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					                                                                                                        Reducing emissions from domestic wood combustion



Wood heater installation                                              ‘Change-out’ programs
The installation of wood heaters is currently regulated under         Regulating the sale of wood heaters will have limited impact on
the Building Code of Australia (BCA). The BCA requires that wood      air quality in the short term, as it will not affect the use of open
heaters be installed in compliance with AS 2918. While this           fires and wood heaters currently installed. As discussed above,
standard relates mainly to safety rather than environmental           wood heaters typically have a life of 20 years before needing to
concerns, it does establish requirements relating to flue exits       be replaced, while open fires effectively last as long as the
and adherence to manufacturers’ specifications – including            building they are in.
installers not tampering with a heater’s emissions controls.
                                                                      ‘Change-out’ programs have been introduced in some areas of
In Victoria, building permits are not required for wood heater        the US and in countries such as Canada and Norway. The aim of
installation, as this is deemed to be non-structural work costing     these programs is to increase the rate of turnover of older wood
less than $5000 – the threshold for which building permits are        heaters and the replacement of open fires. The policy instruments
required. Where slow combustion heaters are installed into            applied in different places vary and include a combination of
existing fireplaces, structural work is often needed and a            financial incentives and/or regulations, coupled with community
building permit may be required, regardless of whether the            education programs. Some examples are given below.
$5000 threshold is reached.
                                                                      ∑
                                                                      •    In Oslo, subsidies of around $A700 are offered for wood
Anecdotal evidence suggests that, in the absence of needing to             heater changeovers.
comply with a building permit, some installers have been
removing emissions control equipment from wood heaters.               ∑
                                                                      •    In Crested Butte (Colorado, USA), residents were required to
Doing so allows slower burning, but results in higher emissions            replace their heaters within three years or face a financial
than when the control equipment is operational. Home owners,               penalty – this resulted in only 1% of residents replacing their
where they are aware of this, may agree to removal of the                  heaters and, consequently, further action was introduced in
emissions control equipment so that the heater can be left to              the form of further public education and the provision of
smoulder overnight. However, in doing so, they are likely to be            subsidies (up to $US800) for heater changeover, co-funded
unaware that insurance companies may not compensate them in                by the industry and USEPA. The end result was a significant
the event of a house fire, associated with a heater that has not           reduction in old heaters and emissions as well as a
been installed in compliance with the AS 2918.                             noticeable improvement in air quality.

Environment Australia is currently coordinating the                   ∑
                                                                      •    In Mammoth Lakes (California, USA), a program was
development of a national code of practice for wood heater                 introduced under which uncertified wood heaters and
installation. This is to be aimed primarily at installers, but will        open fires are required to be replaced or rendered
also provide advice to local government, manufacturers,                    inoperable when a house is sold – it is expected that
retailers and wood merchants.                                              within 15 years this would result in 90% of such heaters
                                                                           being out of action.
In addition to the way in which wood heaters are installed,
the installation of flues is important in terms of the impact         The need for a ‘change-out’ program in the Port Phillip region
on air quality in the vicinity of the flue. Although the height       will be considered in the context of the results of air shed
and location of a flue will not influence the level of emissions,     modelling to be undertaken later this year (see Chapter 10).
appropriate design has the potential to reduce nuisance smoke         Irrespective of the results of this modelling, wood smoke will
significantly. Queensland’s EPA has proposed that the BCA be          continue to be a significant issue in certain localities in the
amended, to take into account the height of surrounding               region. Action by local governments in these areas, to encourage
residences when installing a wood heater flue. Its                    the replacement of non-compliant wood heaters and open fires,
recommendation is that a flue outlet be at least one metre            may be an appropriate course of action.
above any structure within a 15 metre horizontal radius.




                                                                                                                                                       61
                                                                                                                       Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
Introduction



Open fireplaces                                                          Objective 2: Promoting practices which reduce
As discussed above, open fires are the most polluting, and               wood heater emission rates
least energy-efficient form of solid fuel heating. There are
no restrictions on open fireplaces being included in new or              Quality of fuel wood
renovated dwellings – data are not available on the extent               The moisture content of wood is a significant factor in
to which open fires are being installed in different parts of            influencing the efficiency of burning and, therefore, the
the Port Phillip region. The possibility of local governments            emission of pollutants from wood combustion – if efficiency
prohibiting the installation of new fireplaces in built-up areas         is low due to high moisture content, smoke is increased.
is an option that needs to be explored.
                                                                         Regulations governing the quality of fuel wood for sale are in
New or strengthened commitment                                           place in Western Australia. This requires that the maximum
                                                                         moisture content of firewood for sale is 20%. The Western
8-1 Emission limits                                                      Australian regulations also prohibit the sale of firewood that
    Wood heaters – both new and second-hand – sold in                    is painted, chemically treated or coated in plastic. The Bill
    Victoria, will be required to comply with the Australian             currently before State Parliament to amend the Environment
    Standard AS 4013 which sets maximum particle emission                Protection Act 1970 will enable regulation of the quality of
    limits. Victoria will support the progressive tightening of          firewood on sale in Victoria.
    this Standard.
                                                                         A code of practice, enforced through self-regulation by the
Proposals for further action                                             firewood industry, is an alternative approach to regulation.
                                                                         Such an approach is used in the ACT, where the maximum
8-2 Flue heights                                                         moisture content is specified as 20%.
    Advocate changes to the Building Code of Australia, so that
    flue heights take into account the relative heights of               A minor portion of the wood burnt in Victoria is collected
    surrounding residences.                                              directly by individuals or small operators from State forests
                                                                         (permits for firewood collection are sold by the Department
8-3 Correct installation                                                 of Natural Resources and Environment and are also available
    Work with the Plumbing Industry Commission and the                   through retail outlets). While it is likely that much of this wood
    Australian Home Heating Association to ensure that:                  would not be properly dried – a process that takes 12 months
                                                                         – it would not be possible to address this through regulation.
        ∑
        •       heaters are installed correctly and emissions controls   Information and education relating to the efficient operation of
                are not tampered with, and                               wood heaters is the most appropriate approach in this context.
        ∑
        •       consumers are made aware of possible insurance
                ramifications of incorrect installation.

8-4 Discouraging open fireplaces
    Encourage local government to introduce local laws to
    prevent the installation of open fireplaces in new or
    renovated dwellings in urban areas. Support this with
    community education on the environmental impacts of
    different heating systems.

8-5 Replacement of fireplaces and older heaters
    In densely populated urban areas where air quality impacts are
    high and there is significant community concern, encourage
    the introduction of local laws that require any non-compliant
    wood heaters and open fireplaces to be replaced, removed or
    rendered inoperable at the time of sale of a dwelling.




62
Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
                                                                                                                                          Introduction



Community education and support for local government                   Proposals for further action
To date, the primary approach to influencing the choice of wood        8-6 Firewood quality standards
heaters and their operation in Victoria has been through information       Require firewood sold in Victoria to conform to maximum
and education programs. These programs have a continued role to            moisture level and other quality standards.
play in supporting other actions discussed in this Chapter.
                                                                       8-7 Smog alert days
In Victoria, local government plays a significant enforcement              Seek media support to strengthen the profile of EPA’s
role in reducing ‘nuisance smoke’ from wood heaters, under the             announcements of smog alert days, including the message
nuisance provisions of the Health Act 1958 and through local               to reduce the use of non-compliant wood heaters and open
laws. EPA has developed a model local law to assist local                  fires, where alternative forms of heating are available, on
government in this role.                                                   days of poor air quality.

