Manitou Springs DRAFT Climate Action Plan by accinent


                                         JUNE 2008
 Dedicated to Kathy Verlo for her passion for sustainability and contributions to this effort. She
                                        will be missed.

                                 Executive Summary
In March of 2007, Manitou Springs became the seventh Colorado community, and first city in
southern Colorado, to join the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives’ (ICLEI)
Cities for Climate Protection campaign, and to commit to reducing greenhouse gas pollution.

Manitou Springs is now among the more than 420 ICLEI member cities in the US and 800
worldwide working to address global warming and local air pollution. According to ICLEI,
Manitou is the first Cities for Climate Protection community to have a citizen-led greenhouse gas
reduction process, a necessity in a smaller community of only 5,000 with significant fiscal and
staff-time constraints.

In joining the Cities for Climate Protection Campaign, the City of Manitou Springs committed to
the ICLEI five milestone process for reducing local emissions that contribute to global warming:
     1. Conduct a local emissions inventory and forecast of greenhouse gas emissions;
     2. Adopt an emissions reduction target;
     3. Draft an action plan to achieve the target;
     4. Implement the action plan; and
     5. Evaluate, report on progress, and update plans.

The five milestones are not necessarily sequential, and the Manitou Springs City Council moved
forward in adopting an emissions reduction target in December 2007. The Manitou Springs
Climate and Air Quality Committee developed the Climate Action Plan over the last 12 months
through the efforts of five working groups, each with City Council, staff, and volunteer members.
Megan Day conducted the emissions inventory and forecast as well as an analysis of various
greenhouse gas reduction measures.

The Manitou Climate Action Plan focuses on six areas and identifies goals for each:

   1. City government – Invest in energy efficiency in city buildings and fuel efficiency and
      alternative fuels for fleet vehicles, investigate opportunities for renewable energy
      installations, and work with Colorado Springs Utilities to increase street lighting
   2. Residential – Disseminate a pledge to reduce household energy use by at least ten
      percent and collaborate with the school district on energy efficiency education.
   3. Business and Economic Development – Retrofit existing fluorescent lights with
      energy efficient bulbs and ballasts.
   4. Waste Reduction and Recycling – Explore a franchise agreement for waste hauling
      and curb-side recycling and re-establish a west side recycling center.
   5. Transportation – Increase transit use, explore re-establishing the trolley, and reduce
      congestion by charging for on-street parking and making city lots free.
   6. Events Education and Outreach – Continue to host an annual fall Climate and Energy
      Extravaganza and disseminate information via a web site, speakers, and collaboration.

                           The Case for Climate Action
Scientific evidence clearly demonstrates that increased carbon dioxide and other greenhouse
gases from human activities have and will continue to have a profound effect on the Earth’s
climate. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th
Assessment Report in 2007 determined with over 90 percent confidence that greenhouse gases
produced from human activities are the main cause of global warming. (IPCC February 2007)

The IPCC Working Group III, which includes over 400 scientists and experts from 120 countries,
reports that stabilizing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere and minimizing global
temperature increases require 50 to 85 percent reductions from 2000 greenhouse gas
emissions levels by 2050. (IPCC 2007)

The National Climate Data Center reported that the global land surface temperature was the
warmest on record in 2007 and the ten warmest years on record have all occurred since 1995.
(NOAA 2008) Energy consumption, specifically the burning of coal, oil, and gas, is the source of
80 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. (EPA 2007)

Local actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through increased energy efficiency,
reduced vehicle miles traveled, and reduced waste generation can provide multiple local
benefits by improving public health via reduced air pollution, creating jobs with new green
industries, and saving money for local citizens, businesses, and government, alike.

For these reasons, on March 6, 2007, the Manitou Springs City Council unanimously passed
Resolution No. 1107 authorizing the City of Manitou Springs to join ICLEI and the Cities for
Climate Protection Campaign and embark upon a greenhouse gas reduction program. In this
Resolution, the City Council stated that it ―intends for the City to take a leadership role in the
Pikes Peak Region in increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas,‖ and that the
―City of Manitou Springs pledges to take a leadership role in reducing greenhouse gas
emissions in the community and in its municipal operations.‖

                     Greenhouse Gas Reduction Target
Establishing a greenhouse gas reduction target provides a clear objective toward which to strive
and against which to measure progress. Setting specific greenhouse gas reduction goals also
furthers the following City policies:

   1. The Resolution Supporting the Endorsement of the Kyoto Treaty passed by City Council
      on July 5, 2005, and its goal to be a green community by supporting efforts to enhance
      our pedestrian-friendly environment, strengthening our established recycling program,
      advocating for improved regional transit services, and encouraging use of more fuel
      efficient vehicles.

