Administrative Procedures Rates of Reaction Inquiry - FPC Portland Public Schools Common Science Assignment HS Foundations of Physics and Chemistry Rates of chemical reactions Administrative Procedures Using the equipment and chemicals provided by your teacher, design, conduct and analyze the results of an experiment that investigates factors that affect the rates of chemical reactions. Description: In this inquiry students will explore how some reactions occur faster than others. Using the concepts of temperature or particle size, students will create an experiment that will investigate the relationship between one of these factors and the rate of reaction. The teaching sequence introduces and provides demonstrations of reaction rates; measuring, calculating and predicting individually and through group work. The task assesses students' understanding of scientific inquiry including the following skills: observation, background research, scientific procedures (including investigation design, measurement techniques, and error analysis), data collection, data display, scientific questions, formulating a hypothesis. This task is designed to take students approximately 6 to 9 hours; the amount done in class will vary among teachers depending on student needs. Scoring: Scoring will done in the same way as Oregon State Scientific Inquiry Work Sample Scoring. You score each section in the scoring guide (Forming a Question or Hypothesis, Designing an Investigation, Collecting and Presenting Data, Analyzing and Interpreting Results) on the 1-6 scale. All four scores will be reported for the Common Assignment. Scores are due to Research and Evaluation by January 13, 2009. Overall Task Content Area: Foundations of Physics and Chemistry Specific Knowledge Areas: Oregon State Standards: SC.CM.PS.02.04 ( Describe the factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions) PPS Standards: SCI.HS.PC.MTR.2.4 Administrative Procedures Rates of Reaction Inquiry - FPC Performance Expectations: conducting investigations using equipment gathering, organizing, and representing data formulating conclusions from investigational data writing to communicate scientific inquiry design, interpretation and analysis of data General Instructions to the Teacher: This task, including the writing process for the final report, is designed to take students approximately 6-8 hours or seven-nine 50 minute classes Students will be working individually on the final draft of this exercise. Collaboration during the design of the experiment and data collection is acceptable and encouraged as part of the scientific process. Teachers may model and guide various aspects of the inquiry process as needed or appropriate Students should be ready to work as soon as periods begin. A central supply area, if needed, should be easily accessible. All supplies should be clearly labeled and their use monitored by the teacher. If teachers plan to use the product of the activity for the Oregon State Science Work Sample, please adhere to the guidelines for Science Work Sample collection. Information can be found on the PPS Science Website: http://inside.curriculum.pps.k12.or.us/.docs/pg/12323 Materials for “Temperature or Particle Size”: 15 x 150 mm test tube Stopwatch Test tube rack Thermometer Ice Clear glasses or test tubes Water (cold, hot, room temp) Alka-Seltzer tablets Alka seltzer tablets Mortar and pestle Goggles Stopwatch Glove Administrative Procedures Rates of Reaction Inquiry - FPC Preparation: Background Knowledge: essential questions How do you know that a chemical reaction has occurred? Compare and contrast a physical change versus chemical change. What are the steps for the scientific method? If energy is added or removed from a system, how does that affect the particle movement and collisions? Sequence of teaching – pre-inquiry The goal of this section is to expose students to the necessary concepts and experiences so that they can be properly equipped to embark on a guided inquiry activity by the end of this section. This section involves a variety of strategies including small group cooperative learning, observation of discrepant events, and textbook reading supported by literacy strategies. Warm Up question: What would affect the speed of a reaction? How? Have them answer this individually in their notebooks. (5-7 minutes) Have each student in their table groups (groups of 4) share their answers. (5 minutes) After they share, the group comes up with one answer to share out with the class (recorder/reporter) Demonstrations Particle Size Powdered Zinc v. Mossy Zinc in Hydrochloric Acid 1. In an Erlenmeyer flask place the mossy zinc in and pour hydrochloric acid (3-4 Molar) into the flask. Immediately place a balloon over the top of the flask to capture the Hydrogen Gas. Swirl the flask. Have students pay special attention to the rate at which the balloon inflates. 