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Gujarati English Dictionary

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					Gujarati- English Learner’s Dictionary
             Babu Suthar
                (Second draft)




        A Nirman Foundation Project

      Department of South Asia Studies
         University of Pennsylvania
             820 Williams Hall
              36th and Spruce
          Philadelphia PA 19104

                  Babu Suthar
2
                      3

In Memory of
Harivallabh Bhayani
                                                                                  4


↓

We will revise this draft again after we receive comments and suggestions from the
scholars and the users. There are still problems with phonetic transcription of some
words. We will fix them as soon as we get feedback from the scholars. Meanwhile,
we request the users to consult us before using information from this dictionary in
their reserach.

↓

Babu Suthar
bsuthar@sas.upenn.edu
                                                                                          5


Introduction

Gujarati is a poor language of the rich people. This language does not have scientifically
written grammar books. Whatever grammar books it has are mainly pedagogic. It does
not have well written dictionaries either. There are some, monolingual as well as
bilingual, but many of them are impressionistic and outdated. This language is divided
into many social and geographical dialects, but very few of them have been explored.
Many dialects still await their documentation. It has attracted many linguists, but their
impact on the language, speakers, and writers has been negligible. Gujaratis are
everywhere, and so is Gujarati; but Gujarati rarely is taught systematically. The children
of Gujarati Diaspora learn some Gujarati either from their parents or from Gujarati
language classes run mainly by Hindu temples. There is no well written teaching material
either. Some individuals have created some material, but much of it lacks
professionalism. In addition, it is also faulty either in grammar or in pragmatics or both.
This is unfortunate. In order to overcome this situation, partially if not fully, the
Department of South Asia Regional Studies, University of Pennsylvania has taken a
leadership role. They have encouraged designing teaching material under which we have
created three textbooks: Gujarati Reader 1, 2 and 3. The Reader 1 is devoted to the
writing system, while the Reader 2 is devoted to written conversations. The Reader 3 is a
collection of Aesop’s fables rendered in Gujarati. This dictionary is a part of that project
but it has been funded by the Nirman Foundation, Washington DC. It is perhaps the first
dictionary of the language created for the beginning student who is learning Gujarati
language as a second language. It is also the first dictionary in Gujarati which gives
phonetic transcription of the head words in International Phonetic Alphabet. Besides, it is
also the first one that gives graphemic transcription of each head words. This dictionary
will certainly facilitate the learner in learning the differences between spoken and written
Gujarati.
        I am thankful to Nirman Foundation. Without their support this dream would have
remained unfulfilled. I am also thankful to Prof. Bhikhu Parekh and Dr. Chandrakant
Shrof for taking personal interest in this project. I can not forget Prof. Guy Welbon,
former Chairperson of the South Asia Regional Studies, University of Pennsylvania, who
underlined the need of creating teaching material and supported all the projects. This
dictionary is the third project that he supported. I am also thankful to Prof. Michael W.
Meister, the Chairperson of the Department of South Asia, for encouraging me in
finishing this work. Finally, I am thankful to Prof. Buckley, Department of Linguistics,
University of Pennsylvania, and Dr. Bharti Modi, Ex. Chairperson, Department of
Linguistics, The M.S. University of Baroda for ofering me guidance on various issues
related to compiling dictionary.


Babu Suthar
Sunday, June 29, 2003
                             6


Content

1. Explanatory notes   7
2. Abbriviations       10
3. Dictionary          12
               A       12
               Aa      20
               ;       25
               :       26
               w       26
               W       29
               ¢       30
               Ae      30
               AE      32
               Ao      32
               AO      33
               k       33
               `       41
               g       46
               3       52
               c       55
               2       62
               j       65
               z       70
               4       73
               5       75
               6       77
               7       79
               t       80
               9       87
               d       88
               0       96
               n       100
               p       111
               f       132
               b       137
               -       146
               m       154
               y       167
               r       168
               l       175
               v       183
               =       200
               q       205
               s       205
               h       229
                                    7


               x              235
               }a             235

4. Gujarati Parts of speech   236
5. Numerals                   255
                                                                                         8


Explanatory Notes:

Structure of the entries: Each entry contains five parts in the following order: 1. Head-
word, 2. Phonetic transcription, 3. Graphemic transcription, 4. Grammatical designation
and 5. Gloss. In addition, some entries may contain example.

1. Head-word: Head-word is the word to be glossed. It is given here in Gujarati script.
Spellings such as gÅga, p¨jo, 5*6I, sNt and sMp are avoided in favor of more traditional
spellings g&ga, p&jo, 5&6I, s&t and s&p.