   2. The City’s Comprehensive Plan, the Rainbow Vision Plan (2000), which has goals to
      protect and preserve Manitou Springs’ environmental resources and to participate in the
      promotion of better health.

   3. The City of Manitou Springs’ participation in the Pikes Peak Regional Sustainability
      Indicators Project.

On December 18, 2007, the Manitou Springs City Council unanimously approved Resolution
No. 3607 which set the following greenhouse gas reduction goal:

        The City of Manitou Springs will strive to achieve, in both its municipal operations and
        throughout the larger community, a 10 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions
        from its 2005 levels by 2010, a 30 percent reduction from its 2005 levels by 2020, and
        commits to ensuring that all new buildings and developments can and will be carbon
        neutral — generating or offsetting as much energy as they consume — by 2030.

This reduction goal mirrors the commitment made in July 2006, by 150 local government
representatives at the North American Congress of ICLEI.

This plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions focuses on the 2010 reduction goal, but includes
many longer term action steps that will lay a solid foundation for the 2020 goal.

                                    Emissions Inventory
Conducting an emissions inventory enables a city to measure progress toward greenhouse gas
reduction goals. It also provides a better understanding of the sources of greenhouse gases
within the community and informs an effective climate action plan.

The Manitou Springs inventory calculates emissions for the baseline year of 2005 and forecasts
future emissions for the first target year of 2010. The complete inventory results are available
separately. A summary follows.

The analysis focuses on greenhouse gas generated by electricity and natural gas consumption,
transportation, and solid waste disposal. Greenhouse gas emissions are represented as units of
carbon dioxide equivalents or CO2e because some greenhouse gases have a greater
greenhouse effect than others. For example, methane is 21 times as potent a greenhouse gas
as carbon dioxide. As such, each unit of methane equals 21 CO2e units.

The inventory tracks emissions from government operations as well as the community as a
whole. The following is a summary of government emissions.

Table 1: Baseline government emissions (tons) and cost by department, 2005

Department        Energy CO2 Energy Cost Fleet CO2 Fleet Cost Waste CO2 Waste Cost TOTAL CO2* TOTAL Cost
Streetlights             1127    $97,644                                                 1127     $97,644
Pool                      460    $46,857                              14      $510        474     $47,367
Public Works*              92    $10,050        152   $26,079        117    $5,068        361     $41,197
Water Treatment           262    $23,917         19     $3,209                            281     $27,126
City Hall/Admin.*         212    $18,175          5       $895        21      $793        238     $19,863
Public Trash Cans                                                    159    $5,975        159      $5,975
Fire                       79     $6,936         25     $4,898         7      $255        111     $12,089
Police                                          100   $17,082                             100     $17,082
Library*                   27     $2,675                                                   27      $2,675
TOTAL                    2259   $206,254        301   $52,163        318   $12,601       2878    $271,018

 *City Hall includes police utility and waste costs

 *Library does not include solid waste
 *Public Works includes water and sewer fleet data
 *Employee commute was not broken down by department and is not included in total

As in most other municipalities, electricity is the highest producer of greenhouse gas emissions
                              2005 Government CO2e by Source
from Manitou Springs municipal operations.
                         2%                                     Electricity
                     13%                                        Natural Gas
                                                     61%        Solid Waste

                        Figure 1: Government CO2e by Source, 2005

Municipal fleet fuel use is the source of 15 percent of government emissions. The following
chart illustrates fuel use by department.
                             Municipal Fleet GHG Emissions
                                  2% 5%
                                                             Code Enforcement
                 35%                            8%           Sewer
                                                             Water Treatment
                                                             Fire Dept.
                                                 11%         Water
                                                             Public Works


                       Figure 2: Municipal Fleet CO2e Emissions, 2005

With the addition of employee commute emissions, total government operations generated 3028
tons of CO2e in 2005. The government sector is assumed to remain stable, precluding the need
for a forecast. The reduction goal is then 303 tons CO2e by 2010.

