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BABA SHIV

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					BABA SHIV
      Professor of Marketing
      Stanford Graduate School of Business
      518 Memorial Way
      Stanford, CA 94305
      Shiv_Baba@gsb.stanford.edu
      Tel: (650) 725-8122
      Fax: (650) 725-6152



EDUCATION

      Ph.D.                 Duke University, 1996: Marketing

      M.B.A.                Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India, 1988

      B.E.                  College of Engineering, Chennai, India (Mechanical-Honors), 1983

ACADEMIC EXPERIENCE

      2008-                 Professor of Marketing, Graduate School of Business, Stanford
                            University
      2005-2007             Associate Professor of Marketing (with tenure) and Ormond
                            Family Faculty Fellow for 2006-2007, Graduate School of
                            Business, Stanford University
      2002-2005             Associate Professor (with tenure) and Henry B. Tippie Research
                            Fellow, Department of Marketing, University of Iowa
      1996 - 2002           Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, University of Iowa
      1994-95               Instructor, Markets and Management Program, Duke University

INDUSTRY/CONSULTING EXPERIENCE

      Pre-academic:
      Vadilal Enterprises Limited, Bombay, India (product launch of their ice cream in South
      India), Blow Plast Limited, India (sales and new product introductions), Larsen & Toubro
      Limited, India (Caterpillar Tractors and Poclain Hydraulic Excavators)

      Academic: Best Buy, Conagra, Google, InBev, Lenovo, Microsoft, Oracle, Shell

HONORS AND AWARDS
    2008     Graduate School of Business Trust Faculty Fellow for 2008-09
2008   Paper with Waber, Carmon and Ariely recognized for the Ig Nobel Prize
        (A parody of the Nobel Prizes, the Ig Nobel Prizes and are given each
       year for ten achievements that "first make people laugh, and then make
       them think." Commenting on the 2006 awards, Marc Abrahams, editor of
       Annals of Improbable Research, co-sponsor of the awards, said: "The
       prizes are intended to celebrate the unusual, honour the imaginative - and
       spur people's interest in science, medicine and technology")
2007   Letter of Commendation—Distinguished Teacher Award Committee,
       Stanford Graduate School of Business
2006   Ormond Family Faculty Fellow for 2006-07
2006   Citation of Excellence from Emerald Management Reviews—―Top 50
       Management Articles of 2005‖ for the paper, ―Placebo Effects of
       Marketing Actions‖ (#14 below)
2005   Finalist on two research papers (#s 11 & 14 below) for the Paul Green
       Award (paper published in the Journal of Marketing Research during
       the previous year that shows or demonstrates the most potential to
       contribute significantly to the practice of marketing research
       and research in marketing). Paper #14 was declared the runner-up for the
       award
2005   Outstanding Reviewer Award, Journal of Consumer Research
2005   MBA Elective Faculty Member of the Year, Tippie College of Business
2004   MBA Elective Faculty Member of the Year, Tippie College of Business
2004   NSF Grant, ―Interplay of Affect and Cognition in Decision Making:
       Comparing Emotionally Impaired Patients and Controls,‖ ($291,000,
       2004-2006)
2003   MBA Elective Faculty of the Year, Tippie College of Business
2003   Named ―Outstanding Faculty‖ in the Business Week Guide to the Best
       Business Schools, 8th Edition (McGraw-Hill)
2002   MBA Elective Faculty of the Year, Tippie College of Business
2001   MBA Teacher of the Year, Tippie College of Business
2001   Named ―Outstanding Faculty‖ in the Business Week Guide to the Best
       Business Schools, 7th Edition (McGraw-Hill)
2001   Marketing Science Institute Young Scholar: Identified by the Marketing
       Science Institute as a future leader of the next generation of marketing
       academics
2000   Named ―Most Popular Professor, Tippie College of Business‖ in the
       Business Week Rankings & Profiles of the Best Business Schools, 7th
       Edition (McGraw-Hill)
2000   MBA Teacher of the Year, University of Iowa
2000   Sprint MBA Faculty Fellow
1999   MBA Teacher of the Year, Tippie College of Business
1999   Collegiate Teaching Award, University of Iowa
1999   Named ―Outstanding Faculty‖ in the Business Week Guide to the Best
       Business Schools, 6th Edition (McGraw-Hill)
1999   Old Gold Fellowship, University of Iowa
1999   Summer Research Grant, Tippie College of Business, University
1997   Old Gold Fellowship, University of Iowa
     1995           Fellow, American Marketing Association Doctoral Consortium
     1991-95        Fuqua Fellowship, Duke University
     1983           Ramanna Gold Medal for the ―Best Student of 1983
                    (All Branches of Engineering),‖ College of Engineering, Chennai, India.


