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Thank you Chairman for the kind introduction, and my Powered By Docstoc
					                    Speech by Dr Roger Lough
                         CDS, Australia
                       C4I Asia Conference
                            Singapore
                                 20 February 2006




    C2 and Australia’s Approach to NCW
        (Balancing Technology and Human Dimension of NCW)
                      - C4I Asia Conference 2006




                                                Dr Roger Lough
                                            Chief Defence Scientist
                                             DSTO, AUSTRALIA
                                               20 February 2006



Thank you Mr Chairman for the kind introduction.

Good morning, Prof. Lui, distinguished guests, colleagues, ladies
and gentlemen.

First, I would like to congratulate the event organisers for this third
C4I Asia Conference – I wish it great success. And I would also
like to thank Prof. Lui for inviting me to speak at this prestigious
forum today - it is great to be back in Singapore with so many old
friends!


                      20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore
This morning, I will talk about C2 and the Australia’s approach to
NCW. As we know, NCW means many things to many people. If
you Google NCW you will get 1.7m hits. If you Google C4, you
will get 28.6m hits. In fact if you Google every C integer from 1 to
7 you will get between 10m and 45.4 m hits. So there is no
shortage of opinions and interpretations out there.

I will share with you my thoughts on what NCW means to ADF,
and more importantly, to DSTO. I will use my limited time to
share views on our construct, so you can see how our thought
processes are progressing. As the American humorist Evan Esar
once said, good speeches have a good beginning and a good end,
but a very good speech has them as close together as possible. Let
us see what we can do.

We face many challenges along the NCW way, and none of them
is more important than striking a balance between investments in
technology and in making sure that the human dimension is
properly covered. This not only achieves the immediate
warfighting strategic advantage, but also enables us to sustain and
multiply such advantages in the longer term.




                     20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore   2
            Presentation Outline

     What is Australia’s NCW
     What are we doing
     How are we doing it
     What we will be doing




                                                                        2




I will do it in four parts. First of all, I will quickly go through what
we in Australia call NCW – its concepts/doctrines and a whole-of-
Defence roadmap to implement them. I will then move on to
explain how DSTO is both driving and supporting NCW through
S&T, in terms of both ‘hardware’ and human dimensions. Finally
I will say a few words on what we plan to do in the future.




                      20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore       3
                 Australia’s NCW – the Trilogy




                                                                        S&T support

                                                                      Science & Technology for Australian
 Doctrine & Concepts                                                  Network-Centric Warfare: Function,
                                                                      Form and Fit, ADF Journal, No. 170




                       Roadmap for implementation




                                                                                                            3




From an S&T perspective, establishing and operationalising
Australia’s NCW has been a journey of discovery. The S&T
support can be seen as a part of the NCW trilogy, which starts off
with the doctrinal concepts of what you are trying to achieve,
followed by a dissection of the steps needed to get there, and
followed by the S&T which gives to the tools to use on the
journey. Of course, this is not a one way flow, feedback is evident
and required at every stage. The challenge is to make sure that the
feedback has the right mathematical sign +ve or –ve, to keep the
whole process moving without going exponential to either infinity
or zero.




                          20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore                                       4
         Australia’s NCW Concept




                                                                      4




Let me explain.

First, the NCW concept.
This diagram illustrates the concept and relationship between 3
functional grids and 2 dimensions.

The 3 functional grids are: sensors, C2, and engagement (weapons
and effects).

There are 2 dimensions to each of the grids: network
(technological) and human (organizational and sociological).

There is also a third dimension wrapping this together: this is the
Information Networking that connects the three grids, each in their
two dimensions. This latter is, in many ways, the key to how we
look at NCW and we have some new tools that we are using. I will
come back to this.


                    20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore       5
     Australia’s NCW Concept - cont.
                  Four Architectural Aspects

                                                    Organisational




                                                       Operational




                                                         Systems




                                                        Technical
                                                                       5




However, there is one more axis that we must consider to get a
useful construct for advancing NCW in our space. The NCW
concept that I have illustrated needs to be viewed through at least
four lenses so we can ask the right questions, especially from an
S&T perspective.