Community emissions include government operations as part of the commercial sector. In both
the community and government results, waste generates a higher percentage of emissions than
in most other communities. Compared with other communities, Manitou Springs generates a
smaller percentage of emissions from transportation, most likely because only vehicle miles
traveled within city limits, as calculated by the Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, are

Table 2: Baseline community CO2e emissions (tons), 2005

                          Residential Commercial Transportation
Waste                           2,524      4,755
Electricity                    14,047     13,659
Natural Gas                     9,306      6,191
Transportation                                             5,633

Annual growth factors for the above emissions sources help generate a forecast for community
emissions in 2010 under a no action scenario. The community’s greenhouse gas reduction goal
equals the difference between the forecasted 2010 ―business as usual‖ levels (59,970 tons
CO2e) and ten percent below 2005 levels (50,504 tons CO2e), or 9,467 tons. In other words,
increases in fuel use, waste generation, and the number of households are causing emissions
to trend upward, so CO2e reduction must increase to both reverse this upward trend and reduce
                    Community CO2e Emissions Reduction Target
emissions ten percent below 2005 levels by 2010.

           Tons CO2e


                       30,000                                       No Action Forecast
                                                                    Reduction Goal

                           2005                              2010

                          Figure 3: Community CO2e Emissions Reduction Target

                                      Climate Action Plan
The following goals and objectives were developed with extensive involvement from community
members (both Manitou residents and volunteers who live outside of Manitou), staff, and City
Council members. These goals and strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions began to
take shape with the formation of the Manitou Climate and Air Quality Committee in 2006. The
five action teams established by the Committee drafted and revised the goals beginning in the
summer of 2007. The teams included the Residential, Business and Economic Development,
City, Waste Reduction and Recycling, and Events, Education and Outreach Action Teams.
Further community input was solicited at the November 2007 Climate and Energy


1) New City facilities, including additions, should be LEED or Green Building certified.

2) Investigate micro-hydro generation opportunities at the City water plant, geothermal heating
   and cooling for City Hall, small wind generation capacity in discrete locations, and
   compatible solar panels for City facilities.

3) Negotiate renewable energy opportunities with Colorado Springs Utilities.

4) Continue conducting energy audits of City facilities.

5) Implement cost-effective energy saving improvements (e.g., install energy-efficient fixtures,
   install low-flow water fixtures, switch out light bulbs, replace insulation, update
   heating/cooling appliances, etc. using Energy Star rated products).

6) Work with CSU to improve street light energy efficiency.

7) Encourage City employees to conserve energy.

8) Investigate the use of energy efficient vehicles and alternate fuels.

9) Promote the use of bio-fuels, including the collection and processing of cooking oil as fuel.

10) Promote walking, biking, car-pooling, and transit use for those commuting to and from
    Manitou Springs.

   a) Provide bus passes to all City employees who regularly commute via bus.

   b) Establish a park-n-ride area on the east end of Manitou Avenue.


Carbon Reduction Checklist and Pledge
The Residential Action Team developed a checklist of simple, inexpensive things people can do
at home to reduce their carbon footprint. The checklist includes a pledge to reduce household
carbon emissions at least 10 percent by 2010 and space to list three measures signatories will
implement to accomplish that goal. The Team seeks to collect pledges from 1,000 households
at events, through the Committee’s web page, through school programs, and at a booth at the
summer Midweek Farmers’ Market.

Outreach through Schools
The Residential Action Team will work with School District 14 administration and teachers to
develop a greenhouse gas and energy conservation education program for the 2008-09 school
year which will incorporate the Checklist/Pledge.

Interfaith Power and Light Program
The Residential Action Team will encourage Manitou’s houses of faith to participate in the
Fellowship Energy Reduction program and ConservED, a project of the Interfaith Power and
Light for congregations (Includes a study group guide and four free CFLs as well as a low-flow
showerhead for each group participant) and start study groups. Group participants track and
tabulate their savings in carbon emissions. They also have a Youth Energy Outreach Program,
which we hope to utilize.

Promote the LEAP and Energy Resource Center Programs
Promote participation in the LEAP assistance program for free weatherization by the federal
program locally operated by the Energy Resource Center. Their service includes wall
insulation, new refrigerators, and furnaces if warranted, ceiling insulation and infiltration work on
homes of both renters and owners.

