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					A Classification Framework for Educational Modeling Languages in Instructional
                                   Design

                      Luca Botturi1, Michael Derntl2, Eddy Boot3, Kathrin Figl2
                          1 NewMinE Lab, University of Lugano, Switzerland
                                      luca.botturi@lu.unisi.ch
              2 Research Lab for Educational Technologies, University of Vienna, Austria
                        michael.derntl@univie.ac.at; kathrin.figl@univie.ac.at
                               3 TNO Human Factors, The Netherlands
                                          eddy.boot@tno.nl

                         Abstract                                       The rise of e-learning, in combination with the
                                                                     introduction of “new learning” models, has
     The integration of advanced learning technologies               significantly increased the complexity of learning
  in education has made the design and development of                technology [1]. As a response, educational modeling
  instructional units and courses a complex task.                    languages are emerging in Instructional Design (ID) as
  Instructional design languages are proposed as a                   new conceptual tools in order to deal with this
  conceptual tool to achieve more creative design                    complexity. To the purposes of this paper, we will call
  solutions and to enhance communication in design                   them instructional design languages, shortened to ID
  teams. This paper reviews the state of the art in the              languages.
  development, application, and research concerning the                 Currently, little is known about the character of
  use of design languages in education and e-learning.               instructional design languages and their potential
  The review reports on relevant literature and on both              applications. In general, the use of ID languages allows
  theoretical and empirical studies. As basis for further            the development of reflective practice and potentially
  research, the authors propose a taxonomy of design                 enhances a more thorough understanding and reuse of
  languages and a framework for possible application of              eLearning solutions in lifelong learning.
  design languages in instructional design and e-                       The goal of this paper is twofold, namely
  learning practices.                                                classifying existing ID languages and presenting their
                                                                     potential applications to the ID practice. The next
  1. Introduction: About Design Languages                            section introduces some basic concepts about design
                                                                     languages in general, while Section 3 briefly reviews
     When an architect is in charge of designing a new               existing ID languages. Section 4 describes a
  house, s/he usually starts – right after what an engineer          classification framework for ID languages based on
  would call a requirements analysis – with some sketch              their formal features, and then exploits the framework
  about the division and uses of the available space. The            to classify existing design languages. Section 5
  architect would then refine this and translate the design          proposes a simple classification of the possible uses of
  solution into a representation that the client could see,          design languages in education, and tries to apply it to
  understand and discuss, and then into some executive               the reviewed languages. Finally, Section 6 presents a
  plans that she would hand out to the construction staff.           summary of research studies about the use and
  Architects exploit a number of such visual                         effectiveness of design languages in this field.
  representations of the design for analyzing design
  problems,      thinking      about      solutions,    and          2. Basic Concepts
  communicating with stakeholders and other partners.
  The ability to use such visual representations is a core              Before approaching the core of the paper it is
  part of an architect’s skill set – as it is for graphic            important to clarify some basic terms.
  designers, software designers, musicians, and for all                 A design language is a set of concepts that support
  those involved in a design activity with a long                    structuring a design task and conceiving solutions [2].
  tradition.                                                         For example, “group work” or “online resource” can
                                                                     be two concepts belonging to an online instruction


