Welcome to AP Chemistry_ by fjzhangweiqun


									AP Chemistry                       Page -1-                 Summer Assignment
Salisbury High School               Whitson                              2006

                        Welcome to AP Chemistry!

I am excited that you decided to take on the challenge that AP Chemistry has
to offer. This packet contains review materials that are necessary for your
success in this course. It covers chemical formulas, equation writing and
balancing, formula and reaction stoichiometry, gas laws and solutions. Your
notebook and the textbook are good resources for this review. If you have
difficulty, you are more than welcome to call or email me, at any point during
the summer, at the telephone number or email address below. If I am not
home, leave a message and I will happily return your call.

This assignment is broken into parts. Each part has a different due date. It
is imperative that you pay attention to the due dates and turn in the work as
assigned. Assignments may be accepted earlier than the due date. Should
you have a major issue with meeting the due date, please let me know. I am
willing to work with you as I can.

Part:            Due Date:
Part I           Friday, June 30 by 4:00 PM
Part II          Wednesday, July 26 by 4:00 PM

Additionally review sessions will be scheduled as follows. This will provide
you an opportunity to ask questions if you need to. These sessions are NOT
Review Session            Tuesday, June 22
                          10:00 AM in Room 313
Review Session            Tuesday, July 10
                          10:00 AM in Room 313
Review Session            Wednesday, July 26
                          2:00 PM in Room 313

Materials:             Comments:
Graphics Calculator    I recommend TI-89 since this is what is required in precal
                       and AP calculus, however the TI-83/84 will be fine as well
Chemical Equations     I will provide these to students during the first week of
Handbook (Cost $13.00) school
AP Chemistry Study     We will order this as a class at the beginning of the year.
Laboratory Notebook    3 Ring Binder with loose leaf notebook paper and graph
AP Chemistry                       Page -2-                  Summer Assignment
Salisbury High School               Whitson                               2006

In order to be successful in AP Chemistry, you must be willing to
make the following commitments:

   1) Read the book as assigned
   2) Spend at least five hours outside of class a week preparing for AP
   3) Study the Chemical Equations Handbook
   4) Be prepared to spend extra time as necessary before or after school for
   5) Bring a positive attitude to class at all times.
   6) Communicate effectively with teacher and classmates

If you can agree to these conditions, welcome aboard. If you aren’t able to
commit to these, then I suggest you consider changing to a less intense class.

Textbooks are available in my room.


Brian Whitson

My Contact Information:

704-639-0687 (home)
704-798-6455 (mobile)

Email: whitson@shschem.info

Home Page: http://www.apchem.info
AP Chemistry                       Page -3-                 Summer Assignment
Salisbury High School               Whitson                              2006

                        AP Chemistry Summer Assignment

Part I- DUE Friday JUNE 30 by 4:00 PM

     1) Send an email to Mr. Whitson. If you have an email account, send the
        email to: whitson@shschem.info. Alternately, you may visit my
        schoolnotes page (http://www.schoolnotes.com/28144/whitsonb.html) and
        send an email from this site. In the email, state why you are taking AP
        Chemistry and some of your summer plans.
     2) Go to the course’s homepage: http://www.apchem.info. This will be your
        homepage for AP Chemistry. Begin memorizing this address.
     3) Additionally, you may need to access the CP Chemistry webpage. The
        address is: http://www.shschem.info. You will be able to review various
        concepts from the first year course. Download the following documents
        to help you with AP Chemistry:
        a) Naming Chemical Compounds Document
        b) CP Chem EOC Formula Sheet

4)    Write formulas for the following substances:
a.   Barium sulfate                         n. Sodium permanganate
b.   Ammonium chloride                      o. Lithium oxalate
c.   Chlorine monoxide                      p. Potassium cyanide
d.   Silicone tetrachloride                 q. Iron (III) hydroxide
e.   Magnesium fluoride                     r. Silicone dioxide
f.   Sodium oxide                           s. Nitrogen trifluoride
g.   Sodium peroxide                        t. Chromium (III) oxide
h.   Copper (I) iodide                      u. Calcium chlorate
i.   Zinc sulfide                           v. Sodium thiocyanate
j.   Potassium carbonate                    w. Cobalt (III) nitrate
k.   Hydrobromic acid                       x. Nitrous acid
l.   Perbromic acid                         y. Ammonium phosphate
m.   Lead (II) acetate                      z. Potassium chromate

5) Name each of the following compounds (Give acid names where

a.   CuSO4                                k.   Mg(OH)2
b.   PCl3                                 l.   Al2S3
c.   Li3N                                 m.   AgBr
d.   BaSO3                                n.   P4O10
e.   N2F4                                 o.   HC2H3O2
f.   KClO4                                p.   CaI2
g.   NaH                                  q.   MnO2
h.   (NH4)2Cr2O7                          r.   Li2O
i.   HNO2                                 s.   FeI3
j.    Sr3P2                               t.   Cu3PO4
AP Chemistry                       Page -4-                  Summer Assignment
Salisbury High School               Whitson                               2006

u. PCl3                                   x. Zn (NO3)2
v. NaCN                                   y. N2O
w. Cs3N                                   z. HF

6) Determine the type of reaction, predict the products and write a balanced
   chemical equation for each of the following, as shown in the example
   below. Remember, the five types of reactions are synthesis,
   decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and combustion.

