BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS UTM

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					About the Author:

Sanjan anak Daik is currently a lecturer at Batu Lintang Teachers’ Training Institute, Kuching,
Sarawak. He teaches the students in the ‘Program Ijazah Sarjana Muda Pendidikan’ (PISMP)
foundation and degree programmes for the Teacher Education Division, Ministry of Education in
collaboration with Malaysia Open University. In addition to lecturing, he is also an examiner of the
PISMP foundation and degree programme examinations. His previous experience includes being a
primary school teacher for fifteen years, a secondary school teacher for five years and as a part-
time lecturer and tutor in private colleges and local universities. The experience gained in these
fields has served to help develop professionally and personally in his current position as a teacher
educator. His research “Reading Habits of Teachers in Four Government-aided Secondary
Schools (Mission Schools) in Kuching District” focuses on the types of reading materials, frequency
of reading and factors that influence reading habits. This research would be of interest to
educators who seek to find the reading habits of teachers in other schools or institutions.
 READING HABITS OF TEACHERS IN FOUR GOVERNMENT-AIDED
SECONDARY SCHOOLS (MISSION SCHOOLS) IN KUCHING DISTRICT




                   SANJAN ANAK DAIK




            UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
                                                                                              PSZ 19:16 (Pind. 1/97)
                           UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

        BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESISυ
JUDUL:          Reading Habits of Teachers in Four Government-Aided Secondary
                Schools (Mission Schools) in Kuching District

                                      SESI PENGAJIAN: 2006/2007-1

Saya            SANJAN ANAK DAIK

mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/Sarjana/Doktor Falsafah)* ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:

1.     Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
2.     Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian
       sahaja.
3.     Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi
       pengajian tinggi.
4.     ** Sila tandakan ( 4 )


                      SULIT           (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau
                                      kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam
                                      AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972)

                                      Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan
                                      oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)



         √            TIDAK TERHAD




       Alamat Tetap:

       INSTITUT PERGURUAN BATU LINTANG                         .
       JALAN COLLEGE
       93200 KUCHING SARAWAK

       Tarikh    :       30 September 2006                  Tarikh    :     30 September 2006         .



CATATAN:         *     Potong yang tidak berkenaan.
                 **    Jika TESIS ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/organisasi
                       berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT
                       tau TERHAD.
                 υ     Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan,
                       atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek
                            Sarjana Muda (PSM).
    “I hereby declare that I have read this project report and in
my opinion that this project report is sufficient in terms of scope and
     quality for the award of the degree of Master of Education
           (Teaching of English as a Second Language)”
                                                                   i




 READING HABITS OF TEACHERS IN FOUR GOVERNMENT-AIDED
SECONDARY SCHOOLS (MISSION SCHOOLS) IN KUCHING DISTRICT




                       SANJAN ANAK DAIK




        A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the
             requirements for the award of the degree of
                         Master of Education




                         Faculty of Education
                    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia




                         SEPTEMBER 2006
                                                                                      ii




I declare that this project report entitled “Reading Habits of Teachers in Four
Government-Aided Secondary Schools (Mission Schools) in Kuching District” is the
result of my own research except as cited in the references. The project report has been
accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other
degree.




              Signature: …………………………………………


              Name     : SANJAN ANAK DAIK


              Date     : 30 SEPTEMBER 2006
                                                                                         iv




                                      ABSTRACT




Specifically, this study attempts to investigate the different types of reading materials,
frequency of reading, teaching load and factors that influence reading habits among
teachers in the four (4) government-aided secondary schools (Mission Secondary
Schools) in Kuching District. The respondents in this study were 118 teachers from the
four schools.     The main methodology employed in this study was a survey
questionnaire. Interviews were also conducted on twenty (20) of the teachers who had
responded to the questionnaires. The data were analysed and concluded that most of the
teachers have poor reading habits. The findings showed that most of the teachers read
both academic and non-academic reading materials, having reading frequency of only a
few hours a week and prefer to read at home while some teachers have heavy teaching
load that inhibit their reading habits. Based on this study, it will raise awareness on the
importance of readings among teachers. The result of this study has an implication on
the importance of inculcating the reading habit among school children at an early age.
                                                                               v




