"Thank you Chairman for the kind introduction, and my "
Speech by Dr Roger Lough CDS, Australia C4I Asia Conference Singapore 20 February 2006 C2 and Australia’s Approach to NCW (Balancing Technology and Human Dimension of NCW) - C4I Asia Conference 2006 Dr Roger Lough Chief Defence Scientist DSTO, AUSTRALIA 20 February 2006 Thank you Mr Chairman for the kind introduction. Good morning, Prof. Lui, distinguished guests, colleagues, ladies and gentlemen. First, I would like to congratulate the event organisers for this third C4I Asia Conference – I wish it great success. And I would also like to thank Prof. Lui for inviting me to speak at this prestigious forum today - it is great to be back in Singapore with so many old friends! 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore This morning, I will talk about C2 and the Australia’s approach to NCW. As we know, NCW means many things to many people. If you Google NCW you will get 1.7m hits. If you Google C4, you will get 28.6m hits. In fact if you Google every C integer from 1 to 7 you will get between 10m and 45.4 m hits. So there is no shortage of opinions and interpretations out there. I will share with you my thoughts on what NCW means to ADF, and more importantly, to DSTO. I will use my limited time to share views on our construct, so you can see how our thought processes are progressing. As the American humorist Evan Esar once said, good speeches have a good beginning and a good end, but a very good speech has them as close together as possible. Let us see what we can do. We face many challenges along the NCW way, and none of them is more important than striking a balance between investments in technology and in making sure that the human dimension is properly covered. This not only achieves the immediate warfighting strategic advantage, but also enables us to sustain and multiply such advantages in the longer term. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 2 Presentation Outline What is Australia’s NCW What are we doing How are we doing it What we will be doing 2 I will do it in four parts. First of all, I will quickly go through what we in Australia call NCW – its concepts/doctrines and a whole-of- Defence roadmap to implement them. I will then move on to explain how DSTO is both driving and supporting NCW through S&T, in terms of both ‘hardware’ and human dimensions. Finally I will say a few words on what we plan to do in the future. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 3 Australia’s NCW – the Trilogy S&T support Science & Technology for Australian Doctrine & Concepts Network-Centric Warfare: Function, Form and Fit, ADF Journal, No. 170 Roadmap for implementation 3 From an S&T perspective, establishing and operationalising Australia’s NCW has been a journey of discovery. The S&T support can be seen as a part of the NCW trilogy, which starts off with the doctrinal concepts of what you are trying to achieve, followed by a dissection of the steps needed to get there, and followed by the S&T which gives to the tools to use on the journey. Of course, this is not a one way flow, feedback is evident and required at every stage. The challenge is to make sure that the feedback has the right mathematical sign +ve or –ve, to keep the whole process moving without going exponential to either infinity or zero. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 4 Australia’s NCW Concept 4 Let me explain. First, the NCW concept. This diagram illustrates the concept and relationship between 3 functional grids and 2 dimensions. The 3 functional grids are: sensors, C2, and engagement (weapons and effects). There are 2 dimensions to each of the grids: network (technological) and human (organizational and sociological). There is also a third dimension wrapping this together: this is the Information Networking that connects the three grids, each in their two dimensions. This latter is, in many ways, the key to how we look at NCW and we have some new tools that we are using. I will come back to this. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 5 Australia’s NCW Concept - cont. Four Architectural Aspects Organisational Operational Systems Technical 5 However, there is one more axis that we must consider to get a useful construct for advancing NCW in our space. The NCW concept that I have illustrated needs to be viewed through at least four lenses so we can ask the right questions, especially from an S&T perspective. We need to look at NCW issues from an 1. organisational perspective – ie what impact do institutional relationships have. 2. operational perspective – who or what needs to communicate and about what. 3. systems perspective – what are the building blocks that are required. 4. technical perspective – what standards and interfaces, bandwidths, computer memory, display devices etc are needed. Many of you will note that this is the US architecture originally developed to underpin C4ISR many years ago. It is quite robust. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 6 Having this construct and views are all well and good. What are we going to do with it? Australia’s NCW Roadmap 6 Second, the Roadmap. In 2005, we published Australia’s NCW Roadmap. I don’t expect you to read and absorb all the words – just get a general idea that we have a series of steps that we are going through. Please note the underlying principle of “learning by doing” – a key feature of which is experimentation. And I will touch on this later. It is our plan for the ADF to be transformed from a network-aware force into a seamless NCW force. It will take us about 10 years to accumulate and culminate the critical mass that is required not only to lay the foundation but also to champion, catalyse, discover, create the new relationships under new paradigms. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 7 We expect that it will then take us another 5 years for a seamless, multidimensional manoeuvre NCW force to emerge and consolidate. We will have new doctrines, new organizations and new systems in place and these will be as natural to the warfighter as chewing cud is to a cow. (I think I could have used a better analogy there). But this roadmap has to be driven and this is where DSTO’s S&T support comes in. (NSI) The DSTO NCW S&T Initiative 7 As the Defence S&T organisation, DSTO is the key provider of defence S&T advice in Australia. So it is natural that we take a leadership role in NCW planning and delivering. In late 2004, the NCW S&T Initiative was set up to coordinate DSTO’s many and diverse NCW activities and to foster collaboration in NCW-related researches across the organisation. Its objectives are to: 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 8 1. provide a focal point for NCW work within DSTO; indeed, it also acts as a filter to identify inappropriate S&T requests; 2. improve the delivery of relevant DSTO S&T support to key stakeholders implementing NCW in Defence; it acts as an inhouse advocate and gee up when needed; 3. position DSTO so that we can better inform future iterations of NCW concepts and planning on S&T matters; and 4. identify areas where further research is needed, so that DSTO can shape its supporting R&D program. Further information, including a selection of NCW-related papers, is available on the DSTO website. Ok, so we know why we have an initiative. But what does it do? This is where the construct I outlined before comes in because we can categorise our rearch in the two dimensions, technological and human, for each of the three component grids. Firstly, the easy one – especially for a physical sciences based organisation – the technology dimension. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 9 Australia’s NCW: Networks, Sensors, C2 and Weapons Command & Control Networks Weapons Sensors 8 In simple terms, we seek to harness and maximise technology strengths and understand and address the weaknesses. We exploit the capability and capacity of new technology to gather, store, process, and distribute information. This enables sharing of information to facilitate greater situation awareness and a commander’s intent in rapid military operations. Let me talk a little bit about sensors, C2 and weapons systems. 1. in the sensors area: • adaptive sensing • next generation tracking algorithms (book by DSTO scientists titled ‘Beyond the Kalman Filter’ which explores non-linear, non-Gaussian tracking.) 2. in Command & Control area: • LiveSpaces 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 10 • FOCAL 3. in weapons area: • Robotics technology • networked UVs (unmanned vehicles – initial focus on UAVs) In the connecting networks area, we have also advanced the technology. Let me give you two examples. Australia’s NCW: SSATIN The Secure Satellite Internet Protocol Network (SSATIN) provides access-on-demand and bandwidth-on-demand with military grade security. 9 The first example is SSATIN. SSATIN stands for the Secure Satellite Internet Protocol Network. It is designed to demonstrate the satellite-based IP networking that provides access-on-demand and bandwidth-on-demand with military grade security on the Optus C1 Satellite. Its state-of-the-art features include: • a network controller automatically optimises allocation between the terminals on sub-second timescales; and 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 11 • a single-hop delay to ‘always-on’ terminals delivers enhanced network efficiency and a Satcom system that supports IP-based Network Centric Warfare. Military Bandwidth Broker 10 Another example is the Military Bandwidth Broker (M-BB). This technology aims at assuring that, during times of congestion, mission-critical information flows – data, voice, video – carried in Defence packed networks are given preferential treatment in accordance with mission objectives. Some key features of M-BB include: • a federated, military-oriented architecture; • advanced concept demonstration through an experimental device; and • graceful degradation in quality of service as demand increases. