Sensory Processing in Adults with Developmental by abe17556

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									Sensory Processing in Adults
     with Developmental
          Disabilities
 Is it Sensory or Behavior?

 M. Janet Thomas, M.Ed.,OTR/L
             And
     M. Lenora Brasher, OT
Georgetown University Center for
 Child and Human Development
                 Objectives
   Define Sensory Processing
   Describe What is Sensory Integration
   List all of the Sensory Channels
   Describe characteristics of high and low
    thresholds
   Discuss how Sensory Systems can impact
    behavior
   Come up with sensory strategies to facilitate
    adaptive behaviors
Sensory Processing

  Sensory Processing is the ability
   to take in sensory information,
    register that information and
               respond
Sensory Integration

  The ability to organize sensory
  information for use in daily life
      and respond adaptively
Examples of Sensory
Integration
   The ability to seek comfort and security
    in the embrace of a loved one
   To regulate attention to task
   The ability to anticipate and show
    awareness of safety
   To regulate activity level
Sensory Channels
   Tactile or Touch       Vision
    Vestibular or         Auditory
    Movement               Taste/smell
   Proprioception or
    Deep pressure
Tactile System
   Touch input
       Discrimination
       Protection
Tactile Characteristics of high
and low thresholds
   High thresholds              Low thresholds
   Touches people to            Grooming is a
    the point of irritating       challenge (hair cuts,
    others                        tooth brushing)
   Doesn’t seem to              Bothered by tags
    notice when face             Will only wear
    and hands are                 certain clothing
    messy                        Moves away when
   Overstuffs mouth              others are too close
Vestibular or Movement
   System located in the inner ear that
    provides information about where our
    body is in space, and whether or not we
    or our surroundings are moving. Tells
    us about speed and direction of
    movement
Movement Characteristics of
high and low thresholds
   High thresholds            Low thresholds
   Rocks back and             Is afraid of heights
    forth                      Dislikes riding in a
   Is in constant              car
    motion has difficulty      Becomes dizzy easily
    sitting still
                               Avoids balancing
                                activities
Proprioception or Deep
Pressure
   System activated by muscle activity that
    tells us where our body parts are and
    how they are moving. This system leads
    to body awareness.
Body Awareness Issues
   Exert too much or         Tires easily
    not enough pressure       Weak grasp
    when handling             Seems accident
    objects                    prone
   Constant dropping
    of objects
   Does not seem to
    notice when clothing
    is twisted
Visual System

 Provides information about people
  and objects. Helps us to define
  boundaries as we move through
               space
Characteristics of Visual
Processing Issues
   Appears               Difficulty finding
    uncomfortable in       objects against a
    strong sunlight        cluttered
   Has difficulty         background
    scanning the          May pay attention to
    environment            detail and fail to see
                           the whole
Auditory System

  System located in the inner ear
    that is stimulated by sound
  waves. Gives information about
    sounds in the environment
Auditory Characteristics of
high and low thresholds
   High thresholds           Low thresholds
   Appears not to hear;      Defensive to sounds
    even when called           may cover ears
   Fascinated by             Easily distracted by
    certain sounds and         sounds
    repeats them often        Constantly makes
                               noise to block out
                               other sounds
Gustatory and Olfactory

    Systems of taste and smell.
   Receptors are located on the
 tongue and in the nasal structure
Taste/Smell Characteristics of
high and low thresholds
   High thresholds           Low thresholds
   Excessive need to         Poor tolerance to
    smell items/people         perfume
   Craves strong taste;      May gag easily
    eats toothpaste           Has many allergies
   Does not seem to
    smell; even strong
    smells
   Pica
Multisensory

   Many sensory experiences are
          multisensory
Multisensory Issues
   Seems oblivious       Gets lost easily
    within an active      Has difficulty paying
    environment            attention
                          Looks away to
                           notice all actions in
                           a room
Modulation or Self regulation

  Use of sensory inputs to remain
   organized, alert and adaptive
Sensory Profiles
Low registration    Sensory Seekers




Sensory Sensitive   Sensory Avoiders
Sensory Diets

  Sensory inputs or strategies that
   promote adaptive functioning
Sensory Preferences

   In the words of Williams and
   Shellenberger, “ to know thy
   nervous system is to love thy
   nervous system and others”.
Sensory Tools
   Oral                   Visual
   Movement and deep      Auditory
    pressure
   Touch
Detective Work
Soper, G., & Thorley, G. C. (1996). Effectiveness of an
occupational therapy programme based on sensory integration
theory for adults with severe learning disabilities. British Journal of
Occupational Therapy, 59; 10, 475-482.

   A study on adults who displayed sensory
    deprived behavior such as teeth grinding,
    tactile defensiveness and self-stimulatory
    behavior.
   All were tested using behavioral checklists,
    Ayers Scale of Adaptive Responses, and
    clinical observations.
   The experimental group received one hour of
    sensory integration treatment per week
   The control group received one hour of time
    in a Snoezelen-type room per week.
Results
   At the end of nine months the sensory
    integration group did significantly better in
    vestibular, proprioceptive and general
    responses than the control group.
   The researchers concluded that sensory
    integration procedures are useful in helping
    older children and adults to participate in
    activities and to minimize tactile
    defensiveness and problems of balance and
    posture.
Smith, S. A., Press, B., Koenig, K. P., & Kinnealey, M. (2005).
Effects of sensory integration on self-stimulating and self-injurious
behaviors. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59:4,
418-425.

   A study comparing the effects of sensory integration
    approach and table top activities on the frequency of
    self-stimulating behaviors in children with PDD and
    mental retardation.
   Children were pre and post tested with the Sensory
    Integration Inventory Revised for Individuals with
    Developmental Disabilities.
   The study took place over four weeks. During week
    one and three the children received table top
    activities such as sorting, puzzles, and peg boards.
    During week two and four the children received
    sensory integration intervention.
Results
   This study found that one hour after
    treatment with the sensory integration
    intervention self-stimulating and self-in
    injurious behaviors declined. After one week
    of table top activities the self-stimulating
    behaviors increased.
   Activities rich in vestibular, tactile and
    proprioceptive input were beneficial in
    reducing the maladaptive behaviors.

								
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