Solid Waste Management in Australia

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					                               Government Services Review




Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage:
          Key Indicators 2009
               An urban cut

              Tina Takagaki
          Productivity Commission

     AIATSIS National Indigenous Studies Conference

                       Canberra
                    September 2009
Indigenous demographics,
2006                                      Government Services Review




    By jurisdiction                    By remoteness

        Tas                       Very
   NT                            remote
        4%
  12%             NSW             15%                    Major
                  29%                                    cities
 SA
                            Remote                       33%
 5%
                              9%
WA
14%                   Vic
                             Outer                         Inner
  ACT                 7%    regional                     regional
  1%                                                        21%
         Qld                  22%
         28%
                                                            2
New COAG-aligned framework                                              Government Services Review



                  COAG TARGETS                       HEADLINE INDICATORS
   Tier 1
COAG targets      - Life expectancy                  - Post secondary education
  added to        - Young child mortality            - Disability and chronic disease
  headline
 indicators       - Early childhood education        - Household and individual income

                  - Reading, writing & numeracy      - Substantiated child abuse & neglect
   Tier 2
OID strategic     - Year 12 attainment               - Family and community violence
areas aligned
                  - Employment                       - Imprisonment & juvenile detention
    with
WGIR Building
   Blocks



 Early child     Education       Healthy         Economic          Home         Safe and     Governance
development     and training      lives         participation   environment    supportive        and
                                                                              communities     leadership


                                         Strategic change indicators

                                                                                                3
Multiple causes - health                                       Government Services Review


                                     Life
                                  expectancy

           Young                                            Disability &
       child mortality                                     chronic disease

                  Early child development
                        Birthweight
                  Healthy lives
                        Obesity and nutrition
                        Tobacco consumption and harm
                 Home environment
                        Functional water, sewerage & electricity
                        Overcrowding
                 Safe and supportive communities
                        Alcohol & drug consumption and harm
                 Education and training/Economic participation


                                                                                 4
Multiple effects - alcohol                  Government Services Review


                  Early child development

                                                     Disability &
                                                    chronic disease

                  Economic participation

      Alcohol
    consumption                                     Employment
      & harm

                  Home environment
                                                       Family
                                                    & community
                                                      violence

                  Safe and supportive communities
                                                              5
Snapshot of indicator changes     Government Services Review




                            Improvement
                                20 %

   Can’t tell
     50 %                         No change
(no trend data)                     20 %



                  Deterioration
                      10 %


                                                    6
The life expectancy gap –
                                             Government Services Review
smaller than was thought


         25

         20

         15
 Years




         10

         5

         0
              2003 OID     2005 OID   2007 OID        2009 OID

                         Males        Females




                                                                 7
The life expectancy gap, 2005–07
                               Government Services Review
incomplete jurisdiction data


         15


         10
 Years




         5


         0
              NSW     Qld   WA        NT       Aust

                    Males           Females




                                                      8
Infant mortality has declined                                                            Government Services Review




                             25
 Rate per 1000 live births




                             20

                             15

                             10

                              5

                              0
                             1997–99   1998–00   1999–01   2000–02   2001–03   2002–04   2003–05   2004–06   2005–07

                                       NSW             Qld             WA                SA           NT




                                                                                                                9
Some progress
                                                   Government Services Review
in ‘economic’ indicators

                        Indigenous      Non-Indigenous

           800                                                     100




                                                                            Per cent of population
           600                                                     75
  $/week




           400                                                     50

           200                                                     25

            0                                                      0
                 2001            2006     2001           2006

                   Median income        Employment to population




                                                                       10
Employment to (working age) population
by remoteness, 2006        Government Services Review
Per cent of population




                         100
                         80
                         60
                         40
                         20
                          0
                               Major cities     Inner     Outer     Remote    Very     Australia
                                              regional   regional            remote

                                                Indigenous            Non-Indigenous




                                                                                            11
Substantiated child abuse and Government Services Review
neglect by jurisdiction, 2007-08

                                     Indigenous                     Non-Indigenous
                          60
 Rate per 1000 children




