Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Teacher Tool Kit

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 6

Teacher Tool Kit

More Info
									                                                Teacher Tool Kit

ANIMATION            ..................................................................................................................................



         Animation is the process where artificial movement is created by photographing a se-
ries of pictures, objects or computer images one by one. When played back, small changes in
position between the many pictures create an illusion of movement. The RollerMache website
has a complete introduction to animation in the form of a short and engaging animation.
http://www.abc.net.au/rollercoaster/rollermache/create.htm

This is followed by two pages of discussion of the art form with downloadable activities span-
ning in level from beginners to advanced students:

Make a Flip Book
http://www.abc.net.au/rollercoaster/rollermache/pdf/make_a_flipbook.pdf

Stretch and Squeeze
http://www.abc.net.au/rollercoaster/rollermache/pdf/stretch_and_squeeze.pdf

Morph
http://www.abc.net.au/rollercoaster/rollermache/pdf/morph.pdf

Walkcycle
http://www.abc.net.au/rollercoaster/rollermache/pdf/walkcycle.pdf

The principles of animation were developed by the Disney animators in the early years of film to
give their animators instructions on how to make characters and objects look alive, rather than
just moving around like robots. The PDF notes linked above will have already explained Exagger-
ation, Squash and Stretch and Anticipation. Here are explanations of some more of the principles:

Staging
There is a limited amount of time to tell a story in a film so every thing you see in a film is
there for a reason. Every action of a character, each event and camera angle should communi-
cate the attitude and feeling of a scene, or should relate to the over all story. This is true of all
media content, not just animation.

Follow Through and Overlapping Action
Nothing stops all at once. If, for example, you wave a piece of paper in your hand and then
stop, it takes a few moments for the paper to settle. This is the principle of follow through and
overlapping action. Follow through happens when a character is jumping around or running
and then they suddenly stop and parts of them keep moving such as arms, long hair, clothing,
floppy ears or a long tail. Overlapping action is when the character changes direction while their
clothes or hair continues forward. The character is going in a new direction, to be followed, a
number of frames later, by their clothes in the new direction.
                                      Teacher Tool Kit

Slow-out and Slow-in
Mostly things don’t stop and start suddenly; they speed up and slow down. In animation this
is called slow-in and slow-out and it means that you need to have more frames at the begin-
ning and the end of a movement to slow in and out.

Arcs
Most things move smoothly rather than jerkily. For this reason its best to think of movement
in terms of arcs, like a pendulum swinging. All arm movement, head turns and even eye move-
ments are executed on an arc.

Secondary Action
Secondary action is action that compliments the main action. For example, if someone is on
a rollercoaster, a secondary action might be their face being pushed back by the wind, or if
someone is walking angrily, their hands might be in clenched fists.

Timing
Timing is extremely important in communicating mood and feeling. Timing in the action of a
character can show mood, emotion, and reaction to other characters and situations.

Appeal
A live performer has charisma. An animated character has appeal. All characters need appeal
whether they are heroic, villainous, comic or attractive. Appeal includes an easy to read design,
clear drawing and personality development that will capture and involve the audience’s inter-
est. As in all forms of story telling, the character has to appeal to the mind as well as to the eye.


Class Activities:
        1. Watch Animator Jon Itzen make a walk cycle for Yam Roll:
           http://www.abc.net.au/rollercoaster/rollermache/inspire2.htm?play_clip=yamroll
        2. Download and undertake the tasks in the RollerMache animations chapter.
        3. Invite the class to form small groups and make their own short animations focus-
           ing on a character and one or two of the animation principles.
        4. Encourage students to share feedback with each other on what looks good and
           what works in their animations. Remember and remind that most youth are ex-
           perts on this as they watch more animations than any other age group.
                                                                               Teacher Tool Kit

CAPTURING          .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................



        Capturing or shooting is the technical recording of frames for an animation. When
filming live action this is called recording and is also called shooing. Capturing an animation
is done one frame at a time. Most films run at 24 frames a second. This means that for every
second of a movie that you watch you are actually seeing 24 individual pictures. When you
play them at this speed, they don’t appear like individual pictures but appear to come to life.
This way of tricking the human eye is called Persistence of Vision.

Because capturing 24 frames per second takes ages, we recommend that you shoot your ani-
mation at between 12 and 20 frames per second. 16 frames per second is a good frame rate to
begin with.

Unless your school already has an animation capturing program, RollerMache suggests that
you download the Anasazi Stop Motion Animator. This is free to use, but will only work on a
PC computer. There are Mac Stop motion animators but most of them are commercial prod-
ucts that you will need to pay for however you may be able to find and use one for a free trial
period. For instructions on how to use a stop motion program as well as how to set up your
camera, scene, lighting and capturing computer, just download the Make Your Own Stop Mo-
tion animation PDF here:
http://www.abc.net.au/rollercoaster/rollermache/pdf/make_your_own_animation.pdf

You can also see how professional animator Darcy Prendergast goes about capturing anima-
tion for his films:
http://www.abc.net.au/rollercoaster/rollermache/inspire.htm?play_clip=darcy
                                                                                               Teacher Tool Kit

EDITING      .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................



