Visualizing Changes in Skin Color Due to Continuous External Pressure by malj

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									                               Lab: Integumentary System

I. Visualizing Changes in Skin Color Due to Continuous External Pressure

1. Press the heel of your hand firmly against the plate for a few seconds and then
   observe and record the color of your skin in the compressed area by looking through
   the glass.
2. Color of compressed skin: _______________________________________________
3. What is the reason for this color change? ___________________________________
   _____________________________________________________________________
4. What would happen if the pressure was continued for an extended period of time?
   _____________________________________________________________________

II. Determining the Two-Point Threshold

The density of touch receptors varies significantly in different areas of the body. In
general, areas that have the greatest density of tactile receptors have a heightened ability
to “feel.” These areas correspond to areas that receive the greatest motor innervation;
thus they are also typically areas of fine motor control.

1. Test the ability of the subject to differentiate two distinct sensations when the skin is
   touched simultaneously at two points. Beginning with the face, start by placing two
   toothpicks completely together. Gradually increase the distance between the two
   toothpicks, testing the subject’s skin after each adjustment. Continue with this testing
   procedure until the subject reports that two points of contact can be felt. This
   measurement, the smallest distance at which two points of contact can be felt, is the
   two-point threshold.
2. Repeat this procedure on the back and palm of the hand, fingertips, lips, back of the
   neck, and ventral forearm. Record your results in the chart below.

                                              Two-point threshold
                        Body area tested
                                                (millimeters)
                        Face
                        Back of hand
                        Palm of hand
                        Fingertips
                        Lips
                        Back of neck
                        Ventral forearm

3. Which area has the smallest two-point threshold? _____________________________
III. Testing Tactile Localization

Tactile localization is the ability to determine which portion of the skin has been touched.
The tactile receptor field of the body periphery has a corresponding “touch” field in the
brain. Some body areas are well represented with touch receptors, and tactile stimuli can
be localized with great accuracy, but density of touch receptors in other body areas
allows only crude discrimination.

1. The subject’s eyes should be closed during the testing. The experimenter touches the
   palm of the subject’s hand with a pointed black felt-tipped marker. The subject
   should then try to touch the exact point with his or her own marker, which should be a
   different color. Measure the error of localization in millimeters.
2. Repeat the test in the same spot twice more, recording the error of localization for
   each test. Average the results of the three determinations and record it in the chart
   below.
3. Repeat the above procedure on a fingertip, the ventral forearm, the back of a hand,
   and the back of the neck.

                    Trial 1 error   Trial 2 error Trial 3 error          Average error
   Body area
                   of localization of localization of localization       of localization
     tested
                   (millimeters) (millimeters) (millimeters)             (millimeters)
 Palm of hand
 Fingertip
 Ventral
 forearm
 Back of hand
 Back of neck


4. Does the ability to localize the stimulus improve…
   The second time? _______________
   The third time? _________________
   Explain. _____________________________________________________________
   ____________________________________________________________________
5. Which area has the smallest error of localization (is most sensitive to touch)?
   _____________________________________________________________________
IV. Demonstration of Adaptation of Touch Receptors

In many cases, when a stimulus is applied for a prolonged period, the rate of receptor
response slows and conscious awareness of the stimulus declines or is lost until some
type of stimulus change occurs. This phenomenon is referred to as adaptation. The touch
receptors adapt particularly rapidly, which is highly desirable. Who, for instance, would
want to be continually aware of the pressure of clothing on their skin? The simple
experiment conducted next allows you to investigate the phenomenon of adaptation.

1. The subject’s eyes should be closed. Place a coin on the anterior surface of the
   subject’s forearm, and determine how long the sensation persists for the subject.

   Duration of the sensation: _______ sec

2. Repeat the test, placing the coin at a different forearm location.

   How long does the sensation persist at the second location? ________ sec

3. After awareness of the sensation ahs been lost at the second site, stack three more
   coins atop the first one.

   Does the pressure sensation return? ____________

   If so, for how long is the subject aware of the pressure in this instance? ________ sec

   Are the same receptors being stimulated when the four coins, rather than the one coin,
   are used? _________. Explain. __________________________________________
   _____________________________________________________________________
   _____________________________________________________________________

V. Short Answer Questions

Both newborn infants and aged individuals have very little subcutaneous tissue. How
does this affect their sensitivity to cold environmental temperature?




A 40-year-old beachboy is complaining to you that his suntan made him popular when he
was young, but now his face is all wrinkled, and he has several darkly pigmented moles
that are growing rapidly and are as big as large coins. He shows you the moles, and
immediately you think “ABCD.” What does that mean, and why should he be
concerned?
Is a bald man really hairless? Explain.




The epidermis is a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Explain why that
epithelium is much better suited for protecting the body’s external surface than one
consisting of a simple columnar epithelium.




After studying the skin in anatomy class, Toby grabbed the large “love handles” at his
waist and said, “I have too thick a hypodermis, but that’s OK because this layer performs
some valuable functions!” What are the functions of the hypodermis?

								
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