                          50

                          40
                          30
                          20

                          10

                          0
                               NSW    Vic     Qld   WA   SA   Tas      ACT     NT    Aust




                                                                                     12
Imprisonment rates
                                                                           Government Services Review
by jurisdiction, 2008
Rate per 100 000 adults




                          3 000
                          2 500
                          2 000
                          1 500
                          1 000
                           500
                             0
                                  NSW   Vic      Qld       WA   SA   Tas     ACT     NT     Aust

                                              Indigenous             Non-Indigenous




                                                                                             13
Year 12 attainment                                              Government Services Review
by remoteness, 2006
            Nineteen year olds who had completed year 12 and/or certificate level II

           100

           80
Per cent




           60

           40

           20

            0
                 Major cities     Inner      Outer    Remote        Very        Australia
                                regional   regional                remote

                                     Indigenous                Non-Indigenous


                                                                                     14
Learning outcomes decline
by remoteness, 2008                                     Government Services Review



                      Year 3 students achieving minimum standard



            100

            80
 Per cent




            60

            40

            20

             0
                  Metropolitan     Provincial      Remote          Very remote

                           Indigenous                 Non-Indigenous




                                                                            15
Early child development                                     Government Services Review




           Early child              Education
                                                               Healthy
          development                  and
                                                                lives
                                     training


                                                Safe and               Governance
  Economic                  Home
                                               supportive                 and
 participation           environment
                                              communities              leadership



     – Maternal health                    – Injury and preventable disease
     – Teenage birth rate                 – Basic skills for life and learning
     – Birthweight                        – Hearing impediments
     – Early childhood hospitalisations


                                                                                 16
Proportion of births to teenage
mothers by remoteness, 2007 Government Services Review


                      25
 Per cent of births




                      20
                      15
                      10
                      5
                      0
                           Major cities      Inner      Outer     Remote      Very      Australia
                                           regional    regional              remote

                                          Indigenous births         Non-Indigenous births




                                                                                              17
Healthy lives                                               Government Services Review




            Early child              Education
                                                               Healthy
           development                  and
                                                                lives
                                      training


                                                 Safe and                Governance
  Economic                Home
                                                supportive                  and
 participation         environment
                                               communities               leadership



  – Access to primary health                   – Obesity and nutrition
  – Potentially preventable hospitalisations   – Tooth decay
  – Avoidable mortality                        – Mental health
  – Tobacco consumption and harm               – Suicide and self-harm


                                                                               18
A decline in
avoidable mortality                                                              Government Services Review



                                                    Indigenous       Non-Indigenous
                                900

                                800
    Deaths per 100 000 people




                                700
                                600

                                500

                                400

                                300

                                200

                                100

                                  0
                                      1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006



                                                                                                     19
Avoidable mortality by jurisdiction,
2002–2006                     Government Services Review
Deaths per 100 000 people




                            1 000

                             800

                             600

                             400
                             200

                               0
                                    Qld                WA     SA             NT

                                          Indigenous        Non-Indigenous




                                                                                  20
Education and training                                 Government Services Review




           Early child              Education
                                                          Healthy
          development                  and
                                                           lives
                                     training


                                             Safe and             Governance
  Economic               Home
                                            supportive               and
 participation        environment
                                           communities            leadership



    – School enrolment and attendance   – Year 9 attainment
    – Teacher quality                   – Year 10 attainment
    – Indigenous cultural studies       – Transition from school to work



                                                                           21
Poorer attendance at school                             Government Services Review



                    School attendance, year 10, government schools, 2007


             100

             80
  Per cent




             60

             40

             20

              0
                   NSW    Vic     Qld     WA      SA     Tas     ACT       NT

                          Indigenous                    Non-Indigenous




                                                                           22
Home and
                                                                Government Services Review
community environments

             Early child                  Education
                                                                    Healthy
            development                      and
                                                                     lives
                                           training


                                                   Safe and                  Governance
 Economic                   Home
                                                  supportive                    and
participation            environment
                                                 communities                 leadership


– Overcrowding in housing                     – Participation in organised sport, arts or
– Rates of disease associated with poor       community group activities
environmental health                          – Access to traditional lands
– Access to clean water and functional        – Alcohol consumption and harm
sewerage and electricity services             – Drug and other substance use and harm
                                              – Juvenile diversions
                                              – Repeat offending
                                                                                        23
Housing overcrowding                                                      Government Services Review
by remoteness, 2006


