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					     CEM    CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT




2101696: PROJECT PLANNING AND
          SCHEDULING


       Lecture Note: Chapter 2
  Techniques for Project Planning and
              Scheduling

                   By


Assist.Prof. Vachara Peansupap (Ph.D.)


          SEMESTER 1 2008



 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
    CHULALONGKORN UNIVERSITY
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                23


Chapter 2 Techniques for Project Planning
Assist.Prof.Dr. Vachara Peansupap
Department of Civil Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand



This chapter focused on basic techniques for project planning. It starts with the
overview of project planning development and basic information required for
planning. Next, it will focus on first three project planning tools, which are bar-chart
(Gantt chart) and network diagram. Then each planning technique is reviewed and
discussed about their benefits and limitations of its use in a construction project.
Finally the chapter will focus on the development of network diagram.


2.1 Overview of project planning development
The development of project planning is known as the important process of project
management. It helps project manager to prepare and explore the detail plan of how to
construct and manage a construction project. Without the suitable plan, project
manager may encounter several problems throughout construction project due to risks
and uncertainty. For example, the construction project in the central city area may be
stopped because the neighborhood accuse about the sound during working overtime.
The results of this may impact on construction time and cost. Thus, the planning of
this construction project should be recognized on limited time for construction at
night time and attempts to solve this problem before starting construction work.
Construction is the complex process that involves with many activities, resource and
people. Therefore, planning and control of construction project requires the tool or
technique that helps project manager to establish and monitor. Construction planning
provides several benefits, which are
    •    Technique can be used to identify and plan the details of construction work
         before starting the project.
    •    It can identify the critical activity that project manager should be aware and
         closely monitor.
    •    It can be used as the control document that project manager can compare with
         the expected plan.
    •    The planning data can be updated and identify the real critical activity.



Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                24


Schroeder R.G. (1993) defines the differences between planning, scheduling and
controlling
First project planning is dealing with
         Identify the project requirement
         Establish the object and project outcome
         Define the project objectives
         Estimate total time and resources required
         Form the project organization
         Define major task required
         Establish a budget
Second the project scheduling consists of
         Develop a detailed work-breakdown structure
         Estimate time required for each task
         Establish the sequence of the tasks in the proper order
         Define the start and finish of each task
         Estimate the budget required for each task
         Assign people to tasks
Finally project control involves with
         Monitor actual time, cost and performance for each task
         Compare planned and actual time and cost
         Determine the requirement of corrective action
         Evaluate of corrective action
         Take a suitable corrective action




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                25



2.1.1 Basic information required for planning
During the planning phase, primary information is required for making decision on
planning such as construction methods and sequence, work quantity, budget, work
performance.
Construction method plan
Method of construction aims to identify on how to construct the construction project,
for example, retaining wall consists of footings and walls. The traditional method may
construct into the following sequence such as Footing1- Footing2 and then Wall1-
Wall2. However, the sequence may be changed into two steps of construction, which
are Footing1- Wall1 and then Footing2- Wall2. By using the second method, it helps to
shorten project duration because the wall1 activity allows beginning at the same time
with footing2 activity (see Figure 2-1).




                                                            Wall2




                                      Wall1                             Footing2



                                                            Footing1




                        Footing1                 Footing2


                                                  Wall1



                        Footing1                 Footing2              Wall2


                                                  Wall1



                        Footing1                 Footing2              Wall2
                5                       8                       12                 14

                                Dummy1
                                                   Wall1
                                            10

                          Figure 2-1 Sequence and method of construction


Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                        26


For example 2.2: prefabricated building structure can be decomposed into different
components. These are piling, foundations, columns, beams, roofs, slabs, walls, and
so on.


                                an                                         ao
                                                ai       aj           ak
                                  ah                                       al
            ag               ad                      ae                         af            am

              z                        aa                     ab                     ac
                            w                        x                          y


              s                        t                      u                      v
                            p                        q                          r


              l                        m                      n                      o
                            i                        j                          k
                  e                         f                     g                       h

                   a                        b                      c                      d

                   Figure 2-2 Sequence and method of prefabrication housing project


This example can be developed the sequence into arrow network diagram




                  Figure 2-3 Network arrow diagram of prefabrication housing project




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                27


Work quantity
In construction practice, the process of quantity take-off is defined as an important
part of construction estimating. This process provides information about the amount
of works that are expected to build. The work quantity is used to identify construction
project cost. Additionally the information of work quantity can be used to estimate
time, resource and cost of finishing each activity. Most of the quantity is derived from
the bill of quantity (BOQ) that shows the amount of work.


