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					United States Presidential Inauguration Lesson Plans

Compiled by Kim Corns, K – 8 Global Studies Coordinator Don Mitchell, 6 – 12 Global Studies Specialist Global Studies Department of Curriculum and Instruction Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools December, 2008

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 2 United States Presidential Inauguration Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 4  Inauguration means  State and religious leaders who are inaugurated  United States Presidential Inauguration  Inaugural Ceremonies  Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States Picture of President-Elect Barack Obama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 9 Biography of President-Elect Barack Obama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 13 Inauguration Interview Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 14 Portrait of a President Lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 15 Inauguration Poems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 16 Barack Obama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 18 Students for Obama 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 21 January 20th – Inauguration Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 22 High School Lessons  The Inauguration and The Constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 23  George Washington: The President Without Precedent . . . . . . . . . .Page 25  Thomas Jefferson: The Revolution of 1800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 27  The Jackson Inauguration: King Mob or Champion of Democracy . Page 30  The Inauguration and The Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 32  TOPPS – Presidential Inaugural Speeches Lesson Plan . . . . . . . . . . .Page 34

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Additional Lesson Plan Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 40 Presidential Inauguration Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 40 Photograph of Barack Obama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 44

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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United States Presidential Inauguration Content
Inauguration means any formal beginning or introduction. The most common usage of the term is in the context of a formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. The term is usually used in reference to a politician’s assumption of the duties of head of state or head of government (e.g. the President’s inauguration). An ―inaugural address‖ is the presidential speech given at this ceremony which informs the people of his intentions as a leader. Political inaugurations often feature lavish ceremonies, in which the politician publicly takes his or her oath of office in front of a large crowd of spectators. The equivalent ceremony in another jurisdiction may be called a ―swearing-in‖. A monarchical inauguration is similar to what in another jurisdiction may be called a coronation or enthronement. Other than personal inaugurations, the term can also refer to the official opening or beginning of an institution or structure, for example the inauguration of a new Canada-United States border crossing.

State and religious leaders who are inaugurated  President of the United States—January 20, following an election year (or instantly in case of the preceding President’s death, resignation, or removal from office.)  King of Spain  German Chancellor  The Pope  President of the French Republic  President of Ireland—11 November, unless term of predecessor shortened by death, resignation, or removal from office  Prime Minister of Canada – two weeks after the general elections or the political party leadership election that made him or her Prime Minister  Monarchy of the Netherlands  President of Ukraine  President of Russian Federation  President of Argentina  President of Brazil—January 1, since 1995, unless term of predecessor shortened by death, resignation or removal from office

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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United States Presidential Inauguration
The swearing-in of the President of the United States occurs upon the commencement of a new term of a President of the United States. The United States Constitution mandates that the President make the following oath or affirmation before he or she can "enter on the Execution" of the office of the presidency: I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States. Article II, Section 1, Clause 8 – United States Constitution The swearing-in traditionally takes place at noon on Inauguration Day at the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C., with the Chief Justice of the United States administering the oath. Franklin Pierce, our 14th President inaugurated in 1853, is the only president to date who chose to use the words ―to affirm‖ rather than ―swear‖ while taking his oath of office because of religious reasons. From the presidency of Martin Van Buren through Jimmy Carter, the ceremony took place on the Capitol's East Portico. Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, the ceremony has been held at the Capitol's West Front. The inauguration of William Howard Taft in 1909 and Reagan in 1985 were moved indoors at the Capitol due to cold weather. Until 1937, Inauguration Day was March 4. Since then, Inauguration Day has occurred on January 20 (the 1933 ratification of the Twentieth Amendment changed the start date of the term). Since Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth swore in President John Adams, no Chief Justice has missed the Inauguration Day swearing-in. When Inauguration Day has fallen on a Sunday, the Chief Justice has administered the oath to the President either on inauguration day itself or on the preceding Saturday privately and the following Monday publicly. Eight presidential deaths and Richard Nixon’s resignation have forced the oath of office to be administered by other officials on other days. The War of 1812 and World War II forced two swearing-ins to be held at other locations in Washington, D.C. From 1789 through 2005, the swearing-in has been administered by 14 Chief Justices, one Associate Justice, three federal judges, two New York state judges, and one notary public. Though anyone legally authorized to administer an oath may swear in a President, to date the only person to do so who was not a judge was John C. Coolidge, Calvin Coolidge’s father, a notary whose home the then-Vice President was visiting in 1923 when he learned of the death of President Warren G. Harding.

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Inaugural Ceremonies
The inauguration for the first U.S. president, George Washington, was held on April 30, 1789 in New York City. Inauguration Day was originally set for March 4, giving electors from each state nearly four months after Election Day to cast their ballots for president. In 1937, the day of inauguration was changed by the Twentieth Amendment from March 4 to noon on January 20, beginning with Franklin D. Roosevelt’s second term in 1937. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson became the first to be sworn in as president in Washington, D. C., which did not officially become the federal capital until that year. The next Inauguration Day, January 20, 2009, will fall on the 3rd Tuesday of January. Since 1901, all inaugural ceremonies at the United States Capitol have been organized by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. The U. S. military have participated in Inauguration Day ceremonies since George Washington, because the president is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Since the first inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953, that participation has been coordinated by the Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (now called the Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural Committee). The oath of office is traditionally administered on the steps of the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C. The vice president-elect takes the oath of office at the same ceremony as the president-elect. This tradition began in 1937. Before then, the vice presidential oath was administered in the Senate. The Vice-President-elect takes the oath first: ―I do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same: that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion, and I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter.‖ This is followed by four ruffles and flourishes and "Hail, Columbia." Ruffles and Flourishes are sounded to render personal honors and precede prescribed music for personnel being honored. Ruffles (played by the drums) and Flourishes (played by bugle or selected brass instruments) are played simultaneously. Ruffles and Flourishes are played in the concert key of B-flat when they precede the National Anthem, Hail to the Chief, and the General's March. Ruffles and Flourishes are played in the concert key of A-flat when they precede Hail Columbia and the Flag Officer's March. (Source: AR600-25, 1 September 1983, Table 2-1) http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/textr/RufflesandFlourishes.html At noon, the president-elect becomes president. At about that time, the president-elect takes the oath of office, traditionally administered by the Chief Justice of the United States, using the form mandated in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution. ―I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.‖

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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According to tradition, in the first inaugural, President Washington added the words "so help me God" when reciting the oath, although there is no contemporary evidence of this. The words have been thereafter repeated by some presidents (as well as some vice presidents, while taking their oaths), including all since Franklin D Roosevelt. Theodore Roosevelt, for example, chose to conclude his oath with the phrase "And thus I swear." Only Franklin Pierce has chosen to affirm rather than swear. It is often asserted that Herbert Hoover also affirmed, because he was a Quaker, but newspaper reports prior to his inauguration state his intention to swear rather than affirm. Immediately following the oath, the bands play four ruffles and flourishes and "Hail to the Chief", followed by a 21-gun salute from howitzers of the Presidential Salute Battery, 3d United States Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard). The President delivers an inaugural address, setting the tone for the new administration. Should January 20 be a Sunday, the President is usually administered the oath of office in a private ceremony on that day, followed by a public ceremony the following day. Since 1953, the president and vice president have been guests of honor at a luncheon held by the United States Congress immediately following the inaugural ceremony. Other than at State of the Union addresses, Red Mass, and state funerals, it is the only time the president, vice president, and both houses of Congress congregate in the same location. Since Thomas Jefferson's second inaugural on March 4, 1805, it has become tradition for the president to parade down Pennsylvania Avenue from the Capitol to the White House. The only president not to parade down Pennsylvania Avenue was Ronald Reagan. He paraded down Pennsylvania Avenue during his first inauguration, in 1981, amidst the celebrations that broke out across the country because of news just minutes into his term that the 52 American hostages held in Iran for the previous 444 days had been released. Reagan did not do so in 1985 due to freezing cold temperatures made dangerous by high winds. In 1977, Jimmy Carter started a new tradition by walking from the Capitol to the White House, although for security reasons, subsequent presidents have only walked a part of the way. The inaugural celebrations usually last ten days, from five days before the inauguration to five days after. However, in 1973, the celebrations marking Richard Nixon's second inauguration were marred by the passing of former president Lyndon Johnson two days after the inauguration. The celebrations came to an end as Washington began preparations for the state funeral for Johnson. Because of the construction work on the center steps of the East Front, Johnson's casket was taken up the Senate wing steps of the Capitol when taken into the rotunda to lie in state. When it was brought out, it came out through the House wing steps of the Capitol. Inauguration Day is a Federal holiday observed only by federal employees who work in the District of Columbia; Montgomery or Prince George's Counties in Maryland; Arlington or Fairfax Counties in Virginia, or the cities of Alexandria or Fairfax in Virginia, and who are regularly scheduled to perform non-overtime work on Inauguration Day. There is no in-lieu-of holiday for employees and students who are not regularly scheduled to work or attend school on Inauguration Day. The primary reason for the holiday is to relieve traffic congestion that occurs during this major event.