                                  ABSTRAK




      Secara khusus, kajian ini bertujuan mengkaji pelbagai jenis bahan bacaan,
kekerapan membaca, beban mengajar dan factor-faktor yang mempengaruhi amalan
membaca para guru di empat buah sekolah menengah bantuan (Mubaligh Kristian) di
daerah Kuching. Responden dalam kajian ini adalah terdiri daripada 118 orang guru
yang mengajar di empat buah sekolah menengah tersebut. Kaedah kajian yang utama
digunakan ialah soalselidik. Temuduga juga di jalankan ke atas 20 orang responden
yang turut menjawab soalselidik. Maklumat yang diperolehi dirumus dan didapati
kebanyakan para guru mempunyai amalan membaca yang kurang memuaskan. Hasil
kajian juga menunjukkan kebanyakan para guru membaca pelbagai bahan bacaan
akedemik dan juga bukan akedemik, mempunyai kekerapan membaca cuma beberapa
jam seminggu dan memilih untuk membaca di rumah manakala segelintir para guru
mempunyai beban mengajar yang berat sehingga menghalang mereka daripada
membaca.    Hasil kajian ini dapat memberi kesedaran kepada para guru betapa
pentingnya amalan membaca.     Hasil kajian ini juga mempunyai implikasi betapa
pentingnya amalan membaca dipupuk dikalangan kanak-kanak sekolah sejak usia muda.
                                                     vi




                          TABLE OF CONTENT




CHAPTER                                 TITLE   PAGE
   1      INTRODUCTION
          1.1 Introduction                       1
          1.2 Background of the Study            2
          1.3 Statement of the Problem           4
          1.4 Objectives of the Study            5
          1.5 Research Questions                 5
          1.6 Significance of the Study          5
          1.7 Scope of the Study                 6
          1.8 Limitation of the Study            6
          1.9 Definition of Terms                7
              1.9.1 Mission Schools              7
              1.9.2 Chung Hua Middle School      7
              1.9.3 Academic Materials           7
              1.9.4 Non-academic Materials       7
              1.9.5 Teaching Loads               7
              1.9.6 Extra Class                  7
                                                         vii




2   LITERATURE REVIEW
    2.1 Introduction                                 8
    2.2 What is Reading?                             8
    2.3 The Reading Process                          10
        2.3.1 Bottom-up Theory of Reading            11
        2.3.2 The Top-down Theory of Reading         13
        2.3.3 The Interactive Theory of Reading      15
    2.4 Attitude Towards Reading                     17
    2.5 Reading Motivation                           18
    2.6 Factors Affecting Reading                    18
        2.6.1 The Nature of Reading Materials        19
        2.6.2 Purpose of Reading                     20
        2.6.3 The External Errors                    21
    2.7 Explanatory Model of Reading Behaviours      22
    2.8 Why Don’t Adults Read?                       24
    2.9 Reading and Teaching                         26




3   METHODOLOGY
    3.1 Introduction                                 28
    3.2 Sample of the Study                          28
    3.3 Data collection Instrument                   29
        3.3.1 The Questionnaires                     29
        3.3.2 The Interviews                         30
    3.4 Research Procedure                           31
        3.4.1 Administration of the Questionnaires   31
                                                                 viii

        3.4.2 Administration of the Interviews                  32
    3.5 Data Analysis                                           32




4   FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
    4.1 Introduction                                            34
    4.2 Findings of the Questionnaires                          34
        4.2.1 Demographic Information of the Respondents        35
               4.2.1.1 Gender                                   35
               4.2.1.2 Age                                      35
               4.2.1.3 Ethnicity                                36
               4.2.1.4 Marital Status                           37
               4.2.1.5 Academic Qualification                   37
               4.2.1.6 Working Experience                       38
        4.2.2 Types of Reading Materials Read by the
               Respondents                                      39
               4.2.2.1 Types of Books Read by the Respondents   39
               4.2.2.2 Types of Magazines Read by the
                        Respondents                             40
               4.2.2.3 Types of Newspapers Read by the
                        Respondents                             40
               4.2.2.4 Reading Other Kinds of Publications      41
        4.2.3 Respondents’ Frequency of Reading                 42
               4.2.3.1 Respondents’ Reading Time                42
               4.2.3.2 Time Spent on Reading per Week           43
               4.2.3.3 Total Number of Hours Spent on Reading
                        per Week                                43
        4.2.4 Respondents’ Teaching Load                        44
               4.2.4.1 Classes Taught                           44
               4.2.4.2 Number of Subjects Taught                45
               4.2.4.3 Teaching Periods per Week                45
                                                                      ix

           4.2.4.4 Extra Classes Directed by the School          46
           4.2.4.5 Frequency of the Extra Classes                47
           4.2.4.6 Total Time Spent for Extra Classes            47