Example 2.3: the brick wall and finishing with cement plaster activity




                                                                                  Brick wall
3m
                                                                                  and finishing
                                                                                  with cement
                                                                                  plaster
                              5m                        5m



                        How many materials do you use for building
                        this 2 walls size 5x3?

                    Figure 2-4 Brick wall and finishing with cement paster work


Time planning
There are two main issues related to time planning, which are time interval, and
productivity rate of labor and equipment. First, time interval refers to the duration
unit, in which project is used to manage and control. Time interval can be determined
in form of hourly, daily, weekly or monthly period. It depends on how much details of
each activity should be planed, controlled, and monitored. During the management of
construction activity, the time interval is normally determined in form of daily period
but sometimes this may be grouped project time into weekly or monthly depending on
the objective of presentation.
Productivity rate is required to calculate the activity duration. Its information can be
obtained from two sources which are worker experience and work performance
records. We can also use the simulation software to explore the productivity rate of
activity in construction project. After we have productivity rate, we can calculate the

Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                   28


activity duration by using work quantity divided by productivity. For example, the
foundation work has quantity of soil excavation equal to 2,500 m3 and the
productivity rate of 5 labors excavation is assumed to be 20 m3 per day (for 5 labors).
Therefore, the duration of excavation soil at foundation is equal 12.5 days.


                               Wall                      Wall
 Column




                                                                            Material
               Labor and equipment
                                                                            location




    Plan view                     Equipment                                            Material
                                                                                       location



                            Figure 2-5 The activity related to brick work



2.2 The process of project planning
The process of project planning can be summarized into
          •   Identify and breakdown activity
          •   Define the relationship and constraints
          •   Provide duration of each activity
          •   Develop sequence of activity in network based on the relationship
          •   Determine the resource (labor, material or equipment) involving in operating the
              activity


2.2.1 Identify and breakdown activity
The identification of activity is defined as the fundamental task of project planning. It
helps the project manager and their teams to understand on the details of all main
activities in construction project. The process of identification and breakdown activity
can be borrowed the concept of work breakdown structure (WBS) that discussed in
Chapter 1.




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                 29


2.2.2 Define the relationship and constraints
Not all activities in construction project can start at the same period of time. Some
activities in a construction project must follow the other activities due to construction
sequence constraints. For example, the column at 1st floor should be built before the
construction of the 2nd floor. The activity required to finish before other activities is
called ‘Predecessor’ while the activity that occurs behind other activities is named as
‘Successor’
The relationship between activities can be presented as line that links, which can be
categorized into four types of relationship.
         Finish to Start (FS) refers to the relationship that all predecessors must be
         finished so that the following activity can be started such as the piling work
         should be finished before excavation can be started.
         Finish to Finish (FF) refers to the relationship that predecessor must be
         finished at the same period time of successor
         Start to Finish (SF) refers to the relationship that at predecessor activities
         should be finished when all successors should be finished at the same time.
         Start to Start (SS) refers to the relationship that at least two activities must be
         started at the same period of time.
From the above relationship, it is found that some activities may have some
constraints. These constraints can be occurred due to the limitation of construction
methods or procurement constraints. For example, the painting wall can not be started
when the brick wall and plaster activities have been finished the installation of lift
may required the early start to order the lift.


2.2.3 Duration of each activity
The definition of duration is derived from planner’s experience or previous data from
the previous project. Thus, the duration may be called ‘expected duration’ because it
is based on planner’s justification plus project constraints (man + machine + money +
material)




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                 30


2.2.4 Develop sequence of activity
Traditional way of presenting activity sequence in the construction is normally used
bar-chart or Gantt chart. This bar chart can helps to present the duration of activity in
sequence. Each activity will present the early start and early finish date. Even though
they are some limitations of showing relationships between activities by using
traditional bar-chart. However, it has usually used as a tool to present current status of
most construction projects nowadays.
Network diagram is one of the project planning techniques that helps project manager
to understand relationships of activities along the project duration. The concept of
critical path methods (CPM) is emphasized on activities to be completed, thus it can
be represented as links that connect with two nodes. This concept helps to identify the
early start, early finish, late start, and late finish date. Furthermore, the information
can be used to explore the critical activity and float that occurs in each activity. There
are two main concepts of network diagram, which are:
    •    Activity on arrow or network arrow diagram
    •    Activity on node or precedence diagram
Although the benefits of using network concept are known, several project managers
did not use this concept in construction project planning and control. One reason is
that the network concept is not quite easy to get understanding, especially with the top
manager, client, or sub-contractors. It should be recommended that the use of network
concept in planning can provide the same information comparing to the use of bar
chart. Thus, the information of CPM in practice can be reported in form of bar-chart
rather than network diagram if we want to communicate with top manager, client, or
sub-contractors while engineer who have knowledge about planning network can still
obtain the benefits from it. In this chapter, author will introduce and focus more on
development of plan via using bar-chart and network concept.