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States
Newly sworn-in presidents give a speech referred to as an inaugural address. Four presidents gave no address: Tyler, Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, and Arthur. In each of these cases, the incoming President was succeeding a President who had died in office. Gerald Ford addressed the nation via broadcast after taking the oath, but he characterized his speech as "Not an inaugural address, not a fireside chat, not a campaign speech--just a little straight talk among friends.‖ Fifty-four addresses have been given by thirty-seven presidents. George Washington's second address was the shortest (135 words), and William Henry Harrison delivered the longest (8,495 words). All but one of the inaugural addresses was given at the building housing the United States Congress. Washington gave his first address at Federal Hall in New York City and his second address in Congress Hall in Philadelphia. Adams also gave his in Congress Hall in Philadelphia. Jefferson gave both of his addresses at the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. and all addresses since then have been given there, except for Franklin D. Roosevelt's fourth address, which he gave at the White House. Presidents have delivered addresses on six different calendar dates in the year: April 30, March 4, March 5, January 20, January 21 and August 9. Washington gave his first address on April 30, 1789 and his second one on March 4, 1793, which was the commencement date for presidential terms. This March 4 commencement date was changed to January 20 by the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution. From the years 1793 to 1933, the addresses were given on March 4 with only four exceptions. Because March 4 fell on a Sunday in each of their respective inaugural years, Monroe, Taylor, Hayes and Wilson each gave an address on Monday, March 5. Since 1937, addresses have been given on January 20 with only two exceptions (other than following a premature end to the Presidential term). Presidents Eisenhower and Reagan each gave an address on Monday, January 21. The next inauguration day that will fall on a Sunday is January 20, 2013, and every 28 years thereafter for the rest of the 21st century. There is no requirement that any book, or in particular a book of sacred text, be used to administer the oath, and none is mentioned in the Constitution. Use of the Bible being customary for oaths, at least in the 18th and 19th centuries, a Bible was generally used. Several Presidents were sworn in on the George Washington Inaugural Bible. On some occasions, the particular passage to which it was opened has been recorded. Only one president, Franklin Pierce, is definitely known to have affirmed rather than sworn; there are conflicting reports concerning Herbert Hoover, but the use of a bible is recorded and suggests that he swore in the usual fashion. Information found in the previous’ pages may be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inauguration_Day

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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www.ColoringCastle.com

Barak Obama Biography
Biography: Barack Hussein Obama was born Aug. 4, 1961, in Honolulu, Hawaii. His father, Barack Obama,
Sr., was born of Luo ethnicity in Nyanza Province, Kenya. He grew up herding goats with his own father, who was a domestic servant to the British. Obama’s mother, Ann Dunham, grew up in Wichita, Kansas. Her father worked on oil rigs during the Depression. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he signed up for service in World War II and marched across Europe in Patton’s army. Dunham’s mother went to work on a bomber assembly line. After the war, they studied on the G. I. Bill, bought a house through the Federal Housing Program, and moved to Hawaii. Meantime, Barack’s father had won a scholarship that allowed him to leave Kenya to pursue his dreams in Hawaii. At the time of his birth, Obama’s parents were students at the East–West Center of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Obama’s parents separated when he was two years old and later divorced. Obama’s father went to Harvard to pursue Ph. D. studies and then returned to Kenya. His mother married Lolo Soetoro, another East–West Center student from Indonesia. In 1967, the family moved to Jakarta, where Obama’s half-sister Maya Soetoro–Ng was born. Obama attended schools in Jakarta, where classes were taught in the Indonesian language. Four years later when Barack (commonly known throughout his early years as "Barry") was ten, he returned to Hawaii to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham, and later his mother (who died of cancer in 1995). He was enrolled in the fifth grade at the esteemed Punahou Academy, graduating with honors in 1979. He was only one of three black students at the school. This is where Obama first became conscious of racism and what it meant to be an African–American. In his memoir, Obama described how he struggled to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage. He saw his biological father (who died in a 1982 car accident) only once (in 1971) after his parents divorced. After high school, Obama studied at Occidental College in Los Angeles for two years. He then transferred to Columbia University in New York, graduating in 1983 with a degree in political science. After working at Business International Corporation (a company that provided international business information to corporate clients) and NYPIRG, Obama moved to Chicago in 1985. There, he worked as a community organizer with low-income residents in Chicago’s Roseland community and the Altgeld Gardens public housing development on the city’s South Side.
US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008 Page 10 of 43

It was during this time that Obama, who said he "was not raised in a religious household," joined the Trinity United Church of Christ. He also visited relatives in Kenya, which included an emotional visit to the graves of his father and paternal grandfather. Obama entered Harvard Law School in 1988. In February 1990, he was elected the first African–American editor of the Harvard Law Review. Obama graduated magna cum laude in 1991. After law school, Obama returned to Chicago to practice as a civil rights lawyer, joining the firm of Miner, Barnhill & Galland. He also taught at the University of Chicago Law School. He helped organize voter registration drives during Bill Clinton’s 1992 presidential campaign. Obama published an autobiography in 1995 Dreams From My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. He won a Grammy for the audio version of the book. Obama’s advocacy work led him to run for the Illinois State Senate as a Democrat. He was elected in 1996 from the South Side neighborhood of Hyde Park. During these years, Obama worked with both Democrats and Republicans in drafting legislation on ethics, expanded health care services and early childhood education programs for the poor. He also created a state earned-income tax credit for the working poor. After a number of inmates on death row were found innocent, Obama worked with law enforcement officials to require the videotaping of interrogations and confessions in all capital cases. In 2000, Obama made an unsuccessful Democratic primary run for the U. S. House of Representatives seat held by four-term incumbent candidate Bobby Rush. Following the 9/11 attacks, Obama was an early opponent of President George W. Bush’s push to war with Iraq. Obama was still a state senator when he spoke against a resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq during a rally at Chicago’s Federal Plaza in October 2002. The war with Iraq began in 2003 and Obama decided to run for the U.S. Senate open seat vacated by Republican Peter Fitzgerald. In the 2004 Democratic primary, he won 52 percent of the vote, defeating multimillionaire businessman Blair Hull and Illinois Comptroller Daniel Hynes. That summer, he was invited to deliver the keynote speech in support of John Kerry at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston. Obama emphasized the importance of unity, and made veiled jabs at the Bush administration and the diversionary use of wedge issues.

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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After the convention, Obama returned to his U.S. Senate bid in Illinois. His opponent in the general election was supposed to be Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, a wealthy former investment banker. However, Ryan withdrew from the race in June 2004. In August 2004, diplomat and former presidential candidate Alan Keyes, who was also an African American, accepted the Republican nomination to replace Ryan. In three televised debates, Obama and Keyes expressed opposing views on stem cell research, abortion, gun control, school vouchers and tax cuts. In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes's 27%, the largest electoral victory in Illinois history. Obama became only the third African American since Reconstruction elected to the U.S. Senate. Sworn into office January 4, 2005, Obama partnered with Republican Sen. Richard Lugar of Indiana on a bill that expanded efforts to destroy weapons of mass destruction in Eastern Europe and Russia. Then with Republican Senator Tom Corburn of Oklahoma, he created a website that tracks all federal spending. Obama was the first to raise the threat of avian flu on the Senate floor, spoke out for victims of Hurricane Katrina, pushed for alternative energy development and championed improved veterans´ benefits. He also worked with Democrat Russ Feingold of Wisconsin to eliminate gifts of travel on corporate jets by lobbyists to members of Congress. His second book, The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream, was published in October 2006. In February 2007, Obama made headlines when he announced his candidacy for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination. He was locked in a tight battle with former first lady and current U.S. Senator from New York, Hillary Rodham Clinton until he became the presumptive nominee on June 3, 2008. Obama met his wife, Michelle, in 1988 when he was a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley & Austin. They were married in October 1992 and live in Kenwood on Chicago's South Side with their daughters, Malia (born 1998) and Sasha (born 2001).

