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					1. What is the historical significance of
   the French Revolution? 1789-1799
 It transformed France to a republic of
 free & equal citizens from an absolute
 monarchy by drafting bills of rights &
 constitutions, enforcing legal equality
 among all citizens, experimenting re-
 presentative democracy, incorporating
 the church into the state, and as well
 reconstructing state administration &
 the law code. It provided the most
 influential model of popular revolution.
2. What were the major causes of the
  French Revolution?
 Crisis in the French State-the rising
 & unequal taxes, the persecution of
 religious minorities, & interference in
 private lives, inefficient government
 & an outdated legal system, made
 the royal court at Versailles a symbol
 of the waste and corruption.
 A.Parlements & Philosophes-against
 absolute rule, religious orthodox &
 new taxes.
 B.Fiscal Crisis-by wars to cause debts
  1)attempts at reform-to cut expense,
    & to increase revenue;
  2)Assembly of Notables -- called to
    pressure parlements into accepting
    the proposed loans but rejected; &
    parlements abolished; meeting of
    Estates-General called for the crisis
   --a consultative assembly made up
    of clergy, nobility & commoners.
3. What was the beginning of the
   Revolution like?
In the meeting, voting was organized
by estate separately, each with one
vote. The privileged classes united to
outvote the third. The Parlement of
Paris ruled for this form of voting to
prevent the royal advantage. This led
to demand for a vote by head by the
commoners, who formed the National
Assembly国民议会. The king rejected
the demand and surrounded the hall
of meeting that enraged the crowds,
who took up arms to assault Bastille.
                                   Louis XVI of France
                                   was the grandson of
                                   King Louis XV and was
                                   married to Marie-
                                   Antoinette. Louis was
                                   considered a well-
                                   intentioned but weak
                                   king. A heavy tax
                                   burden and court
                                   extravagances led
                                   eventually to a popular
                                   revolt against him and
                                   paved the way for the
                                   French Revolution.
Louis was guillotined by the revolutionary regime in 1793.
On July 14, 1789 an angry mob captured the Bastille in Paris.
4. What were the features of the time
    of the moderate Revolution?
 A.Restructuring the state in1789:
 Political-Constitutional Monarchy, after
 the Assembly announced the end of
 feudal system on August 4, and the
 Declaration of the Rights of Man and
 of the Citizens at the end of August;
 Social-Equal Rights
 Religious-Civil Constitution of Clergy:
 all priests be loyal to the new order
 B. Growing factionalism;
                            Marie-Antoinette was
                            the queen of France
                            who died on January
                            21, 1793 during the
                            Revolution, on the
                            guillotine. Her lavish
                            life-style made her
                            unpopular. She paid
                            no attention to the
                            financial crisis of her
                            country, and
she refused to make any concessions to hungry
mobs who marched on the palace in Versailles.
Instead, she called out troops. Violence followed,
and she and her husband, King Louis XVI, were
imprisoned by revolutionaries and later executed.
                                       This is an
                                       assignat
                                       of 500
                                       livres.
                                       Assignats
                                       were bills
                                       issued as
                                       currency
                                       between
                                       1789 and
                                       1796,

by the French revolutionary government, backed
by the security of confiscated church and crown
lands.
5. What were the features of the time
   of the radical Revolution?
 A.End of the Monarchy--August 1792
  after the French revolutionary wars
  against Austria and Prussia failed &
  caused economic crisis;
 B. First French Republic:
 1)The National Convention国民公会
  was held as voted by the Assembly
  who suspended the king from his
  duties
 2)Reign of Terror among all parties.
                              Maximilien
                              Robespierre was
                              one of the most
                              controversial
                              figures in the
                              French Revolution.
                              As a lawyer, he led
                              the Jacobins in
                              1792 to demand
                              the creation of a
                              republic in France.

In the cause of fostering democracy, Robespierre
helped bring about the Reign of Terror, in which
thousands were executed by the guillotine. He
eventually met the same fate.
                            French revolutionary
                            leader Georges
                            Jacques Danton won
                            immense popularity
                            through his powerful
                            speeches. His later
                            more moderate acts
                            caused his death as
                            a victim of the Reign
                            of Horror in 1794.

He played an important part in the revolutionary
government after the overthrow of the monarchy
in 1792, but became unpopular with his peers
because of his conciliatory foreign policy views
and was guillotined in 1794.
                              Jean-Paul Marat
                              was one leader of
                              the most radical
                              group-the Jacobins
                              in the French
                              Revolution. He
                              urged popular
                              violence against
                              any who supported
                              the French King
                              Louis XVI.

Stirred by his views, which he published in his
newspaper, L’Ami du Peuple, revolutionaries broke
into Paris prisons and killed over 1,000 political
prisoners, including priests & aristocrats.
6.How did the French Revolution come
   to an end?
 A.The Thermidorean Reaction led by
  dissident Jacobins removed radical
  leaders in 1794, repressed counter-
  reactionaries, and limited democracy;
 B.The Directory 五人执政团 1795 was
  chosen to avoid democracy & dictator
 -ship;
 C.Foundations of Dictatorship 1799:
  military reverses, a domestic political
  crisis, and the ambitions of Napoleon
                                          Napoleon
                                          Bonaparte was
                                          the greatest
                                          military genius
                                          of the 19th
                                          century. He
                                          conquered most
                                          of Western
                                          Europe and
                                          Egypt for France.
He instituted reforms in these new territories, aimed at
guaranteeing civil liberties and improving the quality of
life. He crowned himself emperor of France in 1804 and
introduced reforms intended to unify the revolution-
fractured nation. Many of Napoleon’s reforms are still in
effect today.
7. What is the historical legacy of the
   French Revolution?
 A.Revolution came to be part of the
   world’s political tradition;
 B.Napoleon’s occupation caused in
   nationalism with parliamentary
   democracy in Europe;
 C.Legal equality became the norm,
   with abolition of serfdom, slavery,
   inherited privilege, judicial torture;
 D.Status of the church became a
   central political issue;

				
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