We need to look at NCW issues from an
1. organisational perspective – ie what impact do institutional
relationships have.
2. operational perspective – who or what needs to communicate
and about what.
3. systems perspective – what are the building blocks that are
required.
4. technical perspective – what standards and interfaces,
bandwidths, computer memory, display devices etc are needed.

Many of you will note that this is the US architecture originally
developed to underpin C4ISR many years ago. It is quite robust.
                     20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore       6
Having this construct and views are all well and good. What are
we going to do with it?


        Australia’s NCW Roadmap




                                                                       6




Second, the Roadmap.

In 2005, we published Australia’s NCW Roadmap. I don’t expect
you to read and absorb all the words – just get a general idea that
we have a series of steps that we are going through. Please note
the underlying principle of “learning by doing” – a key feature of
which is experimentation. And I will touch on this later.

It is our plan for the ADF to be transformed from a network-aware
force into a seamless NCW force. It will take us about 10 years to
accumulate and culminate the critical mass that is required not only
to lay the foundation but also to champion, catalyse, discover,
create the new relationships under new paradigms.


                     20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore       7
We expect that it will then take us another 5 years for a seamless,
multidimensional manoeuvre NCW force to emerge and
consolidate. We will have new doctrines, new organizations and
new systems in place and these will be as natural to the warfighter
as chewing cud is to a cow. (I think I could have used a better
analogy there).

But this roadmap has to be driven and this is where DSTO’s S&T
support comes in.

  (NSI)
            The DSTO NCW S&T Initiative




                                                                       7




As the Defence S&T organisation, DSTO is the key provider of
defence S&T advice in Australia. So it is natural that we take a
leadership role in NCW planning and delivering.

In late 2004, the NCW S&T Initiative was set up to coordinate
DSTO’s many and diverse NCW activities and to foster
collaboration in NCW-related researches across the organisation.
Its objectives are to:
                     20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore       8
1.   provide a focal point for NCW work within DSTO; indeed, it
     also acts as a filter to identify inappropriate S&T requests;
2.   improve the delivery of relevant DSTO S&T support to key
     stakeholders implementing NCW in Defence; it acts as an
     inhouse advocate and gee up when needed;
3.   position DSTO so that we can better inform future iterations
     of NCW concepts and planning on S&T matters; and
4.   identify areas where further research is needed, so that DSTO
     can shape its supporting R&D program.

Further information, including a selection of NCW-related papers,
is available on the DSTO website.

Ok, so we know why we have an initiative. But what does it do?
This is where the construct I outlined before comes in because we
can categorise our rearch in the two dimensions, technological and
human, for each of the three component grids.

Firstly, the easy one – especially for a physical sciences based
organisation – the technology dimension.




                     20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore   9
   Australia’s NCW: Networks, Sensors, C2 and Weapons

                                   Command & Control
    Networks




                                       Weapons

   Sensors



                                                                        8




In simple terms, we seek to harness and maximise technology
strengths and understand and address the weaknesses.

We exploit the capability and capacity of new technology to
gather, store, process, and distribute information. This enables
sharing of information to facilitate greater situation awareness and
a commander’s intent in rapid military operations.

Let me talk a little bit about sensors, C2 and weapons systems.

1. in the sensors area:
   • adaptive sensing
   • next generation tracking algorithms (book by DSTO
      scientists titled ‘Beyond the Kalman Filter’ which explores
      non-linear, non-Gaussian tracking.)
2. in Command & Control area:
   • LiveSpaces

                      20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore       10
   • FOCAL
3. in weapons area:
   • Robotics technology
   • networked UVs (unmanned vehicles – initial focus on UAVs)

In the connecting networks area, we have also advanced the
technology. Let me give you two examples.


