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Genga 1 Jade Genga Mrs. Izzo AP English 1 May 2009 The Ultimate Study Guide for AP English 4 Works o 1 Comedy o 1 Tragedy o 1 Novel o 1 Choice 15 Plot Events Character Summaries o 4 Characters need 1 paragraph o 4 characters need one line Setting Description o 2 Major Settings Symbols o At least 2 Motifs o At least 2 Themes o At least 3 Literary Criticism o 1 copied and annotated Genga 2 The Importance of Being Ernest Oscar Wilde Plot Summary Act One Jack tells Algernon that he wants to propose to Gwendolen and Algernon questions him whether it is ―business‖ or ―pleasure,‖ when either way he does not approve Algernon interrogates Jack, who he knows as Ernest, about his lighter addressed to ―Uncle Jack‖ and from ―Little Cecily,‖ and Jack confesses that his name is actually Jack, but he calls himself Ernest when in the city Algernon introduces ―Bunburyism‖: when Algernon needs to get away, he says he must visit his invalid friend Bunbury, and when Jack must escape, he leaves to visit his sick brother Ernest Gwendolen arrives with Lady Bracknell (Aunt Augusta to Algernon), and Algernon tells Lady Bracknell that he cannot dine with her because his friend Bunbury is very sick… again, and Lady Bracknell says that he should make up his mind whether to live or die When Lady Bracknell is pulled away by Algernon, Jack proposes to Gwendolen and she accepts after she has explained that she loves him because his name is Ernest, yet Lady Bracknell enters and proclaims that Jack must prove himself eligible for her hand in marriage Lady Bracknell interrogates Jack on whether or not he smokes, his age, his income, his land, and where his houses are, almost becoming dissatisfied with his townhouse placement, but then truly becoming appalled at the fact that he was found in a handbag in Victoria station and does not know his parents Jack and Algernon discuss how Jack does not plan to tell Gwendolen the truth yet, but plans to kill off his brother Ernest due to a severe chill, then Gwendolen enters and Jack gives her his country house address Algernon tells Lane to prepare his clothes because he plans to go Bunburying Act Two Cecily is being coaxed by Miss Prism to work on her German although she thinks it makes her sound and look ―plain‖ Cecily tells Miss Prism that she wishes Jack would bring Ernest to the country house Dr. Chasuble enters and Cecily says that Miss Prism should go with Dr. Chasuble because of her headache, which she does not actually have, and Dr. Chasuble replies that if he were her pupil he would ―hang upon her lips,‖ which he claims was inspired by the bees Algernon arrives as Ernest, Jack’s sick brother, and says that Cecily is the ―prettiest girl [he] ever saw‖ Dr. Chasuble and Miss Prism discuss marriage until Jack enters claiming that Ernest is dead, but Cecily tells him that Ernest is in the rose garden Jack is angry with Algernon who claims the death was a joke Genga 3 Algernon confesses his love for Cecily and proposes and Cecily claims that they are already engaged as she wrote in her diary, and that she loves him mostly for his name: Ernest Cecily meets Gwendolen and both say that they are in love with ―Ernest Worthing,‖ but when Jack and Algernon return, the girls realize they have been lied to and turn their backs on them Jack and Algernon fight over who can eat muffins releasing their stress over the situation but then agree that they must be Christened ―Ernest‖ Act Three The girls ignore Jack and Algernon until they say that they will be Christened and the girls take them back Enter Lady Bracknell, who Algernon tells of Bunbury’s death, disapproving of both marriages, then approving Algernon and Cecily when learning that Cecily comes from money Jack says that he will consent to Cecily’s marriage if he is allowed to marry Gwendolen Miss Prism explains how she left a child given to her by Lady Bracknell in a handbag in Victoria station, and Lady Bracknell explains that the child is actually her sister’s child, which is Jack After searching through military records of his actual father, Jack uncovers his true name: Ernest Character Summaries Jack (Ernest) Worthing Jack Worthing is one of the protagonists of The Importance of Being Ernest, who was found in a handbag as an infant, but continued to grow into a very wealthy and reputable man and also became the guardian to Cecily. He is initially selfish in creating his sick brother Ernest to escape from his life, yet by the closing he manages to love Gwendolen and is even willing to change his name for her. Throughout the play he is a plentiful source of verbal, dramatic, and situational irony. Wilde also uses Jack’s exaggerated interactions with other characters to exploit the absurdity of society’s expectations and morals. Algernon Moncreif Another main character of the play, Algernon Moncrief is a close friend of Jack Worthing, elder cousin to Gwendolen, and the love of Cecily. He creates an imaginary, invalid friend by the name of Bunbury, whom he ―visits‖ when he wants to escape from reality. He also refers to Jack’s creating of Ernest as ―Bunburying.