Document Sample



                                   For CCD Camera P-24

1.    Number of sensor chips in photosensitive camera                   1

2.    Type of sensor chip                                               P-24 array

3.    Number of photosensitive elements                                 760 w 290 h

4.    Size of pixel, microns                                            17  34

5.    Size of photosensitive area, mm                                   12.9  9.7

6.    Range of spectral sensitivity (with Q.E. > 0.1), nm               350 - 1100

7.    Integral sensitivity, typical value, mV/lux                       60

8.    Relative jitter in the light signal characteristic                3

9.    Dynamic range of analog-to-digital converter                      1  16384

10.   Variation of dark signal over temperature range of operation,  4
      counts of ADC
11.   Overillumination factor for which no charge leakage is visible < 5
      in adjacent pixel of chip
12.   Operating range in temperature, 0C                                15 – 30

13.   Relative humidity, %                                               80

14.   Atmospheric pressure, torr                                        630 – 800

15.   Size of camera, mm                                                106  106

16.   Temperature differential due to single stage Peltier cooler, 0C   30 – 40


       The program CCD Kant enables the user to control the operating mode of CCD
cameras containing two-dimensional sensor arrays, to visualize the recorded images and
create files generated from them, and to export the data. CCD Kant is written in Borland
C++ v4.5 utilizing the OWL 2.0 Library; it is compatible with MS WINDOWS 95, 98.
Double-click the file name MATR.EXE to open the program.
       The program consists of one main window and four daughter windows. The main
window, shown below in Figure 1, appears on the screen immediately after launching the

                                           Figure 1

       On startup, the program checks for the presence of the controller board in the
computer and whether the CCD camera is plugged into it. If the camera head is not
connected, the launch of the program may be delayed by 3 - 5 seconds, and the commands
for recording of images will not be active. The main window contains pulldown menus
with the titles File, Tool, Options, View, Window, Help and two tool bars (top
horizontal and left vertical) with control buttons distributed along them. Immediately
after launch, the majority of the control buttons on the tool bars are inactive and are
shaded grey. At the bottom of the window is located a bar for the display of current
       Six daughter windows provide information about the images; they are opened
with the buttons on the tools bars or commands in the pulldown menus. Two windows
entitled Row and Column provide graphical display of the intensity in one row or
column. In the window entitled 2D, the intensity distribution in digitizer counts from the
CCD is displayed as a dot matrix, with the signal brightness for an individual pixel
represented in grey scale shading ranging from black (0 counts) to white (4096 counts).
This window contains a marker formed by the crossing of yellow horizontal and vertical
lines. These crosshairs select the row and column for the corresponding windows Row
and Column. If the mouse cursor is moved onto the image in the window 2D and two
clicks are made on the left button of the mouse, the crosshairs jump to that position and
the windows Row and Column will be redrawn. The pixels of the CCD camera are not
square. The program is written so that the appearance of the sensor array on the screen in
the window 2D preserves the aspect ratio of the array. In the window 3D information is
displayed on the screen in the form of a three-dimensional surface. A screen containing
four open windows is shown in Figure 2.

                                              Figure 2

        Listed below are the names of the control buttons on the tool bars and a brief
description of their functions.

        Top horizontal bar, from left to right:

1.      DECREASE ROW OR COLUMN NUMBER --- This button decreases the row
     or column number by several units when the respective daughter window, Row or
     Columni, is active. This function may be performed from the keyboard with the
     combination Ctrl+ . The numerical values for the selected row and column are
     shown in the message bar at the bottom of the window.

2.       DECREASE ROW OR COLUMN NUMBER --- decreases the row or column
     number by a single unit when the respective daughter window, Row or Columni, is
     active. The keyboard shortcut for this function is .

3.       INCREASE ROW OR COLUMN NUMBER --- increases the row or column
     number by a single unit when the respective daughter window, Row or Columni, is
     active. The keyboard shortcut for this function is .