             Australia’s NCW: SSATIN




    The Secure Satellite Internet Protocol Network (SSATIN) provides
    access-on-demand and bandwidth-on-demand with military grade
    security.
                                                                           9




The first example is SSATIN. SSATIN stands for the Secure
Satellite Internet Protocol Network. It is designed to demonstrate
the satellite-based IP networking that provides access-on-demand
and bandwidth-on-demand with military grade security on the
Optus C1 Satellite.

Its state-of-the-art features include:
   • a network controller automatically optimises allocation
       between the terminals on sub-second timescales; and

                         20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore       11
  • a single-hop delay to ‘always-on’ terminals delivers
    enhanced network efficiency and a Satcom system that
    supports IP-based Network Centric Warfare.


          Military Bandwidth Broker




                                                                       10




Another example is the Military Bandwidth Broker (M-BB).

This technology aims at assuring that, during times of congestion,
mission-critical information flows – data, voice, video – carried in
Defence packed networks are given preferential treatment in
accordance with mission objectives.

Some key features of M-BB include:
  • a federated, military-oriented architecture;
  • advanced concept demonstration through an experimental
    device; and
  • graceful degradation in quality of service as demand
    increases.


                     20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore        12
These are only two examples to give you a glimpse of what we
have been working on the technology side of the house.

Now let me turn to the other big chunk of our research – the human
dimension, which in my view is the critical piece of the NCW
puzzle and which in our opinion has suffered in comparison.

The human dimension here is the systematic study of human/social
psychology and behaviour in a NCW environment. This is
premised on our belief that science has as much a role to play in
understanding the human response to new technologies as it does
in developing the new technologies themselves.


                 Human Dimension in NCW


                                Cognitive Domain


 Conveyed                                                                Plan
                                Cognitive Advantage
 Commander’s Intent                                                      Organise
                                Process Advantage
                                                                         Deploy

                              Shared            Compressed
                              Awareness         Operations

                                          NCW

                                        Precision
                                        Force
                        Information                 Force Advantage
                        Advantage                   Position Advantage
  Information Domain
                                                                     Physical Domain
Information Advantage

                                      Speed and Access

                                                                                       11




This diagram shows the relative relationships between technology
and human domains in NCW theory and practice.

The human dimension, in this context, is based on the simple yet
profound assumption that information is only useful IF and WHEN
                             20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore                13
it allows people to act more effectively. There are two important
human aspects that we can hold onto here. There first is the
requirement for adaptability, versatility and initiative at the
individual level.

The second is about personal trust – up, down and across the chain
of command. It is about trust in others, in their ability to react and
cooperate and in their character.

This quality does not come from technology. And of course it has
been known since SUN TZU that these aspects are important. It is
that NCW brings these aspects into much sharper focus, by
explicitly linking them with complex technology.


        Australia’s NCW: Human Dimension
         Taming Technology




                                                                        12




Professional mastery is thus of highest importance so that
warfighters can expertly apply technology to effectively solicit
synergies from all relevant sources in order to maximise combat
power. The whole idea of NCW is to give our warfighters
                      20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore        14
information and understanding of the commander’s intent in order
to make smart decisions in the battlefield.

Currently, this is one of DSTO’s priority research areas. There are
two aspects of this type of work:

HMI: Human/Machine Interface
 • Research in cognitive and social informatics
 • Situational Awareness for NCW
 • Intelligent C2 machines



Team Design: Dynamics and Structure
  • How do we design teams to take account of organisational,
    cultural and social diversity in joint, multi-agency and
    coalition operations?
  • Important considerations:
       - size, composition, structure, organisation and training;
       - social, organisational and cultural issues;
       - implications for information flow and knowledge
       management; and
       - flexibility and adaptability in complex, dynamic
       environments.
  • In an NCW environment teams can be virtual and this adds
    an added dimension to the problem.




                     20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore   15
  DSTO’s Ubiquitous Command & Control
             (UC2) Concept
   It is a concept.