    4.2.5 Factors that Influence Respondents’ Reading Habits     48
           4.2.5.1 Places Where Respondents Read                 48
           4.2.5.2 Reasons for Reading at the Different Places   49
           4.2.5.3 Reasons for Reading at Home                   49
           4.2.5.4 Reasons for Reading in the School
                   Staffroom                                     50
           4.2.5.5 Reasons for Reading in the School Library     51
           4.2.5.6 Reasons for Reading in the Public Library     51
           4.2.5.7 Reasons for Reading in the University
                   Library                                       52
           4.2.5.8 Reasons for Reading in all of the above
                   Places                                        53
           4.2.5.9 Reasons for Reading in Other Places           53
    4.2.6 Respondents’ Opinion on Reading                        54
4.3 Findings of the Interview                                    56
    4.3.1 Demographic Information of the Respondents             56
    4.3.2 Types of Reading Materials Read by Respondents         59
    4.3.3 Respondents’ Reading Frequency                         61
    4.3.4 Teachers’ Teaching Load                                62
    4.3.5 Factors that Influence Respondents’ Reading Habits     64
           4.3.5.1 Places and Reasons for Reading                65
           4.3.5.2 Reading Materials and Purpose of Reading      67
4.4 Discussion of the Findings                                   68
    4.4.1 Demographic Background of the Respondents              69
    4.4.2 Types of Reading Materials Read by the
           Respondents                                           69
                                                                               x

               4.4.3 Respondents’ frequency of reading                    70
               4.4.4 Respondents’ teaching load                           71
               4.4.5 Factors that influence respondents’ Reading Habits   72


    5      CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
           5.1 Introduction                                               74
           5.2 Summary of the Research                                    74
           5.3 Conclusion of the Study                                    75
               5.3.1 Research Question 1                                  75
               5.3.2 Research Question 2                                  76
               5.3.3 Research Question 3                                  76
               5.3.4 Research Question 4                                  77
           5.4 Pedagogical Implication of the Study                       77
           5.5 Conclusion                                                 79




REFERENCES                                                                80
QUESTIONNAIRE – Appendix A                                                85
INTERVIEW INSTRUMENT – Appendix B                                         91
LETTER OF PERMISSION – Appendix C                                         92
                                                                    xi




                          LIST OF TABLES




TABLE NO.                            TITLE                    PAGE

   2.1      Factors Influencing Reading Habits                 22

   4.1      Gender Distribution of the Respondents             35

   4.2      Age Distribution of the Respondents                36

   4.3      Ethnicity Distribution of the Respondents          36

   4.4      Marital status of the respondents                  37

   4.5      Academic Qualifications of the Respondents         38

   4.6      Working Experience of the Respondents              38

   4.7      Types of Book Read by the Respondents              39

   4.8      Types of Magazines Read by the Respondents         40

   4.9      Types of Newspapers Read by the Respondents        41

   4.10     Other Publications Read by the Respondents         41

   4.11     Respondents’ Reading Time                          42

   4.12     Total Number of Hours Spent on Reading per Week    43
                                                              xii

4.13   Classes Taught by the Respondents                 44

4.14   Number of Subjects Taught by the Respondents      45

4.15   Teaching Periods of the Respondents per Week      46

4.16   Extra classes directed by the school              46

4.17   Frequency of the Extra Classes                    47

4.18   Total Time Spent for Extra Classes                48

4.19   Places Were Respondents Read                      49

4.20   Reason for Reading in the School Staffroom        51

4.21   Reason for Reading in the Public Library          52

4.22   Reason for Reading in the University Library      52

4.23   Reason for Reading at the Different Places        53

4.24   Reason for Reading in Other Places                54

4.25   Likert Scale on Respondents’ Opinion on Reading   55

4.26   Gender                                            57

4.27   Ethnicity                                         57

4.28   Academic Qualification                            58

4.29   Teaching Experience                               58

4.30   Types of Books Read by Respondents                59

4.31   Types of Newspaper Read by Respondents            60

4.32   Types of Magazine Read by Respondents             60

4.33   Other Publications Read by Respondents            61

4.34   Respondents’ Reading Time                         61

4.35   Amount of Time Spent on Reading per Week          62
                                                             xiii

4.36   Number of Subjects Taught by Respondents             63

4.37   Level of Classes Taught by Respondents               63

4.38   Number of Teaching Periods per Week                  64

4.39   Extra Classes Conducted by Respondents               64

4.40   Reasons for Reading at Home                          65

4.41   Reading in the Staffroom                             66

4.42   Types of Reading Materials and Reasons for Reading   68
                                                     xiv




                            LIST OF FIGURES




FIGURE NO.                            TITLE       PAGE


    2.1      The Reading Process                   10
    2.2      Hierarchy of Data in Texts            12
    2.3      The Top-down Model of Reading         14
    2.4      The Interactive Model of Reading      16
    2.5      The Explanatory Model of Behaviour    23
    4.1      Reasons for Reading at Home           50
                                                                     xv




                         LIST OF APPENDICES




APPENDIX                              TITLE                        PAGE
   A       A Sample of a Survey Questionnaire                       85
   B       A Sample of an Interview Instrument                      91
   C       Letter of Permission to Carry out a Survey in Schools    92
                                                                                      iii




                              ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS




       Firstly, I thank God for the blessings given to me in the preparation of this
project. I am particularly thankful to my supervisor Dr Noor Zainab Bt Abdul Razak
for her continuous guidance, encouragement and constructive criticism without which I
would not be able to complete the project.