RESEARCH

     Examining the emotional and neurological underpinnings of human behavior,
     demonstrating how the typical ―mindless‖ consumer is often influenced by a host of
     subtle environmental factors and how many of these effects occur non-consciously. My
     research offers insights into the appropriate design and execution of advertising, market
     research, and marketing and branding strategies

TEACHING

     Customer Focused Innovation, Strategic Marketing Communications, Green Marketing,
     Frinky Science of the Mind, Power of Emotional Branding, and the Neuroscience of
     Human Behavior

JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS

1.   Shiv, B., J.A. Edell, and J.W. Payne (1997), ―Factors Affecting the Impact of Negatively
     and Positively Framed Ad Messages,‖ Journal of Consumer Research, 24 (December),
     285-94.
2.   Kirmani, A., and B. Shiv (1998), ―The Effects of Source Congruity on Brand Attitudes
     and Beliefs: The Moderating Role of Issue-relevant Elaboration,‖ Journal of Consumer
     Psychology, 7 (1), 25-48.
3.   Shiv, B. and Fedorikhin, A. (1999), ―Heart and Mind in Conflict: Interplay of Affect and
     Cognition in Consumer Decision Making,‖ Journal of Consumer Research, 26
     (December), 278-282.
4.   Shiv, B. and J. Huber (2000), ―The Impact of Anticipating Satisfaction on Choice,‖
     Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (September), 202-216.
5.   Fitzsimons, G. and Shiv, B (2001), ―Non-conscious and Contaminative Effects of
     Hypothetical Questions on Subsequent Decision Making,‖ Journal of Consumer
     Research, 28 (September), 224-238.
6.   Shiv, B. and Fedorikhin, A. (2002), ―Spontaneous versus Controlled Influences of
     Stimulus-Based Affect on Choice Behavior,‖ Organizational Behavior and Human
     Decision Processes, 87 (March), 342-370.
7.   Fitzsimons, G. et al. (2002), ―Non-Conscious Influences on Consumer Choice,‖
     Marketing Letters, 13 (3), 267-277.
8.   Shiv, B., Edell Britton J.A., and Payne J. W. (2004), ―Does Elaboration Increase or
     Decrease the Effectiveness of Negatively versus Positively Framed Messages?‖ Journal
     of Consumer Research, 31 (June), 199-208.
9.    Shiv, B. and Nowlis, S. (2004), ―Effects of Distraction while Tasting a Food
      Sample: The Interplay of Informational and Affective Components in Subsequent
      Choice,‖ Journal of Consumer Research, 31 (December), 599-608.
10.   Shiv, B., Loewenstein, G., and Bechara, A. (2005), ―The Dark Side of Emotion in
      Decision-making: When Individuals with Decreased Emotional Reactions Make More
      Advantageous Decisions,‖ Cognitive Brain Research, 23 (April), 85-92.

11.   Nowlis, S. and Shiv, B (2005). ―Influence of Consumer Distractions on the Effectiveness
      of Food Sampling Programs,‖ Journal of Marketing Research, 42 (May), 157-168.

12.   Ferraro, R., Shiv, B., and Bettman, J. R. (2005), ―Let Us Eat and Drink, For
      Tomorrow We Shall Die: Effects of Mortality Salience and Self-Esteem on Self-
      Regulation in Consumer Choice,‖ Journal of Consumer Research, 32 (June), 65-75.
13.   Shiv, B., Loewenstein, G., Bechara, A., Damasio, H., and Damasio, A. (2005),
      ―Investment Behavior and the Negative Side of Emotion,‖ Psychological Science, 16
      (June), 435-439.