   Its objectives include:

   - unity in operations without sacrificing
   diversity of positions of operational issues;
   and
   - greater self-organisation by networking to
   increase the tempo, effectiveness and
   responsiveness of operation at lower risk and
   cost


   It proposes to remove some of the barriers
   built within mission command and military
   appreciation processes in order to achieve
   ‘ubiquitousness’.                                                           13




I will now give you two current examples of our work on human
dimension research, too.

The first one is DSTO’s ubiquitous C2 concept. It is a theoretical
framework - an expansion of the conventional approach to military
operations. It is formulated to take advantage of the benefits on
offer from IT and evolving commercial practices.

The concept highlights the importance of flexibility and
adaptability. UC2 is a way to remove some of the barriers built
within mission command and military appreciation processes. We
are only just now looking at the theoretical system design aspects.

The second example is one of DSTO’s research projects on Human
Dimension of Future Warfighting.

This research aims to understand how well military personnel
make sense of an NCW environment and what are the implications
of this on ADF’s transition to a seamless NCW force in the future.



                                    20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore   16
The research team conducted a series of in-depth interviews with
over 100 military personnel who have returned from deployment
since March 2003.

One product is a simulation package that simulates aspects of
NCW that appear to have particular relevance to individual
decision-making and team dynamics.

In addition, there are 11 more on-going projects undertaken by
DSTO researchers. These projects aim to support the development
of symbiotic relationships between people, processes,
technologies, and information in joint headquarters environments.

Now let me turn to the third dimension that I mentioned at the
beginning – that of information networking. In recent years it
could be argued that we have pioneered the use of the emerging
science of complex adaptive systems in looking at this aspect.

   Australia’s NCW as a Complex Adaptive
                  System

   NCW              • Increased complexity
                    • Increased connectivity
                    • Non-linear interactions
                    • Feedback loops ...

                                                                            http://web.inter.nl.net/hcc/Hans.Kuiper/




                                                     Desired NCW Characteristics
                                                     •   Robustness
                                                     •   Flexibility
                                                     •   Agility
                                                     •   Resilience
                                                     •   Intelligent context-appropriate
     Complex Adaptive System (CAS)                       behaviour
     • Emergent properties                           •   ABILITY TO LEARN
     • Hard to optimise / predict
     • Impossible to design perfectly

                                                                                                        14
                                                                              http://web.inter.nl.net/hcc/Hans.Kuiper/




                         20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore                                                 17
CAS in the NCW context is now attracting research attention
world wide.

The key proposition for this study is that, because NCW involves
complex human behaviour and its relationships with technology, it
is logical, or even imperative, to allow the network systems design
to be highly adaptive and agile. The aims for treating NCW as
CAS are to establish broad but vigorous and coherent perimeters,
within which new behaviours or structures are encouraged to
emerge.

I don’t have time to give you a full account of where CAS is as a
science, there are plenty of new texts appearing almost daily, but
to treat NCW as a CAS can improve robustness, flexibility, agility,
resilience and “intelligence” of NCW for the ADF.


         CAS: DSTO Approach

                                                ABD        GA
                                                      AL
                        Mathematical Models
                         Formal Techniques
                                                                           Evolution
                                     IN
                                    Y FO
                                                                           not Design
                                 UD      RM
                               ST

        Natural CAS                               Defence CAS

                                                  TEST
                           Experimentation
                             Simulation

                                                                        http://web.inter.nl.net/hcc/Hans.Kuiper/



                 DSTO CAS Research             • Distributed Control, NCW
                 • Generic Model of Adaptation • Capability Development
                 • Adaptive Mechanisms           Process
                 • CAS Diagnostics             • Logistics, Combat Models                                    15




In Australia DSTO is pioneering the study of CAS for NCW.


                      20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore                                              18
DSTO’s research in this area includes conceptual work on self-
organisation and intelligent distributed control; generic model of
adaptation; adaptive mechanisms; CAS diagnostics; capability
development process; and logistics and combat models.