       I am also very grateful to my fellow course mates and various individuals for
their contributions in whatever forms during the preparation of the project.


       Finally, I want to express my sincere gratitude to my family and friends for their
invaluable sacrifices and continued support throughout my studies.
                                                                                         iv




                                      ABSTRACT




Specifically, this study attempts to investigate the different types of reading materials,
frequency of reading, teaching load and factors that influence reading habits among
teachers in the four (4) government-aided secondary schools (Mission Secondary
Schools) in Kuching District. The respondents in this study were 118 teachers from the
four schools.     The main methodology employed in this study was a survey
questionnaire. Interviews were also conducted on twenty (20) of the teachers who had
responded to the questionnaires. The data were analysed and concluded that most of the
teachers have poor reading habits. The findings showed that most of the teachers read
both academic and non-academic reading materials, having reading frequency of only a
few hours a week and prefer to read at home while some teachers have heavy teaching
load that inhibit their reading habits. Based on this study, it will raise awareness on the
importance of readings among teachers. The result of this study has an implication on
the importance of inculcating the reading habit among school children at an early age.
                                                                               v




                                  ABSTRAK




      Secara khusus, kajian ini bertujuan mengkaji pelbagai jenis bahan bacaan,
kekerapan membaca, beban mengajar dan factor-faktor yang mempengaruhi amalan
membaca para guru di empat buah sekolah menengah bantuan (Mubaligh Kristian) di
daerah Kuching. Responden dalam kajian ini adalah terdiri daripada 118 orang guru
yang mengajar di empat buah sekolah menengah tersebut. Kaedah kajian yang utama
digunakan ialah soalselidik. Temuduga juga di jalankan ke atas 20 orang responden
yang turut menjawab soalselidik. Maklumat yang diperolehi dirumus dan didapati
kebanyakan para guru mempunyai amalan membaca yang kurang memuaskan. Hasil
kajian juga menunjukkan kebanyakan para guru membaca pelbagai bahan bacaan
akedemik dan juga bukan akedemik, mempunyai kekerapan membaca cuma beberapa
jam seminggu dan memilih untuk membaca di rumah manakala segelintir para guru
mempunyai beban mengajar yang berat sehingga menghalang mereka daripada
membaca.    Hasil kajian ini dapat memberi kesedaran kepada para guru betapa
pentingnya amalan membaca.     Hasil kajian ini juga mempunyai implikasi betapa
pentingnya amalan membaca dipupuk dikalangan kanak-kanak sekolah sejak usia muda.
                                                     vi




                          TABLE OF CONTENT




CHAPTER                                 TITLE   PAGE
   1      INTRODUCTION
          1.1 Introduction                       1
          1.2 Background of the Study            2
          1.3 Statement of the Problem           4
          1.4 Objectives of the Study            5
          1.5 Research Questions                 5
          1.6 Significance of the Study          5
          1.7 Scope of the Study                 6
          1.8 Limitation of the Study            6
          1.9 Definition of Terms                7
              1.9.1 Mission Schools              7
              1.9.2 Chung Hua Middle School      7
              1.9.3 Academic Materials           7
              1.9.4 Non-academic Materials       7
              1.9.5 Teaching Loads               7
              1.9.6 Extra Class                  7
                                                         vii


2   LITERATURE REVIEW
    2.1 Introduction                                 8
    2.2 What is Reading?                             8
    2.3 The Reading Process                          10
        2.3.1 Bottom-up Theory of Reading            11
        2.3.2 The Top-down Theory of Reading         13
        2.3.3 The Interactive Theory of Reading      15
    2.4 Attitude Towards Reading                     17
    2.5 Reading Motivation                           18
    2.6 Factors Affecting Reading                    18
        2.6.1 The Nature of Reading Materials        19
        2.6.2 Purpose of Reading                     20
        2.6.3 The External Errors                    21
    2.7 Explanatory Model of Reading Behaviours      22
    2.8 Why Don’t Adults Read?                       24
    2.9 Reading and Teaching                         26