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Inauguration Interview
Brief Description: Students develop questions that a reporter might ask during an interview with the new president. Objectives: Students define the words reporter and interview. Students use critical-thinking skills to develop questions that a reporter might ask when interviewing the new president. Keywords: inauguration, president, interview, questions, reporter Materials Needed: paper, pens or pencils, chalk and chalkboard or chart paper and markers Lesson Plan
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Begin the lesson by asking students what a reporter does. Ask students to name different types of reporters, such as newspaper reporters, television reporters, magazine reporters, or online reporters. Discuss the meaning of the word interview. Say to students: "Imagine you are a reporter who has been invited to the White House to interview the new president. List five questions you would ask him." Have the students work individually to write their questions. When everyone has finished, solicit students' responses and write them on the board or on chart paper.

Variation for younger students: Work together as a class to develop the five questions. Extension: Ask the class to choose five of the questions on the board or chart paper. Send the questions to the White House. Go to the Write to the White House section of the White House for Kids Web site for instructions on how to write to the president of the United States. Assessment: Evaluate students' questions. Lesson Plan Source: Education World Submitted By: Lois Lewis

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Portrait of a President
Brief Description: Students use current photographs to create portraits of the president. Objectives: Students learn the meaning of the words portrait and sketch. Students draw pictures of the president, using current photographs from media sources as models. Keywords: president, inauguration, portrait, photograph Materials Needed
    

teacher-researched pictures of the president from print and/or online sources drawing paper or construction paper in various colors pencils crayons and markers or paint, paintbrushes, and water computer(s) with Internet access and printer (optional)
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US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

Lesson Plan: You may want to complete this activity in two lessons.
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Lesson 1

Before the lesson: Save pictures of the president in different poses from print or online sources. You might have students collect the pictures from online sources if they have Internet access. Discuss the president. Introduce the word portrait. Ask students where they might see portraits of people. If portraits hang in your school, include them in the discussion. Say to students: "Imagine that you are an artist. You have been asked to create a portrait of the president for the White House. What would you show in your picture?" Show students some pictures of the president in different poses. Ask students to select the pictures they think might make good models for a portrait. Talk about why they selected those particular images. Tell students that they are going to create portraits of the president, using their picture selections. Distribute the drawing or construction paper and pencils. Introduce the word sketch. Explain that many artists create sketches or pencil drawings before they add the color. Have students sketch their portraits.

Lesson 2
 

Distribute students' sketches and picture models. Ask students to compare their sketches to the models and make any changes. Let students choose the color medium for their pictures, such as crayons, markers, or paint. Have students color their portraits.

Extension: Let students use construction paper, drawing materials, and scissors to create "frames" for their portraits. Assessment: Evaluate students' participation and portraits. Lesson Plan Source: Education World Submitted By: Lois Lewis

Inauguration Poems
Brief Description: Students compare and contrast the poems that Robert Frost, Maya Angelou, and Miller Williams wrote and read at past inaugurations. Objectives: Students compare, contrast, and interpret the poems that Robert Frost, Maya Angelou, and Miller Williams wrote and read at past inaugurations. Students define the word inauguration. Keywords: inauguration, poetry, poem, poet, Frost, Angelou, Williams Materials Needed: paper, pens or pencils, computer(s) with Internet access or printouts from the sites listed in the lesson or student-researched library sources Lesson Plan: You may want to break this activity into two lessons. Lesson 1

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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 

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Discuss the meaning of the word inauguration. Discuss some of the events that usually take place during the inauguration of a president. Explain that in recent years, some presidents have asked writers to read their work at the inauguration ceremony. Tell students that they are going to study three inaugural poems from three writers: Robert Frost, Maya Angelou, and Miller Williams. Explain that Robert Frost read at John F. Kennedy's inauguration, Maya Angelou read at Bill Clinton's first inauguration, and Miller Williams read at Bill Clinton's second inauguration. Robert Frost read "The Gift Outright," Maya Angelou read "On the Pulse of Morning," and Miller Williams read "Of History and Hope." Organize students into pairs or small groups. Have students read the poems and background information about the writers from the following sites. If Internet access is not available to everyone, make printouts from the sites.

Robert Frost The Robert Frost Web Site The Gift Outright A Tribute to Robert Frost Maya Angelou On the Pulse of Morning Voices From the Gaps: Maya Angelou Maya Angelou: Teacher Resource File Miller Williams Miller Williams' Inaugural Poem Inaugural Poet Miller Williams (a PBS interview) Poet Address Inaugural Event (Washington Post)


Have students in each group work together to list the similarities and differences of the poems.

Lesson 2 Bring the groups together to discuss their lists. Ask: "What images did you think of as you read each poem? What reflections of the writer's background do you see in each poem? In what ways is each poem a reflection of the time of the inauguration for which it was read? Would the poems be appropriate for the 2001 inauguration? Why or why not?" Variation: Have the students research the poems and background information about the writers using print sources from a library. Extension 1: Say to students: "Imagine that you have been asked to write and recite a special poem at the inauguration. What would you write about in your poem?" Have students write and read their original inaugural poems. Extension 2: Say to students: "Suggest a poem that you think would be appropriate to be read at the 2001 inauguration. Who should read the poem? Why?" Assessment: Evaluate students' participation and their interpretations of the poems discussed. Lesson Plan Source: Education World
US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008 Page 16 of 43

Submitted By: Lois Lewis

Barack Obama Quotes Activity Ideas:
   Students will choose a quote from those listed below. Provide each student with a clean sheet of printer paper. The students will creatively display the quote on the paper and draw pictorial references to illustrate the meaning of the words written. Students will choose a quote listed below and research the speech from which the words were first uttered. The students will then present the quote to their classmates and explain the historical context of when it was said. Students will define nationalism and then choose a quote listed below that exemplifies nationalism. Students will then conduct research to identify a time period from American history that the same concerns sited in the quote were addressed by a national leader.

Compiled by BarackObama.net Staff Below you will find some inspirational Barack Obama quotes. Change will not come if we wait for some other person or some other time. We are the ones we've been waiting for. We are the change that we seek. Barack Obama There is not a Black America and a White America and Latino America and Asian America; there's the United States of America. Barack Obama If the people cannot trust their government to do the job for which it exists - to protect them and to promote their common welfare - all else is lost. Barack Obama We have to acknowledge the progress we made, but understand that we still have a long way to go. That things are better, but still not good enough. Barack Obama Americans…still believe in an America where anything's possible -- they just don't think their leaders do. Barack Obama If you're walking down the right path and you're willing to keep walking, eventually you'll make progress. Barack Obama

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Hope – Hope in the face of difficulty. Hope in the face of uncertainty. The audacity of hope! ...A belief in things not seen. A belief that there are better days ahead. Barack Obama Focusing your life solely on making a buck shows a poverty of ambition. It asks too little of yourself. And it will leave you unfulfilled. Barack Obama In the end, no amount of American forces can solve the political differences that lie at the heart of somebody else's civil war. Barack Obama The true test of the American ideal is whether we’re able to recognize our failings and then rise together to meet the challenges of our time. Whether we allow ourselves to be shaped by events and history, or whether we act to shape them. Barack Obama America is a land of big dreamers and big hopes. It is this hope that has sustained us through revolution and civil war, depression and world war, a struggle for civil and social rights and the brink of nuclear crisis. And it is because our dreamers dreamed that we have emerged from each challenge more united, more prosperous, and more admired than before. Barack Obama I always believe that ultimately, if people are paying attention, then we get good government and good leadership. And when we get lazy, as a democracy and civically start taking shortcuts, then it results in bad government and politics. Barack Obama When people are judged by merit, not connections, then the best and brightest can lead the country, people will work hard, and the entire economy will grow - everyone will benefit and more resources will be available for all, not just select groups. Barack Obama You know, there's a lot of talk in this country about the federal deficit. But I think we should talk more about our empathy deficit - the ability to put ourselves in someone else's shoes; to see the world through the eyes of those who are different from us – the child who's hungry, the steelworker who's been laid-off, the family who lost the entire life they built together when the storm came to town. When you think like this – when you choose to broaden your ambit of concern and empathize with the plight of others, whether they are close friends or distant strangers – it becomes harder not to act; harder not to help. Barack Obama It's only when you hitch your wagon to something larger than yourself that you will realize your true potential. Barack Obama