‖ While fairly cynical, he is the more suave and witty of the two protagonists. Algernon is also willing to admit his own faults amidst attempting to expose flaws of others, unlike Jack, who refuses to admit that his lies are wrong in any way. Wilde uses Algernon in contrast to critical Jack to show the impulsive face of society: those who act on a moment rather than a lifetime. Cecily Cardew Genga 4 Cecily Cardew, the young woman in love with Algernon, lives in the country house with Miss Prism, Dr. Chasuble, and Jack, her guardian. Though she is innocent and naïve, Cecily is quite fond of crossing the line. Whether she is falling for ―Ernest‖ or attempting to send Miss Prism off with Dr. Chasuble, she is always intrigued by a little taste of fun. Her wild imagination also makes quite an impression when Algernon proposes to her, and she claims they have been engaged for three months. She tells him all about their engagement stories and the letters she’s written from him and to him. Miss Cardew is used as a figure representing the dreaming teens of society that love to rebel a bit with their high-flying optimism. Gwendolen Fairfax Gwendolen, the love of Mr. Jack Worthing, is the epitome of a typical, judgmental citizen. Although she prides herself on her ―constant improvements,‖ she is a very shallow and hypocritical person. She falls in love with Jack mostly because she loves the name Ernest. She tends to create ideals for herself, such the perfect husband with the perfect name, who she believes she has found, yet she leaves him after she finds out the truth about his name. Then she returns to him because more important is his ―style not sincerity.‖ Lady Bracknell Lady Bracknell is Gwendolen’s mother as well as Algernon’s Aunt Augusta. She is the largest source of comedy due to her absurdly corrupt and outspoken societal views. Dr. Chasuble Dr. Chasuble, the reverend at Jack’s country house, is a very quiet and romantic older man. His flirtiness with Miss Prism add a great bit of awkward romantic comedy throughout the play. Miss Prism Miss Prism is Cecily’s governess at Jack’s country house. Her relationship with Dr. Chasuble, as stated previously, is a sparatic source of humor throughout the play. She was also the person who left Jack in a handbag as a child. Lane Lane is Algernon’s servant. At the beginning of the play, Lane is the only person who knows about Algernon’s case of ―Bunburyism.‖ Settings Algernon’s City House Act One takes place in Algernon’s home in London. When in London, Algernon finds out about Jack’s imaginary brother ―Ernest,‖ and Jack is told about Algernon’s imaginary invalid friend ―Bunbury.‖ Lady Bracknell, Gwendolen, and Algernon also Genga 5 become aware of Jack’s handbag origins. Whenever the characters are in the city, they tend to expose more answered questions and unsolved problems. Jack’s Country House Acts Two and Three are set at Jack’s country estate in Hertfordshire, where both Act Two and Act Three are full of deceit and discovery. This is where Gwendolen and Cecily first meet and where the girls finally find out the truth about their lying fiancées. This is also where Lady Bracknell and Miss Prism unveil Jack’s true origins and Christened name. Symbols Foods – symbolic of the unnecessary, pointless, and petty conflicts that occur in a ―higher society‖ Diaries – the idealism and ignorance to reality Motifs Living a double life, verbal irony, hypocrisy Themes Comedy vs. Tragedy: Comedy exposes the absurdity of society’s ignorance to reality more effectively than tragedy due to its satirical humor. Title: Being truly earnest is not important, as long as one knows that he should be earnest. Cynicism: While it may be easier to focus on the negative aspects of life, it is more important to focus on the negative aspects in positive light so that change can occur. Genga 6 Othello William Shakespeare Plot Summary