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© 2006 IEEE
design language. Design languages can include any                                                                                                                                    “reflection on action” [8]). The use of design
number of concepts and relationships between them,                                                                                                                                   languages allows designers to generate and share
thus extending their lexicon and syntax at different                                                                                                                                 design patterns, i.e., the gist of a design solution to be
degrees. This can make the language more expressive                                                                                                                                  adapted and reused over and over again [9] [10].
and at the same time more complex and potentially                                                                                                                                    Finally, it is important to notice that in any complex
difficult to learn. In order to make complexity                                                                                                                                      design activity, design languages complement other
manageable, some design languages are organized into                                                                                                                                 design languages. For instance, in e-learning,
layers that capture different perspectives. For example,                                                                                                                             instructional design languages are complementary with
the design diagrams of the Unified Modeling                                                                                                                                          hypermedia design models, etc. [11].
Language (UML) [3] capture different features or
views of the same application; likewise, the web                                                                                                                                     3. ID Languages Review
design language W2000 [4] is organized into three
layers: hyperbase, access, and publishing.                                                                                                                                              This section briefly presents and provides
    A design language is a mental tool, but can be                                                                                                                                   references for some recently proposed design
expressed, and thus turned into a communication                                                                                                                                      languages mainly in the field of education and e-
means, through a notation system, i.e., a set of signs                                                                                                                               learning. To give the reader a glimpse of how the
and icons that allow representing a design problem or                                                                                                                                visual notations of these languages look like, we
solution so that it is perceivable by our senses [2].                                                                                                                                included a small example of each in Figure 1.
Notation systems are usually visual, mostly exploiting                                                                                                                                  E2ML [6] [12] is a simple design language coupled
text and diagrams, and support the production of                                                                                                                                     with a visual notation system consisting of multiple
design documents. If representing layered design                                                                                                                                     interrelated diagrams. It was developed as a thinking
languages, notation systems usually exploit multiple                                                                                                                                 tool for instructional designers and for enhancing
diagram types. For example, UML’s standardized                                                                                                                                       communication within large e-learning projects.
diagrams provide a standard notation system for                                                                                                                                         The PCeL pattern initiative [13] defines a UML
different conceptual layers of UML. It is also possible                                                                                                                              profile for modeling learning scenarios (activities) and
to have “private” or idiosyncratic design languages                                                                                                                                  environments (structures). Its primary use lies in the
with no notation system – indeed a common situation                                                                                                                                  context of blended learning, where a clear view on the
in less structured design fields such as game design [5]                                                                                                                             online and face-to-face elements of course design is
or instructional design [6]. Notation systems can vary                                                                                                                               essential for deriving appropriate web support [14].
considerably: Some of them are formal and                                                                                                                                               In the AUTC project [15] a number of ICT-based
standardized (such as the diagrams of UML), while                                                                                                                                    learning designs are proposed as generic guides (e.g.
some of them are rather sketchy (such as the diagrams                                                                                                                                for “structured problem solving”) based on concrete
of E2ML, see below). And of course, designers can use                                                                                                                                implementation examples, much in the spirit of design
sketchy versions of formal notation systems.                                                                                                                                         patterns. The approach provides scenario diagrams for
     PRE WORK ON EMAIL                                    PRE WORK                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Team Building
     All participants individually
     [no pre-requirements]
                                                           LEARNING
                                         Develop a critical attitude     A1                                        Project Management
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      play                                   Add participant to
                                         toward daily email
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  team                               «extend»
                                         communication.                  A2                                   Basics and Techniques
                                         Arise some questions about the C3

     Daily email use
                                         meaning of effective
                                         [no side-effect]
                                                                                                                                                                                      Act 1          Act 2            Act 3                                                                                      Leave the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                current team
     Invitation to do the job by the     Good and bad emails with short
     head                                explanations (to be sent to the                                                «Pattern»
                                         instructor)
                                                                                                                                        B                                                                                                 Participant                             Join a team
     Personal work: one week prior to the course, each participant is                                             Preliminary Phases                                                                                                                                 «include»                              «extend»
     asked by the head to do this activity. They should take 10 minutes
     every day to review their email exchanges and to select the best
     and worst emails they wrote and received. They then write a                                                                                                                       Role-part 1                                                                                                                Approve
     summary, including the email bodies and send it to the instructor.                                                 «Pattern»                                                                                                                                                                                  team
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Create a team
                                      Anywhere
                                     [no support]                                                                   Team Building w                                                    Role-part 2                                                                                «include»
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Administrator
                                                                              include tutorials and other
                                                                              interactive elements
                                                                                                                                                                                       Role-part 4
                                                                                                              *                                                                        Role-part 5
                                                                                                                        «Pattern»                                                                                                                                                    go up (floor)
  MS PROJECT                                             MS PROJECT                       Interactive
                                                                                                                    Project-Based
                                                                                                                                                «Pattern»                                                                                                  On first floor                                              Moving up