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 12 These are only two examples to give you a glimpse of what we have been working on the technology side of the house. Now let me turn to the other big chunk of our research – the human dimension, which in my view is the critical piece of the NCW puzzle and which in our opinion has suffered in comparison. The human dimension here is the systematic study of human/social psychology and behaviour in a NCW environment. This is premised on our belief that science has as much a role to play in understanding the human response to new technologies as it does in developing the new technologies themselves. Human Dimension in NCW Cognitive Domain Conveyed Plan Cognitive Advantage Commander’s Intent Organise Process Advantage Deploy Shared Compressed Awareness Operations NCW Precision Force Information Force Advantage Advantage Position Advantage Information Domain Physical Domain Information Advantage Speed and Access 11 This diagram shows the relative relationships between technology and human domains in NCW theory and practice. The human dimension, in this context, is based on the simple yet profound assumption that information is only useful IF and WHEN 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 13 it allows people to act more effectively. There are two important human aspects that we can hold onto here. There first is the requirement for adaptability, versatility and initiative at the individual level. The second is about personal trust – up, down and across the chain of command. It is about trust in others, in their ability to react and cooperate and in their character. This quality does not come from technology. And of course it has been known since SUN TZU that these aspects are important. It is that NCW brings these aspects into much sharper focus, by explicitly linking them with complex technology. Australia’s NCW: Human Dimension Taming Technology 12 Professional mastery is thus of highest importance so that warfighters can expertly apply technology to effectively solicit synergies from all relevant sources in order to maximise combat power. The whole idea of NCW is to give our warfighters 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 14 information and understanding of the commander’s intent in order to make smart decisions in the battlefield. Currently, this is one of DSTO’s priority research areas. There are two aspects of this type of work: HMI: Human/Machine Interface • Research in cognitive and social informatics • Situational Awareness for NCW • Intelligent C2 machines Team Design: Dynamics and Structure • How do we design teams to take account of organisational, cultural and social diversity in joint, multi-agency and coalition operations? • Important considerations: - size, composition, structure, organisation and training; - social, organisational and cultural issues; - implications for information flow and knowledge management; and - flexibility and adaptability in complex, dynamic environments. • In an NCW environment teams can be virtual and this adds an added dimension to the problem. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 15 DSTO’s Ubiquitous Command & Control (UC2) Concept It is a concept. Its objectives include: - unity in operations without sacrificing diversity of positions of operational issues; and - greater self-organisation by networking to increase the tempo, effectiveness and responsiveness of operation at lower risk and cost It proposes to remove some of the barriers built within mission command and military appreciation processes in order to achieve ‘ubiquitousness’. 13 I will now give you two current examples of our work on human dimension research, too. The first one is DSTO’s ubiquitous C2 concept. It is a theoretical framework - an expansion of the conventional approach to military operations. It is formulated to take advantage of the benefits on offer from IT and evolving commercial practices. The concept highlights the importance of flexibility and adaptability. UC2 is a way to remove some of the barriers built within mission command and military appreciation processes. We are only just now looking at the theoretical system design aspects. The second example is one of DSTO’s research projects on Human Dimension of Future Warfighting. This research aims to understand how well military personnel make sense of an NCW environment and what are the implications of this on ADF’s transition to a seamless NCW force in the future. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 16 The research team conducted a series of in-depth interviews with over 100 military personnel who have returned from deployment since March 2003. One product is a simulation package that simulates aspects of NCW that appear to have particular relevance to individual decision-making and team dynamics. In addition, there are 11 more on-going projects undertaken by DSTO researchers. These projects aim to support the development of symbiotic relationships between people, processes, technologies, and information in joint headquarters environments. Now let me turn to the third dimension that I mentioned at the beginning – that of information networking. In recent years it could be argued that we have pioneered the use of the emerging science of complex adaptive systems in looking at this aspect. Australia’s NCW as a Complex Adaptive System NCW • Increased complexity • Increased connectivity • Non-linear interactions • Feedback loops ... http://web.inter.nl.net/hcc/Hans.Kuiper/ Desired NCW Characteristics • Robustness • Flexibility • Agility • Resilience • Intelligent context-appropriate Complex Adaptive System (CAS) behaviour • Emergent properties • ABILITY TO LEARN • Hard to optimise / predict • Impossible to design perfectly 14 http://web.inter.nl.net/hcc/Hans.Kuiper/ 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 17 CAS in the NCW context is now attracting research attention world wide. The key proposition for this study is that, because NCW involves complex human behaviour and its relationships with technology, it is logical, or even imperative, to allow the network systems design to be highly adaptive and agile. The aims for treating NCW as CAS are to establish broad but vigorous and coherent perimeters, within which new behaviours or structures are encouraged to emerge. I don’t have time to give you a full account of where CAS is as a science, there are plenty of new texts appearing almost daily, but to treat NCW as a CAS can improve robustness, flexibility, agility, resilience and “intelligence” of NCW for the ADF. CAS: DSTO Approach ABD GA AL Mathematical Models Formal Techniques Evolution IN Y FO not Design UD RM ST Natural CAS Defence CAS TEST Experimentation Simulation http://web.inter.nl.net/hcc/Hans.Kuiper/ DSTO CAS Research • Distributed Control, NCW • Generic Model of Adaptation • Capability Development • Adaptive Mechanisms Process • CAS Diagnostics • Logistics, Combat Models 15 In Australia DSTO is pioneering the study of CAS for NCW. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 18 DSTO’s research in this area includes conceptual work on self- organisation and intelligent distributed control; generic model of adaptation; adaptive mechanisms; CAS diagnostics; capability development process; and logistics and combat models. We are also developing effective hybrid and augmented adaptive mechanisms for Defence applications. Other Defence applications include Sense-and-Response Logistics and Capability Development Process design. One of the main issues with complex adaptive systems is that, in the main, they are difficult, if not impossible to model to the degree needed. They have to be exercised to determine their full capacity and this is where experimentation comes in. Experimentation: DSTO Approach Relationships among Programs, Campaigns, Series, and Studies Experimentation campaign Experimentation program (grey area) Whole -of - Joint & force combined Task force System of Battle group systems Experimentation Combat series team, squadron System Troop Platform nology Tech - Weapon, sensor, Mission System Seminar Experiment or study SE stimulated Command Post Exercise (CPX) Wargame Closed modelling 16 We have recently launched the DSTO Experimentation Initiative to complement the NCW initiative to focus our research in this area. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 19 The value of experimentation is that it is one of the few ways that we can test ideas, compare options in a systematic and rigorous manner, and pool the collective judgement of experts to produce well considered recommendations. All within the complex adaptive system paradigm. DSTO’s Experimentation Initiative provides a unique environment to investigate and evaluate the concepts and technologies, including the networking of sensors, weapons and the cognitive/social aspects of C2. Like NCW, experimentation means many things to many people. The DSTO Experimentation Initiative aims to develop an integrated and coordinated approach to experimentation programs across Defence in Australia. This initiative focuses on scientific experimental design, adoption of common standards, codes of practice and endorsed foundations in experimentation across the world. In Australia’s NCW context, this DSTO’s initiative will help to better integrate science in the application of experimentation. As part of the structured framework for analysis and evaluation it also assists to shape analytical frameworks and to integrate methods, models and tools. We have been part Defence’s experimentation program since its inception in 1996. Currently our program is Service oriented with a joint overlay. Our challenge in the next few years is to bring all the activities in Defence under a common umbrella. The Experimentation Initiative is a key part of this strategy. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 20 Experimentation: DSTO Approach Relationships among Programs, Campaigns, Series, and Studies Experimentation campaign Experimentation program (grey area) Whole -of - Joint & force combined Task force System of Battle group systems Experimentation Combat series team, squadron System Troop Platform nology Tech - Weapon, sensor, Mission System Seminar Experiment or study SE stimulated Command Post Exercise (CPX) Wargame Closed modelling 16 Another key part is the Defence RPDE program. This Operating Model describes how it works. A primary means for Industry to engage with the Australian Defence Force’s NCW objectives is through the Rapid Prototyping, Development and Evaluation (RPDE) program. To run this virtual organisation, the RPDE Program brings in people, facilities, technologies and other context information from our industry participants and from Defence. With these resources, the program takes high priority NCW problems from Defence and works with stakeholders to pinpoint the core issues, and as appropriate solutions. It uses the full range of tools that I showed in the last slide, but tends to concentrate on the experimentation end since most of the problems that come to this unique industry/defence team are positioned within a complex system environment. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 21 Australia’s NCW Research Thrusts Distributed Data Fusion LAND NETWORKING: Ad Hoc Communications ATTITUDE logistics agents (DSTO) I2P Event Handling D’Agents medical agents (Dartmouth) (AIAI) Multi-level Coordination Agent I2AT Agent Creation Information Trust Coalition Starter (U.Michigan) Toolkit (LM-ATL) Evaluator (UT- Pack Anaconda Agent Visualisation (CMU) Austin) CoABS Grid (DARPA) KAoS (IHMC) KAoS Domain NOMADS Dynamic Data Filter Management (IHMC) (IHMC) Mixed Initiative Decision Agents (BBN) Desktop Prediction Agent (QinetiQ) (UMD/NRL) Experimentation for Net-Centric Operations 18 I will finish off by describing how Australia’s NCW future research thrusts may be viewed as the ‘taming of technology’. Our major efforts will focus on: 1. Research into Distributed Data Fusion. This is about having machines that: - locate objects in space and time (object assessment); - identify the important relationships between those objects (situation assessment); and - formulate the consequences relevant to their intent (impact assessment). 2. The use of Agents in experimentation for network-centric operations, which would demonstrate how heterogeneous systems can enable dynamic and flexible distributed data fusion for coalition operations. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 22 3. Ad Hoc Communications, particularly for Land Warfare Networking is a research area relevance to NCW. Australia’s NCW Research Thrusts Distributed Data Fusion LAND NETWORKING: Ad Hoc Communications ATTITUDE logistics agents (DSTO) I2P Event Handling D’Agents medical agents (Dartmouth) (AIAI) Multi-level Coordination Agent I2AT Agent Creation Information Trust Coalition Starter (U.Michigan) Toolkit (LM-ATL) Evaluator (UT- Pack Anaconda Agent Visualisation (CMU) Austin) CoABS Grid (DARPA) KAoS (IHMC) KAoS Domain NOMADS Dynamic Data Filter Management (IHMC) (IHMC) Mixed Initiative Decision Agents (BBN) Desktop Prediction Agent (QinetiQ) (UMD/NRL) Experimentation for Net-Centric Operations 18 Detailed and further information on what DSTO’s role in NCW can be found in these websites. You are welcome to browse through, contact our researchers, and chat with our scientists. I began this presentation by outlining the trilogy in Australia’s aspiration for a seamless NCW force in 2020. I have talked about how defence S&T can and has contributed to this revolutionary transformation of ADF. Throughout this presentation, I have explained DSTO’s S&T strategy to harness and research cutting-edged technology to strengthen the network capability on the one hand, and our firm commitment to bringing the better understanding of human/social dimension into the mainstream NCW effort on the other. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 23 I am convinced that balancing these two dimensions in our future NCW research agenda is vital if we are to make NCW deliver its promised potential. Mr Chairman, ladies and gentlemen. In conclusion, may I just say that the take-home message from this presentation is: in a complex NCW system, it is important for us to tackle the issues arising from both of dimensions simultaneously. Getting the balance right is not without risk. I am reminded of Socrates’ timeless wisdom on risk taking. He once quipped: “by all means marry: if you get a good wife, you’ll be happy. If you get a bad one, you’ll become a philosopher.’ Conclusion Thank You! In NCW it is important to know both where you are going and how you are getting there! 20 So in NCW, as in life, there are many directions from which to choose. Choose the right one and you can do the impossible. Thank you all for your attention. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 24 I am now looking forward to the other speakers’ presentations. 20 February 2006 C4I Asia Conference, Singapore 25