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If we aren't willing to pay a price for our values, then we should ask ourselves whether we truly believe in them at all. Barack Obama We have a stake in one another … what binds us together is greater than what drives us apart, and ... if enough people believe in the truth of that proposition and act on it, then we might not solve every problem, but we can get something meaningful done for the people with whom we share this Earth. Barack Obama We need to steer clear of this poverty of ambition, where people want to drive fancy cars and wear nice clothes and live in nice apartments but don't want to work hard to accomplish these things. Everyone should try to realize their full potential. Barack Obama That is the true genius of America, a faith in the simple dreams of its people, the insistence on small miracles. That we can say what we think, write what we think, without hearing a sudden knock on the door. Barack Obama Our goal is to have a country that's not divided by race. Barack Obama Making your mark on the world is hard. If it were easy, everybody would do it. But it's not. It takes patience, it takes commitment, and it comes with plenty of failure along the way. The real test is not whether you avoid this failure, because you won't. It's whether you let it harden or shame you into inaction, or whether you learn from it; whether you choose to persevere. Barack Obama I have seen, the desperation and disorder of the powerless: how it twists the lives of children on the streets of Jakarta or Nairobi in much the same way as it does the lives of children on Chicago’s South Side. Barack Obama Yes, our greatness as a nation has depended on individual initiative, on a belief in the free market. But it has also depended on our sense of mutual regard for each other, of mutual responsibility. The idea that everybody has a stake in the country, that we're all in it together and everybody's got a shot at opportunity. Americans know this. We know that government can't solve all our problems - and we don't want it to. But we also know that there are some things we can't do on our own. We know that there are some things we do better together. Barack Obama

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US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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HIGH SCHOOL LESSONS Lesson One - The Inauguration and the Constitution
From http://www.pbs.org/newshour/inauguration/lesson_constitution.html

Topic Students will investigate how the Constitution outlines the basis for the presidential inauguration. Instructional Objectives By using the activities of this lesson, the students will: 1. List the sections of the Constitution that determine the elements of the inauguration. 2. Determine how the inauguration symbolizes the peaceful transition of power in a democratic republic. 3. Relate the elements of the inauguration to the powers of the president as listed in the Constitution. Background Information The United States Constitution is the foundation for all aspects of American government. The writers of the Constitution often left certain issues unanswered or open to interpretation so that American society could interpret the meaning of the document as society evolved. When the social and political forces of the day could no longer accept the final interpretation of the Constitution, then it was up to the Congress, the states, and ultimately, the people, to change or amend the Constitution to reflect accurately the political and social culture of the times. The executive branch has undergone an evolution along with its foundation in the Constitution. Activities 1. Use the text version of the U.S. Constitution to locate and list references to the process of inaugurating the president of the United States. Answers include the following passages: ARTICLE II, Section 1, paragraph 7: Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of the President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
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Amendment 20: Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice-President shall end at noon on the twentieth day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the third day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. 2. Talk about the historical context for this language. Why would an elected president (and an inauguration, symbolizing peaceful transfer of power) have seemed remarkable to people in 18th century America? What other elements of national government as established in the Constitution would have marked a radical departure from the people's previous experiences as colonists, or in their observations of foreign governments? 3. One of the things clearly established in the Constitution is a tripartite national government with a clear balance of power. There are elements of the inauguration ceremony which clearly symbolize this system of checks and balances. Have students watch videotape or a live broadcast of the inauguration. They should take notes, listing evidence of the three branches of government in the inaugural ceremony. Students may want to have their papers divided into three columns, with each one headed by the name of one branch. Legislative Inaugural committee is a joint committee in Congress. Ceremony takes place before the Capitol. Both houses of Congress are present. Executive Judicial Chief Justice swears officers in.

President and vicepresident take power.

President sets agenda for his administration with inaugural address. Vice-president must be ready to assume the office.

Freedom of speech and press exercised. President can be "affirmed" if he objects to oath.

4. Comparative government experts claim that the inauguration stems from the coronation ceremony extolling kings before the age of democratic rule. How is the inauguration similar to a coronation? How is it different? What is the significance of both these ceremonies?
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Evaluation The lesson may be evaluated through the following measures: 1. the student's notes taken while viewing the inaugural ceremony; 2. the student's careful reading of the United States Constitution and identification of inauguration-related passages; 3. the student's contributions to class discussion. Extension Ideas 1. The inaugural ceremony often includes a poem, which expresses the hopes of the people at the time of the inauguration and sets a tone for the new president's time in office. If you were elected president, what kind of message would be important to deliver during your inaugural ceremony? Write a poem suitable for the occasion, or make a list of published poems you might incorporate into such a ceremony. 2. Research the transfer of leadership in other countries. What special ceremonies occur? Possibilities might include the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in the 1950s, the recent election of Vicente Fox in Mexico, or the coronation of Emperor Akihito in 1990.

George Washington: The President Without Precedent
From http://www.pbs.org/newshour/inauguration/lesson_washington.html

Topic Students explore the inauguration and administrations of George Washington. Instructional Objectives By using the activities of this lesson, the students will: 1. explore the time period and events surrounding Washington's inauguration; 2. demonstrate how Washington set a precedent for each action he took as the American republic's new president; 3. compare and contrast the traditions and events of the 1789 inaugural with the most recent inauguration. Background Information Washington was well aware that each action he took as the nation's first president would determine how the nation and the office of president would be perceived from that moment on. Washington was elected by a unanimous vote, and he was tremendously admired by citizens of the new republic.

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Washington traveled from his farm at Mount Vernon, Virginia, in 1789 overland to New York, the temporary capitol of the United States. There, he took the oath of office as stated in Article II of the new federal Constitution. He delivered a short but important ten-minute inaugural address. He then proceeded to consult with members of his newly-appointed cabinet about how the duties of the presidency should be carried out on a day-to-day basis. Activities 1. Washington took on the office of president out of loyalty for the nation he helped form, but he was a reluctant first president. To learn more about his reservations, visit one or more of the following sites: o The White House: Presidential History http://www.whitehouse.gov/WH/glimpse/presidents/html/gw1.html o Library of Congress: George Washington Timeline http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/gwhtml/gwtime.html 2. After research in the library or a class discussion, have students brainstorm verbally or develop a written paragraph that illustrates why Washington may have had reservations about becoming the first president. For an alternative approach, students might want to write in a diary format as though they are with Washington riding to his inauguration from Virginia to New York. Possible student’s responses may include the following:
o

o

o

He was nervous. He knew that each action he took would be scrutinized by the American people, by his political enemies, and by historians to come, as well as by presidents to follow, who would look to his example for guidance. He wanted to stay a farmer at Mount Vernon. He felt that his experiences as a farmer were not sufficient to act as the captain of the ship of state, especially in the wake of the controversy over the ratification of the Constitution. He was tired. Washington had devoted most of his adult life to public service. At age 57, he was in poor health, even though he was only three years older than the average age for presidents at inauguration.

3. On the Web, find Washington's first and second inaugural addresses. The second is famous because it is so short. How does it compare with the second inaugural addresses of other past presidents? Investigate other inaugural speeches at the Project Bartleby Web site. As students read the first inaugural address, ask them to point out examples from the speech that show Washington is aware that he is setting important national precedents. Also, do students sense any reluctance on Washington's part to take office, based on what they read? (Note: students may want to read the speeches in groups, dividing up unfamiliar vocabulary terms as they encounter them.)

