The Diagnosis and Management of Screen Detected Breast Cancer and DCIS by lindayy

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The Diagnosis and Management of Screen Detected Breast Cancer and DCIS

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									  The Diagnosis and
Management of Screen
Detected Breast Cancer
       and DCIS

             Chris Allan

Ø Australia- 10 000 new cases breast
  cancer annually
Ø 15% DCIS
Ø Commonest cancer (excluding non-
  melanomatous skin Ca)
Ø Leading cause cancer related death

Ø Goal –   identify asymptomatic Ca’s
Ø Allow
  l   Earlier intervention
  l   Breast conserving surgery
  l   Improve prognosis
  l   Population benefit
    BreastScreen Australia / Qld
Ø   Since 1991 offered free (no referral) screening
    MMG to women > 40

Ø   Target groups                    Qld (2001/02)
    l   < 40 ineligible
    l   40 – 49 eligible             30.8%
    l   50 – 69 actively recruited   58.7%
    l   > 70 eligible                35.7%

Ø   Screen 70% for maximal cost-benefit
BreastScreen Qld 2002
Ø   Outcomes           93% NAD            7% recall

Ø   Breast Ca detection
    l   965 cancers
         • 84% invasive (64% < 15mm T1)
         • 16% DCIS
    l   54.5 cancer per 10 000 women screened

Ø   68.6% BCS
Ø   31.4% mastectomy (more common rural and
                           remote women)

      50 – 85%             90%       91%

Ø   +ve when any test +ve
                                 99.6% sensitivity
Ø   -ve when all 3 tests -ve
l   Age – single greatest risk
l   FHx
     • Breast or ovarian Ca – 3 categories of risk
     • BRCA1 and BRCA2 – 1-2% all breast Ca
l   Hormonal exposure
     • Inherent
     • OCP
     • HRT
l   Breast disease
l   Radiation, alcohol, weight

Ø Both breasts, normal side first
Ø Inspection
Ø Palpation   – sitting and supine
Ø Nodes
Ø General
Ø   Invasive disease               Ø   DCIS
    l   Spiculated mass                l   Microcalcification
    l   Architectural distortion       l   Circumscribed mass
    l   Microcalcifications            l   Ill-defined mass
    l   Circumscribed density          l   Prominent duct or
    l   Assymetric density                 nodule
                                       l   Architectural distortion
                                       l   Asymmetry
                                       l   Sub-areolar mass

Ø   Characterize mammographic abnormality
Ø   Dense breast
Ø   No role 10 screening
Ø   Solid vs cystic

Ø   Cancer – hypoechoic, height > width, irregular
    edge, broad acoustic shadow
                 Imaging general

Ø   Problems
    l   MMG can underestimate extent of DCIS
    l   Lobular Ca easily missed MMG / US (and clinically)

Ø   Fundamentals
    l   Side of lesion/s
    l   Quadrant
    l   Relationship to nipple (clockface)
    l   Size
    l   Calcifications
Ø   Cytological evaluation cellular smear
Ø   Palpable lesions
Ø   Experienced cytologist

Ø   False +ve 1-2%
    l   Malignant diagnosis reliable
    l   Atypical / suspicious ® core Bx ® 95% Ca

Ø   False – ve 5%
    l   Normal breast tissue / fibrocystic ® core Bx
    l   Benign (eg FA) ® reliable
    l   Non-diagnostic ® repeat FNAC or core Bx

v   Cannot distinguish DCIS from invasive Ca
                    Core biopsy
Ø   Histological evaluation tissue core
Ø   Impalpable lesions

Ø   Indications
    l   ? DCIS
    l   Inconclusive FNAC
    l   Discrepancy between FNAC and clinical/radiological

Ø   Advantages over FNAC
    l   Fewer inadequate specimens
    l   More information – grade, type, DCIS vs invasive,
        lymphatic invasion, IHC
     Biopsy of impalpable lesions

Ø   Majority screen detected lesions ® 15-30% malignant

Ø   US or stereotactic MMG core Bx
    l   US whenever possible
    l   Stereotactic MMG requires favourably sited lesion
    l   Interpretation
         •   False –ve 1-2%
         •   False +ve rare
         •   DCIS – up to 20% invasive disease
         •   ADH ® hook wire biopsy

Ø   Mammotome

Ø   Carcinoma confined to basement
Ø   Microcalcifications MMG hallmark
Ø   Risk of invasive recurrence depends on
    disease extent and grade
Ø   Solid, comedo, papillary/micropapillary
Van Nuys Prognostic Index         VNPI      (Silverstein et al)

              1                2                  3
  Size        <15mm            16-40mm            >41mm or
                                                  local recurrence
  Margin      >10mm            1-9mm              <1mm
  Pathology   non-high grade   non-high grade     high grade
              - necrosis       + necrosis         ± necrosis

  Total score         Management
     3-4              WLE (no benefit from RT)
     5-7              WLE + RT (17% reduction in LR with RT)
     8–9              mastectomy (60% LR at 8 years despite RT)
Ø   Further indications for mastectomy
    l   +ve margins after 2 attempts at WLE
    l   patient choice
    l   poorly localized and absence microCa++ (relative)

Ø   Meta- analysis LR                            (Boyages et al.)
    l   WLE                      23%
    l   WLE + RT                 8%          50% DCIS; 50% invasive
    l   Mastectomy               2%

Ø   Microinvasion or > 5cm high grade DCIS ® consider
    level I axillary dissection (? SN)