       Solutions of silver nitrate and magnesium iodide are combined.

       This is a double replacement reaction.
       2AgNO3 + MgI2 2AgI + Mg(NO3)2

   a) Ammonium sulfate reacts with barium nitrate,
   b) Zinc metal is added to a solution of copper (II) chloride.
   c) Propane gas (C3H8) is burned in excess oxygen.
   d) Dinitrogen pentoxide gas is added to distilled water.
   e) Solid calcium chlorate is heated strongly.
   f) Sodium hydroxide solution is added to a solution of iron (III) bromide.
   g) Chlorine gas is bubbled through a solution of sodium bromide.
   h) Solutions of lead nitrate and calcium iodide are combined.
   i) Sulfuric acid is combined with solid magnesium hydroxide.
   j) Solid barium oxide is added to distilled water.
   k) Isopropyl alcohol (C3H7OH) is burned in air.
   l) Iron metal shavings are added to hydrochloric acid.
   m) Solid sodium carbonate is heated in a crucible.
   n) Solid aluminum hydroxide is added to perchloric acid.
   o) Sodium metal is added to distilled water.

Part II:   Chemical Equations (DUE Wednesday, July 26 by 4:00 PM)

1. Benzene contains only carbon and hydrogen and has a molar mass of 78.1
   g/mol. Analysis shows the compound to be 7.74% H by mass. Find the
   empirical and molecular formulas of benzene.

2. Find the mass percent (percent composition) of nitrogen in each of the
   following compounds:
   a. NO                                    c. N2O4
   b. NO2                                   d. N2O

3. Calcium carbonate decomposes upon heating, producing calcium oxide and
   carbon dioxide gas.
AP Chemistry                       Page -5-                  Summer Assignment
Salisbury High School               Whitson                               2006

   a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.
   b. How many grams of calcium oxide will remain after 12.25 g of calcium
      carbonate is completely decomposed?

4. Hydrogen gas and bromine gas react to form hydrogen bromide gas.
   a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.
   b. How many grams of hydrogen bromide gas can be produced from 3.2 g
      of hydrogen gas and 9.5 g of bromine gas?
   c. How many grams of which reactant is left unreacted?
   d. What volume of HBr, measured at STP, is produced in b)?

5. When ammonia gas, oxygen gas and methane gas (CH4) are combined, the
   products are hydrogen cyanide gas and water.
   a. Write a balance chemical equation for this reaction.
   b. Calculate the mass of each product produced when 225 g of oxygen gas
      is reacted with an excess of the other two reactants.
   c. If the actual yield of the experiment in b) is 105 g of HCN, calculate
      the percent yield.

6. A 2.29 g sample of H3PO4 is dissolved in 750.0 milliliters of water. What
   is the molarity of the solution?

7. Write equilibrium expressions (Keq) for the following reactions.
   Remember to balance the equations prior to write the Keq.
         a) H2 (g) + O2 (g)  H2O (g)
         b) P + O2  P2O5
         c) NH3  N2 + H2

8. Distinguish between oxidation and reduction.
9. Determine if the following compounds are soluble (S) or a precipitate (P).
   A precipitate can be referred to as insoluble. See Table 4.6 on page 149.
   a) NaOH         b) NaCl              c) AgCl            d) KNO3
   e) MgO          f) Fe(OH)3           g) Cd3(PO4)        h) (NH4)2S

10. Distinguish between acids and bases.
11. Complete the following chart:
           [H+]           pH          [OH-]           pOH         Acids, Base,
                                                                   or Neutral
       3.2 x 10-5
                                   1 x 10-7
       4.5 x 10-11
AP Chemistry                        Page -6-                Summer Assignment
Salisbury High School                Whitson                             2006

12. Cinnamic acid contains only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and is found by
    analysis to be 73.0% C and 5.4% hydrogen. Find the empirical formula of
    this compound.
13. Complete the following conversions:
    a) 5,343 J to kilojoules                 b) 5.4 atm to mm Hg
    c) 34 C to Kelvin                       d) 3456 torr to pounds / inches2

14. Distinguish between nuclear fission and fusion.
15. Write electron configurations for the following:
    a) H            b) Ag        c) I           d) Sr           e) Ca

16. A wave has a wavelength of 450 nm.
    a) Determine the wave’s frequency in Hertz.
    b) How much energy does the wave possess

17. A gas occupies a volume of 345 mL at 20C and 1.1 atm. What is the gas’s
    new volume if the pressure increased to 1.8 atm and 35C?

18. A 22.3 gram sample of Oxygen (O2) gas occupies a volume of 11.8 L at
    23C. What is the pressure of the gas?

19. Why does Ar effuse more slowly than He?

20. How much energy is required to heat a 23.5 g sample of H2O (specific heat
    = 4.184 J / (g * C)) from 35C to 53C?

21. Potassium nitrate decomposes when heated, forming potassium nitrite
    and oxygen gas.
    a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.
    b. What mass of KNO3 would be needed to produce 18.4 liters of oxygen
       gas, measured at 775 mmHg and 15C?
    c. What mass of KNO2 would also be produced?

22.   Heating a 6.862 g sample of an ore containing a metal sulfide in excess
   oxygen produces 1053 ml of SO2 gas measured at 66C and 739 mmHg.
   Calculate the percentage by mass of sulfur in the ore.

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