       Editing involves selecting, ordering and joining all of the many different camera takes
from the production process into the final film. The editing process is begun by connecting
two or more shots together to form a sequence, and then the sequences are connected to-
gether to form scenes, and finally the scenes are ordered and joined to create an entire movie.
But there are many important decisions and changes that can be made during the editing pro-
cess and the relationship between each shot can change the whole mood and story of a film.

Editing is sometimes called the “invisible art,” because the best editing allows the audience
to become so engaged in a film that he or she is not even aware of the work of the editor.
But the editor has a great deal of control and responsibility over what the viewer is thinking
as they watch the film. For example, the speed and tempo of editing can create action and
tension where there is none in the footage. Alternately, cutting back between two unrelated
images can create a connection and relationship between them in the mind of the viewer.
For example, an edit from a clip of a man smiling to a clip of a puppy tells us that the man is
looking at the puppy and that he thinks it is cute. This also tells us that this person is kind and
friendly. If you take that same piece of footage of the man and replace the image of the puppy
with one of a gun, suddenly the same man with the same smile appears crazy or violent. The
order, timing and relationship between the images you edit can tell the viewer a great deal
without using any dialogue whatsoever.


Class Activities:
       1.   Consider the power of editing to recreate stories by simply re-ordering pieces of
            film. What does this mean about the TV shows that we watch that are labelled as
            news, documentary or reality?

       2. Using pictures from magazines, comic strips from news paper and images from
          other sources, try creating comic strips or storyboards that tell new stories using
          recycled images.

       3. Visit the Zimmer Twins:
          http://www.zimmertwins.com.au/movie/create
          Use the create movie tool to make your own short film. This tool is similar to an ed-
          iting interface and gives you an understanding of how an editing tool works and it
          provide you with clips to re-order.

       4. Try importing your own segments of animation into an editing program. Most
          computers have editing software that comes free with them such as imovie or
          Windows Movie Maker. You can also download these programs for free. Jashaka
          editing software can be used for open source platforms. There are also other
          professional programs such as Final Cut Pro and Avid. Now edit your own film
          together. Be prepared to experiment, to make mistakes and to improve quickly.
                                                                                               Teacher Tool Kit


SOUND       .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................



       Audio for films can be broken neatly into three different types: Dialogue, Music and
Sound. Often the difference between them is blurred, but basically:

       •	   Music	is	added	in	the	post-production	phase	(like	a	soundtrack)	
       •	   Dialogue	is	anything	that	is	spoken	by	the	performers
       •	   Sound	is	anything	recorded	during	production	(such	as	traffic	noise,	birds)	or	
            added	afterwards	(noises	and	effects,	footsteps).	

Because on-set microphones often pick up unwanted sounds like aeroplanes and traffic in
professional films these sounds are almost always recreated and added during the editing
stage. Making up sounds of things that would seem to be recorded on-set but are not is called
Foley Artistry. A Foley Artist is an expert at making sounds for films, such as footsteps and
punching noises.

Music is very powerful as it is able to evoke a wide range of emotions without a viewer even
being aware of it. So music is an excellent tool for giving a film texture and mood. Usually
once filming has begun, a composer is shown a “rough cut” of the film or a part of the film
and the director discusses with them the sort of music that they will require. A reverse of this
process is the music video where a musician or music producer will play some music to a
filmmaker and then discuss with them what they would like the video to look like. Films and
television series sometimes have different themes for important characters, or concepts in the
film. These may be played in different variations depending on the situation they represent.

Music and Sound can also be separated into two different kinds: diegetic and non-diegetic.
Diegetic simply means “In the film’s world”, so diegetic sound means any sound or noise that
a	character	in	the	film	could	hear	(dialogue,	bird	noises,	footsteps).	Non-diegetic	sound	is	any	
sound added by a filmmaker that a character would not be able to hear. This is usually music,
but it can also be a narrator.
                                 Teacher Tool Kit

Class Activities:
     1.   Watch the videos from RollerMache that show different sound types.
          Foley sound on Jane and the Dragon:
          http://www.abc.net.au/rollercoaster/rollermache/inspire3.htm?play_clip=foley

          Sound effects on Erky Perky
          http://www.abc.net.au/rollercoaster/rollermache/inspire3.htm?play_clip=erky

          Soundtrack on Dust Echoes:
          http://www.abc.net.au/rollercoaster/rollermache/inspire3.htm?play_clip=luke

          Dialogue voiceover on 6teen:
          http://www.abc.net.au/rollercoaster/rollermache/inspire.htm?play_clip=6teen

     2. Using a microphone with an Ipod or mobile phone, try recording sound in diffi-
        cult situations including open spaces, halls, bathrooms, and noisy locations. Listen
        back to them, try and spot the differences in sound when you change locations.

     3. To practice sound editing and recording follow this link to the RollerCoaster “How
        to make a podcast” article. In it you will learn different ways to edit sound.
        http://abc.net.au/rollercoaster/click/features/podcasts/default.htm

          Alternately try editing your sound for your film using garage band or Audacity.
          http://audacity.sourceforge.net/
          These programs are pretty easy to use especially now that you have tried editing.

     4. Find copyright free sound and music that you can use. This might be in a local
        library on a sound effects CD, or even online by searching keywords like: free
        sound, copyright free, audio effects, royalty free, film music, etc, in various com-
        binations.

								
To top