There is scope for EPA to increase its support for local government         Note that EPA is working with CSIRO, the Bureau of Mete-
through, for example, the development of an information and                 orology (BOM) and others to improve air quality forecasting
education kit. Such a kit could provide information on air quality          systems (see Action 10-14). One of the benefits of this work
and health issues relating to wood smoke, relevant legislation and          will be an improved basis for predicting smog alert days.
codes, EPA and council responsibilities, current programs and
options for local laws. Such an initiative would need to be            8-8 Community education
developed and pursued in a manner that complements existing                Enhance EPA’s community education program to encourage
State and local initiatives, and information and education                 correct operation of wood heaters. Printed material could
programs relating to wood heaters being pursued at the national            be made available:
level by the Commonwealth Government.
                                                                            •       at point of sale of heaters and fire wood
Voluntary curtailment during periods of high pollution potential            ∑
                                                                            •       from local government and EPA
                                                                            • ∑     from licensed plumbers who undertake installation, and
Smog alerts issued by EPA in winter suggest a range of actions                  •   where NRE fire wood collection permits are sold.
individuals can take to reduce emissions from their activities –
eg using alternative modes of transport to the car and refraining      8-9 Support for local government
from using open fires or wood heaters if alternatives are available.       Develop a communications strategy, including an
Media coverage of this latter aspect is quite patchy and, therefore,       information kit, to support local government in increasing
there is a significant challenge in increasing the effectiveness of        their effectiveness in:
this program in terms of influencing community behaviour.
                                                                            •       dealing with community concerns and resolving
                                                                                    conflicts regarding wood smoke
                                                                            •       preventing the burning of inappropriate fuels such
                                                                                    as household rubbish and treated timber
                                                                            •       increasing awareness of health effects of wood
                                                                                    smoke and local government, and
                                                                            •       responsibilities under the Health Act 1958.




                                                                                                                                                    63
                                                                                                                    Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
MANAGING EMISSIONS FROM OTHER SOURCES

                                     In addition to the major sources such as motor vehicles, wood combustion and
                                     industry, a variety of domestic, commercial and rural activities also contribute
                                     significantly to emissions of pollutants in the Port Phillip region. These sources
                                     typically are widely dispersed throughout the region and, consequently, are often
                                     referred to as 'diffuse' or ‘area-based' sources.

                                     9.1. Emissions profile




    9
                                     The ‘other’ sources for which emissions were estimated as
                                     part of the Port Phillip Air Emissions Inventory (EPA 1998) are listed below.

                                     Domestic and commercial fuel combustion
                                     •   Domestic and open space lawn mowing
                                     •   Barbecues
                                     •   Agricultural machinery
                                     •   Gaseous fuel combustion
                                     •   Liquid fuel combustion.

                                     Air, sea and rail transport
                                     •     Ships
                                     •     Boats (pleasure and commercial craft)
                                     •     Trains (diesel locomotives)
                                     •     Aircraft.

                                     Domestic and commercial VOC sources
                                     •   Surface coatings
                                     •   Domestic and commercial solvents and aerosols
                                     ∑
                                     •   Dry cleaning
                                       • Graphic arts and small printers
                                       • Service stations
                                       • Bitumen
                                       • Natural gas leakage
                                       • Landfill\.

                                     Forest fires
                                     •    ∑
                                          Controlled burning on public land for reasons including fire hazard reduction,
                                            silvicultural requirements and ecological management.
                                     •      Wild fires.

                                     Burning of waste
                                     •    Domestic waste burning.

                                     Ammonia sources
                                     •  Livestock
                                     •  Pets and humans
                                     •  Fertilisers and crops.


                                     Emissions estimates for these sources are based on data derived from a range of
                                     sources, including the results of a household domestic survey, and product sales and
                                     consumption data.




64
Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Managing emissions from other sources




Figures 9.1–9.4 indicate that a number of these other sources                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       *             Open space lawn mowing and other maintenance by
contribute significantly to total emissions of VOCs, NOx, CO and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  councils, private golf clubs, Parks Victoria and VicRoads.
particles (PM10) in the Port Phillip region.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The activities of councils and golf clubs are particularly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  significant – in the case of particles and NOx, emissions
As discussed in Section 4.3, a 1% contribution to total emissions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 from these sources exceed those from domestic mowing.
has been adopted as the threshold for determining whether an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The relatively high NOx emissions from open space
individual source is sufficiently significant to be targeted for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  maintenance reflect the use of four-stroke mowers; the
action as part of the AQIP. The following sources meet this                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       relatively high emissions of particles reflect the use of
threshold for the pollutants indicated.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           diesel-powered tractors.

•                 Solvents and aerosols (VOCs)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Emissions of particles from fugitive sources – in particular, re-
•                 Surface coatings (VOCs)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           entrained road dust, construction and demolition, and
•                 Service stations (VOCs)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           agricultural tillage – cannot be estimated with any degree of
•                 Gas leakage (VOCs)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                confidence and, therefore, are not included in the data presented
•                 Barbecues (VOCs, PM10)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            here. Nonetheless, studies overseas suggest that their contribution
∑
•                 Domestic and open space lawn mowing* (VOCs, PM10,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 to airshed emissions may be significant – consequently this
                  NOx, CO)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Chapter identifies actions that may be taken to improve
∑
•                 Ships (NOx, PM10)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 information and reduce emissions relating to these sources.
  •               Gas combustion (NOx, PM10)
  •               Liquid fuel (mostly LPG) combustion (NOx)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Chapter 4 noted that SO2 is not a priority pollutant for
• ∑               Forest fires (PM10)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               management in the Port Phillip region. It is worth noting that
    •             Aircraft (NOx)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ships contribute 19% of total airshed emissions of SO2 – actions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    in this Chapter relating to shipping also address opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    to reduce emissions of SO2.


        Figures 9.1 - Percentage contributions from ‘other sources’ to total emissions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Figures 9.2 - Percentage contributions from ‘other sources’ to total emissions
        of VOCs                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         of NOx
             6                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               5

             5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             4

             4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             3
        %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        %




             3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2
             2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1
              1

             0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0
                                                                solvents & aerosols




                                                                                                                                                                                       service stations
                  trains
                              aircraft
                                          boats
                                                    ships


                                                                                      surface coatings
                                                                                                         dry cleaning


                                                                                                                                                           bitumen


                                                                                                                                                                                                             gas leakage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           gas combustion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   liquid fuel combustion




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            domestic waste burning




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      domestic waste burning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            barbecues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     lawn mowing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   agricultural machinery


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     landfill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     forest fires




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   trains


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            aircraft

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       boats


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ships

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       gas combustion


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        liquid fuel combustion

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 barbecues


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             lawn mowing


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             agricultural machinery




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               forest fires
                                                                                                                                   graphic arts/printers




        Figures 9.3 - Percentage contributions from ‘other sources’ to total emissions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Figures 9.4 - Percentage contributions from ‘other sources’ to total emissions
        of CO                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of PM10
            3.0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             3.0

            2.5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2.5

            2.0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2.0
        %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        %




            1.5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1.5

            1.0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1.0

         0.5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0.5

         0.0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0.0
                     trains

                                         aircraft

                                                        boats

                                                                                       ships

                                                                                                                        gas combustion

                                                                                                                                                              liquid fuel combustion




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   domestic waste burning
                                                                                                                                                                                                          barbecues

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     lawn mowing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            agricultural machinery




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      landfill

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                forest fires




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   trains


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            aircraft

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       boats


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ships

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       gas combustion


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        liquid fuel combustion

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 barbecues


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             lawn mowing


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             agricultural machinery


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      domestic waste burning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               forest fires




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           65
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
Managing emissions from other sources



9.2. Likely future emissions                                                                               9.3. Current and proposed actions
Emissions projections under a ‘business as usual’ scenario have                                            Actions to reduce emissions from other sources are discussed
been estimated for all sources listed above, except for forest fires.                                      under the following six broad objectives.
Figures 9.5–9.8 present projections of VOCs, NOx, CO and PM10
emissions for two broad groups of other sources: ‘fuel and waste                                           1.             Promoting cleaner and more efficient fuel combustion.
combustion’, and ‘air, sea and rail transport’. For VOCs, projections
are also presented for domestic and commercial sources.                                                    2.             Reducing VOC emissions.