2. (OPTIONAL) Before attempting this, be sure to follow all safety precautions including having students at least 3 meters away. When the reaction has stopped tie off the balloon, tape it to the end of the meter stick. Turn off lights, light a candle. Holding the meter stick from the opposite end, place the balloon over the flame. BOOM! Administrative Procedures Rates of Reaction Inquiry - FPC 3. Repeat step 1 but this time use powdered zinc. Have them compare the speed with which the balloon inflates this time. Temperature Glow sticks in ice water/hot water Have two beakers of water one with ice and one with hot water. Turn off lights. Break the glow sticks at the same time and place each one in a beaker. Have them make observations about the brightness of the glow sticks. Then have them predict the rate of the reaction and how temperature will affect how fast it goes. Then have them make final observations. Textbook Reading & Anticipation Guide At the end of this document is an Anticipation guide which may be used in conjunction with section 7.4 of the textbook. The teaching sequence is as follows: 1. Hand out the anticipation guide. If students have a journal for your class, it is useful to have them glue or tape it in. 2. Have students read each statement and make a guess if it is true or false. This should be done independently and fairly quickly. They should record their guess in the Me column. 3. If time permits, take a class poll by reading each statement aloud and asking which students believe the statement is true or false. Record what the majority thinks in a visible location. 4. Instruct the students to open their books to the section and to find evidence if each statement is true or false. If you have a method of note-taking like Cornell Notes, you can instruct them to follow that format. Students should be encouraged to look for evidence and then take notes about it on the right page of the journal. At a minimum, insist that they rewrite each statement so that it is true. To model your expectations, you may want to do the first one together. 5. Once students have completed or at the next class period, revisit each statement and as a class record whether each statement is true or false according to the text. Administrative Procedures Rates of Reaction Inquiry - FPC Their Inquiry: Note: for this section teachers are highly encouraged to have students use the Inquiry work sample template located on the OTL website at http://inside.otl.pps.k12.or.us/.docs/pg/12323 Now they have experienced some discrepant events that involve rates of reaction. They have had group conversations about it. They have also done some reading in the textbook on the topic. As a teacher you can now provide the framing for their inquiry. Offer up these following claims and ask each group to choose one of them to investigate: Claims 1. The temperature of water affects how quickly an Alka-seltzer tablet reacts. 2. The size of the particles affect how quickly an Alka-seltzer tablet reacts. . Once they have chosen their claim, the students must come up with their experimental design. Following the inquiry template, they must identify their manipulated variable, responding variable, and constants or controlled variables. They must also formulate their hypothesis that they will use to explore this. Available supplies Teachers should be sure students are aware of the following resources: 1. Water at varying temperatures (room temperature, ice bath, water near boiling point on a hot plate). Use thermometers to check the temperatures. You may use styrofoam to maintain the temperature of the warm water. 2. Alka seltzer tablets of varying size (whole tablet, ¼ tablets, powdered tablets) 3. Test tubes (5-6 per group) 4. Scoopula 5. Stopwatch Note: the above list is suggested as a starting point. Teachers are free to offer other options based on ideas generated in the classroom. Scaffolding during the data collection If teachers are having students perform this as an inquiry work sample, they must follow the guidelines provided by the state regarding what assistance can be provided to students. Some potential pitfalls to warn students about and help their thinking are provided below: How many trials are needed to get enough evidence to evaluate your hypothesis? Students sometimes perform the experiment once and conclude it is sufficient. Administrative Procedures Rates of Reaction Inquiry - FPC How will you determine which reaction is faster? Two possibilities: time the reaction until the tablet completely disappears or let the reaction go for a set time and then estimate how much of the tablet is left Where will you record your observations and data? Again, we recommend providing students a hard copy of the inquiry template from the OTL website Scaffolding the write up The amount of scaffolding required during this phase may vary. Provided below are some suggestions to guide your thinking. Students benefit from seeing a finished product that models what is expected. If you have strong work samples on different topics from previous years, showing students a copy of it and having them score it using the scoring guide can be helpful. Students benefit from a writing process that includes the creation of a rough draft that is followed by some sort of self edit or peer edit activity. A specific peer edit activity is provided at the end of this document. Instructions are provided below. Peer Editing Activity This activity works best if you have at least a few students turn in a rough draft the day before this activity is to be done. This gives you time to