14.   Shiv, B., Carmon Z., and Ariely D. (2005), ―Placebo Effects of Marketing Actions:
      Consumers May Get What They Pay For,‖ Journal of Marketing Research (Lead
      Article), 42 (November), 383-393.
15.   Shiv, B., Carmon Z., and Ariely D. (2005), ―Ruminating about Placebo Effects of
      Marketing Actions,‖ Journal of Marketing Research, 42 (November), 410-414.
16.   Shiv, B., Fedorikhin, A., and Nowlis, S. (2005), ―Interplay of the Heart and Mind in
      Decision Making,‖ in Inside Consumption: Frontiers of Research on Consumer Motives,
      Goals, and Desire, eds. R. Ratneshwar and D. Mick, Routledge, 166-184.
17.   Shiv, B. et al. (2005), ―Decision Neuroscience,‖ Marketing Letters, Vol. 16 (3/4), 375-
      386.
18.   Naqvi, N. Shiv, B., and Bechara, A., (2006), ―The Role of Emotion in Decision Making:
      A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective,‖ Current Directions in Psychological Science,
      Vol. 15 (5), 260-264.
19.   Chartrand, T., Shiv, B., Huber J. and Tanner, R. (forthcoming), ―Nonconscious Goals and
      Consumer Choice,‖ Journal of Consumer Research.
20.   Weller J. A., Levin, I., Shiv, B. and Bechara A. (2007), ―Neural Basis of Adaptive
      Decision Making in Risky Gains and Losses,‖ Psychological Science, Vol. 18 (11), 958-
      964.
21.   Shiv, B., ―Emotions, Decisions and the Brain (2007),‖ Journal of Consumer Psychology,
      Vol. 17 (3), 174-178.
22.   Plassmann, H., O’Doherty, J., Shiv, B. and Rangel, A. (2008), ―Marketing Actions can
      Modulate Neural Representations of Experienced Utility,‖ Proceedings of the National
      Academy of Sciences, Vol. 105 (3), 1050-1054.
23.   Waber R., Shiv, B., Carmon, Z., and Ariely D. (2008), ―Commercial Features of Placebo
      and Therapeutic Efficacy,‖ Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 299 (9),
      1016-1017.


24.   Wadhwa. M., Shiv, B., and Nowlis, S. (2008), ―A Bite to Whet the Reward Appetite:
      Influence of Sampling on Reward-Seeking Behaviors,‖ Journal of Marketing Research,
      Vol. 45 (August), 403-413.
25.   Mishra, H., Shiv, B., and Nayakankuppam, D. (2008), ―The Blissful Ignorance Effect:
      Pre versus Post Action Effects on Outcome-Expectancies Arising from Precise and
      Vague Information,‖ Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 35 (December), 573-585.
26.   Gao, L., Wheeler, C., and Shiv, B. (forthcoming), ―The Shaken Self: Product Choice as a
      Means to Restore Self-View Certainty,‖ Journal of Consumer Research, June 2009 issue.
27.   Shiv, B. and Bechara A. (forthcoming), ―Revisiting the Customer Value Proposition:
      The Power of Brand Emotion, in Contemporary Branding Issues: A Research
      Perspective, Psychology Press, New York, NY.
28.   Sela, A. and Shiv, B. (forthcoming), ―Unraveling Priming: When Does the Same Prime
      Activate a Goal versus a Trait?‖ Journal of Consumer Research.
29.   Weller, J., Levin, I., Shiv, B. and Bechara A. (forthcoming), ―The Effects of Insula
      Damage on Decision Making for Risky Gains and Losses, Social Neuroscience.
30.   Shiv, B. (forthcoming), ―Is Mr. Spock a Good Candidate for Being a Connected
      Customer? The Role of Emotion in Decision Making.‖ The Connected Customer, Taylor
      & Francis, Routledge.
31.   Shiv, B. (forthcoming), ―Marketing (Role of Emotion in),‖ The Oxford Companion to
      Emotion and the Affective Sciences, Oxford University Press.