Ø   Tamoxifen 5 years ˘ incidence breast Ca events
    (NSABP B-24)

Ø No clinical or radiological features
Ø Chance histological finding
Ø Not premalignant
                     either breast
Ø Marker for Ca risk in
Ø Ca risk 1% per annum
         Invasive breast cancer

Ø Goals of management
  l   Locoregional control
  l   Prevention of recurrence
  l   Improve prognosis
  l   Maximize QOL
          Management of breast

v WLE + RT (breast conservation) vs mastectomy

Ø   BCS appropriate when
       • Patient preference
       • Tumour size (< 4cm) relative to breast
       • Unifocal tumour or multifocal confined to single
          v Subareolar   lesions or Paget’s do not preclude BCS
         Hook wire biopsy / WLE
Ø   Surgeon-radiologist-pathologist
Ø   Wire sited morning of OT
Ø   US or MMG – deploy hook 1cm from lesion
Ø   Films to confirm position
Ø   Secure wire externally
                 Hook wire biopsy / WLE

Ø   Incision
    l   Over lesion
    l   Exclude wire entry point
    l   Circumareolar, curvilinear, radial
Ø   Locate wire and remove from skin
Ø   Diathermy dissection
Ø   Core down to chest wall
Ø   Orientation sutures
Ø   X-ray lesion
Ø   Haemostasis, no drain,
    subcuticular closure, LA
             Surgical margins

Ø   At least 1mm and ideally 5-10mm
Ø   Deep and superficial margins can be closer –
    pectoral fascia and skin
Ø   Involved margins or focally +ve margins with EIC
    ® further excision
Ø   FS at original WLE can be helpful
Ø   Mastectomy indicated after 2 attempts WLE with
    involved margins
Ø   Absolute CI’s
    l   Previous breast RT
    l   Scleroderma
    l   Pregnancy
    l   Unable abduct shoulder
Ø   Relative CI’s
    l   Unable attend follow-up
    l   Severe CVS or resp illness

Ø   45-50 Gy in 25 fractions ± tumour bed boost

Ø   SE’s – skin irritation, paraesthesiae, pneumonitis, rib
    osteitis, 2nd malignancy rarely
Ø   Patient preference
Ø   BCS contraindicated

v BCS and mastectomy LR comparable
        Ø WLE + RT         1-2% per annum
        Ø Mastectomy       0.5% per annum

Ø   Option for immediate or delayed
    reconstruction myocutaneous flap or
             Management of axilla
Ø   Goals
    l   Prognosis
    l   Guide for adjuvant therapy
    l   Regional control
    l   ? Survival advantage

Ø   Indication for axillary dissection – invasive Ca

Ø   Consider avoiding when
    l   < 5mm favourable tumour, clinically –ve axilla
    l   Elderly or infirm
Ø   Axillary RT an alternative
Ø   15-20% untreated axillae require later Rx
     Principles of axillary dissection
Ø   Incision
     l     Anteroposterior
     l     Pec major to lat dorsi
Ø   Axillary borders define dissection
Ø   Nodal levels
     I      lateral pec minor
     II     deep pec minor
     III    medial pec minor
Ø   Preservation n’s to serratus ant, lat dorsi, med
    pectoral ± intercostobrachial
Ø   Level I and II dissection (10 LN’s)

Ø   SE’s – seroma, shoulder stiffness,
    lymphoedema, paraesthesia
          Sentinel node biopsy

Ø   First draining LN
Ø   Localize with mapping, blue dye and radioactive
Ø   Detailed pathological assessment
Ø   Predict axillary status
Ø   If – ve ® avoid axillary dissection
Ø   SNAC trial in Australia
          Pathology essentials

Ø   Size
Ø   Tumour type
Ø   Histological grade – Nottingham score
Ø   Lymphovascular invasion
Ø   Margin status
Ø   Nodal involvement
Ø   ER / PR expression
Ø   DCIS – in tumour and adjacent breast
Ø   Changes in adjacent breast tissue
Adjuvant therapy for EBC - Chemotherapy
 Ø   ˘ relapse but no effect locoregional control
 Ø   10 year survival gains
                                    < 50            50-
                    favourable      2.6%            1.0%
                    node –ve        7.1%            2.4%
                    node +ve        11.5%           3.2%

 • Majority offered CT except
      •   > 70
      •   Medically unfit
      •   Small favourable node –ve cancers
 • Combined regimens – CMF, AC
 • Begin 4-6/52 post surgery, RT to follow
 • SE’s – N/V, mucositis, alopecia, myelosuppression, DVT, myalgia,
   neuropathy, fatigue
 • Long term – premature menopause, acute leukaemia, cardiotoxicity,
   wt ^
Adjuvant therapy for EBC - Tamoxifen

Ø   NSAID with anti-E activity
Ø   Significantly
    l   Improves survival
    l   Reduces risk contralateral breast Ca
Ø   All patients with any level ER or PR expression
Ø   20mg daily 5 years (after CT-RT)
Ø   SE’s – DVT-PE, CVA, endometrial Ca,
    menopausal symptoms

            First yr   1-5 years   > 5 years

Hx and Ex   3/12       6/12        annual

MMG         6-12/12    annual      annual
      Multidisciplinary approach

Ø   BreastScreen
Ø   Surgeon
Ø   Radiologist
Ø   Pathologist
Ø   Breast care nurse
Ø   Oncologists
Ø   Allied health
Ø   GP
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