Emissions of each of the pollutants are projected to increase.                                             3.             Reducing emissions from ships and aircraft.
The increase in VOCs emissions is dominated by the expected
growth in domestic and commercial sources; growth in NOx is                                                4.             Minimising the impact of prescribed burning on air quality.
mainly influenced by the expected strong growth in air transport
and shipping; while CO and PM10 are influenced by the expected                                             5.             Reducing emissions from the burning of waste.
growth in a range of combustion and transport sources.
                                                                                                           6.             Reducing particle emissions from diffuse sources.


 Figures 9.5 - Percentage of VOC emissions from ‘other sources’                                             Figures 9.6 - Percentage of NOx emissions from ‘other sources’

        45000
                                                                                                                        20000
        40000
                                                                                                                        18000
        35000
                                                                                                                        16000
        30000                                                                                                           14000
 t/yr




        25000                                                                                                           12000
                                                                                                                t/yr




        20000                                                                                                           10000
        15000                                                                                                            8000
        10000                                                                                                            6000

         5000                                                                                                            4000

            0                                                                                                            2000
                   1995                     2005               2015                     2025                                0
                                                                                                                                  1995                      2005                2015               2025
                          Air, sea and rail transport                 Fuel and waste combustion
                                                                                                                                         Total emissions from other sources             Fuel and waste combustion
                          Domestic and commercial                     Total emissions from other sources
                                                                                                                                         Air, sea and rail transport




 Figures 9.7 - Percentage of CO emissions from ‘other sources’                                              Figures 9.8 - Percentage of PM10 emissions from ‘other sources’

        40000
                                                                                                                   3000
        36000
        32000                                                                                                          2500
        28000
                                                                                                                   2000
        24000
 t/yr




                                                                                                            t/yr




        20000
                                                                                                                       1500
        16000
        12000                                                                                                          1000
        8000
                                                                                                                       500
         4000
           0                                                                                                             0
                   1995                     2005               2015                     2025                                    1995                     2005                 2015              2025

                          Total emissions from other sources                  Fuel and waste combustion                                Total emissions from other sources              Fuel and waste combustion
                           Air, sea and rail transport                                                                                 Air, sea and rail transport




66
Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
                                                                                                              Managing emissions from other sources



Objective 1: Promoting cleaner and more                              Community education programs employed overseas, in relation
efficient fuel combustion                                            to mowers and their use, focus on: the avoidance of fuel spills;
                                                                     mower maintenance; reducing mowing time by preparing lawns
Domestic and commercial fuel combustion                              prior to mowing (eg removing obstacles); promoting the use of
Programs to improve the energy efficiency of appliances and          electric and push mowers, or four-strokes in preference to two-
equipment will generally also result in reductions of emissions      strokes; and reducing the need to mow (less fertilisation,
to air – eg reductions in gas combustion due to energy               reduced lawn area, slower growing grasses).
efficiency improvements will reduce emissions of NOx.
                                                                     Barbecues
Victoria’s Sustainable Energy Authority (SEA) is pursuing a range
of programs to drive energy efficiency improvements across           Both wood and solid barbecue fuels are widely used in the Port
government and in the domestic, commercial and industrial            Phillip region. Both give rise to particle emissions and VOCs. The
sectors. The SEA is also responsible for promoting the application   use of fire lighting substances adds to emissions of VOCs.
of renewable energy (eg wind and solar power). The Government
is also developing a Victorian Greenhouse Strategy for which         Attempts to restrict the use of domestic barbecues in the US
programs to improve energy efficiency will be a key element.         have proved unpopular. Information and education programs
                                                                     provide the most practicable approach to seeking to reduce
New technologies offer the potential to reduce emissions             emissions from barbecues.
from fuel combustion. However, in reducing emissions of one
pollutant, the new technologies may result in an increase in         \New or strengthened commitment
emissions of other pollutants. For example, low-NOx burners
will reduce NOx emissions but also have the effect of increasing     9-1 Energy efficiency and air quality
CO emissions. The fitting of pollution control technology – such         In developing and implementing programs to promote
as low-NOx burners in gas water heaters – could potentially              energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions,
increase energy use (and hence greenhouse gas emissions)                 the SEA will take into account impacts on air quality.
unless appropriately designed.
Lawn mowers                                                          Proposals for further action
Strategies adopted overseas (primarily in the US) to reduce lawn     9-2 Low-NOx burner technology
mower emissions include the adoption of emissions standards              Advocate the development of an Australian Standard and a
for lawn mower engines, buy-back schemes for old mowers and              rating and labelling scheme for domestic gas appliances that
information and education programs. The choice between two-              incorporates low-NOx burner technology in heating and hot
stroke and four-stroke mowers involves a trade-off between               water systems – without sacrificing energy efficiency, or
minimising emissions of particles, CO and VOCs (two-strokes              significantly increasing emissions of other pollutants.
produce higher emissions); and minimising emissions of NOx
(four-strokes produce higher emissions). On balance,                 9-3 Community education
considering the relative contributions of these pollutants from          Conduct an education program, in partnership with local
lawn mowers, current four-stroke mowers would appear to have             government, to change community behaviour in relation to:
a lower air quality impact in the Port Phillip region. New two-
stroke technology, however, could offer significant emissions             •      domestic lawn mowing – encouraging appropriate
reductions, even over current four-stroke mowers.                                choice of mowers, good maintenance, avoidance of
                                                                                 fuel spills, reduced mowing time, and
Regulations or standards governing lawn mower engines do                  ∑
                                                                          •      barbecues – promoting operating practices and the
not exist in Australia. However, most four-stroke engines are                    choice of barbecues which reduce emissions.
imported with US standards certification and there would not
seem to be a pressing need to establish an Australian Standard       9-4 Lawn mower engines
for such mowers. Two-stroke engines assembled locally are                Explore options in national fora (eg ANZECC, Air Managers’
unlikely to meet US standards. Consequently, it may be desirable         Forum) for introducing Australian Standards and
to consider the emissions performance of two-stroke mowers,              regulations relating to lawn mower engine emissions.
with a view to determining whether regulation is justified. This
would most practically be pursued at the national level, through
the development of an Australian Standard and formal
recognition of the standard by jurisdictions.