4.      INCREASE THE ROW OR COLUMN NUMBER --- increases the row or
     column number by several units when the respective daughter window, Row or
     Columni, is active. The keyboard shortcut for this function is Ctrl+ .

     sequence of frames and writes their images to the computer‟s RAM memory.
     Instructions for setting the number of frames and the operating mode of the camera
     are given below. This function is inactive if no camera head is connected. Its
     keyboard shortcut is Space.

6.        CONTINUOUS RECORDING IN 2D MODE --- continuous recording and
     display of their images in the open daughter windows. This function is inactive if no
     camera head is present. Its keyboard shortcut is F9.

7.       STOP RECORDING --- stops recording. Its keyboard shortcut is F10.

     data, for a sequence of frames, with the intensity summed over the height of each
     stripe defined by software. Detailed instructions for setting the number of frames and
     the operating mode of the camera are given below. This function is inactive if no
     camera head is connected. Its keyboard shortcut is ALT+ Space.

9.       CONTINUOUS RECORDING IN LINE MODE --- continuous recording and
     display of the data in the open daughter windows. This function is inactive if no
     camera head is present. Its keyboard shortcut ALT+ F9.

10.        ZOOM IN --- increase the scale of the image. In Line Mode it is not necessary
      to select this button with the mouse. You simply place the mouse cursor in the
      graphical display field of the active window and drag the mouse while holding its
      right key depressed. A dashed rectangle will appear in the plot window. When you
      release the right button of the mouse, the window will be redrawn with the enlarged
      scale. To activate another window click on an empty spot in it with the left button of

      the mouse. In 2D Mode use the mouse to select the Zoom In button           on the tool
      bar. This causes the mouse cursor to change its shape. Place the cursor on the image
      in the window 2D and press the left mouse key. The image in the window expands,
      with the point where you placed the mouse cursor becoming the center of the redrawn

11.        ZOOM OUT --- decreases the scale of the image. If the Line Mode windows
      Row and Column are active, this button restores the previous scale of the graphical
      display. For use on a two-dimensional image, first activate the window 2D if it is not

      already active. Then select the Zoom Out       button on the tool bar with the mouse.
      The mouse cursor will change its shape. Place it on the image in the window 2D and
      press the left key of the mouse. The image in the window shrinks, with the point
      where you placed the mouse cursor becoming the center of the redrawn window.

      When the window 2D is active, you may define a stripe composed of rows in the
      array and add it to the existing list.

13.         DISPLAY OF THE NEXT FRAME --- increases by one the frame number
      displayed in the daughter window.

14.         DISPLAY OF THE PREVIOUS FRAME --- decreases by one the frame
      number displayed in the daughter window.

15.        OPEN OR CLOSE THE WINDOW ‘ROW’ --- pressing this button opens the
      window Row. If the button is pressed a second time, the window closes and the

      white-highlighted button turns grey. The next five buttons on the tool bar open and
      close the windows Column, 2D, 3D, Line, and Time in the same manner.

16.        OPEN OR CLOSE THE WINDOW ‘COLUMN’ --- This button opens the
      window Column.

17.         OPEN OR CLOSES THE IMAGE WINDOW ‘2D’ --- This button opens the
      window 2D.

18.         OPEN OR CLOSES THE IMAGE WINDOW ‘3D’ --- This button opens
      the window 3D.

19.        OPEN OR CLOSE THE WINDOW ‘LINE’ --- This botton opens the Line
      Mode window Line. The spectral segment(s) for the selected stripe(s) is (are)
      displayed in this window.

20.        OPEN OR CLOSE THE WINDOW „TIME’ --- This button opens the Line
      Mode window Time. It displays a time history of the spectral range highlighted in
      the window Line.

21.        EXIT THE PROGRAM --- quits the program.

         Left tool bar, from top to bottom:

22.        CLOCKWISE ROTATE ‘3D’ IMAGE --- rotates the image clockwise in 900
      steps about the z-axis.

23.         COUNTERCLOCKWISE ROTATE ‘3D’ IMAGE --- rotates the image
      counterclockwise in 900 steps about the z-axis.