SELECTED RESEARCH IN PROGRESS

1.    Berger, J. and Shiv, B., ―Food, Sex and the Hunger for Distinction.‖ Under second round
      review at Journal of Marketing Research.
2.    Gal, D., Wheeler, C., and Shiv, B., ―Cross-Modal Influences on Taste Perception.‖
      Invited revision - Journal of Marketing Research.
3.    Shiv, B., Mishra, H., and Carmon, Z., ―You Decide for Me versus I Decide for Myself:
      Locus of Decision Making and the Placebo Effect.‖
5.    Moore, S., Shiv, B. and Fitzsimons, G., ―The Effects of Negative versus Positive Self-
      Assertions in Self-Regulation Failures.‖
6.    Shiv, B., Wadhwa, M., and Nowlis, S., ―Can a Taste Stimulate the Reward Appetite?‖
7.    Wadhwa, M., Shiv, B., and Nowlis, S., ―Smelling Your Way to Satiety: Impact of Odor
      Satiation on Subsequent Consumption Related Behaviors.‖
8.    Mogilner, C., Iyengar, S., and Shiv, B., ―A Bird in the Hand or Two in the Bush: The
       Effect of Simultaneously vs. Sequentially Presented Options on Chooser Commitment.‖
       Invited revision - Journal of Marketing Research.
9.     Shiv, B. and Bechara A., ―Are Emotionals or Vulcans More Susceptible to Buyer’s
       Remorse? The Role of Emotion in Decision Quality.‖
10.    Litt, A., Khan, U. and Shiv, B., ―Loathing while Lusting: Parallel Counterdriving of
       Wanting and Liking.‖ Under review at Psychological Science.
11.    Argo, J. and Shiv, B., ―The Curse of White Lies: To Condone Yet Cede.‖ Invited
       Revision – Journal of Consumer Research.


PROFESSIONAL SERVICE

Discipline-Related:
       Editor, Journal of Consumer Research (March 2009-June 2011)
       Associate Editor, Journal of Consumer Research (June 2005-March 2009)
       Co-Chair, Association for Consumer Research Doctoral Consortium, 2007
       Advisory Board, Marketing Science Institute, (2007-)
       Advisory Board, Association for Consumer Research (2005-2007)
       Editorial Review Board, Journal of Consumer Psychology, Journal of Consumer Research,
       Journal of Marketing Research
       Ad Hoc reviewer, International Journal for Research in Marketing, Journal of Applied
       Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, Journal of Marketing,
       Management Science, Marketing Letters, Marketing Science, Organizational Behavior and
       Human Decision Processes, Psychological Science.
       Co-chair, Society for Consumer Psychology Conference, 2006.
       Co-Chair, Convention of the American Psychological Association, August 2000,
       Washington D.C.

Stanford University (incl. GSB):
       PhD Liaison (Marketing), Stanford Graduate School of Business (2005-)
       IRB-Panel 2 Member, Stanford University (2007-)


INVITED AND REFEREED CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS

       ―Are Emotions Good or Bad for Decision Making: A Neuroscience Perspective,‖
       Invited presentation at the Bilkent Marketing Camp, June 2008.

       ―Are Emotions Good or Bad for Decision Making: A Neuroscience Perspective,‖
       Invited presentation at London Business School, June 2008.

       ―Are Emotions Good or Bad for Decision Making: A Neuroscience Perspective,‖
       Invited presentation at INSEAD, June 2008.

       ―Are Emotions Good or Bad for Decision Making: A Neuroscience Perspective,‖
       Invited presentation at Tilburg University, May 2008.
―Are Emotions Good or Bad for Decision Making: A Neuroscience Perspective,‖
Invited presentation at Yale University, February 2008.

―Are Emotions Good or Bad for Decision Making: A Neuroscience Perspective,‖
Invited presentation at UCLA (Anderson School), February 2008.

―Are Emotions Good or Bad for Decision Making: A Neuroscience Perspective,‖
Invited presentation at the Harvard Business School, February 2008.