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4. Washington's exit from office was as important as his entrance. Although he was urged to seek a third term, he refused. Ask students to read sections of Washington's Farewell Address. Why did he decide to retire? Why was his retirement an important precedent for the young republic? (Washington's refusal to seek a third term in office signaled that Americans should not seek to elect a "ruler for life," no matter how popular, and reinforced the goal of a peaceful transfer of power in the infant republic. No president served more than two terms until Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1932-1945); following Roosevelt's terms in office, the Constitution was amended so that future presidents were limited to two terms by law.) Evaluation The lesson may be evaluated through the following means: 1. the historical accuracy of student writings, which can be awarded a number of points based on the students' thinking skills, originality, and use of historical information; 2. the student's contributions to whole-class discussion and group work reading Washington's speeches. Extension Ideas 1. Washington toured the United States after his inauguration. Students may want to research that trip and describe the people and political issues with which Washington had to deal as he explored his new republic. 2. Research the lives of people who were other important "firsts": first person to walk on the moon, first woman Cabinet member, first surgeon to perform a heart transplant, etc. What personality traits do these people share with Washington? Students might create a "Firsts Hall of Fame" to display at school.

Thomas Jefferson: The Revolution of 1800
From http://www.pbs.org/newshour/inauguration/lesson_jefferson.html

Topic Students examine how Jefferson's inauguration in 1800 embodies American beliefs about democratic leadership and the peaceful transfer of power. Instructional Objectives By using the activities of this lesson, the students will:

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1. describe the peaceful transition of power from the Federalist to the DemocraticRepublican administration that resulted from the election of 1800; 2. identify some of the defining characteristics of Thomas Jefferson's administration as seen through the inauguration; 3. identify key points of Jefferson's first inaugural address. Background Information Thomas Jefferson defeated the incumbent, Federalist John Adams, and his Republican rival, Aaron Burr, by a vote in the House of Representatives. The power of the House of Representatives to break a tie in the Electoral College is listed in Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution. Jefferson wanted an inauguration with few trappings of the past Federalist administrations. He wanted to put forth the appearance that he was one of the people and had their interests at heart when making policy. He was careful to create such an appearance during his inauguration in the new capital of the country, Washington, D.C. (The capital of the nation had moved from Philadelphia to the District of Columbia in November 1800. The Capitol and White House were still under construction.) Before the ceremony, he walked from his boardinghouse along Pennsylvania Avenue to the Capitol, where he would be the first president to take the oath of office there. He dressed in the casual clothes of an average citizen, as one account puts it, "without any distinctive badge of office" (Nash, pg. 267). Federalist Chief Justice John Marshall administered the oath of office, and a corps of local militiamen gave the new president a 16-gun salute. The inauguration was highly symbolic for the new nation. It was the first transition of control of the executive branch by one party to another, and the transfer of power was accomplished without discord or bloodshed. Jefferson's contemporaries had many reasons to worry about a less than peaceful transition since regimes in Europe had come and gone, often with the execution of the monarch or class warfare in the streets of a capital city. Activities 1. Ask students to brainstorm ways that elections in 1800 would have been different than elections today. Make a list on the blackboard or on an overhead projector. 2. What rules does the Constitution set forth regarding presidential elections? Read the Constitution, paying particular attention to Article II and Amendment XII. Now, challenge students to research the election of 1800. Were their perceptions of elections in 1800 correct? How did the presidential election of 1800 test the rules established in the Constitution? How did the election of 1800 lead to the creation of the 12th Amendment? Some good places to begin research include:

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Brigham Young University Hawaii http://www.byuh.edu/academics/religion/Harper/HIST120/lecture_notes/election1 800/ o Politics and Political Campaigns http://library.thinkquest.org/12587/contents/timeline/1800/1800.html o President Elect http://presidentelect.org/e1800.html o WBUR Public NewsRoom http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/wbur/news/politics/article/69216.html (audio of historians discussing the changes in elections since 1800) 3. After reviewing the events related to the election of 1800, have students respond to the following discussion questions in either oral or written form: o How did the election of 1800 reflect the weaknesses of the Electoral College as established in the Constitution? o What did the congress and the states do to correct the problem of how the president and vice-president would be elected? o Was it appropriate for John Adams to leave Washington without attending the inauguration of Jefferson? What might have happened had he decided to attend? o What aspects of our modern democratic system are symbolized in the events of 1800 with the ascension of Jefferson to the presidency? 4. Many historians call the election of 1800 the "Revolution" of 1800. Define the term revolution and apply the definition to Jefferson's acquisition of power. How did his rise to the presidency differ from other revolutions of his day? (The American Revolution, the French Revolution, and England's "Glorious" Revolution of 1688 may be good examples to bring into the discussion.) How was this revolution similar? 5. Have students read and analyze Jefferson's first inaugural address. Students will want to locate the following phrases and ideas and read them in context in the body of the speech. Have students determine the context of each phrase or idea in the speech and identify how the basic principles of American democracy embodied: "equal and exact justice for all" "the surest bulwarks against anti-republican tendencies" "absolute acquiescence" in the decisions of the majority supremacy of civil over military authority reduction of government spending "honest payment" of the public debt freedom of the press "freedom of the person under habeas corpus" 6. In his first inaugural address, Jefferson said, "Every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle. We have called by different names brethren of the same principles. We are all republicans - we are all federalists." Ask students what similarities exist between the election of 1800 and the election that took place 200 years later in 2000. (For good, student-oriented election information, visit the PBS Online NewsHour at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/election.html.)
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o

o o o o o o o o

Students might draw parallels between the closeness of the two races; deep divides between political parties as the election results were decided; the role of other branches of government in deciding the election results; and criticism of the electoral college system. Students should also note that although many people criticized the election results, in both cases, the inaugurations proceeded and there was a peaceful transfer of power between political parties. After discussing these ideas, have students review the inaugural address of Barack Obama.
o o

Are there words and phrases that echo the same concepts found in Jefferson's inaugural address of 1800? What issues did Barack Obama discuss in his speech that was present in Jefferson's day?

Evaluation The lesson may be evaluated through the following methods: 1. the student's contributions to class discussion; 2. the student's ability to gather facts through online research and synthesize these facts into meaningful summaries and analysis; 3. the student's reading comprehension of online articles and texts of inaugural speeches. Extension Ideas 1. How is the transfer of power similar or different in other countries? Research recent changes of leadership in Mexico, Haiti, Nigeria, Yugoslavia, and other nations. 2. Research the important accomplishments of Jefferson's administration. What were the "top five" legacies left to the American public? Create a visual display.

The Jackson Inauguration: King Mob or Champion of Democracy? From http://www.pbs.org/newshour/inauguration/lesson_jackson.html
Topic Students examine the inauguration of Andrew Jackson in 1828 and identify the ways Jackson's election signaled important changes in the American political landscape. Instructional Objectives By using the activities of this lesson, the students will: 1. describe the inauguration of Andrew Jackson; 2. discuss how Jackson embodied the political culture of his era; 3. compare the politics of Jacksonian democracy with contemporary American politics.
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Background Information The election of Andrew Jackson was seen by many as a victory for the common citizen in much the same way as Jefferson brought an end to the Federalist aristocracy. He was the first president elected from a state that was not one of the original thirteen colonies, and he represented the interests of the rural western frontier rather than the industrial northeast. Although Jackson is said to have slipped quietly into the Capitol in February 1829, his inauguration seemed to predict the tone of his administration. The usually uninhabited town of Washington, D.C., was packed with inaugural onlookers who saw Jackson as a savior. Cheering was heard when Jackson emerged on the steps of the capitol to take the presidential oath, muffling the oath as well as the inaugural address. The throng crowded the new president as he made his way to the White House. The inaugural ball has been recorded by history as a raucous event that showed little discipline or culture. Participants in the festivities ranged from the highest members of the American political elite to the mud-covered agrarian element so strongly represented by the Jeffersonian ideal. The crowd became so rowdy that Jackson was forced to slip out of the White House secretly. As the party was moved outside, many of the guests used all exits, including windows, to be present for the ice cream and wine. Even though his inauguration seemed to symbolize the excesses of democracy, to many of his day, it was a refreshing wind that removed the corruption and incompetence of an antiquated system and installed a new era of rule by the people. Activities 1. Research Andrew Jackson's life and rise to power. Some good sites include: o PBS: The American President http://www.pbs.org/wnet/amerpres/main_episode09.html o The American President http://www.americanpresident.org/history/ o American Presidents: Life Portraits http://www.americanpresidents.org/ 2. Ask students to brainstorm what they know about Jackson's predecessor, John Quincy Adams. Information about Adams may be found at the following sites: o American Presidents: Life Portraits http://www.americanpresidents.org/ o The White House: Presidential History http://www.whitehouse.gov/WH/glimpse/presidents/html/ja6.html 3. Is George W. Bush more like John Quincy Adams or Andrew Jackson? Create visual displays that show what characteristics Bush shares with each of these former presidents. 4. Explain that when Jackson was elected, many viewed it as a victory for the "common man" (see Background Information, above). Prior to Jackson's election, many citizens and public figures had feared that American politics was too elitist. Ask students if they think politics today is elitist. Stage a debate, a mock political talk show, or ask students to write position papers defending their opinions with examples.

