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              Giuseppe Mazzini
 Born in Genoa
 Studied to be a lawyer
 Became member of the
    Carbonari in 1827
   Led failed attempts at
    revolution during the
   Founded ‘Young Italy’
   Elected to the Triumvirate
    in 1849
   Criticised new Italian state
    after 1870
   What were Mazzini’s aims?
 Encouraged                            democratic
 people to see                        independent
themselves as                       Italian Republic
   part of a

           Had concept of ‘Third
            Rome’ – a civilising
           influence on the world
       What were Mazzini’s methods?
         ‘Education and                           Sought support from
         revolution’                              young educated m/class

Constitutional                                         Italian people to drive
monarchies seen as                                     the Austrians out
stop-gap only

                      Hoped that publicity and propaganda would
                      create revolutionary class
How big an impact did Mazzini
have on the Unification of Italy?
 Gave encouragement to Italian patriotism
 Presented new view of Italy
 Inspired Garibaldi to join movement
 Helped to win international publicity for
  Italian freedom. Defence of Rome in 1849
  was heroic failure
 By his actions put pressure on Cavour and
  others to act more positively
How successful was Mazzini?
 Had little practical experience
 Overestimated level of support – ignored problems
  of the peasants
 Support was limited – used Carbonari methods
 All his plots failed!
 Some middle class alienated by his revolutionary
 Made no attempt to win support from peasants and
  town workers
Mazzini’s verdict on Italy, 1871
 Italian territory under foreign control

 Foreigners had played too important a role
  in unification

 Unhappy with new constitution
Count Emilio Cavour
           Member of
            Piedmontese ruling
           Great admirer of
            British system of
           Initially aimed at
            expanding Piedmont
            rather than uniting
Cavour – Foreign Policy
 Aware of shortcomings of ‘Italia fara da se’
 Aimed to move Austrians out of Lombardy
  & Venetia
 As PM had considerable control over
  foreign policy
 1854 – outbreak of Crimean War: Britain &
  France vs Russia
 15,000 troops sent to support France & GB
Cavour and the Crimean War
 Some doubt over motivation but perhaps
  aimed to gain support from GB & France
 Troops played only minor role but did win
  respect & gratitude from allies
 Congress of Paris (1856) dealt with peace
 Cavour not directly involved in talks
Cavour wins support
 Foreign support & diplomacy seen as main
 Also important was link with National
 Number of its leaders beginning to accept
  Piedmont as focus for unification
 Cavour now looked to France for help
  against Austria
Napoleon III and Italian Unity
 Former member of the
 His troops had crushed
  Roman Republic in
 Had his own reasons
  for aiding Piedmont
 Probably favoured
  federation headed by
The Orsini Bomb Plot!
                 In January 1848 Felice
                  Orsini attempted to
                  assassinate Napoleon
                 Hoped that this would
                  aid Italian unity
                 Did spur Napoleon III
                  into action
                 Agreement made via
                  Compact of
War with Austria
 1859 War provoked with Austria
 French (with limited help from Piedmont)
  won 2 closely fought victories
 Austria on brink of surrender
 Napoleon III now pulled put of the war –
  Truce of Villafranca!
 Cavour was furious – resigned as PM
Cavour and Garibaldi
 Garibaldi raised volunteers to fight for
 Instead went to Sicily
 Cavour not happy – feared consequences of
  Garibaldi’s actions
 Was torn between trying to stop Garibaldi
  and offering support
 Attempts to stop him failed!
Cavour and the Papal States
 Biggest problem for Cavour was fear of French or
  Austrian intervention
 To forestall Garibaldi marching on Rome Cavour
  sent troops into the Papal States
 Piedmontese troops successful but did not receive
  the same level of support as Garibaldi’s men
 By end of 1861 Victor Emmanuel acclaimed first
  King of Italy
 Cavour died end of 1861
Giuseppe Garibaldi
 Great romantic figure
  of the Risorgimento
 Charismatic guerrilla
 Had distinguished
  himself in the defence
  of Rome
 Was a follower of
Garibaldi & the campaign of 1861
 Hi-jacked the popular revolt in Sicily
 Used great cunning to gain control of the
 His ‘1000 Red Shirts’ gained more and
  more support
 Had more problems on the mainland but
  was successful in defeating King of Naples
 Handed his conquests over to VE II
           Italy 1861-1870
 Kingdom of Italy declared – Victor
  Emmanuel II ‘by the grace of God and the
  rule of the people’
 First parliament met in Turin, March 1861
 1866 VE II anxious to prove Italian military
 2 shattering defeats followed – no support
  from Venetians!
          Italy 1861-1870 (2)
 Venetia occupied after Austrian defeat –
  voted to join with Italy
 Garibaldi made 2 failed attempts to seize
  Rome (1862, 1867) – little support from the
 1870 Franco-Prussian War saw withdrawal
  of French garrison
 Pius XI soon withdrew to the Vatican
How united was Italy by 1870?
 Bad relations with the Papacy
 Lack of common language
 Spread of Piedmontese constitution caused
 Franchise restricted – ½ million/22 million
 Liberal aims had little in common with peasantry
 Severe economic problems
 ‘Brigands’ War’ in the South for many years
 Political system did not develop well

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