―Are Emotions Good or Bad for Decision Making: A Neuroscience Perspective,‖
Invited presentation at the University of Utah, November 2007.
―Are Emotions Good or Bad for Decision Making: A Neuroscience Perspective,‖
Invited presentation at the Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia,
October 2007.
―The Power of Emotional Branding,‖ Invited presentation at the Marketing Science
Institute Conference, ―Creating and Cultivating Brand Connections,‖ Minneapolis, June
6-8, 2007.
―Investment Behavior and the Dark Side of Emotion,‖ Invited presentation at the
Columbia Business School, October 2006.
―Investment Behavior and the Dark Side of Emotion,‖ Invited presentation at the
Wharton School, October 2006.
―The Eye’s Mind and the Mind’s Eye,‖ Conference of the Association for Consumer
Research, Orlando, Florida, September 2006
―A Bite to Whet the Reward Appetite,‖ Conference of the Association for Consumer
Research, Orlando, Florida, September 2006
―A Bite to Whet the Reward Appetite,‖ Invited presentation at the University of Florida
Marketing Retreat, February 2006.
―A Bite to Whet the Reward Appetite,‖ Invited presentation at the National University of
Singapore, Singapore, January 2006.
―A Bite to Whet the Reward Appetite,‖ Conference of the Association for Consumer
Research, San Antonio, September 2005.
―Placebo Effects in Marketing Contexts,‖ Invited presentation at the 2005 AMA Doctoral
Consortium, University of Connecticut, July 2005.
―Placebo Effects in Marketing Contexts,‖ Invited presentation at the 2005 Stern Summer
Research Camp, New York University, May 2005.
―Placebo Effects in Marketing Contexts,‖ Invited presentation at University of California,
Los Angeles, May 2005.
―Placebo Effects in Marketing Contexts,‖ Invited presentation at McGill University,
April 2005.
―Placebo Effects in Marketing Contexts,‖ Invited presentation at Tulane University,
October 2004.
―Placebo Effects in Marketing Contexts,‖ Conference of the Association for Consumer
Research, Portland, October 2004
.
―Consumer Emotions and Experiences in Context,‖ ACR Doctoral Consortium, October
2004.
―Placebo Effects in Marketing Contexts: Influence of Sales Promotions on the Efficacy
of Health Supplements,‖ Invited presentation at the Distinguished Scholars Retreat,
University of Alberta, May 2004.
―Investment Behavior and the Dark Side of Emotion,‖ BDRM Conference, Duke
University, April 2004.
―Placebo Effects in Marketing Contexts: Influence of Sales Promotions on the Efficacy of
Health Supplements,‖ BDRM Conference, Duke University, April 2004.
―Effects of Distraction while Tasting a Food Sample,‖ Invited presentation at the
University of California, Berkeley, March, 2004.

―Effects of Non-Conscious Goal Priming on Consumer Choice Behavior,‖
Conference of the Society for Consumer Psychology, San Francisco, February 2003.
―Effects of Distraction while Tasting a Food Sample,‖ Conference of the Society for
Consumer Psychology, San Francisco, February 2004.
―Effects of Distraction while Tasting a Food Sample,‖ Invited presentation at Stanford
University, January, 2004.
―Effects of Distraction while Tasting a Food Sample,‖ Invited presentation at Carnegie
Mellon University, December, 2003.
―Effects of Distraction while Tasting a Food Sample,‖ Invited presentation at the
University of Houston, November 2003.

―Role of Anticipating Satisfaction in Decision Making: A Diary of my Research,‖ ACR
Doctoral Consortium, October 2003.
“Let Us Eat and Drink, For Tomorrow We Shall Die (Isaiah xxii. 13): Mortality Salience
and Hedonic Choice.‖ Conference of the Association for Consumer Research, Toronto,
Canada, October 2003.
―Investment Behavior and the Dark Side of Emotion,‖ Conference of the Association for
Consumer Research, Toronto, Canada, October 2003.
―Consumer Strategies to Avoid Decision Conflict,‖ Discussion Leader, Conference of the
Association for Consumer Research, Toronto, Canada, October 2003.
―Effects of Distraction while Tasting a Food Sample,‖ Invited presentation at the
University of Michigan, September 2003.

―Effects of Distraction while Tasting a Food Sample‖ Invited presentation at the
Marketing Department Research Camp, INSEAD, France, June 2003.

―Effects of Distraction while Tasting a Food Sample: Will it Increase or Decrease
Subsequent Choice?‖ Invited presentation at the Marketing Department Research Camp,
University of Texas, Austin, April 2003.

―Effects of Distraction while Tasting a Food Sample: Will it Increase or Decrease
Subsequent Choice?‖ Conference of the Society for Consumer Psychology, New
Orleans, LA, February 2003.

―Effects of Anticipating Satisfaction on Product Returns,‖ Conference of the Association
for Consumer Research, Atlanta, Georgia, October 2002.