                                                                                                                                                 67
                                                                                                                 Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
Managing emissions from other sources



Objective 2: Reducing VOC emissions                                  New or strengthened commitment
                                                                     9-5 Service stations
Service stations                                                     Require the implementation of Stage I vapour recovery systems
Stage I vapour recovery controls, involving the return of            within the metropolitan area. Jointly monitor the development
vapours displaced from underground tanks to delivery trucks,         of Stage II vapour control technology with the oil industry to
are in place at service stations for the major part of the           evaluate the potential net benefits of its introduction.
metropolitan area, and for all service stations with tank
capacities in excess of 10, 000 litres. Although EPA regulations     Proposal for further action
requiring these controls have sunsetted, vapour recovery is
now common practice and the subject of an industry code of           Action 7-10 promotes product stewardship with respect to
practice. The code, however, specifies the use of Stage I vapour     solvents – this Action is reproduced below.
recovery only when required by a regulatory authority.
                                                                     7-10 Promoting product stewardship with respect to solvents
Stage II vapour recovery systems, which involve vapours                   EPA will work with industrial end-users and the
displaced from vehicle fuel tanks during refuelling being                 producers/distributors of solvents used in households,
transferred to underground storage tanks, are being introduced            commerce and industry, with a view to developing product
in some parts of the US. An alternative to using Stage II vapour          stewardship programs aimed at reducing the emissions
controls, which achieves a similar result, is on-board refuelling         arising from the use of solvents.
vapour recovery included on vehicles, rather than as part of
service station equipment.                                                   \Approaches to be considered might include:

Natural gas distribution systems                                             •     adoption of voluntary VOC content targets
                                                                             ∑
                                                                             •     development of lower VOC products, and
In the Port Phillip region, most gas leaks occur from the low                  •   development and/or use of alternatives to VOCs ,
pressure distribution network rather than from the high                            where possible.
pressure transmission and distribution system. The rate of
leakage varies with the age of the pipes – leaks from newer          Objective 3: Reducing emissions from ships
pipes made of synthetic materials are negligible.                    and aircraft
Regular maintenance and progressive upgrading of old and leaky       Ships
pipes is the only effective means of reducing leakages. Gas
distribution companies in the Port Phillip region are bound by       An annex to an international convention on shipping is designed
the Gas System Distribution Code, overseen by the Office of the      to limit the sulfur content of fuels (and, hence, SO2 emissions)
Regulator General. This requires annual maintenance programs         and NOx emissions. Australia is a signatory to the convention,
and stipulates maximum allowable losses – ranging from 2.1% to       but the Annex is yet to come into force; when it does, it will
2.7% – as a result of leakage and other unaccounted-for gas.         not be binding. Victoria participates in national fora where
                                                                     these issues are discussed.
Domestic and commercial solvent-based products
                                                                      National standards and regulations regarding emissions from
A wide range of solvent-based products are used by households        ships could be developed and implemented. However, they
and the commercial sector. These include cleaning, personal care     could only realistically be applied to new ships operating from
and auto products, dry cleaning solvents, surface coatings and       Australian ports (such as the Tasmanian ferries).
printing inks. Possible strategies to reduce emissions include the
reformulation of products to reduce VOC content, encouraging         The Environment Protection Act 1970 provides powers to require
the use of non-solvent-based products, and capturing or              pollution abatement from smoky ships on a case by case basis.
recycling of solvents. The VOC content of certain products is
regulated in some parts of Europe and North America. The             Aircraft
regulation of solvent-based products is both complex and
difficult due to the huge range of products, many of which           Small planes, using aviation gasoline, emit relatively more CO and
are imported. It would also require a national approach.             VOCs, while larger passenger jets, using jet fuel, emit relatively
                                                                     more NOx. The latter is the only pollutant reaching 1% of total
The development of codes of practice and the promotion of            emissions in the Port Phillip region. Emerging technologies have
product stewardship are potential means of tackling this issue. In   the potential to reduce emissions significantly, although current
Victoria, the Dry-cleaning Institute, in conjunction with EPA, has   projections indicate a continuing strong growth in NOx emissions
developed a code of practice to minimise occupational exposure       from jet aircraft.
to solvents used in dry-cleaning. EPA has also developed a code
of practice for Flexographic Printers which applies to relatively    Aircraft exhaust emissions are controlled nationally through
large printers with an EPA licence – many smaller printers are,      regulations that require compliance with an international
however, striving to implement the cleaner production                convention, an annex to which covers engine emissions.
techniques set out in the code.

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                                                                                                                Managing emissions from other sources



New or strengthened commitment                                         Privately owned plantations are increasing in number across
9-6 Smoky ships                                                        Victoria – these are sometimes burnt following harvesting – a
    EPA will increase its activity, in cooperation with port           practice which is often carried out for convenience. Avoidance
    authorities, to take action in relation to ships which             of this practice would reduce the potential for adverse impacts
    emit excessive smoke.                                              on air quality and have additional environmental benefits such
                                                                       as reducing soil nutrient loss.
Proposal for further action
                                                                       New or strengthened commitments
9-7 Emissions standards for ships
    Advocate the development of national emissions standards           9-8 Prescribed burning on public land
    – applicable to SO2, NOx and particles – to apply to new               The impacts of prescribed burning on public land will be
    ships operating out of Australian ports.                               reduced by:

                                                                            •    continued cooperation between NRE and the Bureau of
Objective 4: Minimising the impact of prescribed                                 Meteorology in the further development of the current
burning on air quality                                                           smoke trajectory model to better assist in the planning
                                                                                 of prescribed burns, and to provide better smoke-
                                                                                 related advice to the community during bushfires
Prescribed burning
                                                                            •    enhancing air quality forecasting capability
Topography, vegetation and climate combine, in south-eastern                ∑
                                                                            •    increasing air quality monitoring during prescribed
Australia, to produce one of the most severe bushfire prone                      burns to assist validation of the smoke trajectory model
areas on earth. Nationally, in the past 100 years, it has been              •    continued liaison between NRE and EPA in relation to
estimated that over two-thirds of all bushfire-related deaths and                the identification of days of likely high pollution
over half of all significant bushfire associated property losses                 potential during the prescribed burning and bushfire
have occurred in Victoria. Paradoxically, fire also plays an                     seasons, and
integral part in the maintenance of the health of many of our               •    ensuring better communication with the public by
native ecosystems. Addressing fire issues therefore plays a key                  seeking greater cooperation from the media in the
part in the management of the third of Victoria that comprises                   provision of advance notice of prescribed burn times
parks and forests.                                                               and locations – to enable people who may be
                                                                                 sensitive to smoke to take precautionary action.
Prescribed burning occurs on both public and private land
within the Port Phillip region for a range of purposes: fire           Proposal for further action
hazard reduction; silvicultural requirements (eg facilitating
regeneration following logging); ecological management; and            9-9 Burning on private land
as part of farm management practices for agricultural cropping.            Develop guidelines or a code of practice – modelled on the
While important for these purposes, the impacts of such burning            NRE Code of Practice for Fire Management on Public Land –
on air quality can be significant in the areas surrounding the             to promote improved practices with respect to burning on
burns and, occasionally, on a wider regional scale.                        private land. This would define the situations in which
                                                                           prescribed burning is appropriate or where alternative
Prescribed burning on public land managed by the Department                management practices might be implemented. It would also
of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE) is subject to liaison           set out the conditions under which burning should occur,
arrangements between NRE and EPA. The purpose of these                     if alternatives are not practicable. The code would be
arrangements is to avoid burning on days of high pollution                 developed in partnership with key groups such as local
potential. NRE has also published a Code of Practice for Fire              government, the CFA, and farming and forestry peak bodies.
Management on Public Land, and is developing sophisticated
smoke modelling techniques in cooperation with the Bureau of
Meteorology to enable forecasts to be made of the air quality
impacts of proposed burns. These forecasts will assist in
improving the planning of prescribed burns.