Act One Iago convinces Roderigo that Othello should be hated because he did not place Iago as his lieutenant and he stole Desdemona from Roderigo Iago tells Roderigo to go to Brabantio’s house and rat out Othello and Desdemona; and so they do just that; Iago tells Brabantio that he’s been robbed Iago tells Othello that Roderigo hates him, Cassio comes to tell Othello that people are looking for him, then Brabantio comes and seizes him, even though the Duke’s guard are sent for him Othello is brought to the Duke anyway and is told that he is needed in Cyprus to lead the forces against the Ottoman enemy, but Brabantio continues to rant about how his daughter could never love Othello unless he performed witchcraft The duke sends for Desdemona, who confesses her love for Othello, so Brabantio believes her but warns Othello that she betrayed her father and can betray her husband yet Iago tells Roderigo not to kill himself over Desdemona, because he does not love her, and lust is nothing to commit suicide for Act Two Turkish ships are caught in a storm, and Othello hasn’t made it to Cyprus yet, Iago, Desdemona, Roderigo, and Emilia arrive; meanwhile Iago is skeptically scrutinizing Emilia for being promiscuous, until Othello finally arrives Iago convinces Roderigo to assist him in getting Cassio drunk and angry so that Desdemona will see the ruthlessness of some men At a welcome Othello party/marriage reception, Iago gets Cassio drunk, convinces Montano that he can’t be trusted because he drinks too much alcohol, creates a quarrel between Roderigo and Cassio, and then finishes with a brawl between Montano and Cassio Othello arrives hearing the alarm, Iago tells Othello what has happened, and Othello fires Cassio from his position; while Cassio is upset, Iago tells him to go get on Desdemona’s good side so that he can find his way back to leuitenant Act Three Cassio enters and speaks with a Clown and Musicians about the ―wind instruments‖ and the infection of the nose (syphilis); Cassio sends the Clown to get Emilia, then sends Emilia to get Desdemona, then Iago says he’ll get Desdemona out and Othello out of the way Desdemona assures Cassio that she will get Othello to accept him again, then Iago and Othello return so Cassio steals away without a word; Othello becomes suspicious and Iago ignites the flame with reverse psychology Desdemona comes to plead Cassio’s case, heightening Othello’s suspicion, and offers him her handkerchief, but he denies it, so she drops it Emilia finds the handkerchief and runs it to Iago, who plans on planting it in Cassio’s chamber Genga 7 Othello is convinced because of the handkerchief and Cassio’s alleged ―dreams‖ that Cassio and Desdemona are having an affair and he declares his plan for vengeance with Iago right beside him Othello demands the handkerchief of Desdemona, but she says repeatedly that it ―is not with [her],‖ changing the subject several times, and Othello yells at her Act Four When Iago begins to confuse Othello about whether Cassio will ―lie with her,‖ ―lie on her,‖ or ―belie her,‖ he goes into an epileptic fit; when he returns to normal, Iago tells Othello to listen to the conversation he is about to have with Cassio Cassio and Iago talk about Bianca, Cassio’s wife, and Cassio’s feelings towards her, but Othello mistakes the object of the conversation for Desdemona; Bianca then enters and yells about his having another woman’s handkerchief and then they both exit Othello plans to murder Desdemona, he sends Emilia to get her, and leaves after immense confusion on why she’s ―lying‖ to him; then Iago talks to Desdemona and says that everything will be fine; then Roderigo stands up for himself, then Iago convinces him to kill Cassio Act Five Roderigo tries to kill Cassio, and Iago acts like he has no idea what has happened and so he kills Roderigo, but Emilia blames Bianca for the ―adultery‖ situation Desdemona repeatedly says that she is innocent, but Othelo smothers her to death; her last words are telling Emilia that it was not Othello Emilia figures out what has happened, tells Othello about everything, and Iago kills her Othello kills himself, and Iago is left to be sentenced by Cassio Character Summaries Othello Othello is the protagonist of this play who is actually manipulated by the antagonist, Iago. Othello (referred to occasionally as ―the Moor‖) is a very trusting, highly-respected figure who is deeply in love with the beautiful Desdemona. However, Iago, whom he trusts with everything, manipulates him