                                                                                            lecture P                                            Diary      w
  TUTORIAL                                               TASK                                                         Learning B
                                                                                                                                                                                          Role           Activity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     arrive at floor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        arrive at first floor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              go down (floor)                           go up (floor)


                                                                                                                                                                                                         Activity-
PRESENTATIONS OF                                        MILESTONE                                                                                                                                       Description
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Moving to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            first floor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Moving
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  down
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Idle


MILESTONES                                              ELABORATIONS                                                                                                                                                                                                                           arrive at floor
                                                                                                            «Pattern»               «Pattern»
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       time out
                                                                                                         Blended B                   Collect
                                                                                                        Evaluation                  Feedback w
BASICS OF PROJECT-
MANAGEMENT                                                    DIARY                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Proposal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Proposer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (from Proposal)                                  (from Proposal)



                                                    PROJECT-BASED                                                 Grade participants
INTERACTIVE
LECTURE
                                                    LEARNING                                                                                                                                  <XML>                                               Optimally 2 to 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  members per team
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Team
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Proposal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2..*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Participation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (from Course)




                                                    2
                 (a) E ML                                                                                   (b) PCeL                                            (c) AUTC LD            (d) IMS/LD                             (e) POEML                                     (f) UML
                                                                                                 Figure 1: Examples of visual notations of selected ID languages.


   The combination of design language and notation                                                                                                                                   visually arranging involved resources, tasks, and so-
system is a central concept in the definition of a design                                                                                                                            called “supports.”
team or community, as a shared language is the                                                                                                                                          IMS Learning Design (IMS/LD) [16] is based on
medium for the creation of shared culture. From a                                                                                                                                    the Educational Modeling Language [17] and defines a
practical point of view, a language is fundamental for a                                                                                                                             modeling technique and XML binding for describing
community to share their practices [7] and to engage in                                                                                                                              roles and activity sequences within an environment of
reflective thinking (see for example Schön’s                                                                                                                                         learning objects and services. Properties, conditions