Other bodies undertaking prescribed burning, such as local
government, sometimes seek EPA’s advice prior to doing so and
alter their plans if air quality is likely to be adversely affected.
The CFA has a role in declaring a fire danger period each year
and issuing permits for burns on private land to reduce the
potential hazard during such periods.




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Managing emissions from other sources



Objective 5: Reducing emissions from the                                 Tools that could be applied to achieve this outcome
burning of waste                                                         include: EPA regulations, local government laws; planning
In the Port Phillip region, domestic waste burning is now a far          scheme provisions; and increased EPA or local government
less significant source of emissions than it was in earlier              enforcement activity. The extent of the defined area would
decades. Local governments have banned such burning in much              be expected to reflect a balance between local and
of the built-up area of the region. Municipalities located on the        regional air quality impacts, the practicalities of alterations
urban fringe and rural hinterland generally permit some                  to burning and the level of local community support.
burning, particularly on larger properties outside towns. The
demand for burning off in these areas is driven by fire hazard      Objective 6: Reducing particle emissions from
reduction needs and lack of waste collection services.
                                                                    diffuse sources
A small number of councils with significant built-up areas in the
outer parts of the metropolitan area do allow waste incineration    Re-entrained road dust
on small properties, albeit with a permit or during restricted      Although the level of emissions is difficult to estimate, re-
times. These include Frankston, Greater Geelong, Mornington         entrained road dust is likely to be a significant contributor to
Peninsula, Nillumbik and Wyndham. The extent to which these         particle emissions. This is particularly the case for unsealed
councils take account of air quality forecasts as part of their     roads, which are predominantly located in the outer areas of
permit systems is not known.                                        the Port Phillip region.

EPA has worked with local government to prevent commercial          The paving of unsealed roads is clearly the best method of
waste incineration – many councils ban this activity in the         reducing particle emissions and would also reduce sedimentation
absence of an EPA licence. However, some commercial                 of waterways. The cost of paving all such roads would be
incineration may still be occurring illegally in the Port           prohibitive. Other methods of reducing emissions, such as
Phillip region.                                                     watering, chemical stabilisation and surface improvements,
                                                                    could be employed where it is practicable to do so.
Open burning ‘for convenience’ – such as the burning of
vegetation on sites being prepared for development – is             Construction and demolition
controlled by local government. EPA has strongly discouraged
convenience burning for many years. Melbourne Water has a           Construction and demolition activities are a source of dust
program of burning the remains of willows following their           emissions that can impact substantially on local air quality. Ways
removal from stream banks – this is done to minimise the            of minimising such emissions include stabilisation of disturbed
possibility of regeneration. EPA is working with Melbourne          soil, arranging the scheduling of activities to limit the potential
Water to set stringent conditions on this activity.                 for dust generation, erecting wind fences and watering. Such
                                                                    approaches are set out in EPA’s Environmental Guidelines for
Liaison systems between EPA, local government and other             Major Construction Sites (EPA Publication 480 1995).
agencies who undertake or can influence the extent of waste
burning, need to be formalised and new regulations are likely to    Proposals for further action
be needed to eliminate waste burning, wherever practicable,
within the Port Phillip airshed.                                    9-11 Re-entrained road dust
                                                                         Investigate the impacts of re-entrained road dust and
Proposal for further discussion                                          liaise with agencies and organisations responsible for the
                                                                         construction and maintenance of roads, to ensure that
9-10 Burning of waste                                                    this issue is addressed to the extent practicable.
     The SEPP (AQM) will provide a mechanism to define
     an area or areas within the Port Phillip region within         9-12 Construction and demolition
     which the burning of solid waste will be required to be             Work with local government and the construction and
     eliminated except with specific EPA approval, covering:             demolition industry to reduce particle emissions from
                                                                         construction and demolition activity, by:
        •       all domestic waste
        •       commercial and industrial waste materials                •    reviewing and refining relevant planning permit
        •       vegetation removed from land being prepared for               conditions
                urban development                                        •
                                                                         ∑    reviewing EPA’s Environmental Guidelines for
        •
        ∑       vegetation cleared from land being prepared for               Major Construction Sites to ensure improved dust
                agricultural development, and                                 control, and
        •       weeds removed from stream banks.                         •    using enforcement powers where necessary.




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KNOWLEDGE AS THE BASIS FOR ACTION
                Actions to improve air quality must be based on a good understanding of the factors
                that affect it. The aims of the AQIP include:

                •    redefining the tools and mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating the success of
                     actions to improve air quality in the region, as a means of determining the need
                     to refocus and/or enhance these over time, and

                •    reinvigorating the processes for educating and keeping the community informed




10
                     of air quality issues in the region.

                This chapter sets out the issues and actions for pursuing these aims. It does so under
                five objectives related to the enhancement of our understanding of air quality.

                1.   Enhancing monitoring.

                2.   Maintaining and improving emissions inventories.

                3.   Enhancing modelling.

                4.   Understanding air pollutants and their impacts.

                5.   Communicating air quality issues.

                10.1. Current and Proposed Actions

                Objective 1: Enhancing monitoring
                EPA has been monitoring air quality in the Port Phillip region for 25 years. Ambient
                monitoring has primarily focused on the common pollutants – ozone, CO, NOx, SO2,
                particles and lead. Short-term monitoring of some HAPs has also been carried out –
                refer to Section 3.2 for details of relevant reports.

                Monitoring aims
                The aims of EPA’s ambient air quality monitoring program are to:

                •    measure and report on air quality to the community

                •    collect information for studies on pollutants and their impacts on human health
                     and the environment

                •    meet Victoria’s legal obligations for air quality monitoring and reporting under
                     the Air NEPM, and

                ∑
                •    validate the results of air quality modelling and improve the capacity to predict
                     local and regional air quality in areas away from monitoring stations.

                EPA is currently developing a new monitoring plan to meet these aims. The plan will
                also provide for an expansion of the fixed site monitoring network, to provide an
                extended coverage of monitoring in outer suburban regions.




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IKnowledge as the basis for action