3   METHODOLOGY
    3.1 Introduction                                 28
    3.2 Sample of the Study                          28
    3.3 Data collection Instrument                   29
        3.3.1 The Questionnaires                     29
        3.3.2 The Interviews                         30
    3.4 Research Procedure                           31
        3.4.1 Administration of the Questionnaires   31
        3.4.2 Administration of the Interviews       32
    3.5 Data Analysis                                32
                                                                 viii


4   FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
    4.1 Introduction                                            34
    4.2 Findings of the Questionnaires                          34
        4.2.1 Demographic Information of the Respondents        35
               4.2.1.1 Gender                                   35
               4.2.1.2 Age                                      35
               4.2.1.3 Ethnicity                                36
               4.2.1.4 Marital Status                           37
               4.2.1.5 Academic Qualification                   37
               4.2.1.6 Working Experience                       38
        4.2.2 Types of Reading Materials Read by the
               Respondents                                      39
               4.2.2.1 Types of Books Read by the Respondents   39
               4.2.2.2 Types of Magazines Read by the
                        Respondents                             40
               4.2.2.3 Types of Newspapers Read by the
                        Respondents                             40
               4.2.2.4 Reading Other Kinds of Publications      41
        4.2.3 Respondents’ Frequency of Reading                 42
               4.2.3.1 Respondents’ Reading Time                42
               4.2.3.2 Time Spent on Reading per Week           43
               4.2.3.3 Total Number of Hours Spent on Reading
                        per Week                                43
        4.2.4 Respondents’ Teaching Load                        44
               4.2.4.1 Classes Taught                           44
               4.2.4.2 Number of Subjects Taught                45
               4.2.4.3 Teaching Periods per Week                45
               4.2.4.4 Extra Classes Directed by the School     46
               4.2.4.5 Frequency of the Extra Classes           47
               4.2.4.6 Total Time Spent for Extra Classes       47
                                                                      ix



    4.2.5 Factors that Influence Respondents’ Reading Habits     48
           4.2.5.1 Places Where Respondents Read                 48
           4.2.5.2 Reasons for Reading at the Different Places   49
           4.2.5.3 Reasons for Reading at Home                   49
           4.2.5.4 Reasons for Reading in the School
                   Staffroom                                     50
           4.2.5.5 Reasons for Reading in the School Library     51
           4.2.5.6 Reasons for Reading in the Public Library     51
           4.2.5.7 Reasons for Reading in the University
                   Library                                       52
           4.2.5.8 Reasons for Reading in all of the above
                   Places                                        53
           4.2.5.9 Reasons for Reading in Other Places           53
    4.2.6 Respondents’ Opinion on Reading                        54
4.3 Findings of the Interview                                    56
    4.3.1 Demographic Information of the Respondents             56
    4.3.2 Types of Reading Materials Read by Respondents         59
    4.3.3 Respondents’ Reading Frequency                         61
    4.3.4 Teachers’ Teaching Load                                62
    4.3.5 Factors that Influence Respondents’ Reading Habits     64
           4.3.5.1 Places and Reasons for Reading                65
           4.3.5.2 Reading Materials and Purpose of Reading      67
4.4 Discussion of the Findings                                   68
    4.4.1 Demographic Background of the Respondents              69
    4.4.2 Types of Reading Materials Read by the
           Respondents                                           69
    4.4.3 Respondents’ frequency of reading                      70
    4.4.4 Respondents’ teaching load                             71
    4.4.5 Factors that influence respondents’ Reading Habits     72
                                                           x


    5      CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
           5.1 Introduction                           74
           5.2 Summary of the Research                74
           5.3 Conclusion of the Study                75
               5.3.1 Research Question 1              75
               5.3.2 Research Question 2              76
               5.3.3 Research Question 3              76
               5.3.4 Research Question 4              77
           5.4 Pedagogical Implication of the Study   77
           5.5 Conclusion                             79




REFERENCES                                            80
QUESTIONNAIRE – Appendix A                            85
INTERVIEW INSTRUMENT – Appendix B                     91
LETTER OF PERMISSION – Appendix C                     92
                                                                    xi




                          LIST OF TABLES




TABLE NO.                            TITLE                    PAGE

   2.1      Factors Influencing Reading Habits                 22

   4.1      Gender Distribution of the Respondents             35

   4.2      Age Distribution of the Respondents                36

   4.3      Ethnicity Distribution of the Respondents          36

   4.4      Marital status of the respondents                  37

   4.5      Academic Qualifications of the Respondents         38

   4.6      Working Experience of the Respondents              38

   4.7      Types of Book Read by the Respondents              39

   4.8      Types of Magazines Read by the Respondents         40

   4.9      Types of Newspapers Read by the Respondents        41

   4.10     Other Publications Read by the Respondents         41

   4.11     Respondents’ Reading Time                          42

   4.12     Total Number of Hours Spent on Reading per Week    43

   4.13     Classes Taught by the Respondents                  44

   4.14     Number of Subjects Taught by the Respondents       45

   4.15     Teaching Periods of the Respondents per Week       46
                                                              xii