We are also developing effective hybrid and augmented adaptive
mechanisms for Defence applications. Other Defence applications
include Sense-and-Response Logistics and Capability
Development Process design.

One of the main issues with complex adaptive systems is that, in
the main, they are difficult, if not impossible to model to the
degree needed. They have to be exercised to determine their full
capacity and this is where experimentation comes in.


          Experimentation: DSTO Approach


     Relationships among Programs, Campaigns, Series, and Studies
                                         Experimentation campaign      Experimentation program (grey area)
                       Whole -of -




        Joint &
                         force




       combined

       Task force
                       System of




      Battle group
                        systems




                                                                                            Experimentation
        Combat                                                                              series
     team, squadron
                         System




         Troop

        Platform
                       nology
                       Tech -




     Weapon, sensor,
     Mission System

                                                              Seminar
                                     Experiment or study
                                                              SE stimulated Command Post Exercise (CPX)
                                                              Wargame
                                                              Closed modelling                                16




We have recently launched the DSTO Experimentation Initiative to
complement the NCW initiative to focus our research in this area.


                                             20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore                       19
The value of experimentation is that it is one of the few ways that
we can test ideas, compare options in a systematic and rigorous
manner, and pool the collective judgement of experts to produce
well considered recommendations. All within the complex
adaptive system paradigm. DSTO’s Experimentation Initiative
provides a unique environment to investigate and evaluate the
concepts and technologies, including the networking of sensors,
weapons and the cognitive/social aspects of C2.

Like NCW, experimentation means many things to many people.
The DSTO Experimentation Initiative aims to develop an
integrated and coordinated approach to experimentation programs
across Defence in Australia. This initiative focuses on scientific
experimental design, adoption of common standards, codes of
practice and endorsed foundations in experimentation across the
world.

In Australia’s NCW context, this DSTO’s initiative will help to
better integrate science in the application of experimentation. As
part of the structured framework for analysis and evaluation it also
assists to shape analytical frameworks and to integrate methods,
models and tools.

We have been part Defence’s experimentation program since its
inception in 1996. Currently our program is Service oriented with a
joint overlay. Our challenge in the next few years is to bring all
the activities in Defence under a common umbrella. The
Experimentation Initiative is a key part of this strategy.




                     20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore   20
          Experimentation: DSTO Approach


     Relationships among Programs, Campaigns, Series, and Studies
                                         Experimentation campaign      Experimentation program (grey area)
                       Whole -of -
        Joint &          force
       combined

       Task force
                       System of




      Battle group
                        systems




                                                                                            Experimentation
        Combat                                                                              series
     team, squadron
                         System




         Troop

        Platform
                       nology
                       Tech -




     Weapon, sensor,
     Mission System

                                                              Seminar
                                     Experiment or study
                                                              SE stimulated Command Post Exercise (CPX)
                                                              Wargame
                                                              Closed modelling                                16




Another key part is the Defence RPDE program.

This Operating Model describes how it works.

A primary means for Industry to engage with the Australian
Defence Force’s NCW objectives is through the Rapid
Prototyping, Development and Evaluation (RPDE) program.
To run this virtual organisation, the RPDE Program brings in
people, facilities, technologies and other context information from
our industry participants and from Defence. With these resources,
the program takes high priority NCW problems from Defence and
works with stakeholders to pinpoint the core issues, and as
appropriate solutions. It uses the full range of tools that I showed
in the last slide, but tends to concentrate on the experimentation
end since most of the problems that come to this unique
industry/defence team are positioned within a complex system
environment.