―Effects of Distraction while Tasting a Food Sample: Will it Increase or Decrease Choice
of the Sampled Option?‖ Conference of the Association for Consumer Research, Atlanta,
Georgia, October 2002.

―Effects of Distraction while Tasting a Food Sample: Will it Increase or Decrease Choice
of the Sampled Option?‖ Invited presentation at the University of Arizona, February
2002.

―Neuroscience and the Unconscious,‖ Invited presentation at the 2001 UC Berkeley
Invitational Choice Symposium, June 2001.

―The Impact of Hypothetical Questions on Decision Making,‖ Invited presentation at
Wharton School, April 2001.

―The Impact of Hypothetical Questions on Decision Making,‖ Invited presentation at the
University of Chicago, March 2001.

―The Impact of Hypothetical Questions on Decision Making,‖ Invited presentation at the
University of Toronto, March 2001.

―Role of Stimulus-Induced Affect on Choice: The Affective-Cognitive Model,‖ Invited
Presentation at MSI’s Young Scholar Program, Park City, Utah, January 2001.

―Spontaneous versus Controlled Influences of Task-Induced Affect on Consumer
Decision Making: The Affective-Cognitive Model,‖ Conference of the Association for
Consumer Research, Salt Lake City, Utah, October 2000.

―Spontaneous versus Controlled Influences of Task-Induced Affect on Consumer
Decision Making: The Affective-Cognitive Model,‖ Invited presentation at the University
of Colorado, Boulder, CO, August 2000.
―Spontaneous versus Controlled Influences of Task-Induced Affect on Consumer
Decision Making: The Affective-Cognitive Model,‖ Iowa State University – University
of Iowa Decision Making Conference, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, August 2000.

―The Impact of Anticipating Satisfaction on Consumer Choice,‖ Invited presentation at
the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, June 2000.

―Spontaneous versus Controlled Influences of Task-Induced Affect on Consumer
Decision Making: The Affective-Cognitive Model,‖ Invited presentation at the University
of Houston, Houston, TX, April 2000.

―Pushpolling: The Role of Presuppositions in Decision Making,‖ Conference of the
Association for Consumer Research, Columbus, OH, October 1999.

―The Impact of Anticipating Satisfaction on Choice,‖ Conference of the Association for
Consumer Research, Columbus, OH, October 1999.

―Spontaneous versus Controlled Influences of Task-Induced Affect on Consumer
Decision Making: The Affective-Cognitive Model,‖ Invited presentation at the Affect and
Decision Making Camp, Ohio State University, 1999.

―Spontaneous Effects of Task-Induced Affect on Consumer Decision Making: The
Affective-Cognitive Model,‖ Conference of the Association for Consumer Research,
Montreal, October 1998.

―Spontaneous Effects of Task-Induced Affect on Consumer Decision Making: The
Affective-Cognitive Model,‖ Midwest Marketing Camp, Iowa City, IA (Summer 1998).

―The Effects of Source Credibility on Brand Attitudes and Choice: The Reverse Sleeper
Effect,‖ Conference of the Association for Consumer Research, Denver, CO, October
1997.

―Sneaking Up on the Consumer: Conscious versus Unconscious Effects of Internet
Advertising,‖ Midwest Marketing Camp, Iowa City, IA (Summer 1997).

―When Negative Information May Not be Harmful: Accessibility and Diagnosticity of
Inputs as Moderators to the Negativity Effect.‖ Conference of the Association for
Consumer Research, Tuscon, AZ, October 1996.

―Responding to an Advertising Attack: Is It Worth Getting into a Media Brawl?‖
Conference of the Association for Consumer Research, Minneapolis, MN, October 1995.

―The Effects of Message Framing on Aad, Ab, and Brand Choice: When Is What You
Dislike, What You Choose?‖ Conference of the Association for Consumer Research,
Minneapolis, MN, October 1995.
―Effects of Positively and Negatively Frames Messages on Preferences: A Test of
Contradictory Predictions.‖ Conference of the Association for Consumer Research,
Boston, MA, October 1994.

―Negative Comparative Ads: When Is It Good to Be Negative?‖ Conference of the
Society for Consumer Psychology, Tampa, FL, February 1994.




                                                         Date last revised: 3/30/2009