Mobile monitoring                                                     New or strengthened commitments
EPA’s monitoring program is being broadened through the               10-1 New monitoring station
establishment of a mobile monitoring facility – MoLab. This                Establish a new monitoring station in the outer eastern
facility will provide increased capacity for monitoring air quality        suburbs to provide fixed site monitoring that is
at locations away from fixed site monitoring stations – including          representative of areas beyond Box Hill.
at ‘hot spots’ such as roadsides and near particular industrial
sources.                                                              10-2 Mobile monitoring
                                                                           Establish MoLab to measure pollutant levels at possible
Air quality estimation between fixed sites                                 ‘hotspots’ near busy roads and near industrial sites that are
                                                                           potentially high emitters of common pollutants and HAPs.
Even with a mobile monitoring facility, ambient air quality                This information also will be used to:
monitoring can only feasibly be carried out at a limited number
of sites. Air quality modelling, using emissions inventory data            ∑
                                                                           •    complement data provided by the fixed monitoring
and sophisticated computer models, can be used to estimate air                  network, and
pollutant concentrations in specific locations not covered by              ∑
                                                                           •    help validate the air quality forecasting system.
monitoring stations. The outputs of this modelling are validated
by reference to pollution recordings for the ambient air quality      10-3 Community monitoring
monitoring network.                                                        Expand the CAAM program to all fixed monitoring stations
                                                                           in the Port Phillip region. The data from these stations will
Community-based air quality monitoring                                     be relayed to computers to be set up in Council offices for
                                                                           public viewing.
The community is playing a greater role in air quality
monitoring through the Community Access to Air Monitoring             10-4 Sharing data
program (CAAM). Volunteer members of the community are                      EPA will work with other government agencies to ensure
trained to oversee the operation of EPA’s air quality monitoring            the sharing of air quality monitoring data collected by
stations. As a result, the volunteers become well informed on               different agencies. Cooperative arrangements with other
air quality issues and share their understanding of the issues              States, particularly in the monitoring of HAPs and sharing
with the broader community and schools. Following a pilot                   of data, will also be pursued.
program, involving two air monitoring stations and about 40
volunteers, CAAM is being extended to other stations in the           Objective 2: Maintaining and improving
monitoring network.
                                                                      emissions inventories
Data sharing                                                          Emissions inventories provide essential information for the
                                                                      management of air quality. They provide:
Establishing air monitoring stations and collecting data is
expensive – sharing data collected by different agencies avoids       ∑
                                                                      •    estimates of emissions of pollutants and the relative
duplication and increases the total amount of information                  contributions of different sources (eg see Figure 2.2 in
available. EPA currently has data sharing agreements in place              Chapter 2)
with CSIRO Atmospheric Research, the Bureau of Meteorology
and VicRoads.                                                         ∑
                                                                      •    a starting point for developing emissions projections

.                                                                     •    a key input to the modelling of current air quality and of
                                                                           future air quality scenarios based on projected emissions

                                                                      ∑
                                                                      •    information that can assist in framing actions to improve
                                                                           air quality, and

                                                                      •    a basis for assessing emissions trends – provided that
                                                                           methodologies and data sources are consistent between
                                                                           inventories.




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                                                                                                                 Knowledge as the basis for action



Improvements in the Port Phillip Emissions Inventory                New or strengthened commitments
Emissions inventories are a dynamic tool – they need to be          10-5 Updating the Port Phillip Emissions Inventory
updated as new data or methods become available. They also               Update the Port Phillip inventory regularly. The NPI
need to be updated to reflect changes in emissions levels over           process will provide annual updates of emissions from
time due to, for example, population and economic growth,                major industrial premises – to avoid duplication, industry
changes in the structure of the economy and increases in the             surveys conducted for the Port Phillip inventory will be
level of motor vehicle use.                                              integrated with NPI reporting as far as practicable.

The latest Port Phillip region inventory (1995/96) represented a    10-6 Improving the Port Phillip Inventory
significant step forward from previous inventories – in terms of         Improve the quality of data used in the Port Phillip
the range of sources covered, the inclusion of many HAPs, the            inventory by the following means.
involvement of industry in emissions estimation, the use of a
domestic survey designed to reflect sub-regional differences,       ∑
                                                                    •    Establish up-to-date emissions factors for motor vehicles by:
and the use of GIS software. However, inventories are only as
good as the data on which they are based. Research is needed             –    advocating the establishment of a national vehicle
to improve the Port Phillip inventory, particularly for sources               testing capacity and an ongoing program for
for which relevant data is deficient or lacking – such as                     emissions testing of new and in-service light and
biogenic emissions from vegetation and fugitive particle                      heavy duty petrol and diesel vehicles, and
sources such as re-entrained road dust.                                  –    using City Link data on vehicle flows and fleet
                                                                              characteristics in conjunction with vent stack
Improved information relating to emission rates from in-                      emissions information, to provide estimates of
service vehicles would also improve the data available for                    emissions factors for vehicles operating under
the inventory. Data relating to travel through the City Link                  different traffic conditions (to be conducted in
tunnels and emissions from the tunnels’ vent stacks provide an                partnership with VicRoads and CSIRO).
opportunity to obtain such improved information. Vent stack
monitoring data, in conjunction with information on the mix of      •    Review current data on biogenic emissions relevant to
vehicles (and their speeds) using the tunnels, could be used to          Victoria and investigate possible cooperative research with
calculate vehicle emissions factors. These calculations would            other States and CSIRO.
provide a useful validation of emissions factors derived by
normal ‘bottom-up’ inventory techniques and could potentially       ∑
                                                                    •    Check the applicability of existing methods, and identify
provide improved emission factors for vehicle types, such as             data requirements, for the measurement of particle
heavy duty diesels, for which little emissions testing has been          emissions associated with diffuse sources – including re-
done in Australia.                                                       entrained road dust, construction and demolition, industrial
                                                                         and agricultural activities.
The National Pollutant Inventory (NPI) process will also improve
emissions estimation. The NPI, established via a National           10-7 National Pollutant Inventory
Environment Protection Measure (NEPM), is being implemented              Continue to support the development and enhancement
by the Commonwealth in cooperation with States and Territories.          of the NPI, including:
It provides nationally consistent information on emissions to the
air, as well as discharges to water and land. Emissions data from   •    expansion over time of the list of substances reported
industrial premises are updated annually by a survey of industry.
There is considerable scope to enhance the value of the NPI, by     ∑
                                                                    •    transparency of methodologies and documentation so that
increasing the number of substances reported by industry and by          trends can be sensibly interpreted, and
including, as part of reports to the community, additional
information such as ambient air quality monitoring data so that     ∑
                                                                    •    provision of contextual information, such as estimated
the community gains a better understanding of the air quality            ground level pollutant concentrations and air quality
implications of the recorded emissions.                                  objectives applicable in Victoria, to facilitate community
                                                                         understanding and interpretation of NPI data.




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Knowledge as the basis for action



Objective 3: Enhancing modelling                                      New or strengthened commitments
Air quality modelling is used to generate estimates of the            10-8 Scenario modelling
atmospheric concentration of air pollutants. The inputs used               Enhance airshed modelling capabilities, to predict the
in the modelling include emissions data (eg from emissions                 consequences of alternative emissions scenarios within the
inventories), meteorological data and atmospheric chemistry.               Port Phillip region more effectively. This will include:
The modelling simulates the dispersion and chemical reactions
of pollutants released into the atmosphere.                           ∑
                                                                      •    modelling HAPs over an entire year as well as shorter
                                                                           averaging times
Air quality modelling can be carried out at different levels
as discussed below.                                                   •    exploring the likely contribution of secondary particle
                                                                           formation to total particle loads, and the relative importance
Airshed modelling                                                          of precursors (such as SO2, NOx and ammonia), and

Regional airshed modelling focuses on broad-scale meteorology         ∑
                                                                      •    estimating atmospheric nitrogen inputs to Port Phillip Bay
and photochemistry, to estimate the levels of both primary and             – through direct deposition to the Bay and indirect input
secondary pollutants across an airshed. Data from fixed                    via runoff in the catchment – to support the analysis of
monitoring is used to validate the modelling.                              nutrient load management strategies for the Bay.