24.        FLIP LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES OF THE DISPLAY --- reflect image left
      /right in 2D daughter windows Row and Column and Line Mode window Line and
      its daughter window Time.

25.        FLIP TOP AND BOTTOM HALVES OF THE DISPLAY --- reflect the
      image in the window 2D about a horizontal axis.

      open windows. This function and all remaining ones are standard window handling
      features of Microsoft WINDOWS operating system.




         The CCD camera has two modes of operation: 2D Mode and Line Mode. In the
first mode, the CCD camera works like a rectangular array of light sensitive pixels. Two-
dimensional images acquired in this mode are displayed only in the windows 3D, 2D,
Row, and Column. The second mode of camera operation, Line Mode, acquires data
for up to ten spectral segments by columnwise summing in hardware the intensity in each
stripe defined in software. These spectral segments are displayed head-to-tail, as if they
were all recorded on a single linear CCD. For graphical display of the data acquired in
Line Mode one must open the window Line or Time (see Figure 3).

         For 2D Mode use the button        (to the left of     ) to acquire a sequence of

frames. Press the next button      to record continuously, with constant updating of the
display with the last frame recorded in RAM. Alternatively, one may use the pulldown
menu command Tool/Frame set ... or keyboard shortcut Space to acquire a sequence
of frames; and the menu command Tool/NonStop or the shortcut F9 to initiate

continuous recording. In Line Mode use the buttons           and   (to the right of   ) to
perform the same functions as above. The corresponding pulldown menu commands are
Tool/Frame set in line mode... and Tool/Nonstop in line mode; the corresponding
keyboard shortcuts are Alt+Space and Alt+ F9, respectively.

                                             Figure 3

       For operation in Line Mode the user must define stripes comprised of contiguous
rows of the CCD array. One to ten such stripes may be created within the vertical extent
of the array. In Line Mode every stripe operates like a single linear CCD of length equal
to that of a row in the CCD array. The charge packets from all rows in a stripe are
summed columnwise in hardware before amplification in the output register of the CCD
array. During readout, the spaces between stripes are skipped.
       The program includes the capability to add a stripe, to edit the row numbers
delimiting each stripe, and to delete a stripe. To create a stripe open the window 2D or, if

already present, activate the window by clicking in it. Click on the button         located in
the top tool bar (or use the menu command Option/Add one stripe). With the left button
depressed, moving the mouse in the window 2D will create a green stripe. Its height is
frozen when the button is released, and its color changes to blue (see Figure 4).

                                            Figure 4
Simultaneously, the dialog window Stripes (Figure 5) appears on the screen. Clicking the
button OK in this window adds the new stripe to the existing list. Alternatively, the list
may be left unchanged by pressing the button Cancel.

                                            Figure 5

       To edit an existing stripe, specify its number with the slider titled Stripe number.
Change its boundaries by typing in the windows Upper bound and Lower bound, or
delete the stripe by clicking the button Delete. A second dialog window will appear
asking you to confirm your request (see Figure 6). The dialog window Stripes may also
be opened by pressing the key F6 or selecting the menu command Options/Stripes.

                                              Figure 6

       Stripes may not overlap. The following requirements must be satisfied:
   A row of the CCD array may be included in only one stripe. In other words, stripes
    do not touch or overlap
   At least three or more rows must be left between neighboring stripes.
   The first two and the last two rows of the array may not be included in a stripe.

       Stripes are automatically ordered from bottom to top of the array in the process of
their definition. The first stripe will always be the bottommost.
       Let‟s turn our attention to the window Line. Information for all the stripes defined
in the window 2D are displayed as a linear plot of intensity versus pixel number. The
intensity shown on the Y-axis is the column summing all the pixels within the height of
the stripe. Distributed along the X-axis are the successive stripes, with the bottom stripe
placed first. Each stripe is allocated as many points along the X-axis as there are light-
sensitive pixels in a CCD row. Therefore, the maximum number of points along the X-
axis depends on the numbers of stripes defined in the configuration setup. For a array

