( 2007), only 2.5% lower than ten years ago
• Institutional features are also rather sustainable
• R&D sector is dominated by research institutes (51.5% of all units,
  60% of R&D personnel) and design organisations (12.6%, 22.5%,
  respectively)
• Research and design organisations are legally independent of
  universities and businesses: only 265 industrial enterprises (6.7%
  of R&D units, 7.1% of R&D personnel) and 500 universities
  (12.6% and 5%), regularly engaged in R&D

                                                                   8
GERD growth

                                 Positive trends

                1998-2007 – more than 20 times
GERD increase
                at constant prices – more than 2 times

                                Negative trends

                      Russia                          Other economies

GERD            1.07 (2006);          Israel – 4.65%; Japan – 3.39%;
(% of GDP)      1.12 (2007)           USA – 2.62%; China – 1.42%

                17.1 bln. $ (2006);   17 times lower than in USA; 7 – in Japan;
GERD (PPP)
                25.1 bln. $ (2007)    4 – in China; 3.3 – in Germany; 1.5 – in Britain

                12 bln. $             2-2,5 times lower than in France, Germany,
BARD (PPP)
                (civil R&D, 2006)     Britain; 3,5 – than in Japan; 14 – than in USA
                                                                                       9
Productivity: competitiveness loss

                                     Russia – 2.42%, 11th position in the world (1995 –
Publication in World Scientific      7, 1980 – 3);
Journals
                                     China – 9.13, 2nd position (1995 – 1.6, 14 position)
                                     Russia – 0.63 bln $; Finland – 3.8 bln $; Austria –
Technology exports
                                     6.1 bln $; USA – 85.9 bln $
                                     Russia is lagging behind Japan – 12 times, USA –
Resident patent applications
                                     7.8, Korea – 3.4 times
                                     Russia – 0.28 %; Gong-Kong – 5.44%; Singapore –
Share of the global hi-tech market
                                     4.58%; Korea – 3.85%
                                     Russia – 9.3%
Innovative activity of enterprises
                                     EU: from 14.7% (Latvia) – to 69.7% (Germany)
Share of innovative products in      Russia – 1.28%;
total sales of industrial products   Germany – 5, Finland – 3.9, France – 3.1%
Share of innovative products in      Russia – 2.9%;
total industrial products            Germany – 25.5, Finland – 23.7, France – 20.7%
                                                                                      10
S&T and innovation policies


• Objectives – largely determined by a complex of
  various socio-economic and political factors
• Government – was recently able to channel additional
  resources into this sector.
• Nation – needs to deal with a whole set of complex
  issues simultaneously
• Dual challenge for S&T and innovation policies – to
  stimulate both sides of markets for innovation –
  demand and supply

                                                     11
New cycle of strategic documents and
implementation programmes


• Strategy for S&T and Innovation in the Russian
  Federation until 2015 (2006)
• Federal Target-Oriented Programme “Research and
  Development in Priority Areas for the S&T Complex
  Development in Russia for 2007-2012” (2006)
• President’s report – On the Strategy of Russia’s
  Development until 2020 (2008)
• Conception of a Long-Term Development until 2020
  (2008)

                                                      12
Key strategic agenda


• Despite their inevitable adjustment against the
  background of the global financial crisis, the outlined in
  these documents measures will in the long run allow to
  tackle the principal systemic problem of the national
  S&T complex – the combination of low efficiency in
  using resources (for R&D) and insufficient demand for
  innovation from businesses.
• The ultimate anticipated result is growth in quality and
  scale of Russia’s S&T output supplied and increased
  demand for technology and innovation from industry.

                                                          13
Policy actions intended for S&T and
innovation (Conception -2020)


• Promoting demand for new technology and innovation
  from companies
• Increasing the quality and scale of output offered by
  national S&T
• Developing human capital in line with challenges and
  requirements of innovative economy
• Setting up an efficient system for selecting and
  implementing long-term S&T priorities


                                                      14
Major focus areas of national S&T and
innovation policies

•   Priority setting; national S&T Foresight exercise for 2025
•   Support to nanoindustry
•   Restructuring government R&D institutions
•   Evaluation of R&D units’ performance
•   Improving legislation for the protection of intellectual property
    rights and technology commercialisation
•   Public-private partnership
•   Tax incentives for R&D and innovation
•   Innovation infrastructure
•   International S&T cooperation
•   Support to university research

                                                                        15
Restructuring government R&D
institutions
• Traditional domination of the state-owned budget-funded
  institutions (as in the USSR) remains one of the key features of
  the Russian S&T sector
• Various types of commercial and non-for-profit organisations were
  allowed during the transition to the market economy, but there was
  little change with the respect to government R&D organisations
• Nearly 43% R&D organisations in Russia were set up and are fully
  funded by the government
• Legislation imposes strict limitations on their legal rights that in
  many cases contradict with both academic freedom and economic
  reality
• Government R&D institutions, while claiming significant budgetary
  allocations, do not provide any guarantees for their efficient use,
  there is no link between performance and funding
                                                                   16
Evaluation of R&D units’ performance

• Post-Soviet period – research evaluation exercises have been
  limited to selection procedures for financing of competitive
  projects by government agencies and state science foundations;
  R&D institutions stayed intact
• To reverse the trend a government statement “On the system of
  performance evaluation for civil R&D organisations” (2008) was
  adopted.
• Its main goals – to establish procedures and criteria for regular
  performance assessments of government R&D organisations and
  optimise their network.
• The regulation combines periodical statistical surveys (once in 5
  years) with activities of evaluation commissions involving major
  interest groups (government agencies, business, academia,
  scientific community, NGOs)
                                                                 17
Support to university research


•   National Priority Project “Education” – competitive institutional grants to
    HEIs implementing innovative education programmes (2006-2007).
•   Research universities initiative – to support best universities as centres of
    excellence. Two HEIs in Moscow were recognised as national research
    universities. In 2009, a follow-up programme to select another 10-15
    research universities in different S&T areas started.
•   Federal Programme “Science and Education Manpower for Innovative
    Russia” (2008) for 2009-2013 – various actions to attract young talents
    and highly-skilled professionals to HEIs and R&D institutions.
•   Federal law “On Changes to the Selected Laws of the Russian Federation
    Concerning the Integration of Education and Science”(2007) – legal
    basis for different models of integrating science with university training



                                                                              18
Russian S&T under the impact of
global economic crisis:
search for new strategies

•   The need to adjust innovative efforts of the government in view of the
    crisis is obvious and is confirmed by the anti-crisis practice of most of
    industrial nations
•   These programmes normally focus on recovering macroeconomic
    parameters as well as on ensuring national competitiveness in the post-
    crisis period
•   institutional reforms to overcome departmental miscoordination, to
    increase efficiency of R&D organisations
     – concentration of resources in the centres of excellence
     – additional policy measures to expand opportunities for public research
       organisations and HEIs to participate in innovation activities, facilitate
       academic mobility, etc.



                                                                                    19
Thank you!




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