Airshed modelling being carried out as part of the AQIP will be       10-9 Exposure assessment
particularly important in characterising ozone formation and the           Enhance our understanding of community exposure to
relative importance of NOx and VOCs in this process. Modelling             pollutants by extending modelling of the Port Phillip
will also be useful in assessing the significance of secondary             airshed to incorporate the assessment of human exposure
particle formation, the likely levels of a range of HAPs in the            to pollutants – existing cooperative arrangements with
atmosphere and the amount of nitrogen deposited from the                   CSIRO will be extended.
atmosphere to Port Phillip Bay.
                                                                      10-10 Emissions dispersion models
Modelling will also enable the testing of different scenarios               Update the AUSPLUME and AUSPUFF emissions dispersion
associated with:                                                            models and develop a guideline under the SEPP (AQM) that
                                                                            identifies a suite of models suitable for modelling
•       the potential reduction in emissions due to actions                 emissions from point, area and line sources.
        proposed as part of the draft AQIP, and
                                                                      Objective 4: Understanding air pollutants and
•       the likely air quality impacts of alternative urban
        development strategies for Melbourne.
                                                                      their impacts
                                                                      EPA has been conducting air quality research for many years.
The results of airshed modelling can be coupled with population       This has often been carried out in cooperation with research
data to estimate the number of people exposed to pollutants           organisations such as CSIRO, universities and other States. The
above a certain level.                                                main subjects of this research are:

Modelling local air quality                                           ∑
                                                                      •    characterisation of pollutants – their nature, emissions,
                                                                           dispersion and atmospheric chemistry, and
Modelling can be used to assess air quality issues at a local level
– for example, when new sources of emissions are proposed,            ∑
                                                                      •    exploration of the impacts of air pollutants on human
such as industrial premises or a major road. EPA has two                   health and the environment.
models, AUSPLUME and AUSPUFF, that are used for modelling
emissions from point sources. Models are also available to            A recent example of research, undertaken in cooperation
assess the impacts on local air quality in the vicinity of            with CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, involved the
sources such as roads.                                                measurement of motor vehicle emissions on arterial roads
                                                                      in Melbourne during peak times. This followed similar
                                                                      measurements conducted in 1983 and 1990, and conclusively
                                                                      showed the significant improvement in levels of air pollutants
                                                                      such as benzene, toluene, CO and NOx due to improvements
                                                                      in motor vehicle emissions control technologies.




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Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
Knowledge as the basis for action                                                                                                          Introduction



Research priorities                                                      Proposal for further action
Priorities for research include:                                         10-13 Particle research
                                                                               Conduct research into the size and chemical characteristics
∑
•       collection and analysis of monitoring data to provide                  of particles, in order to gain an improved understanding of
        information for the review of the SO2 and fine particles               their sources and spatial and temporal distribution.
        standards of the NEPM (Ambient Air Quality)
                                                                         Objective 5: Communicating air quality issues
∑
•       research and data collection and analysis, required in
        relation to HAPs in preparation for the possible                 It is important to ensure the effective communication of air
        development of a NEPM on these pollutants                        quality issues. Such communication is a prerequisite for:

∑
•       research into the effects of pollution on human health           •    improving awareness and knowledge among key
        – as discussed in Chapter 4, research conducted by EPA                stakeholders and the broader community of air
        indicates a discernible link between air pollution in                 quality issues and actions that can be taken to
        Melbourne and increases in daily mortality and hospital               improve air quality
        admissions – it is important to continue such research to
        enhance our understanding of these effects, and                  •    stimulating debate and obtaining feedback on air quality
                                                                              issues, including new ideas on what could be done – in
•       in-vehicle pollution exposure – past research by EPA has              this context, it is important that there be a two-way flow
        compared the exposure of commuters using different                    of information, and
        transport modes to various organic pollutants, with results
        indicating that those travelling in cars are exposed to higher   •    raising awareness of air quality issues.
        pollution levels than commuters using bicycles, trams or
        walking – further work is underway involving measurements        It is important that the community be aware of air quality in the
        of concentrations inside cars compared with trains.              Port Phillip region, and of actions that can be taken to improve
                                                                         air quality. In 1998, EPA developed the Air Pollution Index,
New or strengthened commitments                                          designed to convey information on current air quality to the
                                                                         public via the media and EPA’s web site. In addition to having
10-11 Air pollution and health studies                                   information available on general levels of air quality and past
      EPA is working with universities and State health and              trends, the community is interested in knowing what air quality
      environment agencies to investigate the impacts on                 is likely to be in the future. Short-term forecasts of air quality
      community health of air pollution in urban areas, including        are of particular value to those with health conditions that
      the Port Phillip region. A mortality study has been                would make them susceptible to the effects of air pollution.
      completed and a hospital admissions study is under way.
      EPA’s involvement in air pollution and health research is          Efforts to raise awareness of actions to improve air quality need
      being expanded through participation in a two-year program         to be targeted to maximise their efficiency and effectiveness.
      funded via a SPIRT (Strategic Partnerships with Industry –         A number of the actions outlined in Chapters 5–9 address
      Research and Traning Scheme) grant. This work will extend          information and education programs relating to specific sources
      the scope of research in Victoria and other States.                of pollution. In addition to community and industry stakeholders,
                                                                         it will be important to engage with local government and schools
10-12 Research for national standards                                    as part of air quality communication efforts.
      EPA will be conducting monitoring and statistical analyses
      in relation to particles, SO2 and HAPs in anticipation of          Local government is particularly important, because:
      possible future developments regarding the NEPM for
      Ambient Air Quality.                                               •    their roles and responsibilities put them in a unique
                                                                              position to influence air quality at both a local and
                                                                              regional level – the development of local air quality
                                                                              improvement plans may be a useful means of taking
                                                                              advantage of this

                                                                         ∑
                                                                         •    local government councillors and staff are often opinion
                                                                              leaders with broad community influence, and

                                                                         ∑
                                                                         •    local government networks provide a unique forum for
                                                                              the discussion of air quality issues.




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Introduction




•       EPA provides information and educational material for              10-16 Global Classroom
        schools. Examples of this activity include the Global                    EPA’s web site will provide direct access to air monitoring
        Classroom project (see Action 10.16) and support for the                 data for the Global Classroom project – a joint initiative
        AirWatch program – which involves school students                        with the Department of Education, Employment and
        carrying out air quality monitoring and learning about                   Training. Students will be able to access daily, weekly,
        air pollution, its causes and solutions. A new VCE subject               annual and longer term summaries of air quality
        – Environmental Science – is due to commence in 2001.                    information. The project is being designed for the upper
        This will include the scientific basis for setting air                   primary and lower secondary school years and is to be
        quality standards.                                                       trialed with a pilot group of schools during 2000.

Keeping the community informed of progress with the AQIP                   10-17 Information on emissions from household activities
                                                                                 The Greenhouse Calculator’ educational software is being
It will be important to monitor the progress of the AQIP and its                 extended to incorporate information on emissions of air
effectiveness in achieving its aims. An annual status report on                  pollutants resulting from household activities associated
the AQIP would be an effective means of conveying this                           with energy consumption and motor vehicle use. The
information.                                                                     software will be available on EPA’s web site and will be
                                                                                 published for use by schools, at kiosk sites and at other
New or strengthened commitments                                                  venues such as Museum Victoria.