2. Phonetic transcription: For each head-word phonetic transcription is given here in
Broad transcription. Syllabic division is also marked. This will facilitate the learners in
learning how to pronounce the words and how to relate them with their grapheme
structure. However, stress pattern is left unmarked.
        Phonetic transcription is given in International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) which is
given bellow:



Vowels:

                                      Front     Central Back

                         Close        i                   u

                         Close-mid e                      o
                                                   \

                         Open-mid ´                       ø

                         Open         a
                                                                                                            9


Consonants:

              Pharyngeal    vl.




                                                    h
              Velar         vd.




                                             g˙
                                  g




                                                                ˜
                            vl.




                                             k˙
                                  k
              Palatal       vd.




                                                                µ
                                             Ô˙
                                  Ô




                                                                                j
                            vl.




                                             c˙
                                  c
              Retroflex     vd.




                                             Î˙
                                  Î




                                                                ¯




                                                                                              Æ
                            vl.


                                             ˇ˙
              Post alveolar vl.   ˇ



                                                    ß
              Alveolar      vd.




                                                                        r



                                                                                              l
              Dental        vd.
                                             d˙
                                  d




                                                                n
                            vl.
                                             t˙

                                                    s
                                  t




              Labiodental   vd.
                                                    v



              Bilabial      vd.
                                                                m
                                             b˙
                                  b




                            vl.
                                             p˙
                                  p
                                  non-asp.

                                             asp.




                                                                                Approximant


                                                                                              approximant
                                                    Fricative




                                                                                              Lateral
                                  Plosive




                                                                Nasal

                                                                        Trill
                                                                                   10

3. Graphemic transcription: For each word graphemic transcription is also given using
the following symbols. This will help students learning the relationship between sound
and later with is not always symmetrical in Gujarati.

Vowels:

A      Aa     ;      :      w      W      ¢
\      a      i      ii     u      uu     ru≤

Ae     AE     Ao     AO     A&     AŠ
e      \i     o      \u     \m     \h

Consonants:

k      `      g      3
k\     kh\    g\     gh\

c      2      j      z
c\     ch\    Ô\     Ôh\

4      5      6      7      8
ˇ\     ˇh\    Î\     Îh\    ¯\

t      9      d      0      n
t\     th\    d\     dh\    n\

p      f      b      -      m
p\     ph\    b\     bh\    m\

y      r      l      v
y\     r\     l\     v\


=      q      s
ß\     s°\    s\

h      X      x      }a
h\     Æ\     kß\    gn\

4. Gloss: Gloss illustrates the main sense of the word. In some cases, more than one
meaning are given in the order of their prominence.
                                         11


Abbriviations


adj.            adjective
advb.           adverb
conj.           conjunction
fem.            feminine
hon.            honorific
masc.           masculine
neut.           neuter
postp           postposition
pron.           pronoun
v.intr.         intransitive verb
v.dat.          dative verb
v.exp.          experiencer verb
v.tr.           transitive verb


Symbols:

/./             syllabic break
<.>             boundary of the letter
                                              Axy /\k.ß\.j\/ <\.kß\.j\> adj.
                     A                        1.imperishable. 2. inexhaustible.

Akb&0 /\k.b\n.d˙\/ <\.k\.b\~.dh\> adj. .      Axr /\k.ß\.r\/ <\.kß\.r\> masc. .1. a
1. intact. 2. neither opened nor broken.      letter, 2. a syllable

Ak6avu& /\k.Îa.vu~/ <\.k\.Îa.vu~> v.intr.     Axr /\k.ß\.r\/ <\.kß\.r\> adj. .
to get angry.                                 indestructible.

Ak6avu& /\k.Îa.vu~/ <\.k\.Îa.vu~> v.intr.     Axr=Š /\k.ß\.r\.ß\.h\/ <\.kß\.r\.ß\.h\>
to have cramp.                                adv.. 1.literally. 2. letter by letter. 3.
                                              word by word.
AkmRk /\.k\r.m\.k/ <\.k\.rm\.k\> adj. .
intransitive. a verb that does not take a     Axa&= /\k.ßa~.ß\/ <\.kßa~.s\> masc. a
direct verb.                                  degree of latitude.

AksIr /\k.sir/ <\.k\.sii.r\> adj. .           A`&6 /\.k˙\¯.Î\/ <\.kh\~.Î\> adj.
effective.                                    1.unbroken. 2. ceaseless.

