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					Research Methods Tutorial for EDUC 1101

Slide 1


                             Research Method
          • Library Catalogue:
             – lists books, journals, DVD’s owned, or subscribed to, by
               the library; it is NOT an index to articles within journals
                 keywords – subject headings


          • Full-text journals:
                 ProQuest, Expanded Academic ASAP, Science Direct,
               Factiva (newspapers)


          • Databases (indexes to journals):
                Informit (Australian journals)
                Eric (international education journals)




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Slide 2

              Library Catalogue -- Keywords to
                      Subject headings

          • Keyword search
               Coed?
               Single sex
               schools


          • Subject headings
               Coeducation
               Sex differences in education
               Single sex schools




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Research Methods Tutorial for EDUC 1101                                          1
Slide 3


                       Electronic Journals
          • All journal titles (paper & electronic) listed in
            catalogue

          • An electronic journal listed in the catalogue can be
            connected to by clicking “Access” link

          • Most electronic journals are part of big collections
            (ProQuest, Expanded Academic ASAP, Science
            Direct …)

          • These collections can be searched in their entirety
            with their own search engines



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Slide 4


                               Databases
          • Informit (indexes Australian journals)

               Method
             – Keywords -- subject headings
             – check against library catalogue


          • Eric (indexes international education journals)

               Method
             – Keywords -- subject headings
             – check against library catalogue




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Research Methods Tutorial for EDUC 1101                                2
Slide 5

                            Keyword search
                        -- problems with jargon
          LIBRARY CATALOGUE
          • Keyword search – when no initial results, try analogous terms
             – History Wars – (Aborigines/ historiography)
             – McDonaldisation -- (McDonaldi?ation /junk food/ advertising/
               sponsorship) McSchools
             – (McWorld/ globali?ation / schools)

          FACTIVA
          • Use to find alternative keywords, names of organisations,
            individuals, reports, current debate
             – Keywords -- McDonalds and sponsorship and schools

          INFORMIT
          • Keyword search – subject headings
             – Keyword -- McSchools
             – Subject heading – McDonalds (Firm) and schools




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Slide 6

                   Working out keywords
           e.g. – private vs. public school values

          • Private Schools
                 •   Moral Values
                 •   Christian Values
                 •   Traditional Values
                 •   Australian Values
                 •   British heritage


          • Public Schools
                 • Value neutral
                 • Post-modern relativism
                 • Political correctness




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Research Methods Tutorial for EDUC 1101                                           3
Slide 7


                          Historical timelines

          • Multiculturalism

          • Muslim headscarves

          • Private vs Public Schools – funding

          • Private vs Public Schools – values

          • Intelligent Design

          • History wars




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Slide 8


                             Multiculturalism
          •   1901- Federation – White Australia integral to national identity

          .   White Australia policy dismantled after 1966 by Harold Holt
              (Liberal) government & Gough Whitlam (Labor) government 1972

          •   1975 – 1983 -- Malcolm Fraser -- derides “Anglo-Saxon conformity”
              -- continues Whitlam’s & Al Grassby’s policy of multiculturalism

          •   1984 – historian Geoffrey Blainey -- Warrnambool Rotary club
              speech against Asian migration

          •   May 1989 – John Howard replaced by Andrew Peacock as Liberal
              Party leader largely because of his opposition to multiculturalism




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Research Methods Tutorial for EDUC 1101                                                4
Slide 9


                            Multiculturalism
          • 1983 - 1991 -- Bob Hawke – emphasizes importance of
            multiculturalism & our indigenous heritage during
            bicentenary (1988)

          • 1996 – Labor defeat attributed to Paul Keating’s social
            agenda – multiculturalism, Reconciliation, engagement with
            Asia & perceived rejection of British heritage

          • 1996 – 1998 -- Pauline Hanson & One Nation (anti-Asian
            migration; opposed to multiculturalism)
             – “ we are in danger of being swamped by Asians.”




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Slide 10


                            Multiculturalism
          • 2005 Dec. -- Cronulla riots
             – Alan Jones leads the charge on 2GB talk-back radio

          • 2006 -- Peter Costello at the Sydney Institute derides
            “mushy misguided multiculturalism”
             –   migrants who do not share “Australian values” should leave

          • 2006 -- Tony Abbott makes “a conservative case for
            multiculturalism”
             – importance of “accepting difference”, “stressing respect”,
               encouraging dialogue.

          • 2007 – Ayaan Hirsi Ali
             – feminist critique of multiculturalism & Islam



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Research Methods Tutorial for EDUC 1101                                            5
Slide 11


                          Muslim Headscarves
        •   Nov 2002 -- Fred Nile N.S.W Parliament
             –   calls for banning of headscarves & women wearing loose clothing in
                 public

        •   2004 -- France
             – Feb 2004 - French National Assembly – overwhelming vote banning
               wearing of overt religious insignia in state establishments, schools,
               offices, hospitals

        •   Aug. 2005 -- Bronwyn Bishop & Sophie Panopoulos
             – call for banning of Muslim headscarves in public schools

        •   Feb. 2006 -- John Howard
             –   “I don’t mind the headscarf but it’s really the whole outfit, I think most
                 Australians would find it confronting…These are things that it’s very
                 hard to lay down legislation for.”