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Evaluation The lesson may be evaluated through the following measures: 1. the informational content and organization of the student's chart comparing George W. Bush, Andrew Jackson, and John Quincy Adams; 2. the student's ability to defend his or her opinions about contemporary American politics with specific examples, either orally or in writing. Extension Ideas 1. Have students examine primary source documents and images related to Jackson's inauguration. Some good resources include: o Library of Congress: American Memory http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/pi011.html o UVA American Studies: Andrew Jackson, Champion of the Kingly Commons http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/jackson/ima.htm o Library of Congress American Memory: Huzzah for General Jackson (song lyrics) Ask students to write a first-person account of the inauguration and describe the nation's capital as it would have existed in 1829. 2. How do modern inaugural ceremonies compare with the events surrounding Jackson's inauguration? Visit the Senate's Inaugural Ceremonies site to learn more about recent ceremonies. Take elements from different ceremonies, add your own, and design an "ideal" inaugural program. Send your ideas to the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (contact information provided on the Senate Web site).

The Inauguration and the Media
From http://www.pbs.org/newshour/inauguration/lesson_media.html

Topic Students will read, review, and write about the presidential inauguration as it appears in the media. Instructional Objectives By using the activities of this lesson, the students will: 1. use local and national newspapers to gain information about the inauguration;

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2. compare newspapers, periodicals, news broadcasts and the Internet as sources of information; 3. develop and create their own editorial on the inauguration and the presidency. Background Information In our modern society, we live in a time known as the "Information Age." Information can be acquired through a number of sources that use modern technology to bring events and ideas to us almost instantaneously. With so much information at our disposal, our democracy requires that citizens know how to consume, analyze, and filter information and its sources. The inauguration of a president is a world event that carries a high level of symbolism for the people of the United States and all over the world. With the images of television and the speed of the new medium known as the Internet, students of government, politics, and history will need to have the skills required to evaluate information and express their opinions in a way that is logical and reasonable to others. Activities 1. Have students watch the local and national news broadcasts of the inauguration. Have them create a chart that compares the two types of broadcasts. Students should take notes to list the differences in how the local and national news handled the following ideas: o How the president prepared for the inaugural ceremony o The ceremony itself: its symbols, traditions, and people o How the new presidential administration will affect the American people o Reactions from people in your state, county, and community o The opinions of people from around the world o Historical information on past inaugurations and presidential administrations 2. Bring into class the local newspaper from January 20 and a newspaper with a national perspective, such as the Washington Post, the New York Times, the Christian Science Monitor, or USA Today. Have students compare articles on the inauguration using the same ideas as listed above. Be sure to have them visit the opinion-editorial page of the local and national papers. Have students summarize one editorial by writing a paragraph about it. In their summary, students should state whether they agree with the editorial and why. 3. If the Internet is available, allow students to access the Web sites of major news providers. Have students develop brief reports on how using the Web is better or worse than using such other media as newspapers, television, and magazines. Have students comment on the uses of multimedia, the reliability of information on the Internet, and its global scope. Sites students might visit include:

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CNN www.cnn.com o PBS Online NewsHour www.pbs.org/newshour/ o MSNBC www.msnbc.com o NPR www.npr.org o U.S. News and World Report http://www.usnews.com/usnews/home.htm o Drudge Report http://www.drudgereport.com/ 4. Have students keep a scrapbook on the Obama inauguration for a week leading up to and/or a week following the inauguration. Students may want to keep newspaper and magazine clippings, maintain a journal on viewing news broadcasts, or print out Web pages they encountered—or collect all these in one scrapbook. Allow students to comment on how effective and how accurate their news sources are, or how these sources might change the delivery of news. In their journals, students will want to classify stories as news, features, or opinion. Students can share or present their opinions and a summary after the event has receded from the news. 5. After viewing and discussing the inauguration, have students write editorials on the Bush presidency. Have students send their letters to the editor of the local newspaper or post their efforts to their school Web site. Develop a Web page that looks like a student publication. Students may want to "report" on the events of the inaugural, and their letters can be published online. Allow the online community to read and respond to online student publications. Read responses in class or assign them to students to discuss. Evaluation The lesson can be evaluated through the following measures: 1. the accuracy of student analysis, both written and oral; 2. the variety of sources the student used in comparisons of media coverage; 3. demonstrated understanding of the issues presented, as demonstrated in the written editorial. Extensions 1. Compare local or regional news coverage of your state governor's inauguration to the coverage of the presidential inauguration. 2. Explore how international news media sources cover the U.S. presidential inauguration. What differences and similarities exist between national and international coverage of the event? Some news sources to investigate include: o BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/default.stm

o

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o o o o

The Times (U.K.) http://www.thetimes.co.uk/ Canadian Broadcasting Corporation http://cbc.ca/onair/ International Herald Tribune http://www.iht.com/frontpage.htm Jerusalem Post http://www.jpost.com/

TOPPS—Presidential Inaugural Speeches Lesson Plan
Title of Lesson: US Presidential Assessment Date: December 10, 2005 Author(s): Adam Fjell, Shannon Zimmerman, John Brian, & Tom Carman TOPPS Program/Grant--MPS Subject Area(s): U.S. History Grade Level(s)/Course: 9-12 The student will analyze primary documents (presidential inaugurals speeches) and research historical events to determine to what extent Stated Objective(s) presidents achieved the goals stated in their inaugural addresses. The student will create a presentation on an assigned president, analyzing his inaugural speech, describing relevant events and programs, and evaluating his effectiveness. NE Standards Essential Question 12.1.13 Students will develop skills for historical analysis 12.1.14 Students will demonstrate verbal and written skills that focus on enduring issues, divergent viewpoints, and excerpts from famous speeches and documents in United States history To what extent have presidents since World War II achieved the goals stated in their inaugural addresses? 1st meeting: Divide students into groups of 3 to 4. Each group will analyze the speech looking for goals, specific laws, and programs the president delineates in his speech. An example is from Johnson’s 1964 inaugural address. (See addendum #1) Each will report on goals identified from the reading. The class will come to a consensus on three major from the speech. Assignment option: Students will research Johnson’s first term to assess his success at achieve the identified goals. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/pimenu.html 2nd meeting: In their groups students will evaluate Johnson presidency. The groups will be asked to respond to the following questions: • What some examples of the president’s efforts at achieving his goals? • Were these efforts successful? Explain.
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Learning Activities

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

• If his efforts were not judged successful, why did he fail? • Can these successes or failures be assigned to the President, Congress, or other unforeseen events? Assignment option: Each group will select a post World War II president. Research on internet sites: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/pimenu.html www.americanpresident.org/history Using the inaugural speech they will identify two to three goals stated in the speech. Each student will bring their research to class. 3rd meeting: Each group will come to a consensus on their president’s goals. Each group will research their president’s term assessing to what extend the goals were met. Each group should use the following questions: • Were these efforts successful? Explain. • If his efforts were not judged successful, why did he fail? • Can these successes or failures be assigned to the President, Congress, or other unforeseen events? 4th meeting: Each group report findings and assessment of their president. See Note Taking Form addendum #2, and rubric for presentation addendum #3