AkSmat /\.k\s.mat/ <\.k\.sma.t\> neut.        A`&&i6t /\.k˙\¯.Îit/ <\.kh\~.Îi.t\> adj. .
. accident                                    1.unbroken. 2. constant.

AkSmate /\.k\s.ma.te/ <\.k\.sma.te>           A`tro /\.k˙\t.ro/ <\.kh\.t\.ro> masc.
advb.. accidentally.                          .1. an experiment. 2. a trial

AkXam8 /\k.Æa.m\¯/ <\.k\.Æa.m\.¯\>            A`bar /\k˙.bar/ <\.kh\.ba.r\> neut. . a
fem.                                          news paper
1. perplexity. 2. acute worry.
                                              A`a6o /\.k˙a.Îo/ <\.kha.do> masc. . a
AkXavu& /\k.Æa.vu~/ <\.k\.Æa.vu~> v.intr. .   gymnasium
to get angry.
                                              A`at /\.k˙at/ <\.kha.t\> masc. .1. a bay.
Ak\k6 /\k.k\.Î/ </\.kk\.Î\> adj. 1. stiff.    2. a gulf
2. unbending.
                                              Agi8t /\.g\.¯it/ adj. .<\.g\.¯i.t\> 1.
Ak\krmI /\k.k\r.mi/ <\.kk\.r\.mii> adj.       innumerable. 2. uncounable.
unfortunate.
                                              Ag8otr /\.g\.¯o.t\r/ <\.g\.¯o.t\.t\>
Ak\kl /\k.k\l/ <\.kk\.l\> fem. . sense.       adj. . sixty nine.

Axt /\k.ß\.t\/ <\.kß\.t\> adj. .1. whole.     Ag*ya=I /\.g\.¯ja.ßi/ <\.g\.¯ja.ßii> adj. .
2. unbroken.                                  seventy nine.
                                                                                           13


AgTy /\.g\t.j\/ <\.g\.tj\> neut.             AigyarI /\.gi.ja.ri/ <\.gi.ja.rii> fem. . a
important.                                   small fire temple in which Parsis keep
                                             their sacred fire.
AgTyta /\.g\t.j\.ta/ <\.g\.tj\.ta> fem. .
importance.                                  Agocr /\.go.c\r/ <\.go.c\.r\> adj.
                                             1.beyond senses. 2. imperceptible.
Agm cetI /\.g\m.ce.ti/ <\.g\.m\.ce.tii>
fem.                                         AiGn /\g.ni/ <\.gni> masc. .fire
1.forsight. 2. precaution.
                                             AiGndah /\g.ni.dah/ <\.gni.da.h\> masc.
Agm va8I /\.g\m.va.¯i/ <\.g\.va.¯ii>         . cremation ceremony.
fem.1. prophecy. 2. mysterious words.
                                             AiGns&Skar /\g.ni.sam.ska.r\/
AgMy /\.g\m.j\/ <\.g\.mj\> adj. .1.          <\.gni.s\~.ska.r\> masc. . cremation
mysterious. 2. inaccessible.                 ceremony.

Agrb]aI /\.g\r.b\t.ti/ <\.g\.r\.b\.ttii>     A3i4t /\.g˙\.ˇit/ adj. improper.
fem. . incense stick.
                                             A3ru& /\.g˙\.ru~/ <\.gh\.ru~> adj.
Agv6 /\g.v\Î/ <\.g\.v\.Î\> fem.              difficult.
inconvenience.
                                             Ac&bo /\.c\m.bo/ <\.c\~.bo> masc. .1. a
Agaw /\.ga.u~/ <\.ga.u> prep.. before.       surprise, 2. an astonishment

AgawnI /\.ga.u~.ni/ <\.ga.u.nii> adj. .      Acank /\.ca.n\k/ <\.ca.n\.k\> advb. .
previous (in terms of time).                 1.suddenly, 2. accidentally

Agaw9I /\.ga.u.t˙i/ <\.ga.u.thii> advb.      AcUk /\.cuk/ <\.cuu.k\> advb.
.in advance.                                 .1.without a mistake, 2. sure