10-14 Air quality forecasting                                              Proposals for further action
      EPA – in cooperation with CSIRO, BOM and NSW EPA
      and funded by the Natural Heritage Trust – is developing             10-18 Working with local government
      an air quality forecasting system to provide local air                     Produce a model framework for the development of
      quality forecasts.                                                         local AQIPs – focusing on emissions sources that can be
                                                                                 influenced or controlled by local government. This could
10-15 AQIP annual update                                                         be promoted by working with Councils and through council
      Publish an annual AQIP update to provide information on:                   networks to raise awareness of air quality issues, and to
                                                                                 provide advice and information to support councils in
        • ∑     progress on AQIP actions                                         preparing local AQIPs.
        •   ∑   new initiatives, and
        ∑
        •       summary of annual monitoring, compliance with SEPP         10-19 EPA awards
                air quality objectives, variations in air quality across         Develop an EPA awards scheme to reward and promote
                the region, air quality trends and international                 excellence in air quality management.
                comparisons.




76
Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
REFERENCES

             Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering 1997, Urban air
             pollution in Australia, Commonwealth of Australia.

             Australian Bureau of Statistics 1985, Travel to work, school and shops,
             Victoria October 1984, Commonwealth of Australia.

             Australian Bureau of Statistics 1995, Travel to work, school and shops,
             Victoria October 1994, Commonwealth of Australia.

             Department of Infrastructure 1998, From doughnut city to café society,
             Government of Victoria.

             Econtech 1998, The Growth Grid™, 23 November 1998.

             Environment Australia 2000, Draft State of Knowledge Report on Air Toxics,
             Commonwealth of Australia.

             EPA 1997, Air Quality Management Plan: Taking Stock, Publication 535,
             Government of Victoria.

             EPA 1998, Air Quality Management Plan: Improving Geelong’s Air Quality,
             Publication 608, Government of Victoria.

             EPA 1998, Air Emissions Inventory: Port Phillip Region, Publication 632,
             Government of Victoria.

             EPA 1999, Hazardous air pollutants: A review of studies performed in Australia and
             New Zealand, volumes I and II, Publications 650 & 651, Government of Victoria.

             EPA 1999, Measurements of motor vehicle pollutants and fleet average emission factors
             in Melbourne, Publication 652, Government of Victoria.

             European Environment Agency 1997, Air pollution in Europe 1997,
             Copenhagen, Denmark.

             Federal Office of Road Safety 1996, Motor Vehicle Pollution in Australia, Report on the
             national in-service vehicle emissions study, Commonwealth of Australia.

             Industrial Waste Management Policy (Waste Minimisation) 1990,
             Government of Victoria.

             Kenworthy J, Laube F, Newman P & Barta P 1997, Indicators of Transport Efficiency in
             37 Global Cities, A report for the World Bank, Institute for Science and Technology
             Policy, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.

             Ministry of the Environment 1998, Air quality in Ontario 1996, Government of Ontario.

             National Environment Protection Council 1998, National Environment Protection
             Measure for Ambient Air Quality, NEPC.

             OECD 1997, Advanced air quality indicators project, Environment Directorate,
             OECD, Paris.




                                                                                                                77
                                                                                Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
References




                                     State Environment Protection Policy (Ambient Air Quality) 1999,
                                     Government of Victoria.

                                     State Environment Protection Policy (Air Quality Management) 1999,
                                     Government of Victoria.




78
Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
GLOSSARY

           ABARE – Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics

           ADR – Australian Design Rule

           AHHA – Australian Home Heating Association

           Airshed – a geographic area requiring unified management for achieving air pollution
           control

           Air NEPM – National Environment Protection Measure for Ambient Air Quality

           ANZECC – Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council

           AQIP – Air Quality Improvement Plan

           AS – Australian Standard

           BCA – Business Council of Australia

           Biogenic emissions – emissions from natural sources including vegetation, soils and
           the ocean

           BPEM – Best Practice Environmental Management

           BOM – Bureau of Meteorology

           Cleaner production – cleaner production focuses on the reduction of waste throughout
           the life cycle of a manufactured article; it is based on practices and technologies that
           minimise waste generation and energy consumption, and it involves the introduction
           of product design, cleaner technologies, processes and practices that minimise waste

           CO – carbon monoxide

           CSIRO – Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

           Design ground level concentration – maximum acceptable concentration of a
           substance at ground level; used to calculate the allowable emissions of substances
           from industrial premises

           DOI – Department of Infrastructure

           Emissions inventory – an estimate of the mass of all significant emissions to the
           atmosphere, over a specified period of time (usually a year) and within a defined area,
           often referred to as an ‘airshed’; emissions of each pollutant are estimated for the
           various sources separately, and then aggregated

           EPA – Environment Protection Authority

           Euro standards – European motor vehicle emissions standards

           FORS – Federal Office of Road Safety

           Fugitive emissions – substances that escape to the air from a source not associated
           with a specific process but scattered throughout the plant, eg leaks from equipment,
           dust blown from stockpiles.

                                                                                                             79
                                                                             Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
Glossary




                                     g/kWh – grams per kilowatt hour

                                     g/km – grams per kilometre

                                     GIS – Geographic information system

                                     Ground level concentration – measured or estimated concentration of a pollutant at
                                     ground level; estimated values are derived from pollutant dispersion models

                                     HAP – Hazardous air pollutant

                                     Hydrocarbon (HC) – a substance composed only of hydrogen and carbon

                                     I/M program – inspection and maintenance program applying to motor vehicles

                                     IWMP – Industrial waste management policy

                                     µg/m3 – micrograms per cubic metre

                                     MVEC – Motor Vehicle Environment Committee

                                     NEPC – National Environment Protection Council

                                     NEPM – National Environment Protection Measure

                                     NHMRC – National Health and Medical Research Council

                                     NH3 – ammonia

                                     NO – nitric oxide

                                     NO2 – nitrogen dioxide

                                     NOx –oxides of nitrogen

                                     NPI – National Pollutant Inventory

                                     NRE – Department of Natural Resources and Environment

                                     O3 – ozone

                                     PAH – polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

                                     PAN – Pollution Abatement Notice

                                     Photochemical reactions – chemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere in the
                                     presence of sunlight

                                     Photochemical smog – air pollution formed from chemical reactions of oxides of
                                     nitrogen and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight to produce
                                     secondary pollutants such as ozone

                                     PIN – Penalty Infringement Notice

                                     PM10 – particles less than 10 micrometres in diameter

80
Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan
                                                                                            Glossary




PM2.5 – particles less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter

Point source emissions – emissions from significant, fixed sources such as large
industrial premises

Port Phillip region – the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay and Western Port, including
Melbourne and Geelong; refer to Figure 1 in Taking Stock or Figure 2.1 in Air Emissions
Inventory: Port Phillip Region

ppb – parts per billion

ppm – parts per million

Precursor – a substance that may participate in, or influence, a reaction in the
atmosphere to produce another substance

Primary pollutant – a pollutant that is emitted directly to the atmosphere from a
source

Secondary pollutant – a pollutant that is formed as a result of chemical and/or
photochemical reactions in the atmosphere, involving one or more primary pollutants

SEPP – State environment protection policy (environment protection policies that have
statutory force in Victoria)

SEPP (AAQ) – SEPP (Ambient Air Quality)

SEPP (AQM) – SEPP (Air Quality Management)

SME – small to medium enterprise

SO2 – sulfur dioxide

Stack emissions – substances emitted to the atmosphere through a stack (chimney)
from industrial processes

US EPA – United States Environment Protection Agency

VKT – vehicle kilometres travelled

VOCs – volatile organic compounds – a large and diverse group of chemicals that
readily evaporate at room temperature, including hydrocarbons, oxygenates and
halocarbons

WHO – World Health Organisation




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                                                                  Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan

				
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