with a row length of 760 pixels and which is subdivided into ten stripes, the total number
of points on the X axis in the window Line is 7,600. These stripes are ordered right to left
and bottom to top relative to their arrangement in the window 2D. To display a spectral

time history, highlight a range of pixels in the window Line by pressing the button
and then dragging the mouse with the left button depressed. When the mouse button is
released the window Time appears. The intensity under that portion of the curve
highlighted in the previous window will be plotted along the Y-axis versus the frame
number along the X-axis.
       The choice of recording mode must be established separately for the two different
operating modes of the camera. To operate the CCD camera in 2D Mode select the menu
command Options/Mode or use the keyboard shortcut F5. To operate the CCD in Line
Mode, select the menu command Options/Line Mode or the keyboard shortcut Alt+ F5.
In both cases a dialog panel appears on the screen (see Figure 7).
       In the first blank of this window, First frame delay, enter the intital time delay
between synchronization trigger and recording of the first frame in a sequence of frames.
In the second blank, Accumulation, enter the integration (exposure) time. In the third
blank, Delay between the frames, enter the time delay between successive frame in a
sequence. The number of frames, which is incremented by pressing the Space bar, may
be edited in the blank Count of frames. A choice of synchronization methods is listed
in the panel under the header Synchronization.
Due to the asynchronous operation of the PC and camera control board, the initial time
delay and the minimum delay between successive exposures are not software
controllable.   The minimum time between exposures in Line Mode in (ms) is
determined by the formula

                       Tmin  3.486  (n  2)  0.39

where n is the number of stripes defined in the window 2D.

       The Synchronization mode PC, the first of three synchronization modes listed in
the Mode menu, is used for recording of spectral sources which are continuous in time or
repetitive in nature (see Figure 7).
       The settable parameters in this mode consist of the number of spectra (frames) to
be recorded following a single trigger from the computer keyboard,
   the time in milliseconds over which the light signal is integrated (exposure time) for
    each frame,
   the delay time in milliseconds between successive exposures.

                                         Figure 7

       There exists an uncertainty in the time between the issue of the computer trigger
and the start of the first exposure due the asynchronous operation of the computer and the
CCD camera controller. This first frame delay falls in the range 0-4 milliseconds.

         The mode designated by the symbol [--> permits synchronization of a light
source, such as a laser or pulsed discharge, by trigger pulses generated by the computer.
The settable parameters in this mode consists of

   the number of frames,
   the exposure time,
   the delay time between exposures,
   the initial setup time (called the first frame delay)

    For synchronization of a laser or pulsed discharge source using the external connector
of the SNP 1010-9P control board, three synchronization pulses are available: SYN1,
SYN2, and SYN3. The contacts of the 9-pin „D‟ connector are listed in tabular form

1. SYN2
2. SYN, This signal is described in the explanation for the third synchronization mode
3. SYN1
4. SYN3
5. not used
6. +5 V, used to power an LED for fiberoptic coupling
7. GND
8. GND
9. GND

         A sequence of synchronization pulses SYN2 (active level of 0 V and a baseline
level of +5 V) is initiated under computer command and terminated upon triggering of the
last frame. After an interval following the SYN2 pulse, namely the time required to arm
the externally controlled light source, the synchronization pulse SYN1 is fired. Its active
level is +5 V, with a baseline level of 0 V.         The length of the SYN1 pulse is ~10
microsec, with a leading edge not greater than 150 ns into a load of 1 kilo Ohm. The

leading edge of SYN1 corresponds to the beginning of the first exposure and repeats as
many times as the number of frames specified. When recording two or more spectra, the
interval between two successive synchronization pulses SYN1 is equal to the sum of the
exposure time and the delay time between frames. The synchronization pulse SYN3 is
generated relative to the start of SYN2 with parameters similar to those of synch pulse
SYN1. When the CCD system must be optically isolated from the external apparatus
(laser, pulse generator, etc.) being triggered by the computer, the SYN1 pulses are used
to drive an electrooptic interface. Light pulses are generated in the fiberoptic cable by the
powering the LED in the SNP 101-9P connector.