into believing that his wife and best friend are having an affair, which leads to his ultimate downfall. Because of his trusting nature and passion for justice, he is able to be molded into whatever Iago wants him to be. Iago Iago is the tactful antagonist of the play. Iago successfully manipulates every character. Shakespeare follows Iago’s thought process through his soliloquies, which only Iago has. Iago displays his observation and manipulation skills as he searches for every character’s weakness, so that he can use it against him. Every bit of Iago is evil, and yet he is married to the strongest character in the play, Emilia. Desdemona Genga 8 Desdemona is Othello’s beautiful and peace-loving wife as well as the daughter of Brabantio. While she is very compassionate and occasionally naive, she is also very determined. When she wanted to marry Othello, she did. When she wanted to help Cassio, she did not give up. When she had her last dying breath, she used it to free Othello from the judgmental eyes of observers. She also puts great faith in Othello, even until the moment he kills her. Emilia Emilia is Iago’s wife and Desdemona’s attendant. Throughout the play, Emilia has a consistently strong personality and very realistic outlook on life. When in conversation with the optimistic Desdemona, Emilia dominates with her arguments, even though she is merely an attendant. And being married to Iago, she too is manipulated for the purpose of Iago’s evil plans. She is the reason Iago had the handkerchief, but she also exposes the truth at the end of the play. Brabantio Brabantio is Desdemona’s father and a senator from Venice. Brabantio is the character who warns Othello that Desdemona may betray him, initiating his suspicion. Cassio Cassio is Othello’s first lieutenant. Othello accuses Cassio of having an affair with Desdemona, due to Iago’s manipulation. Bianca Bianca is Cassio’s wife. She is present when Cassio asks her to make a replica of the handkerchief and when she yells at Cassio in front of Othello for having another woman’s handkerchief. Roderigo Roderigo is the most severely manipulated character in the play. Throughout the play Iago controls Roderigo. He’s convinced to cause a fight with Cassio and to even kill Cassio. Settings Venice The play opens in Venice, Desdemona’s home, where Brabantio finds out about his daughter’s secret wedding and warns Othello against her possible betrayal. This is a very important location for the introduction of Iago’s manipulation of everyone around him. Most characters are sent to Cyprus early on, however, so the Venice setting was short lived. Cyprus The majority of the play takes place in Cyprus. Othello is sent here to fight the Ottoman forces and the rest of the play occurs here starting with the celebration of a victory and a wedding. Genga 9 Symbols Handkerchief – symbolizes the empty faith between Othello and Desdemona as well as Othello’s and Emilia’s empty faith in Iago The Willow Song – represents the betrayal of Othello for reasons based on false facts ―The poor soul sat sighing by a sycamore tree, Sing all a green willow. Her hand on her bosom, her head on her knee, Sing willow, willow, willow. The fresh streams ran by her, and murmured her moans, Sing willow, willow, willow. Her salt tears fell from her, and softened the stones Sing willow, willow, willow— Lay by these Willow, willow— Prithee, hie thee, he'll come anon— Sing all a green willow must be my garland. Let nobody blame him, his scorn I approve— … I told my lover he didn't love me, but what did he say? Sing willow, willow, willow.‖ Motifs Trusting the deceitful Animalistic sexual references Themes Evil: Evil is rooted in the trust of accepting people in those who deceive. Trust: Those in whom you trust reflect your own personality and insecurities. Women’s Role: While men seem to have control over themselves, women are the driving force behind most of their actions and decisions. Genga 10 The Crucible Arthur Miller Plot Summary Tituba and the girls go dancing in the forest and are caught by Rev. Parris, and Betty is left in a coma-like state Rev. Parris attempts to get the story from Abigail, but she tells him they did nothing but dance; when he leaves, Abigail convinces all the girls to not confess Proctor arrives and Abigail talks about how she still wants him to be hers, even though his wife fired her for that reason Betty has a fit and tries to fly out the window to her dead mother, which draws attention to Corey and Putnam who argue