Assessment/ Evaluation

After hearing the presentations, each student will write a report on their selection of the top three presidents. This report must include evidence to support their selection. Student Handout: Addendum #1 Lyndon Johnson’s 1964 Inaugural Speech Addendum #2 Note Taking Form Addendum #2 Presidential Rubric Technology Resources: Computer http://www.archives.gov/presidential-libraries/index.html http://www.americanpresidents.org/ http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/ http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/president/gallery/main.cfm http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/collections/pres/

Materials:

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Addendum #1

This is an edited excerpt from Lyndon Johnson’s 1964 inaugural address. This is to be used as an example or model for students to use before they start on their own research

“Unfortunately, many Americans live on the outskirts of hope--some because of their poverty, and some because of their color, and all too many because of both. Our task is to help replace their despair with opportunity. This administration today, here and now, declares unconditional war on poverty in America. I urge this Congress and all Americans to join with me in that effort. It will not be a short or easy struggle, no single weapon or strategy will suffice, but we shall not rest until that war is won. The richest Nation on earth can afford to win it. We cannot afford to lose it. One thousand dollars invested in salvaging an unemployable youth today can return $40,000 or more in his lifetime. Poverty is a national problem, requiring improved national organization and support. But this attack, to be effective, must also be organized at the State and the local level and must be supported and directed by State and local efforts. For the war against poverty will not be won here in Washington. It must be won in the field, in every private home, in every public office, from the courthouse to the White House. The program I shall propose will emphasize this cooperative approach to help that onefifth of all American families with incomes too small to even meet their basic needs. Our chief weapons in a more pinpointed attack will be better schools, and better health, and better homes, and better training, and better job opportunities to help more Americans, especially young Americans, escape from squalor and misery and unemployment rolls where other citizens help to carry them.”

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Addendum #2
U.S. History Presidential Promises Section Name

PROMISES 1)

SUCCESS/FAILURE 1)

2)

2)

3)

3)

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Addendum #3

Presentation Rubric
Trait Content 60%

A (100-93)

B (92-85)
Presentation attempts to identify presidential goals stated in the speech, has a thesis, at least 2 historical examples, somewhat balanced, and limited analysis. Presentation has an introduction, major points, and conclusion. The distinction among the parts is difficult to recognize and transitions awkward. Presentation is generally easy to follow. Presenter: -is impersonal or bland. -is mildly interesting. -uses clear language. -uses visuals that aid the presentation. -is at least aware of audience.

C (84-77)
Presentation identifies some presidential goals stated in the speech, has vague or incomplete thesis, at least 2 historical examples, not balanced, and little analysis. Presentation has an introduction, major points, and conclusion but not of equal quality. The lack of organization makes the presentation confusing.

Do-over
Presentation inaccurately identifies presidential goals stated in the speech, has ambiguous or unresponsive thesis, has unrelated or no historical examples. Presentation is unorganized and difficult to follow.

Presentation accurately identifies presidential goals stated in the speech, has a clear thesis, at least 3 historical examples, with generally equal balance, and analysis. Organization Presentation is clearly organized 20% with an introduction, major points, and conclusion. The parts are distinct and transitions smooth. Presentation is easy to follow and logical.

Presentation Presenter:
Voice Choice Fluency Conventions PowerPoint -speaks to the audience. -is interesting. -uses precise language. -uses visuals that enhance and illuminate. -is aware of and sensitive to audience.

20%

Presenter: -is indifferent. -reads too much. -uses imprecise language. -uses visuals that are not always helpful or relevant. -is unaware of audience needs.

Presenter -is confusing. -off topic. -unclear. -uses irrelevant visuals or none at all. -is oblivious to audience.

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Additional Lesson Plan Ideas
 Assign each student or group of students to one inaugural address. Ask them to read through the address and create a list of that President’s promises and priorities according to his speech. Once the list is created, ask students to research that President’s term in office and report on how many of those promises were kept and how his priorities may have shifted during his time in office.



Ask students to read through a selection of inaugural addresses and pick out famous quotes they might have heard previously. Together as a class, put those quotes in a historical context. Selections may include John F. Kennedy’s 1961 inaugural address quote, ―Ask not what your country can do for you-ask what you can do for your country,‖ or Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1933 inaugural address quote, ―The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.‖



Assign students a period in history. Ask them to write an inaugural speech addressing the concerns and hopes of our country at that time.



Choose two presidential speeches 20, 50, or 100 years apart, ask students to read the speeches, then compare and contrast the style of the speech, the concerns expressed in the speech and the Presidents themselves. Perhaps compare our past father and son Presidents: George Herbert Walker Bush (1989–1993) and George W. Bush (2001-2009) or John Adams (1797–1801) and John Quincy Adams (1825-1829).

Presidential Inauguration LINKS From
http://surfaquarium.com/NEWSLETTER/inaugural.htm Consider the possibilities for your students..... 2009 Inauguration Day http://inaugural.senate.gov/history/daysevents/index.cfm The official site for Obama's inauguration, housed on the U.S. Senate server. This web site provides detailed explanation of each event occurring on Inauguration Day, from morning worship through the latenight Inaugural Ball. Of particular value is the historical context for each event, providing perspective for students. See also http://www.inauguration.dc.gov/links.asp.

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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2009 Inauguration Day Clip Art and Resources for Writers http://hubpages.com/hub/inauguration-day-clip-art Nice collection of images that can be used in creating materials to study and celebrate Inauguration 2009, including buttons and pins and images of Obama. Select a thumbnail to see a larger version of the image; select the larger image to open it full-sized in a new pop-up window; right-click on the image to copy or save it to your hard drive. 44th President: Barack Obama http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/President44/ ABC News presents information on the administration Obama is putting together, questions about inaugural balls and issues he will face as he takes office. The Diane Sawyer interview comes in nice bytesized video clips that are easy to load and run and shares insights into Obama's formative years. The American Presidency: A Glorious Burden http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/ The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History offers this well-designed examination of the American Presidency from elections to inaugurations to accomplishments using an interactive timeline and tying each President to objects and eras from history. American Presidents: Life Portraits and the Library of Congress Connection http://americanpresidents.org/loc/ C-SPAN and the Library of Congress pooled their resources to present this comprehensive look at all 43 chief executives, based on the series of the same name. Great links to everything from presidential libraries and national memorials to birthplaces and gravesites. Great curriculum resources too. Barack Obama Biography http://www.biography.com/featured-biography/barack-obama/index.jsp Biography.com offers this online version of its popular biographical format, including links to other related people; select the Video and Images link to view multimedia about Barack. Barack Obama Quotes http://www.barackobama.net/barack-obama-quotes.html From Barack Obama.net, this is a good collection of short quotes from the President-elect that are revealing and inspiring. Quick-loading plain text makes it worth bookmarking. Barack Obama's Photostream http://www.flickr.com/photos/barackobamadotcom This is the Flickr collection of Obama images, 2,951 pages in all, free and available online for you and your students to peruse. By Popular Demand: Portraits of the Presidents and First Ladies http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/odmdhtml/preshome.html Students can sift through 156 portraits of presidents and first ladies from then Library of Congress, including formal portraits, military settings or informal surroundings, images of the White House, and particularly popular photos of Abraham Lincoln with Sojourner Truth, Calvin Coolidge at a baseball game, and Dwight D. Eisenhower with American paratroopers in England. Capitol Virtual Tour http://www.senate.gov/vtour/index.html This JAVA-based presentation comes in both high and low bandwidth versions, using QuickTime Virtual Reality technology to provide 360 degree panoramic views of the different rooms and chambers on the tour. Links to historical events that took place in different locations are a value-added bonus.