There are approximately 2,670 homes in Manitou Springs and it is estimated 20 percent of
households qualify for this service. We will advertise and promote these programs to get
qualified, interested households to request this free service. We will endeavor to discern how
many Manitou Springs families have participated in this service since 2005 to add to our
quantification goals.

Free CFL Distribution
By the end of 2008, the Manitou Climate and Air Quality Committee will have overseen the
distribution of 1,584 free CFL’s donated by Colorado Springs Utilities. We will endeavor to
distribute 1,500 more free CFL’s by the end of 2009.

Promote CSU Renewable Energy Rebate Programs and Energy Efficiency Rebates
Through education and outreach, we will foster interest in the CSU RERP program for
photovoltaic panels. Since 2005, two homes in Manitou Springs have installed solar PV
systems. We hope to encourage three additional households to do so by 2010.

CSU also offers rebates for home efficiency such as rebates on efficient clothes washers,
furnaces, insulation, windows, etc). We will promote participation in these programs as well.

Outreach and Education through Farmers’ Market
The Residential Committee will distribute the Checklist/Pledge, sell recycled bags for the high
school student recycling group, and educate the public about participating in the carbon
emission reduction goal through a booth at each of the 12 Midweek Farmers’ Markets.

2008 Fall Energy Fair
We will help coordinate and participate in the second annual Climate and Energy Fair for the
citizens of Manitou Springs.

Public Art Representing Goal
The Committee will partner with local artists to develop a city council approved object that can
be publicly displayed on city property and will reflect the CO2 savings done to date as
juxtaposed to the overall 10% city-wide reduction goal. Funds will be raised to develop and
place the winning design in a public area to encourage the residents to continue in their efforts.

Energy Reduction Contest
We will develop a protocol, flier, and handout for this contest. There may be both a business
and residential category to see who has reduced their electrical and natural gas consumption
the most over a year period. Prizes will be solicited from Manitou Springs businesses.

The primary goal of the Business and Economic Development team is to work with the business
community of Manitou Springs to develop a cost effective plan that allows businesses to
upgrade older, less efficient T-12 fluorescent light fixtures to the more efficient T-8 light fixtures.

Reasons to focus on lighting
    Newer lighting technologies are approximately 40 percent more efficient;
    In many cases, an electronic ballast and new T-8 fluorescent tubes can be easily
     installed into older fixtures, avoiding the costs of replacing the entire fixture;
    Colorado Springs Utilities has an ongoing Business Rebate Program that will offset a
     portion of the retrofit cost. They have also offered technical assistance for this program;
    If enough businesses support the effort, we may be able to purchase components in
     large enough quantities to achieve a discount on the total cost;
    We can recommend the replacement of any incandescent light bulbs we come across
     with Compact Fluorescent light bulbs;
    We might get a big box retailer to donate a number of CFL bulbs or offer them at
     reduced prices.

Action Steps:
   1) Identify a small number of businesses and pilot a data gathering and education process.

   2) Email an introductory message going over the goal of the program and inviting
      interested businesses to contact us.

   3) Visit interested businesses to inventory their current lighting and assess where upgrades
      could be made. Explain incentive to business owners:
      a) Lower energy use = lower costs = lower emission of CO 2
      b) Possibly distribute a flyer with facts and science on climate change and an
           explanation of how our electricity is produced

   4) Customize a proposal for each business which estimates the cost of retrofitting old
      fixtures with new ballasts and tubes, the simple payback period, the amount of energy
      and money the upgrade could save, and the CO2 emissions reduction.

   5) Highlight Colorado Springs Utilities’ current business rebate program and any discounts
      we can achieve by grouping a number of smaller purchases into one large order.

   6) Additional factors that will impact the cost of a lighting upgrade are:
      a) Cost of hiring someone to do the retrofit
      b) Cost of disposal of old ballasts and tubes

Recognize those businesses that step up and agree to participate in the program, as well as the
volunteers who do the work.


Goal: Franchise agreement(s) for trash hauling
In order to reduce the strain on city roads, increase local air quality, and establish
comprehensive, city-wide curb-side recycling, the primary goal of the Waste Reduction and
Recycling Team is to establish a single trash collector per geographic region. This plan will
reduce greenhouse emissions by reducing garbage truck mileage and increasing recycling
rates. The customer cost for collection is expected to be reduced.

