Grammar Lesson Part 4
Using either, neither and too
Look at the sentences below. A is the speaker. B answers, and sometimes
a third person C answers after B.
When you agree with the speaker...
A: I like ice cream. B: Me, too. or I do, too. or So do I.
A: I can play the piano. B: Me, too. or I can, too. or So can I.
A: I am hungry. B: Me, too. or I am, too. oror So am I.
A: I don't like hamburgers. B: Me, either. or Neither do I.
A: I can't cook. B: Me, either. or Neither can I.
A: I'm not tired. B: Me either. or Neither am I.
In the sentences above, a third person (C) would say the same thing as the second person
When you don't agree with the speaker...
A: I love fried fish. B: I don't. C: I don't either. or Neither do I.
A: I am tall. B: I'm not. C: I'm not either. or Neither am I.
A: I can sing. B: I can't. C: I can't either. or Neither can I.
A: I don't like chocolate. B: I do. C: I do, too.
A: I'm not Canadian. B: I am. C: I am, too.
A: I can't speak English. B: I can. C: I can, too.
Note- there may be a few other possible ways to answer these questions
Simple Present vs. Present Continuous
This lesson may be a review for many people, but do you know the difference between I eat
and I am eating? Is it okay to say I watch TV right now, or should you say I am watching TV
right now? The Simple Present Tense is used for things that happen regularly, like this:
Birds fly in the sky.
Sheila takes a shower every evening. or for general facts, like this: Birds fly in the sky.
The Present Continuous Tense is made by a be verb (am, is, are) + verb+ing. It is used
for things that are happening right now, like this:
I am taking a shower right now.
or for things that are happening nowadays , like this:
Many people are losing their jobs nowadays
A tag question is one where a statement is made, but the speaker wants a response from the
listener. Like- Today's lesson is hard, isn't it? or
First of all, to understand tag questions, you need to know about affirmative and negative
Do you know what an affirmative sentence is? It is like this: Mary is at home. or The
students work hard.
Do you know what a negative sentence is? It is like this: Mary isn't at home. or The
students don't work hard.
Then, you need to know that if the sentence is affirmative, the tag will be negative. And if
the sentence is negative, the tag will be positive
And finally, you need to think about the kind of verb used in the sentence. Does it use a
modal, like can or will or a form of to be? Your tag question will follow the verb in the
sentence. If it is a regular verb, don't forget it uses do, don't, does, doesn't when a question
Affirmative Sentence/ Negative Tag
Toshi likes fishing, doesn't he?
Susan is sick today, isn't she?
Mike can play the piano, can't he?
You will go there, won't you?
Negative Sentence/ Affirmative Tag
Andrew doesn't study much, does he?
The dogs aren't hungry, are they?
She can't cook, can she?
You won't see her, will you?
More about Tag Questions
Yesterday we learned about tag questions. Now we need a little more information. You
know how to ask a tag question, but how do you answer a tag question?
When a speaker asks a question with a tag, like this one: "It's a nice day today, isn't it?" he
expects the listener to agree with him. He expects the listener to say "Yes, it is." If the
speaker thinks the day is bad and he thinks the listener will agree it's bad, he can say "It
isn't a nice day today, is it?" and the listener (if he agrees it's bad) will say "No, it isn't."
It's important to remember something... When we ask a tag question in English, the listener
answers according to the subject, not the way the speaker asked the question. I know it
sounds confusing, but let me show you.
John asks Mary a Mary agrees with John. Mary doesn't agree with
question. He thinks she John
will agree with him.
It's cold outside, isn't it? Yes, it is. No, it isn't.
(John thinks it's cold. He thinks (Mary agrees with John. She (Mary doesn't agree with
Mary will agree it's cold.) thinks it's cold.) John. She doesn't think it's
It's not cold outside, is it? No, it isn't. Yes, it is.
(John thinks it's not cold. He (Mary agrees with John. She (Mary doesn't agree with
thinks Mary will agree it's not thinks it's not cold.) John. She thinks it's cold.)
The movie was good, wasn't it? Yes, it was. No, it wasn't.
(John thinks the movie was (Mary agrees with John. She (Mary doesn't agree with
good. He thinks Mary liked the liked the movie.) John. She didn't like the
movie, too.) movie.)
The movie wasn't good, was it? No, it wasn't. Yes, it was.
(John thinks the move was bad. (Mary agrees with John. She (Mary doesn't agree with
He thinks Mary didn't like the didn't like the movie.) John. She liked the movie.)
So, notice that the person who answers doesn't worry how the speaker asks the question.
She only thinks about her feeling for the subject.
It's and Its
Lots of people get confused about the spelling of it's and its. It's really quite simple.
Remember, the ' means there is a contraction. Two words have been put together to make
one word, and the ' is placed where one or more letters have been taken out.
For example- she + is = she's. And does + not = doesn't.
So- It's = it + is or sometimes It's = it + has (you will know by the context which
one it is.)
Now how about its? This is a possessive. Remember that a possessive is a word that shows
who or what owns something.
For example- This is the girl's coat. This is her coat.
Or- Joey and Melissa's friend is here. Their friend is here.
So- The book's pages are green. Its pages are green
See, Look at, and Watch
Do you know the difference between see, look at, and watch?
See < is an inactive word. When your eyes are open, you do it without thinking. Example-
I see a car near the store.
Look at is an active word. You must want to do it. But it is for a short time. Example-
Look at this dress.
Watch > is also an active word. You must want to do it but it is for a longer period of time.
Example- Let's watch television