4.16   Extra classes directed by the school              46

4.17   Frequency of the Extra Classes                    47

4.18   Total Time Spent for Extra Classes                48

4.19   Places Were Respondents Read                      49

4.20   Reason for Reading in the School Staffroom        51

4.21   Reason for Reading in the Public Library          52

4.22   Reason for Reading in the University Library      52

4.23   Reason for Reading at the Different Places        53

4.24   Reason for Reading in Other Places                54

4.25   Likert Scale on Respondents’ Opinion on Reading   55

4.26   Gender                                            57

4.27   Ethnicity                                         57

4.28   Academic Qualification                            58

4.29   Teaching Experience                               58

4.30   Types of Books Read by Respondents                59

4.31   Types of Newspaper Read by Respondents            60

4.32   Types of Magazine Read by Respondents             60

4.33   Other Publications Read by Respondents            61

4.34   Respondents’ Reading Time                         61

4.35   Amount of Time Spent on Reading per Week          62

4.36   Number of Subjects Taught by Respondents          63

4.37   Level of Classes Taught by Respondents            63

4.38   Number of Teaching Periods per Week               64
                                                             xiii

4.39   Extra Classes Conducted by Respondents               64

4.40   Reasons for Reading at Home                          65

4.41   Reading in the Staffroom                             66

4.42   Types of Reading Materials and Reasons for Reading   68
                                                     xiv




                            LIST OF FIGURES




FIGURE NO.                            TITLE       PAGE


    2.1      The Reading Process                   10
    2.2      Hierarchy of Data in Texts            12
    2.3      The Top-down Model of Reading         14
    2.4      The Interactive Model of Reading      16
    2.5      The Explanatory Model of Behaviour    23
    4.1      Reasons for Reading at Home           50
                                                                     xv




                         LIST OF APPENDICES




APPENDIX                              TITLE                        PAGE
   A       A Sample of a Survey Questionnaire                       85
   B       A Sample of an Interview Instrument                      91
   C       Letter of Permission to Carry out a Survey in Schools    92
                                     CHAPTER 1




                                  INTRODUCTION




1.1    Introduction


       Teaching is a challenging career as teachers carry the responsibility of moulding
the character of their students and guiding them to be good citizens. According to The
Borneo Post, May 27, 2006, teachers hold the key to the future of the nation as they
have strong influence on their students who are our future generation. Thus, the recent
announcement of the existence of 162,000 “illiterate” students in Malaysia had shocked
teachers, students and parents.


       In view of this, something has to be done to reduce and if possible, to totally
eradicate illiteracy among students. Therefore, to start with, teachers must be seen as
role models for the students to emulate. Teachers must read a lot in order to keep
abreast with the fast-changing information age.


       Teachers should involve themselves in reading because according to Eskey
(1986. p.21, cited in Renandya & Jacobs, 2002): “Reading…must be developed, and
can only be developed, by means of extensive and continued practice. People learn to
read, and read better by reading.” This view on extensive reading as a reading habit is
also shared by Krashen (1993, p. 23, cited in Renandya & Jacobs, 2002) that through
                                                                                        2

reading we “develop a good writing style, an adequate vocabulary, advanced grammar
and … becomes good spellers”.


      Finnochiaro (1989) also suggests that teachers need to read to help facilitate their
teaching-learning activity in the classroom as information obtained through their
reading will help them keep in touch with current issues and to apply them in their
classroom discussion. An effective teacher is a teacher who always keeps abreast with
changes be it in teaching or learning aspects. In view of the above mentioned problems,
the researcher would like to investigate the reading habits of teachers in the four
schools.


         The poor reading habits among Malaysians can be seen in surveys conducted by
the Ministry of Education on National Literacy in 1982 and 1996 (Kaur and
Thiyagarajah, 1999). In the earlier survey, an average Malaysian citizen read a mere
page or two a year whilst the later revealed an average of two books a year.


         In view of this, the research looked into the reading habits of teachers in four
government-aided secondary schools (Mission Schools) in Kuching district. The study
focused on the types of reading materials that they read, whether their teaching loads
inhibit their reading habits, factors that influence their reading habits, time spent on
reading and reasons for reading.