       The last mode of synchronization, represented by the symbol [<--, relies on trigger
pulses generated by the light source, for example, a laser. The settable parameters in this
mode are

   number of frames
   exposure time
   delay time between exposures
   delay time between externally generated synch pulse SYN and acquisition of the first

       The initiation of recording is dependent on receipt from the external
synchronization controller of positive pulses with amplitude of 2-5 V and length greater
than 1 microsec. Overvoltage protection on the SYN input is  20 V. In this mode there
is no dither between the receipt of the start signal and the beginning of an exposure when
a time delay Tdel = 0 is programmed in the mode window. As soon as the synch signal
SYN arrives, the camera begins integrating the light incident on it.

       When the menu command Option/View... is selected, a dialog window opens as
shown in Figure 8.

                                            Figure 8

       How three-dimensional images are presented in the window 3D may be modified
with the options given. Three-dimensional surfaces are plotted with coarser resolution
than the real pixel resolution of the CCD array. Each point in the 3D surface corresponds
to a rectangular subarray, with the same aspect ratio as the full array. For presentation on
the video monitor the intensity of a point will match the value of that pixel which lies
closest to the center of the subarray (toggle switch Mean value turned off) or to the
average value of all pixels in the subarray (toggle swtich Mean value turned on). When
the toggle switch Opaque surface is turned on, the painting of the foreside boundary
surface hides the backside. Also, choosing this latter option increases the time it takes to
draw a surface in the 3D window.

       The group of three switches Color, Grayscale and Bilevel permit display of the
3-dimensional surface with, respectively, a solid color, gradation from black to white
(grayscale), or bilevel (black on white).

        The pulldown menu Tool contains commands for recording frames: Frame set...,
Nonstop and Stop. These menu items duplicate the commands given by the respective

control buttons      for recording a sequence of frames,        continuous recording and
stop recording.

        The capability is provided in the 2D window to select just a portion of the array
for close-up observation in other windows and for writing to a file. To use this capability,
activate the 2D window. Move the mouse cursor onto the array image. Press and hold the
right mouse key and slide the mouse over the desired portion of the array so that the
selected rectangle appears in dashed line on the screen (see Figure 2, 2D window). If you
release the right mouse key, a 3D window will open with “Row” and “Column”
transferred, so that the surface depicted in 3D corresponds to the portion of the array
enclosed in the dashed rectangular outline. You may cancel the selection simply by
clicking the right key of the mouse in the 2D window.

        Commands for manipulating files are grouped under the menu heading File. The
menu item File/Save... opens the standard Windows dialog box Save as.... In it you
enter the name of the file by which the image will be recalled in the programming
window. Files are maintained in binary format with two bytes for each pixel. Only that
portion of the array selected in the window 2D is written to the file. (The entire array is
written to the file, if a subarray is not selected) The file begins with the first row of the
subarray, then the second, and so forth. The size of the subarray is written at the end of
the file, two bytes for the horizontal size, followed by two for the vertical. If stripes have
been defined in the 2D image, the column-summed data from the Line window will be
written to the file, rather than data for individual rows of pixels.
        The command File/Open... executes the reverse operation             --- it reads into
computer memory one frame from a file. The standard Windows dialog box File/Open
appears. Any file in the list appearing in the dialog box may be loaded. However, only
data saved in binary format may be read back into the CCD Kant program.