       Action steps:

       1) Develop an RFP per each geographic area (ward or neighborhood) or entire city
          which incorporates curb-side recycling, pay as you throw, and the accessibility of
          various streets.
       2) Establish a Green Ribbon Panel to help city staff administer city-wide collection by
          private companies.

Goal: Reduce water use city-wide (reduce energy needed for water delivery and treatment)
       Action steps:
       1) Institute tiered rates for business and residential water use
       2) Pump and use allotted amount of Fountain Creek water for gardens and parks
       3) Quantification (when possible) of greenhouse gas reduction potential of action steps
       4) Establish a time line for implementation, financing, and assigning responsibility

Goal: Increase use of recycled paper
       Action Step:
       1) City, EDC, and School District adopt policies to purchase post-consumer recycled
           paper and paper products

Goal: Re-establish and expand recycling center
       Action Steps:
       1) Work with a recycling company to establish a recycling center on city or School
          District 14 property one weekend each month
       2) Include annual yard-waste collection for composting
       3) Incorporate occasional collection of reusable items for community sale or trade
       4) Educate public regarding days to use, what to throw, where Styrofoam can go, etc.
       5) Monitor recycling site through volunteers to prevent dumping, keep site clean, and
          further education and outreach

      Work with Mountain Metropolitan Transit to promote use of the Manitou #3 bus route.
      Ensure bike racks are included in Manitou Springs Ahead downtown streetscape.
      Prioritize pedestrian walkway improvements along Manitou Avenue, where unsafe or no
       sidewalks currently exist.
      Establish a park and ride area for carpooling and transit use (see City goals).
      Reduce congestion and vehicle emissions by reinstating the Manitou trolley and
       charging for on-street parking and not charging for parking in lots.

1) Provide education, information, and community outreach on reducing greenhouse gas
   emissions and improving air quality in general and specifically for Manitou Springs.

2) Generate community involvement in Manitou Springs’ Climate Protection Campaign to
   reduce emissions and pollution that causes global warming.

Action Steps:
1) Develop Website
       a) Utilize the City’s existing website

        b) Include information on Manitou Climate and Air Quality Committee and Climate
           Action Plan

2) Sponsor an annual fall event
      a) Objective 1: community awareness
         o General environmental issues that affect global warming
         o Local resources to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions
      b) Objective 2: community involvement
         o Manitou Springs citizens’ role in climate protection campaign
         o Community forum to involve citizens in the climate action planning process
      c) Informational booths and displays
      d) Youth events
      e) Speakers

3) Provide Ongoing Education and Awareness
      a) Screen Al Gore’s ―Inconvenient Truth‖ at the High School
      b) Develop presentation to present to various groups
         o Churches
         o Rotary, American Legion
         o Youth groups

                          Measurement and Evaluation
In order to determine if Manitou has reached its 2010 goal, an emissions inventory will be
conducted beginning in 2011 for the year 2010 using the same Clean Air and Climate Protection
software provided as part of the city's membership in ICLEI. The city will need to budget staff
time or consulting fees for conducting the inventory at that time. Conducting the second and
subsequent inventories should prove much easier than the first as the baseline data, format,
and contact information are established.

The inventory of 2010 emissions will serve as a leading indicator for meeting the 2020 goal.
Inventories should be conducted for government and community energy use at a minimum of
every two years, and a comprehensive inventory (including waste, transportation, and employee
commute) should be conducted in 2015 to track progress and adjust plans and policies

Following adoption, the Climate Action Plan should remain a working, flexible plan, helping to
inform and guide implementation while adapting to changing circumstances and opportunities.
In this way, Manitou Springs will have the information, the plan, and the flexibility to achieve its
ambitious greenhouse gas reduction goals.


Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2007). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions
       and Sinks: 1990-2006. (accessed April 28,

United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Climate Change 2007: The
       Physical Science Basis. February 2007. (accessed
       April 28, 2008).

———. Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of
    Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on
    Climate Change. 2007. [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer
    (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY,
    USA. p. 15, Table SP M.5.
    spm.pdf (accessed April 20, 2008).

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (accessed Nov. 27, 2006).

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Climatic Data Center.
       Major Highlights. In: Climate of 2007 – in Historical Perspective: Annual Report. April 24,
       (accessed April 29,2008).


To top