over the land between their farms When Hale arrives to examine the ―witchcraft,‖ he questions the girls about what happened, he asks Tituba and she admits to communicating with the Devil setting the girls on a rant of people that they saw with the devil Proctor and Elizabeth talk about how Proctor should accuse Abigail of false accusations so that she doesn’t accuse Elizabeth falsely Mary Warren returns and tells of Abigail’s accusation of Elizabeth that was pushed aside, but leaves a doll with her Hale arrives and arrests Elizabeth because of the ―voodoo‖ doll, which they think she used to harm Abigail; they have also taken Goody Good and Goody Nurse Proctor beats Mary and demands that she denounce Abigail Proctor goes with Mary to court where she confesses that the girls are lying, until they turn against her and she joins them once again Proctor then attempts to turn them in by exposing himself as an adulterer, but Elizabeth unknowingly tells the court he is not Abigail runs away, Proctor is arrested, Elizabeth is arrested until she is to be hung after the birth of her child Abigail returns to tell John to escape with her, but he says he will not; he loves his wife Proctor says he will confess, until Rev. Parris says that his confession will remain in a public area, so he refuses to sign the horrible confession Because they will not confess, Goody Nurse, Goody Good, and John Proctor are hung Character Summaries Abigail Williams Abigail, one of the main characters of this play, is a scheming young woman who has an affair with John Proctor that she refuses to let go. At the beginning of the play she leads the girls who were caught conjuring spirits into lying to the community about their innocence and then leads them in a witch-hunt. Her lust for Proctor even leads her to falsely accusing Elizabeth Proctor of witchcraft so that she will be out of the picture, then Abigail could have Proctor to herself. Proctor refuses however. Abigail is the ringleader of all the conflicts that occur in the play. Genga 11 John Proctor John Proctor, a nonconformist and a hard working citizen, is the protagonist of this play who tries to turn the community to the truth of Abigail’s deceit. He constantly carries his guilt about having an affair with Abigail wherever he goes, because it twists his life and ultimately causes his death. Proctor is constantly dealing with internal conflict about whether or not to act for himself or act for his wife, his friends, and the community. Finally he acts for his own reputation in not signing a confession, leaving behind his family, and yet leaving the community in shock at his voluntary death. Elizabeth Proctor Elizabeth Proctor is the wife of John Proctor. Elizabeth is a strong, level-headed woman who is tragically bland. She loves John, but just lacks any passion in her life. Whether it be her cooking, her laundry, her clothing, or her relationship, she is just plain boring. This is John’s excuse for his affair with Abigail, which Elizabeth still suspects is occurring. Elizabeth is always trying to do the right thing and is unwavering in her opinions and morals. Reverend Hale Reverend Hale enters the scene attempting to weed out witchcraft and save those souls who have seen the Devil. Originally he tries to explain the science to finding the Devil, and yet as the story continues he realizes the corruption throughout the community. Once he sees that the girls are accusing innocent community members that they simply do not like, Reverend Hale tries to convince Judge Hawthorne and Reverend Parris of the deceit that is blinding them, but does not succeed. The most dynamic character, Reverend Hale starts out increasing the conflict exponentially, but after realizing his horrific mistakes he tries, without success, to save the community from itself. Tituba Tituba is a Barbados slave in the Parris family that initiates the spirit conjuring of the girls in the community. Mary Warren Mary Warren takes Abigail’s job as the Proctors’ servant. She is also an easily influenced piece of the group that condemns so many innocent women of the community. Reverend Parris Reverend Parris is the new reverend of the community who is highly criticized for his greedy demands for a new house and a higher salary. His daughter is also the first one to be effected by the ―witchcraft.