                                                                                                                                                                              1217
and notifications are provided at further levels. The                language is able to provide more or less detail of a
primary goal is to provide a means for exchange and                  specific artifact. The three levels of elaboration are
(semi-) automatic execution of learning designs.                     taken from Fowler [21]: The conceptual level allows
   The perspective-oriented educational modeling                     for a general, aggregate view on the design, indicating
language (POEML) [18] integrates workflow and                        its rationale and main elements; the specification level
groupware aspects into educational modeling and                      provides means for a more comprehensive description,
focuses on a separation of eleven different perspectives             including all elements; the implementation level
of educational practices (e.g., social, organizational,              represents the highest level of detail achieving
temporal, etc.). It can be used to model educational                 maximum precision.
scenarios on different aggregation levels (lessons,                      F4: Perspective (nominal: single, multiple). While
curricula), and it offers a set of patterns for modeling             layered languages foresee the use of multiple
in each of the perspectives.                                         representations for different entities, multiple-
   UML [19] was originally proposed as a software                    perspective languages exploit different tools for
design language, but some of its diagrams (e.g., use                 representing more than one view on the same entities.
cases or interaction diagrams) can also be used for                  For example, E2ML offers two overview diagrams, one
supporting communication in e-learning development                   for chronological relationships among learning
by modeling particular instructional situations, or the              activities, and one for structural relationships. Note
application of instructional applications. It is also                that both perspectives can be at the same level of
widely known and referenced, so we include it here.                  elaboration and located on the same layer, i.e., F4 is
                                                                     independent from F1 and F3.
4. ID Languages Classification Scheme                                    F5: Notation System (nominal: none, textual,
                                                                     visual). If a language exposes a notation system, this
    Different design language features address different             can be primarily non-visual (=textual, e.g. IMS/LD) or
ways of thinking: A highly formal language like UML                  visual (e.g. UML).
fits the way of thinking of a more accurate and                          Table 1 proposes a tentative classification of the
technically-oriented person better, while rather                     reviewed ID languages according to the scheme
sketchy, informal languages are more suitable for                    introduced in above. Note that we tried to depict the
creative and intuitive mindsets. The main goal of this               primary value for each feature (e.g., even though
section is proposing a classification scheme that grasps             E2ML can be used to model at different levels of detail,
and organizes some basic differences in ID languages                 its intended primary elaboration level is “conceptual”).
based on their formal features, i.e., the static properties            Table 1: Classification of selected ID languages.
of a design language, characterizing its “interface” to
                                                                              Stratification Formalization Elaboration Perspective Notation
the users. The classification is partly a generalization
                                                                     E2ML         Flat        Semi-formal Conceptual     Multiple   Visual
of the framework developed by Boot, Nelson, van
                                                                     PCeL       Layered Semi-formal Conceptual           Single     Visual
Merriënboer and Gibbons [22] presented below, and is
                                                                     AUTC         Flat         Informal    Specification Single     Visual
comprised of an array of five features, labeled F1–F5:
                                                                     IMS LD     Layered         Formal     Specification Single    Textual
    F1: Stratification (nominal: flat, layered). A                   POEML      Layered         Formal    Implementation Multiple   Visual
layered language offers a set of tools or representations                                                  Conceptual /
for describing entities of different types, such as                  UML        Layered         Formal                   Multiple   Visual
                                                                                                           Specification
people and roles, activities, or learning materials. On
the other hand, a flat language would collect entities of            4. Possible Applications for ID Languages
all types into a single representation. For example,
UML takes a layered perspective; Gibbons [20]                           The proposed analysis of formal features clearly
proposes a structure of 7 layers in order to organize the            indicates that there are differences among ID design
discussion about ID languages.                                       languages. But how are they used? In what situation
    F2: Formalization (interval: formal, informal). A                can they make a difference? Currently, the literature
formal language defines a stringent, closed set of                   does not provide sound evidence of the real
concepts and rules for composition of concepts in                    applications of ID languages – actually, not even for
order to describe designs. For instance, XML or UML                  UML in the domain of software development.
are formal languages, while sketches or dialogs are                     Nevertheless, each design language was developed
more open and informal. Other design languages may                   with a specific use framework in mind. In this respect
combine formal and informal descriptions.                            this section proposes a simple framework for
    F3: Elaboration          (ordinal:         conceptual,           classifying the possible applications of design
specification, implementation). Each particular design




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languages and then it describes the target applications                      use of a four-wheel drive for both heavy transportation
for which each of the ID languages in our review was                         as well as a glamorous car for MTV-clips.
originally developed.
   Communication. The first axis in the application                          5. Studies on ID Languages
framework concerns the main objective of the ID
language, with two values: (a) Reflective (personal)                            Most literature on ID languages concerns the
means that the language is used primarily for personal                       specification of such languages and their theoretical
creative thinking. This is useful for formally-bent or                       justification. However, the first empirical studies are
visually-oriented people and for designers in the first                      starting to appear.
conceptual stages of design in which they do not yet                            Boot, Nelson, van Merriënboer, & Gibbons [22]
collaborate with other designers and stakeholders; (b)                       compared the efficiency of communication by means
Communicative (community) indicates that the                                 of ID languages between instructional designers and
language is used to communicate with other designers                         software programmers. A 3D-model was constructed
or stakeholders. This is useful for interdisciplinary                        to support instructional designers to select ID
design teams involving different views/roles.                                languages based upon their need for three of the formal
   Creativity. The second axis describes the                                 features as described above, namely stratification (F1),
relationship between the design language and the                             formalization (F2), and elaboration (F3). Two
generation of design solutions: (a) Generative means                         conditions were created. Both conditions used a
that the language can be used as a means of exploring                        layered ID design language (F1), but the first condition
the design space and creating and refining design                            used mainly informal descriptions (F2) with less detail
solutions and alternatives, e.g. during redesign.                            (or elaboration, F3) whereas the second condition used
(b) Finalist means that it is used to formalize and                          mainly formal descriptions (F2) with more detail (F3).
“freeze” the final design solution, e.g., for creating a                     The results showed that the 3D-model is able to
final IMS/LD specification of an e-learning module.                          support instructional designers in selecting ID
   The axes are laid out in the usage classification box                     languages that suits their needs, and that more formal,
shown in Figure 2, along with the areas occupied by                          detailed ID design languages communicate the
the languages considered in this paper.                                      instructional design more efficient to software
                                                                             programmers. Also a study by Botturi [23] indicates
                           Generative