photocopy a few rough drafts so that every student (even those who don’t bring one) will have at least one paper to review. The activity works best if each student has at least 3 different highlighter colors to use. Modeling with a fictitious paper or excerpt that you make up can be very helpful as well. As a teacher, you choose the foci for students to concentrate on each time they read the paper. Examples are provided below: Highlight any evidence that supports or does not support the hypothesis. Highlight any references to the manipulated variable in one color, the responding variable in a different color, constants in a third color. Highlight any background information that helps the reader clearly understand the nature of the investigation and the importance of it. Highlight any numbers that suggest a relationship or any out of the ordinary data. After students have completed these focused readings, then show them how what they have highlighted (or not) can help them write constructive feedback. For example, if your first focus was highlighting in blue for evidence that links results to the hypothesis, Administrative Procedures Rates of Reaction Inquiry - FPC and there is no blue on the paper, then there is a deficiency in that student’s paper that you want them to address so that their paper is improved. It is important to emphasize that everyone’s paper has strong points and could use improvement. The activity is structured so that every paper receives at least some positives and criticisms. As a teacher, you can set a minimum of how many of each. Administrative Procedures Rates of Reaction Inquiry - FPC Anticipation Guide – Reaction Rates Foundations of Physics & Chemistry 1. Find 2 pages in your journal that are blank. Tape this onto the left side page. 2. Read each statement and guess if you think if it is True or False. Record your guess in the Me column. 3. Turn to section 7.4 of your book (pages 212-215). Find evidence within those pages to determine if each of these statements is true or false. Take notes on the right side of your journal. At a minimum, rewrite the statement so that it is a true statement. 4. In the column marked Text, indicate whether the statement is True or False according to the text. True or Statement False Me Text 1. A reaction rate is the rate at which the products change into the reactants over time. 2. Reaction rates tell you how fast reactants are being used up, how fast the products are being made, or how fast energy is taken in or given off. 3. Stirring is the only factor that affects reaction rates. 4. As temperature of a substance goes up, the particles move slower. This causes the number of collisions to go down. 5. As surface area goes up, the more exposure reactants have to each other. This allows for more collisions which makes reaction rate increase. 6. Stirring makes reaction rates go down. 7. Concentration is the number of particles in a given volume. 8. The more particles in a given volume, the fewer opportunities for collisions. This makes the reaction rate go down. 9. Catalysts make a reaction slow down without being used up in the reaction. Administrative Procedures Rates of Reaction Inquiry - FPC Peer Editing Activity The purpose of this activity is for every person to read two lab reports other than their own. The goal is for you to give and receive constructive feedback from classmates in order to improve your rough drafts. Read below. Part 1: Focused Highlighting In this part you will be looking through the lab report with a specific focus each time. Follow these instructions: 1. Write the first focus provided by your teacher in Focus #1. 2. Choose 1 highlighter color and mark the highlighter side with it. 3. Read the rough draft. When you come upon writing about that focus area, you will use the highlighter color you designated to highlight that writing. Focus #1 Highlighter 1 Focus #2 Highlighter 2 Focus #3 Highlighter 3 Part 2: Being a helpful reader You are trying to help your classmate improve their writing so that they can get a good grade on their final draft. Giving little feedback or saying general things like “looks good” will not help them improve. Be specific and detailed. Look at the different things you focused on with your highlighters. This should give you a strong sense of what you can say in terms of feedback. See the boxes below for guidance. Helpful Things to Say Things Not To Say “I liked how you ___________ at the start “Looks good” of the ______ paragraph…” “I got confused when you were talking “I didn’t get any of it” about _____ in the ___ paragraph. Do you mean to say ___________” “How does your example of ________ in “I don’t know” paragraph ________ relate back to your main idea? “Your last sentence in paragraph _____ is “It sounds okay.” hard to follow. You might want to think about ________” Administrative Procedures Rates of Reaction Inquiry - FPC Author of Essay: ______________________________ Name of Person Providing Feedback: ______________________ Positives. Things that were strong or you liked about the writing (at least ____). Constructive Criticisms. Things the author might want to work on to improve their writing (at least ___).
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