1.2      Background of Study


         Reading is an important part of learning. It helps a person acquire knowledge of
the world and improve ones language skills. Reading is a unique process, as it requires
certain skills in getting meaning from a written text. These reading skills will enable a
reader not only to read the written form as meaningful language, but also to read it with
independence, comprehension and fluency. William (1984) usefully classifies reading
                                                                                        3

into three purposes; getting general information from the text, getting specific
information from the text; and for pleasure or interest. Getting information from texts is
one of the ways to gain knowledge of the world and by having more knowledge will
make a person knowledgeable. However, lack of motivation in reading is one of the
most common problems among Malaysians. This problem has prevented them from
acquiring knowledge of the world and from improving their language skills.


       In view of this problem, the government has done its best to inculcate an interest
in reading among Malaysians. The Ministry of Education came up with the NILAM
(Nadi Ilmu Amalan Membaca) programme in 1998 to nurture the reading habits among
school children (Kaur and Thiyagarajah, 1999). Other extensive reading programmes
have also been implemented over the years such as Uninterrupted Sustained Silent
Reading (USSR), ‘Drop Everything and Read’ (DEAR) and the Book Flood Approach
(Elley and Mangubahi, 1983 as cited in Renandya and Jacobs, 2002). The purpose of
the programme is that readers read large quantities of books and other materials in an
environment that nurtures a life long reading habit. While much effort has been put into
reading campaigns and programmes, indication is that more and more Malaysians are
not interested in picking up the habit. Malaysian students at the tertiary level have
indeed shown our students’ poor regards for reading (Mohd Sallehudin 1994, as cited in
Normah 2004).


       In Asia, recent surveys have shown that books are being put aside for video and
CD games, television and other electronic forms of entertainment (NST Computimes
May 3, 2004, cited in Normah, 2004). However, in investigating the effects of pleasure
reading among adult learners in Hong Kong, (Yang, 2001 as cited in Normah, 2004)
found that readers made substantial proficiency gains in the language. They were also
motivated to read more.



       A study by Kaur and Thiyagarajah (1999) found that most of their respondents
showed very positive attitude towards reading, whereby 85.7 percent of them read in
                                                                                       4

English because they felt that it could improve their English language proficiency.
About 74.7 percent read to obtain good grades in their coursework and 71.4 percent
read in English because they wanted to become good English language teachers upon
graduation.

       While for teachers reading is beneficial to them as information obtained through
reading will help them to be in touch with current issues and they will be able to relate
such issues in their classroom discussions. Finnochiaro (1989) pointed out that teachers
need to read because reading helps facilitate teaching and learning. Chitravelu et al.
(1997) stressed that appropriate teaching styles of a teacher in an English Language
classroom can increase the students’ interest in learning English. They summed up by
saying that English language teachers needed to read academic materials related to
English Language teaching and learning as this will further enhance the students’
learning needs and preferences.




1.3    Statement of the Problem


       Two surveys conducted by the Ministry of Education on National Literacy in
1982 and 1996 revealed that in the earlier survey, an average Malaysian citizen read a
mere page or two a year whilst the later revealed an average of two books a year (Kaur
and Thiyagarajah, 1999).      The researcher’s own experience and observations as a
teacher cum teacher trainer also suggest that teachers do not read much nowadays.
Therefore, in view of the problems, the researcher would like to investigate the
teachers’ reading habits namely; the type of reading materials, their frequency of
reading, their workload and other factors that inhibit their reading habits.
                                                                                        5


1.4    Objectives of the Study


       The objectives of this study are to:
               1. ascertain the types of reading materials read by teachers in the four
                    government-aided secondary schools;
               2. examine teachers' frequency of reading academic and non-academic
                    materials;
               3. investigate whether the teaching loads inhibit teachers’ reading
                    habits; and
               4. investigate factors that influence teachers’ reading habits;




1.5    Research Questions


       This research aims to address the following questions;
               1.      What types of reading materials do teachers in the four
                       government-aided secondary schools (Mission Schools) read?
               2.      How frequent do teachers read academic and non-academic
                       materials?
               3.      Do teachers’ teaching loads inhibit their reading habits?
               4.      What are the factors that influence teachers’ reading habits?




1.6    Significance of Study


       It is hoped that the result of this study could contribute to further understanding
of the reading habits of secondary school teachers particularly in the four schools. The
result of this study can also be used as a basis for further research in areas related to
reading such as doing research on literacy or library facilities in schools. The result of
                                                                                         6

this research could also lead to further research on the various reading programmes
currently implemented in schools throughout the country.




1.7    Scope of the Study


       This study was only confined to teachers in four government-aided secondary
schools (Mission Schools) in Kuching district. The study looked into both academic
and non-academic reading materials frequently read by the respondents, factors that
influence their reading habits, time spent on reading and reasons for reading.