                                             20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore                       21
                      Australia’s NCW Research Thrusts
   Distributed Data Fusion
                                                                                                                                    LAND NETWORKING:
                                                                                                                                   Ad Hoc Communications
                                                                       ATTITUDE logistics agents (DSTO)
                                                       I2P Event Handling                            D’Agents medical agents (Dartmouth)
                                                             (AIAI)




                                                                        Multi-level Coordination Agent
  I2AT Agent Creation   Information Trust         Coalition Starter              (U.Michigan)
    Toolkit (LM-ATL)      Evaluator (UT-                Pack                                       Anaconda Agent Visualisation (CMU)
                             Austin)

                                                   CoABS Grid (DARPA)

                        KAoS (IHMC)

    KAoS Domain             NOMADS Dynamic Data Filter
  Management (IHMC)                 (IHMC)


                                                                        Mixed Initiative                Decision
                                                                        Agents (BBN)                    Desktop
                                            Prediction Agent                                            (QinetiQ)
                                               (UMD/NRL)

       Experimentation for Net-Centric Operations




                                                                                                                                                           18




I will finish off by describing how Australia’s NCW future
research thrusts may be viewed as the ‘taming of technology’.

Our major efforts will focus on:

1. Research into Distributed Data Fusion. This is about having
machines that:
- locate objects in space and time (object assessment);
- identify the important relationships between those objects
(situation assessment); and
- formulate the consequences relevant to their intent (impact
assessment).

2. The use of Agents in experimentation for network-centric
operations, which would demonstrate how heterogeneous systems
can enable dynamic and flexible distributed data fusion for
coalition operations.


                                                                          20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore                                       22
3. Ad Hoc Communications, particularly for Land Warfare
Networking is a research area relevance to NCW.


                      Australia’s NCW Research Thrusts
   Distributed Data Fusion
                                                                                                                                    LAND NETWORKING:
                                                                                                                                   Ad Hoc Communications
                                                                       ATTITUDE logistics agents (DSTO)
                                                       I2P Event Handling                            D’Agents medical agents (Dartmouth)
                                                             (AIAI)




                                                                        Multi-level Coordination Agent
  I2AT Agent Creation   Information Trust         Coalition Starter              (U.Michigan)
    Toolkit (LM-ATL)      Evaluator (UT-                Pack                                       Anaconda Agent Visualisation (CMU)
                             Austin)

                                                   CoABS Grid (DARPA)

                        KAoS (IHMC)

    KAoS Domain             NOMADS Dynamic Data Filter
  Management (IHMC)                 (IHMC)


                                                                        Mixed Initiative                Decision
                                                                        Agents (BBN)                    Desktop
                                            Prediction Agent                                            (QinetiQ)
                                               (UMD/NRL)

       Experimentation for Net-Centric Operations




                                                                                                                                                           18




Detailed and further information on what DSTO’s role in NCW
can be found in these websites. You are welcome to browse
through, contact our researchers, and chat with our scientists.

I began this presentation by outlining the trilogy in Australia’s
aspiration for a seamless NCW force in 2020. I have talked about
how defence S&T can and has contributed to this revolutionary
transformation of ADF.

Throughout this presentation, I have explained DSTO’s S&T
strategy to harness and research cutting-edged technology to
strengthen the network capability on the one hand, and our firm
commitment to bringing the better understanding of human/social
dimension into the mainstream NCW effort on the other.


                                                                          20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore                                       23
I am convinced that balancing these two dimensions in our future
NCW research agenda is vital if we are to make NCW deliver its
promised potential.

Mr Chairman, ladies and gentlemen. In conclusion, may I just say
that the take-home message from this presentation is: in a complex
NCW system, it is important for us to tackle the issues arising from
both of dimensions simultaneously. Getting the balance right is
not without risk. I am reminded of Socrates’ timeless wisdom on
risk taking. He once quipped: “by all means marry: if you get a
good wife, you’ll be happy. If you get a bad one, you’ll become a
philosopher.’


                                  Conclusion




                                                      Thank You!
In NCW it is important to know both where you are going and how you are getting there!
                                                                                     20




So in NCW, as in life, there are many directions from which to
choose. Choose the right one and you can do the impossible.

Thank you all for your attention.


                              20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore             24
I am now looking forward to the other speakers’ presentations.




                    20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore   25

				
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