                                       Figure 9

       The function File /Export data... exports the frame selected into a file in two
formats, either binary or ASCII code. Exporting a file in binary format duplicates the
function File/Save.... Data in ASCII code is written in text format. In Figure 9 the
dialog box is shown for choosing the desired format. Upon clicking the button OK, the
Window dialog box File/Save as opens. Files generated with the operation File/Export
data... may be employed in the program package MATLAB for analysis, visualization
and other purposes. A sample program written in C language is given below for opening a
frame exported as a text file.

ofstream fileKadr ( filenameData.FileName );

if ( fileKadr ) {

       // Open file!!!

       if ( !Select ) {

               for ( int j=0; j<NRows; j++ ){

                   for ( int i=0; i<NColums; i++ )

                      fileKadr<<kadr[j][i]<<" ";




            else {

                for ( int; j<SelectArea.bottom;
j++ ){

                 for ( int i=SelectArea.left; i<SelectArea.right;
i++ )

                         fileKadr<<kadr[j][i]<<" ";





       Note that only the desired area of the array is written to a file if a subarray is

FILE* fileKadr;

 if ( (fileKadr = fopen(filenameData.FileName, "w+b"))!=

                                      NULL) {

       if ( !Select ) {

              for ( int j=0; j<NRows; j++ )

                 for ( int i=0; i<NColums; i++ ) {

                         uint prm = kadr[j][i]&maska;

                         fwrite ( &prm, 2, 1, fileKadr );


              } else {

                      for ( int;

                                      j++ )

                      for ( int i=SelectArea.left;

                                      i<SelectArea.right; i++ )               {

                      uint prm = kadr[j][i]&maska;

                      fwrite ( &prm, 2, 1, fileKadr );




       Data may also be exported from the windows Line and Time. For this purpose
use the menu commands File/Export line data... and Export time data.... Information
exported to file from the Line window will be arranged in a number of columns. The first
column contains the number of the light sensitive pixel, starting with zero for the first
pixel. If only one stripe has been defined in the 2D window, the pixel number ranges
from 0 to 759. If more than one stripe has been defined, the pixel index ranges from 0 to
(N760 - 1), where N is the number of stripes. In the second column is written the
intensity of each pixel dispalyed in the Line window. Successive columns contain the
intensity for additional frames. Given below is a sample for four frames with one stripe

0      15     14      16     17

1      22     20      21     22

2      12     12      11     12

3      12     13      15     14
.      .      .       .      .
:      :      :       :      :

759     22      21      24      23

        Data from the Time window appears in the form of two columns. The first
column contains the frame number, the second the area under curve (the intensity
integrated over the line profile.)

        Pictures drawn in daughter windows may be embedded in different text editors,
such as WORD. To do this, use the function Export picture.... It creates a file *.bmp of
image in the active daughter window. The sample images presented below were acquired
with the CCD camera inserted into this manual.


1. Hardware components

         The CCD camera system consists of:

     CCD camera head containing a P-24 sensor chip
     Controller board
     Interface panel for coupling the camera head with the controller board
     Cable for operation of camera in 2D mode
     Cable for operation of camera in LINE mode
     Cable for synchronization

2. Installation order for optical detector and associated hardware

2.1      Connection of the CCD camera with the fiberoptic output tip of the spectral
device should be carried out in accordance with the instructions for the optical device.

2.2      Join the camera and the controller board. Take off the cover of the computer.
Place the controller board in the slot located farthest from the power supply. In the case
that this slot is occupied, rearrange the boards inside the computer. If such rearrangement
is not possible, place the controller in any free slot. If no slots are free, find some way to
install the controller board inside the case of the computer; this is essential. In the closest
free slot to the controller board place the interface for connection of the controller with
the cables for operation of the camera in the linear regime. Tighten charcoal-colored
screws of all boards to the computer case. Connect any free connector from the power
bus, for example the one from the 5.25 in disk drive, with the corresponding terminals on
the control board. In the event that there are no free connectors, utilize the cable splitter
provided. Replace the cover of the computer and tighten its screws.

2.3     Connect the light sensitive camera and the computer with the cables for that
purpose. Carry out these connections only when the computer is turned off.

2.4     Connect the bulkhead connector on the controller labeled Synchronization with
the corresponding bulkhead connector for the experimental installation. The parameter of
the trigger pulse to the computer should fall within the following limits: Utr = 5 - 50
Volts, tr = 5 - 20 microsec, positive polarity.

2.5     The computer case should be securely grounded. The body of the camera should
be electrically insulated from the experimental appartus.