                     70
Per cent of people




                     60
                     50
                     40
                     30
                     20
                     10
                      0
                          Major cities     Inner       Outer     Remote      Very     Australia
                                         regional     regional              remote

                                         Indigenous                Non-Indigenous




                                                                                            24
Alcohol involvement            Government Services Review
in homicide, 1999-2000 to 2006-07
                                    Both victim and offender drinking           Neither drinking
                               80

                               70

                               60
   Per cent of all homicides




                               50

                               40

                               30

                               20

                               10

                               0
                                    Indigenous homicides                Non-Indigenous homicides

                                                                                                   25
‘All’ homicides increase with
                               Government Services Review
remoteness, 2002-03 to 2006-07
 Rate per 100 000 population




                               20

                               15

                               10

                               5

                               0
                                    Major cities Inner regional    Outer     Remote     Very remote
                                                                  regional

                                                Indigenous                   Non-Indigenous



                                                                                              26
Economic participation                                Government Services Review




            Early child            Education
                                                          Healthy
           development                and
                                                           lives
                                    training


                                              Safe and         Governance
  Economic                Home
                                             supportive           and
 participation         environment
                                            communities        leadership



 – Labour market participation
 – Indigenous owned or controlled land and business
 – Home ownership
 – Income support


                                                                        27
Extensive income support,                                                       Government Services Review
2006

                                     Indigenous                             Non-Indigenous
Per cent of working age




                          12
                          10
      population




                          8
                          6
                          4
                          2
                          0
                               Parenting    Newstart   Disability      Youth     Parenting    Carer
                               Payment     Allowance    support     Allowance    Payment     Payment
                                Single                 pension                   Partnered




                                                                                                  28
    Little variation in         Government Services Review
    income support by remoteness
                          Government pensions and allowances as main source of income, 2004-05
Per cent of working age




                          60
                          50
      population




                          40
                          30
                          20
                          10
                           0
                               Major cities     Inner       Outer       Remote     Very remote
                                              regional     regional

                                          Indigenous                    Non-Indigenous




                                                                                         29
Governance and leadership                        Government Services Review




           Early child      Education
                                                    Healthy
          development          and
                                                     lives
                             training


                                       Safe and            Governance
  Economic            Home
                                      supportive              and
 participation     environment
                                     communities           leadership



                            – Case studies in governance
                            – Governance capacity and skills
                            – Engagement with service delivery



                                                                   30
Determinants                        Government Services Review
of good governance

          governing institutions
          leadership
          self-determination
          capacity building
          cultural match
          resources


                                                      31
Indigenous                                Government Services Review
Governance Awards
  Under 10 years old               Over 10 years old
                           2008
    Warakurna Artists             Traditional Credit Union
  Aboriginal Corporation                (Darwin, NT)
    (Warakurna, WA)

                           2006
 Gannambarra Enterprises     WuChopperen Health Service
  (Wagga Wagga, NSW)               (Cairns, Qld)




                                                            32
‘Things that work’ –         Government Services Review
four success factors

   Cooperative approaches
   Bottom-up community involvement
   Ongoing support
   Good governance




                                               33
Things that work
                                      Government Services Review
— some examples


   Koori Maternity Strategy (Victoria)
   Nunga Young Mums Program (SA)
   The ‘Can’t hear? Hard to Learn’ program (NSW)
   Aboriginal language program in schools (NSW)
   The Teacher Education Scholarship Program
    (NSW)



                                                        34
An integrated                        Government Services Review
COAG reporting framework
   ‘High level’ monitoring: assessing progress
         OID report
         National Agreement reporting
   Expenditure on services: linked to outcomes
         Indigenous Expenditure Report
   Program effectiveness: achieving better outcomes
         ROGS Indigenous Compendium
         Clearing House



                                                       35
More information             Government Services Review




   Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage:
    Key Indicators 2009
   Report on Government Services
    Indigenous Compendium 2009
   Indigenous Expenditure Stocktake Report

           www.pc.gov.au

                                               36

				
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Description: Solid Waste Management in Australia