‖ Betty Parris Betty is the youngest girl involved in the witch-hunt as well as the first one to be put in a coma-like state by the conjuring of spirits at the beginning of the play. Her dramatic reactions in attempting to fly after her dead mother initiate the suspicion of witchery. Genga 12 Settings Parris’s Home Parris’s home is where Betty first has her fits and where Hale first arrives and announces that the Devil is present. Throughout the play the Parris home is one of lies and selfishness. Here Parris asks for a higher salary and a bigger home while his daughter, Betty, is allegedly possessed. Tituba also confesses falsely to seeing the Devil with other people in the community in order to save herself from being whipped. Abigail first tells the girls’ alibi here and then soon thereafter furnishes more lies about seeing other people with the Devil. The Proctor Home John Proctor’s house is very much a place of discomfort and a bland lifestyle. Whenever conversation occurs in Proctor’s house, it is full of tension. John and Elizabeth have a fight about whether or not John should denounce Abigail as a liar, John and Elizabeth are stuck in an awkward situation with Reverend Hale in trying to remember the Ten Commandments, and Proctor scolds Mary Warren and forces her to come to court with him the next day to confess to her lies. Throughout the play, the Proctor household is a location of high tension. Symbols Doll – symbolizes the manipulation and control of the girls over the community Night – represents the haze through which the community sees the witch-hunt Golden Candlesticks – the greed and corruption of materialistic Parris and the Church Motifs The Devil The Ten Commandments Themes Selfish vs. Selfless: When a person is given a choice between selflessness and selfishness, the surrender to selfishness will lead to a test of his or her loyalty to the greater good. Freedom: Any person can choose his or her personal freedom, yet it will always entail sacrifice. Integrity: When under high pressure one must hold true to religious faith or personal faith in order to preserve his or her integrity. Genga 13 Things Fall Apart Chinua Achebe Plot Summary Okonkwo, son of the poor and lazy Unoka, builds himself to be the exact opposite of his father so that he can succeed, however Okonkwo’s son Nwoye is very talented and creative, but Okonkwo sees him as weak and tries to prevent him from becoming like Unoka After a fight with another tribe, a boy named Ikemefuna and a young woman are awarded to Umuofia and Okonkwo takes them in; Okonkwo loves having Ikemefuna due to his masculinity, but refuses to show any emotion which may make him like his father; Okonkwo also becomes very fond of his daughter Ezinma, who is surprisingly level headed and more masculine than Nwoye During the yearly ―Week of Peace‖ Okonkwo beats his wife and ruins the peace, but still locusts come and the village is ecstatic about the new food source After an oracle from the elders of the tribe depicting the necessary murder of Ikemefuna is relayed to Okonkwo, he is devastated; Okonkwo goes to Ogbuefi Ezeudu for advice and he tells him not to take part in this murder Okonkwo eventually is forced to go to the murder of Ikemefuna; he tells Ikemefuna that he is returning to his home but when deep enough in the forest, the men slay the young boy For many months Okonkwo refuses to acknowledge food or drink or happiness and turns to Ezinma for good spirit; he also focuses on the impending danger of the white people and their guns and culture; Ezinma grows very ill, however, so Okonkwo gets everything she needs for a medicine that saves her When Ogbuefi Ezeudu passes away, the egwugwu are masked and conduct a ceremony for their oldest village member and Okonkwo’s gun misfires, killing Ogbuefi Ezeudu’s son; because Okonkwo committed such a horrific offense against the goddess Agbala, even accidentally, he is banished with his family from the village When Okonkwo leaves Umuofia for Mbanta, his uncle Uchendu helps him establish a new hut and gives him some yams to begin anew; for a year Okonkwo focuses on establishing a yam crop and is fairly successful Soon people purchase his yams with cowries and he becomes extremely wealthy and respected throughout Mbanta Okonkwo learns that several villages have been destroyed by the white people, and soon they are in Mbanta, led by Mr. Brown, telling the people that their Gods are not real and that there can only be one God, yet he confuses everyone with the idea of the ―Holy Trinity;‖ the egwugwu become enraged Although Mr. Brown pushes Christianity on the village, he respects their culture and Okonkwo has a silent respect for him; his