Microsoft PowerPoint - David Wood

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					          Ecotourism and
         ecoenvironments
         Professor David Wood
     Curtin University of Technology




      Dilemmas of Tourism
• Size and significance of the industry
• Sustainability?
• Understanding tourism
  – A case study of Ningaloo




                                          1
        Size of the Industry
• Largest industry in world
• No. 2 behind coal in Australia
  – Exports (Balance of Trade)
  – Employment
  – Service sector industry




     Economic sustainability
    • Significant earnings
       –   BOP advantages
       –   Regional economic advantages - addressing decline
       –   Earnings in less developed economies
       –   Service sector compatibility & replacing other
           industries
    • Dependence & vulnerability to risk
       – Disease
       – Terrorism
       – Natural disasters
    • Competition & equity
    • Leakage




                                                               2
     Social sustainability
  • Employment opportunities
      – Income generation
      – Human Resource issues
  • Addressing decline
  • Exclusion from assets
      – Development by the sea
      – Crowding
      – Use of natural resources
  • Access to services
      – double edged sword
  • Encroachment on cultures and culturally significant
    places




Environmental sustainability
  • Management funding
  • Natural resource consumption
  • Pollution
      - Greenhouse gases
      - Ozone depletion
      - waste
  • Physical damage
  • Fauna and flora impacts




                                                          3
   Understanding tourism for
   informed decision-making
• Planning for and Managing impacts & reaping
  benefits
  – Behaviour in the environment
       • Activities
       • Attitudes
  –   Interactions with local people
  –   Consumption of resources
  –   Economic impacts
  –   Attraction of places




      Ningaloo - a case study




                                                4
     Ningaloo environments
• An accessible fringing reef 260 km long
• A fragile Karst limestone system
  – Permeable to water & waste
  – The home of subterranean fauna
  – A source of fresh water to the reef
• Limited natural resources and land
• Extreme events
• Susceptible to bleaching?




                                            5
                Using Ningaloo
• Stations, defences & whaling
• Oil exploration
• fishing
• Listening to the world
• Finding new directions to address rural decline (gas
  & oil, mining, fishing, tourism)
• Slow tourism growth
    – Economic outputs
    – Environmental concerns
• Gas & oil




           Tourism at Ningaloo
• Arresting decline
• Local sustenance
    – $120mill+ attributed to tourism direct spend
      Carnarvon to Exmouth
    – $85mill+ attributed to direct tourism spend in Exmouth
    – Nature of spend (accommodation, food, activities)
• Rapid and sustained growth
• Nature of activities
                                                Carlsen & Wood 2004




                                                                      6
                        Issues
• History of informal development
   – Coral bay
   – Stations and economic contribution
• Using the public domain for little public benefit
• Limited resources and carrying capacity
• New developments in townsites & along coast
   – Mauds Landing
   – Boat Harbour
   – Coastal sites
• Providing infrastructure




                                                      7
8
      Understanding Ningaloo
        a research agenda
• STCRC/Curtin
• AIMS, universities, Fisheries, CALM, GDC
• CSIRO Flagship
  – 4 Universities
  – CSIRO
  – STCRC
• Ningaloo Research group
  –   C ALM
  –   Universities
  –   WAMSI
  –   CSIRO




         CSIRO Flagship
      Wealth from the Oceans
• Project 1 - Habitats and Biodiversity
  – Murdoch University
• Project 2 - Human use
  – Murdoch University
• Project 3 - The socio-economics of tourism
  – Curtin University
• Project 4 - Socio-economic integration and
  Management Strategy Evaluation
  – The University of Western Australia




                                               9
  Project 3 - socio economics
   and impact measurement
• Valuing places toolkit - STCRC
• Destination model - CSIRO & STCRC




                Tollkit
• A web based data collection tool




                                      10
                   Overview

•   Development of the Valuing Places Toolkit
•   Issues that shape the Toolkit
•   Stages of the Toolkit
•   Toolkit demonstration




           Development of the
          Valuing Places Toolkit
• 1997-2005 Gascoyne region longitudinal
  data collection
• Sustainable Tourism CRC – Wood and
  Carlsen (2004)
    – Ningaloo and the Southern Forests
    – Increased funding for national & marine parks
    – Management uses (activities)
• STCRC toolkit project (2006)
• Commercialisation




                                                      11
    Shaping Economic Valuation
•       Direct Visitor Expenditure (variables)
    –     Visitor age
    –     Visitor income
    –     Origin
    –     Accommodation type
    –     activities
•       Visitor Numbers
•       Attribution and Substitution




    The Four Stages of the Valuing
           Places Toolkit
• Stage 1: Boundaries and Visitor Nights
• Stage 2: Rapid Evaluation Tool
• Stage 3: The Survey Tool
    –   Setting up the Questionnaire
    –   Training in Survey Administration
    –   Data Entry and Retrieval
    –   Running Repeat Surveys
• Stage 4: Professional Reporting Services
    – Additional data processing
    – Professionally Written Report


              TOOLKIT DEMONSTRATION




                                                 12
13
        STCRC Destination Modelling Approach

  Decision
  Government                                Chance
  Planning              Tourism              Risk
                   Information System




                                           Social &
  Economic
                                          Community
Transactions
                   Destination Model       nteractions




nfrastructure                                Market
Development                                  Demand




                   Environmental Load
Transport                Model             Natural
Linkages                                   Resourse
                                             Use




   Dispersed
    Impacts                             Concentrated
                                          Impacts
                   Ecosystems Impacts
                         Model




                                                         14

				
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