1.8    Limitation of the study


       Firstly, the study was only limited to teachers from four government-aided
secondary schools (Mission schools). The reason being there are the only four mission
secondary schools in Kuching district that receive aids/funds from the government
unlike the fully-government secondary schools. Thus, the findings of this research may
not in any way reflect the real situation in all schools but rather confined to respondents
in the four schools.


       Secondly, the study meant only to describe the reading habits of the teachers in
the four schools and no comparison of reading habits of teachers between the
government-aided and the fully-government secondary schools.


       As such, the findings of this research neither represent the general population of
teachers in Kuching district nor the state of Sarawak.
                                                                                    7


1.9   Definition of Terms


      1.9.1   Mission Schools – schools set up by the Christian missionaries during
              the colonial days. It uses the name “Saint” before the name of the
              school. For example, Saint Thomas Secondary School.


      1.9.2   Chung Hua Middle School – schools set up by the Chinese community
              during the colonial days, with Mandarin as a medium of instruction.


      1.9.3   Academic Materials – any reading material aimed at academic purposes
              for example, school’s textbooks and reference books useful for teaching
              and learning activities.


      1.9.4 Non-academic Materials – any reading material read for general
              knowledge and leisure for example newspapers, magazines or books for
              personal growth.


      1.9.5   Teaching Loads – refers to teaching periods only. Teaching period of
              more than 24 periods (40 minutes per period) per week is considered
              heavy where as teaching period of less than 24 periods per week is
              considered light.


      1.9.6   Extra Class – classes conducted as directed by the school authority or
              self- volunteered.
                                     CHAPTER 2




                              LITERATURE REVIEW




2.1    Introduction


       This chapter is divided into four main parts. In the first part the discussion is
centered on the definitions of reading habits and its key concepts. The second part
describes the theories of reading. Thirdly, the discussion is on attitude, motivation and
purpose of reading. In the final part of the chapter, the discussions on reading habits
amongst school teachers will be considered in more detailed.




2.2    What is Reading?


       There is a vast literature on the definition of reading. According to Spache and
Spache (1969) there were a variety of definitions of reading due to the complexity and
successive stages of reading development. Reading can also be described in a variety of
headings such as reading for skill development, as a visual act, as a perceptual act as a
reflection of cultural background and a thinking process.
                                                                                       9

       Grellet (1981) suggested that understanding a written text means extracting the
required information from it as efficiently as possible. Thus, readers apply different
reading strategies when looking for an advertisement at a notice board and reading an
article. In the former situation, a reader only needs the gist of the information whereas
in the latter, a more detailed comprehension is necessary.


       On the other hand, Williams (1984) defined reading as a process in which a
reader looks at a text and understands what has been written. He further stated that
reading does not mean a person needs to understand everything he reads because people
read for different reasons and purposes.


       Reading by itself seems easy and simple but many studies have been carried out
to show with scientific evidence that the act of reading is actually a very complicated
process. According to Ponnusamy (1997), the first important description of reading and
its process can be traced back as early as 1917 by Thorndike, a psychologist who coined
reading as reasoning.     The process of reading can best be described in an analogy
written by Thorndike (1917) as cited in Ponnusamy (1997: 21) in which he described
the reading process as:


       “…understanding a paragraph is like solving mathematics. It consists of
       selecting the right element of situation and putting them together in the
       right relations, and also within the right amount of weight or influence or
       force for each. The mind is assailed as it was bothered by every word in
       the paragraph. It must select, repress, soften, emphasize, correlate organize
       all under the influence of the right mental shape or purpose or demand.
       Thus, it appears that reading an explanatory or argumentative paragraph
       involves the same sort of organization and analytic action of ideas as those
       that occur in thinking supposedly higher sorts”.
                                                                                     10


2.3     The Reading Process


        Various definitions had been given by researchers on reading process. These
researchers tried to describe what a reading process is and how it occurs. In Goodman’s
famous article written in 1967 (as in Wallace, 1992) Goodman describes reading as ‘a
psycholinguistic guessing game’. A reader uses three cue systems, represented by three
levels of language within the texts namely: graphophonic, syntactic and semantic.
According to Goodman, Yates and Burke’s (1980 as in Williams, 1993) model of
reading process, the process of reading involves an interaction between the reader’s and
the author’s knowledge or mind. The reader uses his background knowledge to assist
his understanding of the written texts (Figure 2.1).



      Author’s
       thought                    PREDICTING
         and                     Reader selects cues
      language                  and predicts material


                                                                    CONFIRMING
                                                                     Reader checks
                                                                    grapho-phonics
                                                                     semantic and
                                                                        syntactic
      Reader’s
                                                                      acceptability
       thought
         and                      INTERGRATING
      language                     Reader integrates
                                 meaning gained with
                                 his or her world view



                            Figure 2.1: The Reading Process

				
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