2.3 Development of plan by using Bar-chart

2.3.1 Component of bar-chart
Most of bar-chart will present information about activity name, duration, and
predecessors in the left table of bar-chart while the right area of bar-chart contains
with project time interval and bar-line of each activity. Each activity is represented by



Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                31


using bar-line that has the start and end date of line. The length of bar will represent
the activity time or duration.


The development of plan by using bar-chart is quite simple. Processes of project
planning by using bar-chart can be described as below.
    •    Identify and breakdown the activity
    •    Calculate duration of each activity
    •    Draw bar of activity based on the duration and relationship
    •    Determine the resource (labor, material or equipment) involving in operating
         the activity


Example: the small housing project contains with information of activity, activity time
and predecessor.


Bar-chart




2.3.2 Create Bar-chart diagram or GANTT chart
From the above information, the bar-chart can be drawn as Figure 2-6. The duration
of each activity can be presented as a length of bar. The beginning of bar-chart is
calculated from the accumulation of activity duration from the predecessors.




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                                               32

                                                                       DURATION TIMES (DAYS)
No.        DESRCIPTION
                                   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23   24   25 26

 1 DIG BASEMENT (DIG)

 2 POUR FOUNDATION (FOUND)

 3 INSTALL FLOOR JOISTS (JOISTS)

 4 POUR BASEMENT (POURB)

 5 INSTALL WALLS (WALLS)

 6 INSTALL FLOORING (FLOOR)

 7 INSTALL RAFTERS (RAFTERS)

 8 ROUGH INTERIOR (ROUGH)

 9 INSTALL ROOF (ROOF)

10 FINISH INTERIOR (FINISH)

11 LANDSCAPE (SCAPE)


                Figure 2-6 The bar-chart of housing project (without relationshp line)
However, the planning in practice is also depended on the calendar that contains with
holiday. Therefore, the duration of activity may be lengthen in cases of activity that
passes over the period of holiday or weekend (see Figure 2-7).




           Figure 2-7 The bar-chart of housing project from Microsoft Project Program




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                33



2.4 Development of construction plan by using network
arrow diagram

2.4.1 Component of arrow network diagram (Activity on Arrow)
The use of arrow network diagram helps to overcome the limitation of using bar-chart
or Gantt-chart. It aims to explain the relationship between activities by using and
event (node). The component of arrow network diagram consists of node and arrow.
The arrow presents the activity name and duration while the head and tail of arrow is
used to explain the direction and relationship between two activities (see Figure 1).
Each node contains with event number that helps developing merge or explode logic
of activity in network.

                                                 Activity
                                       i                         j
                                                  time

                                            Basic activity

              Figure 2-8 The basic component of activity in arrow network diagram.

2.4.2 Basic logic patterns for arrow network diagram
There are four patterns of arrow network diagram, which are independent activities,
dependent activities, merge relationship, and burst relationship.
Independent activities mean that two activities do not have any relationship. It should
be emphasize that number of node in these two activities does not have the same
number.

                              A                                       B
                  2                          3               6                   7


                                           Independent activities

                        Figure 2-9 Independent activities of activities in AoA


Dependent activities mean that two activities have the relationship. It should be
highlight that number of node in these two activities should have at least one that has
the same number. Figure 2-10 illustrates that the activity A started before the activity
B. In this case, the event number of arrow head from the activity A has a similar the
event number of arrow tail from activity B.




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                34

                                          A                   B
                               2                      4                   6


                                              Dependent activities

                        Figure 2-10 Dependent activities of activities in AoA

Merge relationship occurs when two or more activities are required to finish before
beginning of following activity. On the other word, an activity can begin if two or
more activities that an activity is dependent have been completed.