death brings in the repulsive, ignorant, and harsh John Smith to run the missionary group Several members of the villiage begin a radical movement to destroy the polytheistic religion and during a religious ceremony Enoch removes the attire of Genga 14 one the egwugwu to reveal one of the elders; this rash action results in the burning of Enoch’s house and the church of Smith’s that he supports The leaders of the villages and the elders are all gathered to supposedly meet for negotiation, but everyone brings guns and this tense standoff ends in a verbal and physical torture of the leaders Five men visit Mbanta from the court and when Okonkwo learns of this disrespect he attacks them and kills one in front of the village, and yet no one supports him Okonkwo hangs himself after the realization of the hopelessness his community faces and is seen by the community as a disgrace Character Summaries Okonkwo Okonkwo is the protagonist of the play who consistently acts on what he believes is just in his society. Throughout the play his actions are based on his drive to be the perfect opposite of his disgraceful father. While this led him to be a highly respected member of Umuofia, it also led to the murder of Ikemefuna, his disruption of the white cultural impact, and his own suicide. Ikemefuna Ikemefuna was the boy that Okonkwo inherited from a village that Umuofia negotiated with. Ikemefuna came to call Okonkwo father, and he loved Okonkwo like a father. Okonkwo loved Ikemefuna as well, but could not express it. Ikemefuna was very much an older brother to Nwoye, who idolized him. Sadly, after being told that he was going home to his mother, Ikemefuna is brutally murdered by the one man he considers his father, Okonkwo. Ezinma Ezinma is Okonkwo’s strong yet ill daughter. Ezinma is a source of relief and realism for Okonkwo. Often he wishes that she were a son that he could show off more. Okonkwo is secretly more proud of Ezinma than his son Nwoye. The only time that Okonkwo is compassionate is when he is with Ezinma, and especially when she becomes ill and he springs into action. Mr. Brown Mr. Brown is a missionary who leads a movement to convert African tribes to Christianity. Although he is there on a mission trip, he still manages to respect the views and culture of the people, which gains the respect of the village in turn. Through Mr. Brown, Okonkwo sees the impending danger that will destroy his home if his clansmen do not take a stand. Mr. Smith Mr. Smith is the reverend who takes control of the missionary movement when Mr. Brown passes away. Mr. Smith is a harsh man who uses force to get the African people to convert to Christianity. Genga 15 Obierika Obierika is a close friend of Okonkwo’s who helped him through his troubles after the murder of Ikemefuna. Nwoye Nwoye is Okonkwo’s biological son whom Okonkwo is fairly disappointed in. Nwoye is far more creative and optimistic than masculine and realistic. Unoka Unoka is Okonkwo’s lazy, failed, unmotivated father. Unoka is the reason Okonkwo is so focused on success and being just. Settings Umuofia The village where Okonkwo lives and grew up is named Umuofia. Umuofia is a village among several interdependent villages. This is where Okonkwo makes his living and also where he destroys it. Here he builds his family, and his wealth, and his relationship with Ikemefuna, but sadly this is also where his good friend passes away, he kills Ikemefuna for an oracle, and he accidentally kills his friend’s child. Mbanta Mbanta was the village where Okonkwo’s mother was from originally and where his uncle lives. When Okonkwo is banished from Umuofia, he relocates to this village. In this village Okonkwo rebuilds his estate and family, but he also discovers the realities of suppression and fear. Symbols Church – symbolizes the influence of the white man on African culture Yams – symbolic of the connection between nature and society; natural order Egwugwu – represent the false faith of a society in their religious stability Motifs Death Racial Separation Themes Personality: When a parent is looked down upon in society, his child will resent him, causing a loose basis for a personality. Balance: Balance between culture and justice needs to be maintained and anything that disrupts it has the potential to bring about a society's downfall. Power of Women: Even in a culture dominated by men, women have power in Genga 16 balancing the personalities of men to create stability.
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