                                                                             that instructional designers perceive design languages
                                                      E2ML                   in general, and E2ML in particular, as a potentially
                                                                             useful tool for their practice. The participants in this
              Creativity




                                                                             study indicated that a design language can be useful
                                                PCeL modeling
                                                                             for making consistent design decisions (e.g., matching
                                                    UML                      goals and specific design decisions), and to revise the
                                                             AUTC            project development at different stages. Accordingly
                           Finalist




                                                  POEML
                                                           IMS/LD
                                                                             with the purposes for which it was developed, the
                                        Reflective    Communicative          participants found E2ML mainly useful as a generative
                                                Communication                tool, with a finalist use in the archival and reuse of
      Figure 2: Uses of selected ID languages.
                                                                             designs. The main issue identified in the study is the
                                                                             steep learning curve of design languages, especially for
Note that a single design language need not to be                            non-visually-oriented people, which might hinder its
located on a single spot, but may occupy a range on an                       use. This study also proposes a structured framework
axis or an area in the classification box, respectively.                     for evaluating the communicative impact of the
For example, most languages can be used for reflective                       introduction of a design language in a team’s or
and communicative purposes. Furthermore, note that                           community’s practice. In short, there is small but
the generative use of a design language is not to be                         growing evidence that ID languages are useful,
confused with Alexander’s [9] notion of generativity                         although there is a huge space of improvement. The
of patterns: You can describe generative patterns with                       main point seems to be to collect good practices and
a finalist language. Finally, note that formal features of                   case studies, in order to verify the effectiveness of
ID languages do not limit their possible use, or even                        design languages; second, to make ID languages easily
abuse. For example, the formal features of a car                             learnable by potential users.
(physical features such as size, or economical features
such as costs and fuel consumption) do not limit the