               2             A

                                                          C
                                               6                     8          Merge
                             B
                                                                                relationship
               4


                         Figure 2-11 Merge relationship of activities in AoA


Burst relationship describes the situation, in which an activity is required to complete
then the following two or more activities can start. On the other hand, two activities is
required to follow on prior activities.


                                                          B          7
                              A
               3                              5                                 Burst
                                                          C                     relationship
                                                                     9


                         Figure 2-12 Burst relationship of activities in AoA




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                 35


Cross relationship occurs when two or more activities are required to complete before
two or more activities can start. Figure 2-13 shows the activity A and B must be
finished before activity C and D can begin.


                2             A                          C              7


                                              6
                              B                          D

                4                                                       9


                                  Cross relationship

                         Figure 2-13 Cross relationship of activities in AoA



2.4.3 Dummy activity
In arrow network diagram concept, it is required to add dummy activity that helps to
explain a specific relationship which are cross relationship and loop problems.


          2         A                  C          7

                             6
                    B                  D
          4                                       9          (a)


                    A                  C
          2                  6                    7

                                 Dummy

                    B                  D
          4                  5                    9          (b)


          Figure 2-14 The use of dummy activity in solving cross relationship constraints


It may be found that an activity may depend on only one activity that is merged with
another activity. The use of dummy activity can be solved the problem of cross
relationship. Figure 2-14a illustrated that activity C and activity D are dependent on
both prior activity A and activity B. However, if activity D is only dependent on


Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                36


activity B, activity D is required to add the activity so call ‘dummy’ in network see
Figure 2-14b.


2.4.4 Un-logical relationship of network
By using network, there are some limitation or prohibit of drawing network that use
the same nodes in both end of different activities.


                                A


         4                                     8
                                B                          (a)




                   A
          4                                     8
                                      B
             Dummy
                            6                              (b)




                    A
          4                                     8
                        B
                                       Dummy
                            6                              (c)



                      Figure 2-15 The use of dummy in solving the loop in AoA

In case loop problem, the dummy activity can be added to overcome this limitation.
The example of dummy activity is shown in Figure 2-18b and Figure 2-18c.




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                 37


Rules of network diagram

                           C,5                 F,3        H,2
         A,2        5                15              25            30


                              E,2             G,1
 1
                                                                          Open-ended activity
            B,3
                                                                    35
                            D,4
                   10                20



                             Figure 2-16 The open-ended activity in AoA


 •       The network should display the              •    No activity has the same start and end
         correct sequence of each activity                node or event number.
         based on construction method.               •    Each activity should have end node or
 •       Each activity should have start and              event (no open-ended activity).
         end node or event.                          •    Each activity should have the
 •       Each node or event should define the             predecessors except the beginning
         number based on sequence.                        activity

2.4.5 Create arrow network diagram (Activity on Arrow, AoA)
The development of arrow network diagram consists of several processes, which are:
     •     Identify and breakdown the activity
     •     Define the relationship and constraints
     •     Calculate duration of each activity
     •     Develop sequence of activity in network based on the relationship
     •     Calculate network diagram and
     •     Determine the resource (labor, material or equipment) involving in operating
           the activity
Figure 2-19 presents the basic arrow network diagram of eight activities (A, B, C,…,
and H). The activity A and B start at the beginning of the project while activity H is
the last activity in this network. In addition, activity H can be started when activity F
and G must be finished.




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
    2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                        38


                                          C,5                        F,3                H,2
                 A,2             5                          15                25                  30


                                                  E,2            G,1
          1
                      B,3
                                           D,4
                                10                          20


                  Figure 2-17 The basic component of activity in arrow network diagram.


    Based on the above example 2.4, the project information can develop arrow network
    diagram as shown in Figure 2-18.


                                      Joints                 Floor         Rough         Finish

                                                       15            30            45             50



        Dig            Found            Pourb

1                 5              10               20

                                                       Dummy
                                         Walls            Rafter           Roof

                                                       25             40
                                                                 Scape



                        Figure 2-18 The arrow network diagram of housing project




    Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
    Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                          39



2.5 Development of construction plan by using network
precedence diagram (Activity on Node, AoN)
2.5.1 Component of precedence network diagram
Precedence network diagram or activity on node (AoN) consists of activity name,
project duration, and the sequence of activity (see Figure 2-19). The activity name and
project duration are located in the node. The line between two nodes can present the
relationship of these two activities. As the line did not show the arrow therefore, the
sequence number is used to assign direction of relationship. The low number of
sequence refers to the level of activity A can begin while a higher number of sequence
means the next activity that occur after the activity B (that has low number of
sequence) is completed.