        •   March. 2007 –- England
             – Full face veils banned in schools




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Slide 12


            Private vs. Public schools -- funding
        •   Australia’s 3-strand primary & secondary educational system

             – State schools -- secular (until recent times given bipartisan
               political support)
             – Catholic schools – compulsory for Catholics
             – Private schools – wealthy elite

        •   1963 -- Menzies government introduced funding to the nation’s
            (mainly Catholic) private schools -- opposed by Labor

        •   1967 -- Henry Bolte -- Victoria -- in deal for DLP preferences offers
            per capita funding to private schools. Begins state gov. assistance

        •   1972 -- Whitlam government wanted to fund to private schools on
            “needs basis”. Only passed by Senate on condition that government
            funding went to all private schools.




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Research Methods Tutorial for EDUC 1101                                                            6
Slide 13


           Private vs. public school – funding
        • Between 1993 & 2003 private school enrolments increased
          by more than 22%. Much of the growth was in Christian and
          other religious schools

        • The Federal government now gives more public money to
          private schools in Australia than to all of Australia’s 37
          public universities combined.

        • In 1978 for every $1.00 paid per student in public school the
          Commonwealth paid $2.50 for a student in a private school.
            – By 2001: for every $1.00 to public, $4.00 to private.
            – By 2005: for every $1.00 to public, $5.00 to private.

        • 1996 -- 2006 Howard government
            – Pro-choice: private schools for good education; or safety-net
              state schools.




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Slide 14


           Private vs. public schools - values
        • Government commentary
             –2005
                • Brendan Nelson concern for Australian values – all public
                  schools must have functioning flagpole & display values
                  poster of Simpson & his donkey
             –Jan. 2006
                • PM’s Australia Day speech -- John Howard criticizes
                  teaching of history in public schools -- it has been
                  subverted by postmodernist relativism
             –Apr. 2006
                • Howard criticizes teaching of English literature on same
                  grounds




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Research Methods Tutorial for EDUC 1101                                            7
Slide 15


               Intelligent Design -- history
        • Charles Darwin, Thomas Huxley & Samuel Wilberforce
            – 1860 -- Evolution vs. theology debate.


        • The Scopes Trial (Monkey Trial) 1925
            – Clarence Darrow – famous defense attorney, declared his
              intention was: “To show up fundamentalism…to prevent bigots
              and ignoramuses from controlling the educational system of the
              United States."

        • Creation Science     1960-1980’s
            – 1980’s Arkansas & Louisiana pass “creationist laws” legislating
              equal time for creation science in schools.
            – Overturned by the Supreme Court – ruled unconstitutional




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Slide 16


                        Intelligent Design
        Intelligent Design             1980’s -
            – Aug. 2005 – “Unlocking the mystery of life” DVD sent to
              secondary schools in Australia by Campus Crusade for
              Christ.
            – I.D. supported by George Bush and Brendan Nelson

            – Aug. 2005 – “Intelligent design is not science.” -- open
              letter to major Australian newspapers signed by 70,000
              Australian scientists & science teachers: “Evolution meets
              all scientific criteria but Intelligent Design meets none of
              them.”

            – 2006 – Pennsylvanian Federal court rules I.D to be
              religion, not science – cannot be on school curriculum



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Research Methods Tutorial for EDUC 1101                                              8
Slide 17

                                   Essay topics
                                – History Wars
        •   1988 -- 200th Anniversary of British settlement

        •   Historical Interpretations: Paul Keating (1991-1996) and John
            Howard (1996 - )
            - Tragic vs. heroic versions of the past
            – Manning Clark and Geoffrey Blainey

        •   1992 -- Paul Keating’s Redfern Park speech
            – “It seems to me that if we can imagine the injustice then we can
              imagine its opposite. And we can have justice.”

        •   1993 -- Black armband history
            – historian Geoffrey Blainey coins the term; adopted by John Howard

        •   Manning Clark pilloried
            – 1993 -- Peter Ryan criticizes Manning Clark’s history in Quadrant
            – 1996 -- Courier-Mail accuses Clark of being “agent of influence” for
              Communist Party & having received The Order of Lenin



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Slide 18


                                 History Wars
        •   Mabo (1992), Native Title Act (1993), Wik (1996), Native Title
            Amendment Act (1998)

        •   1997 --The Stolen Generations
            – Bringing them home : report / Ronald Wilson
            – John Howard refuses an apology on behalf of the nation
            – Federal Government refuse to participate in 1st “Sorry Day”–

        •   2000 -- Walk for Reconciliation
            – 200,000 people walked across Sydney Harbour Bridge

        •   2001 -- National Museum accused of bias & Aboriginal sympathies

        •   Keith Windschuttle
            – 2000-1 -- dismisses Tasmanian genocide -- attacks historians Lyndall
              Ryan & Henry Reynolds in articles in Quadrant
            – 2002 – Windschuttle’s Fabrication of Aboriginal History
            – Responses by Stuart Macintyre, Robert Manne, Henry Reynolds




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Research Methods Tutorial for EDUC 1101                                                   9

				
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