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6. Conclusions                                                                [8]   D. Schön, The Reflective Practitioner. How professionals think
                                                                                    in action, Temple Smith, London, 1983.
                                                                              [9]   C. Alexander, S. Ishikawa, M. Silverstein, M. Jacobson, I.
   In this paper, we started with the definition of some
                                                                                    Fiksdahl-King, and S. Angel. A Pattern Language. Oxford
basic concepts about design languages and notation                                  University Press, New York, 1977.
systems for exploring their application in instructional                      [10] E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, and J. Vlissides. Design
and e-learning design. Subsequently, we proposed a set                             Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software.
of five formal features to describe them, and we tried                             Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1995.
to classify a set of existing design languages according                      [11] J. Armani, L. Botturi, L. Cantoni, M. Di Benedetto, and F.
to these features. Possibly, other features are relevant,                          Garzotto, “Integrating Instructional Design and Hypermedia
                                                                                   Design”, EDMEDIA 2004 (vol. 1), AACE, 2004, 1713-1719.
and should be further investigated. Our point is that a
structured classification of design languages is                              [12] L. Botturi, “E2ML - Educational Environment Modeling
                                                                                   Language”, EDMEDIA 2003 (vol.1), 2004, 304-311.
important in order to identify particular affordances
                                                                              [13] M. Derntl, “Patterns for Person-Centered e-Learning,” PhD
and (dis)advantages of each language (or Learning                                  thesis, Faculty of Computer Science, University of Vienna,
Technology standard) in order to evaluate its                                      Austria, 2005.
suitability to specific projects or situations.[24]. We                       [14] R. Motschnig-Pitrik and M. Derntl, “Learning Process Models
then defined possible uses or applications of design                               as Mediators between Didactical Practice and Web Support,”
languages in this field, in order to provide a glance of                           Proc. ER 2005 (LNCS 3716), Springer Verlag, pp. 112-127.
their potential uses. Again, our framework identifies a                       [15] AUTC, “Learning Designs,” available           at   http://www.
subset of applications, which might be extended with                               learningdesigns.uow.edu.au/, 2003.
the growth of this research field. Finally, we proposed                       [16] IMS Global, “IMS Learning Design Specification,”
                                                                                   http://www.imsglobal.org/learningdesign/, 2003.
a short review of studies about ID design languages.
                                                                              [17] R. Koper, “Modeling units of study from a pedagogical
Empirical studies show that (support in) selecting and                             perspective: the pedagogical meta-model behind EML,”
using appropriate ID language is beneficial to                                     Technical Report, Open Univ. of the Netherlands, 2001
instructional designers. One of the implications of                           [18] M. Caeiro-Rodriguez, L. Anido-Rifon, and M. Llamas-Nistal,
those studies is that the use of ID languages should be                            “POEML: A Perspective-Oriented Educational Modeling
an important issue in training and supporting                                      Language Meta-model for Engineering E-learning Practices,”
instructional designers. Therefore, further research                               Proc. WWW 2006, to appear.
such as the study described in this paper is required, in                     [19] G. Booch, J. Rumbaugh, and I. Jacobson, The Unified
                                                                                   Modeling Language User Guide, Addison-Wesley, Reading,
order to validate and provide support tools for this                               MA, 1999.
purpose.                                                                      [20] Gibbons A., “What and how do designers design? A theory of
                                                                                   design structure”, Tech Trends, 47, AECT, 2003, pp. 22-27.
7. References                                                                 [21] M. Fowler, UML distilled: A brief guide to the standard object
                                                                                   modeling language. Addison Wesley, Boston, MA, 2003.
[1]   W.M.G. Jochems, J.J.G. van Merriënboer, and R. Koper,                   [22] E. Boot, J. Nelson, J.J.G. van Merriënboer, and A.S. Gibbons,
      Integrated E-Learning: Implications for Pedagogy, Technology                 “Stratification, Elaboration, and Formalization of Design
      and Organization. London: Routledge Farmer, 2003.                            Documents: Effects on the Production of Instructional
[2]   A.S. Gibbons, and E.K. Brewer, “Elementary principles of                     Materials”, submitted.
      design languages and design notation systems for instructional          [23] L. Botturi, “Visual Languages for Instructional Design: an
      design”. In J.M. Spector, C. Ohrazda, A. Van Schaack, and D.                 Evaluation of the Perception of E2ML”, Journal of Interactive
      Wiley (Eds.), Innovations to instructional technology: Essays                Learning Research, 16(4), 2005, 329-351.
      in honor of M. David Merrill, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
      Mahwah NJ, pp. 111-129.                                                 [24] H.H. Clark, and S.E. Brennan, „Grounding in Communication”.
                                                                                   In L.B. Resnick, J.M. Levine, and S.D. Teasley (Eds.),
[3]   G. Booch, Object-oriented analysis and design with                           Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition, American
      applications, Benjamin/Cummings, Redwood City CA, 1994.                      Psychological Association, Hyattsville MD, 1991, pp. 127-149.
[4]   L. Baresi, F. Garzotto, and P. Paolini, Extending UML for
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      Conference on System Sciences, Maui, 2001.
[5]   K.     Salen,    and    E.   Zimmermann,          Rules     of
      Play, MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 2004.
[6]   L. Botturi, “E2ML - A Visual Language for the Design of
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      Development, in press.
[7]   J. Lave, and E. Wenger, Situated learning. Legitimate
      peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press,
      Cambridge MA, 1991.




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