                                    1                                      2


                                  A, tA                                   B, tB



                                                                                  tB = duration of
                     Activity A           tA = duration of   Activity B           activity B
                                          activity A
                Figure 2-19 The component of network precedence diagram or AoN


It should be highlighted that the component of arrow network diagram can merely
developed a network under Finish-to-Start relationship whereas the network
precedence diagram or activity on node (AoN) can help to create other relationships
between activities such as Start-to-Finish (SF), Start-to-Start (SS), Finish-to-Finish
(FF) relationships. By using activity on node (AoN), the relationship between
activities can be illustrated in Figure 2-20. The network of activity on node is called
precedence network diagram.




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                  40


.Finish-to-Start (FS) relationship


                           Activity                           Activity
                             A                                  B


Start-to-Finish (SF) relationship


                           Activity                           Activity
                             A                                  B


Start-to-Start (SS) relationship



                           Activity                           Activity
                             A                                  B


Finish-to-Finish (FF) relationship




                           Activity                           Activity
                             A                                  B


     Figure 2-20 The relationships between activities in network precedence diagram or AoN


The details of activity on node can be constructed to provide details about the activity
name, duration, and other time value such as EF, ES, LF, LS, TF, FF etc. The
example of node can be delineated into Figure 2.21


                                               Duration


                        Early start (ES)                    Early finish (EF)
                                              ES Dur EF

                                               Activity
                        Late start (LS)                     Late finish (LF)
                                              LS TF LF


                                              Total float

      Figure 2-21 The detail information of activity in network precedence diagram or AoN

Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                41


2.5.2 Create Precedence Network Diagram (Activity on Node, AoN)
The basic development of precedence network diagram has the similar process with
AoA, which are:
    •    Identify and breakdown the activity
    •    Define the relationship and constraints
    •    Calculate duration of each activity
    •    Develop sequence of activity in network based on the relationship
    •    Calculate network diagram and
    •    Determine the resource (labor, material or equipment) involving in operating
         the activity
However, the relationship between activities is presented with line that links between
1stnode (predecessor activity) and 2nd node (sucessor activity). The line between
activities doesn’t show the arrow. Therefore, it is necessary to define the sign that
help to identify the sequence between activities (see Figure 2-22).


Example of Activity on Node (AoN)

                1             2                3                4           5




                A,3          B,4              C,5              G,2         H,1




                                              D,6   E,1




                                                    F,2



                Figure 2-22 The component of network precedence diagram or AoN


Figure 2-22 illustrates the component of network precedence diagram. There are six
activities in this network. A is the first activity that occurs and then B and C are the
successor of activity A. It should be noted that network precedence diagram will not
need the dummy activity. However, it should be careful about the open-ended and
open-started network (see Figure 2-23)

Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                42




                                 1                   2               3




                                 A                   C               E
                                 3                   4               3




                                 B                   D
                                 3                   2


                                       (a) Open-started network




                   1                     2                  3               4




                                         B                  D               F
                                          3                  4               3



                   A
                   2



                                         C                   E
                                          3                  2



                                       (b) Open-ended network

                         Figure 2-23 Open-started and open-ended network




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                43



2.5.3 Comparing network diagram between AoA and AoN


        A              B               C              D              E                   AoA
1                  5           15              20         25             30
        4              7               3              1              1
                       A               B              C              D         E
                   6           16              21         26             31         35
                       4               7              3              1         1
                                       A              B              C         D           E
                               17              22         27             32         36             40
                                       4              7              3         1               1




             A,3        B,4            C,5          D,2        E,1                       AoN


                        A,3            B,4          C,5        D,2       E,1




                                       A,3          B,4        C,5       D,2       E,1




                           Figure 2-24 Comparison between AoA and AoN


The comparison between AoA and AoN highlight some benefits of using Activity on
Node (AoN) which are:
    •       Most people familiar with flow diagram.
    •       No dummy is required.
    •       Activity is defined as a node so a new activity can be inserted between two
            existing activity without chaining the node number.




                                              ES Dur EF

                                               Activity

                                              LS TF LF



                                                 50%
                                               complete
Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2101696 Project Planning and Control (2008)                                                44




1. Size of box may take more space comparing to arrow diagram.

       2. The display of link may be confused due to the crossing line.




Assist.Prof.Dr.Vachara Peansupap
Construction Engineering and Management Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

				
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