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Change.gov http://change.gov/ The official site of the Office of the President-Elect, covering plans for the transition to the Obama administration including information on both Obama and Biden, announcements, agendas, and the opportunity to blog and share your own aspirations for the new government. Experience DC http://www.washington.org/visiting/experience-dc/presidential-inauguration/information This D.C.-based website offers local information on the upcoming inauguration with links to all kinds of information about events, tourism, businesses, services, traffic and other pertinent information for those planning to see the swearing in live. See also http://ahp.gatech.edu/dc_map.html for an interactive map of the National Mall. History of Inaugural Balls http://americanhistory.suite101.com/article.cfm/history_of_inaugural_balls Kirk Brown offers this concise review of inaugural balls over the years, including how the number of balls has grown over time, which balls were canceled and why, how both of President Grant's balls were ruined, and how President Truman saved the tradition of inaugural balls for us today. "I Do Solemnly Swear . . ." http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/pihome.html This Library of Congress presentation touts some 2,000 digital files relating to inaugurations from George Washington's to George W. Bush, including diaries, letters, handwritten drafts of inaugural addresses, broadsides, inaugural tickets, programs, prints, photographs, and sheet music. Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/inaug.asp Yale Law School's Avalon Project offers this hotlist of links to each President's inaugural address, from 1789 to 1989 (Clinton and George W. Bush's pages are not available), in quick-loading plain text pages that are easy on the eyes and easy on your printing resources. See also http://www.bartleby.com/124/ for Clinton and G.W. Bush speeches. Inaugural History http://www.cbsnews.com/htdocs/politics/inauguration/history.pdf CBS News offers this Acrobat document that presents trivia as well as a chronological accounting of each inauguration since Washington. Not able to view the file? You may need to download the Acrobat plugin from Adobe by pointing your browser to http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html. Inaugural Precedents and Notable Events http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/pinotable.html All kinds of trivia on inaugurations over the years, listed chronologically from the first to walk to and from his inaugural and the first sworn in wearing long pants, to the first known newspaper illustration of a presidential inauguration and the first inaugural recorded by video camera. Inauguration History http://uselectionwatch.org.au/elections-101/inauguration U.S. Election Watch offers this quick-reading collection of facts about presidential inaugurations, including famous firsts, noteworthy trivia about addresses, traditional inauguration day events, and significant quotes from Presidents making their inaugural addresses. See also http://clinton4.nara.gov/textonly/WH/Family/html/inauguration_history.html.

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Inauguration History Quiz http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/inauguration2001/quiz.htm This ten-item quiz on presidential inauguration trivia is presented by the Washington Post to stir interest and curiosity in the history of this event. Once you're done, hit the "How'd I do?" button to have the answers spawned in a new pop-up window. Whether you get them right or not, the questions prompt learning and discussion. Inauguration Watch http://voices.washingtonpost.com/inauguration-watch/ The Washington Post's coverage of the 2009 inauguration, including news coverage, reporter blogs, and a widget for syndicated coverage of news as it is reported. Also browse stories by category and date, use the Post's new, improved search function, or subscribe to the RSS feed. Inaugurations from George W to George W... http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/inaug/home.html Flash-based site from the Library of Congress' Learning Pages that provides an overview and insight into the tradition and history of this American spectacle, including video clips, images of primary source documents, and interactive SchockWave based activities. Prepared for the 2005 inauguration. Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies http://inaugural.senate.gov/ Did you know the senate is responsible for planning and conducting the inauguration? This is the official site of the committee that is sponsoring this year's event, including a nice treatment of certain eras of inaugural history and information on developments for this year's inaugural event. Location of the Inauguration http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/daily/graphics/inaugLocation_012005.html The Washington Post offers this interesting set of information on the different venues used for swearing in American Presidents and why, as well as a chronological listing of the history of the weather for each inauguration from the warmest to the very coldest temperatures. Military Inaugural Tradition http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=40896 The U.S. Department of Defense offers this summary of the role of the military in inaugurations since 1789. Read also about the Marine Marching Band role at http://www.defense.gov/home/articles/200501/a011205tj1.html and a broader summary of the day including military participation at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Inauguration-Day. Obama Inauguration Caravan http://my.barackobama.com/page/event/detail/organizing/4455w From the official campaign site, Elizabeth McKinley and 500 of her friends from around the country plan to travel from their homes to Washington, D.C. for the inauguration. Read about the plans to converge on our nation's capital and check out the links to groups who will be participating. Even sign up if you plan to participate! Presidential Inauguration.com http://www.presidential-inauguration.com/ This unofficial site with info on planning a trip to the inauguration. Research Metro tickets at http://www.wmata.com/inauguration/ and get more travel tips at http://www.usatoday.com/travel/news/2008-11-10-inauguration-tips_N.htm. Find even more at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27596406/ and http://blog.findingdulcinea.com/2008/11/inauguration-daytravel-get-a-glimpse-of-history.html.

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Presidential Inauguration History http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4182559.stm Done for the 2005 oath-taking, the BBC offers this decidedly British look at the history of U.S. presidential inaugurations, including some unique explanations about when and why the date of inauguration day has changed over time, who gave the shortest inaugural address, and the parade route used. Presidential Library Audiovisual Finding Aids http://www.sos.state.mi.us/history/museum/explore/museums/hismus/1900-75/depressn/index.html The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration offers these links to collections of modern presidential photos and videos including Franklin Roosevelt, Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Johnson, Nixon, Ford , Carter and Reagan, through their respective presidential libraries. Presidential Oaths of Office http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/pioaths.html The official oath as prescribed by Article II, Section I of the U.S. Constitution along with a complete listing of each swearing in by President, date, location and Chief Justice. See also http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/pibible.html for Bibles and Scripture Passages Used by Presidents in Taking the Oath of Office. Presidential Succession http://www.continuityofgovernment.org/investigation/succession.html The Continuity of Government Commission offers this succinct description of the current provisions for succession of power, as well as the considerations under discussion to address succession in the 21st century. For a more basic and explicit explanation of the Presidential Succession Act of 1947 see http://bensguide.gpo.gov/9-12/government/national/succession.html. Songs and Oaths: Inauguration http://bensguide.gpo.gov/3-5/symbols/oaths.html Ben's Guide for Elementary Students presents this one page summary of the oaths of office for the American President, Vice-President, members of Congress, and members of the Supreme Court. For more information on the official song of the Commander in CHief, "Hail to the Chief," see http://bensguide.gpo.gov/3-5/symbols/hail.html. Twitter: Inauguration http://twitter.com/inauguration Aggregated collection of information on the upcoming event compiled by Twitter, generated by its users. Great way to tap into the ongoing coverage and human interest stories generated by news sources from around the world covering the upcoming swearing in of our 44th President. Washington Inauguration, 1789 http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/washingtoninaug.htm Part of the Eyewitness to History site, this is a one page recounting of Washington's first swearing in with first-person accounts of the event and accompanying illustrations. A printable version is also offered if you prefer to share it in hard copy as part of your students' inaugural study. White House Tour http://www.whitehouse.gov/kids/tour/ This is the official White House tour led by Spotty the dog and covering the Library, China Room, East Room, Green Room, Red Room, Blue Room, Vermeil Room and the State Dining Room. Select the Today and Yesterday link to see how rooms have changed over time, and enjoy interactive learning.

US Presidential Inauguration K-12 Lesson Plan Packet Compiled by Kim Corns and Don Mitchell, CMS Curriculum & Instruction Global Studies December 9, 2008

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Who Knew? U.S. Presidential Trivia http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/08/0823_040823_presidentialtrivia.html National Geographic offers these fascinating facts about Presidents over the years, from the first President born a U.S. citizen and the first President to travel abroad, to the four Presidents who were elected without a majority vote and the President who received every electoral vote but one. The Works of John Philip Sousa http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tQhWtRW-KKA Listen to MP2 and MIDI versions of patriotic songs from "America's March King," many of which will be showcased at the 2009 inauguration, including Stars and Stripes Forever, Semper Fidelis and the Washington Post. Select the Home link to learn more about this prolific composer of timeless Americana. You Tube: 39 Words that Make a President http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tQhWtRW-KKA View this video of FDR's 1933 inauguration, then scroll through the related videos on the right to view 40 other inauguration videos from over the years; scroll to the very bottom to link to a one page hotlist of all the videos under the topic of presidential inaugurations. The Innovative Teaching Newsletter is free to educators everywhere. Copyright©2008 http://surfaquarium.com/NEWSLETTER/ This newsletter may be forwarded, copied and distributed provided the header and signature information remain intact.

Barack Obama

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