AgasI /\.ga.si/ <\.ga.sii> fem. . terrace.   A2t /\.c˙\t/ <\.ch\.t\> fem. .1.scarcity,
                                             2. shortage
Aigyar /\.gi.jar/ <\.gi.ja.r\> adj.
.eleven.                                     A2tu& /\.c˙\.tu~/ <\.ch\.tu~> advb.
                                             .1.secret, 2. hidden
Aigyarmu& /\.gi.jar.mu~/ <\.gi.ja.r\.mu~>
neut. the eleventh day after death.          A2bDa /\.c˙\b.Îa/ <\.ch\.b\.Îa> masc. .
                                             chicken-pox (honorific).
Aigyars /\.gi.ja.r\s/ <\.gi.ja.r\.s\> fem.
the eleventh day of a fortnight of a         A2Ut /\.c˙ut/ <\.chu.t\> adj. .
Hindu lunar month.                           untouchable
                                                                                             14


A2o6o /\.c˙o.Îo/ <\.cho.Îo> masc. a            A}aan /\g.na.n\/ <\.gna.n\> neut. .
chain of gold or silver                        ignorance

Ajgr /\Ô.g\r/ <\.Ô\.g\.r\> masc. . a           A}aanI /\g.na.ni/ <\.gna.nii> adj.
python                                         .ignorant

Ajb /\.Ô\b/ <\.Ô\.b\> adj. .1. strange, 2.     A4k /\.ˇ\k/ <\.ˇ\.k\> fem. .1. surname,
surprising                                     2. a family name. 3. last name.

Ajmavvu& /\Ô.mav.vu~/ <\.Ô\.ma.v\.vu~>         A4kvu& /\.ˇ\k.vu~/ <\.ˇ\.k\.vu~> v.intr. . to
v.tr. 1. to try, 2. to test.                   stop.

Ajmo /\Ô.mo/ <\.Ô\.mo> masc. . parsley         A4kX /\ˇ.k\Æ/ <\.ˇ\.k\.Æ\> fem. . an
AjvaXvu& /\Ô.vaÆ.vu~/ <\.Ô\.va.Æ\.vu~> v.tr.   inference
.to cleanse.
                                               A4p4u& /\ˇ.p\.ˇu~/ adj. <\.ˇ\.p\.ˇu~>
AjvaXIyu& /\Ô.va.Æi.Ôu~/ <\.Ô\.va.Æii.ju~>     1.intricate, 2. complex
neut. 1. the bright half of a lunar month,     A4vavu& /\ˇ.va.vu~/ <\.ˇ\.va.vu~> v.intr. . to
2. Small holes in the roof foe admitting       wander.
sun-light.
                                               A5vai6k /\ˇ˙.va.Îik/ <\.ˇh\.va.Îi.k\>
AjvaXu& /\Ô.va.Æu~/ <\.Ô\.va.Æu~> neut.        adj. . weekly
.light
                                               A5vai6yu& /\ˇ˙.va.Îi.ju~/ <\.ˇh\.va.Îi.ju~>
Aj&po /\.Ô\.mpo/ <\.Ô\~.po> masc. .            neut. a week
restlessness
                                               A5&g /\.ˇ˙\˜.g\/ <\.ˇh\~.g\> adj. . out and
Aja8 /\.Ôa¯/ <\.Ôa.¯\> adj. . ignorant         out.

Aja*yu& /\.Ôa.¯yu~/ <\.Ôa.¯ju~>                A5\5a; /\.ˇ˙ˇ˙a.i/ <\.ˇhˇha.i> fem. . a
adj.1.unknown, 2. stranger                     religious vows of the Jains. A person
                                               who takes this vow fasts for the period
AjaybI /\.Ôa.j\.bi/ <\.Ôa.j\.bii> fem. .1. a   of eight days.
wonder, 2. a surprise
                                               A5\5a8u& /\.ˇ˙ˇ˙a.¯u~/ <\.ˇhˇha.¯u~> adj. .
A@8R /\.Ôir.¯\/ <\.Ôii.r¯\> neut.              ninety eight.
indigestion
                                               A5\5avn /\.ˇ˙ˇ˙a.v\n/ <\.ˇhˇha.v\.n\>
Ajey /\.Ôej/ <\.Ôe.j\> adj. .                  adj. fifty eight.
unconquerable
                                               A5\yotr /\.ˇ˙jo.t\r/ <\.ˇhjo.t\.r\> adj. .
Ajo6 /\.Ôo.Î/ <\.Ôo.Î\> adj. . unique          seventy eight.
                                                                                             15


A5\yasI /\.ˇ˙ja.si/ <\.ˇhja.sii> adj. . eighty   A7I /\.Î˙i/ <\.Îhii> adj. . two and a
eight.                                           half.

A6kvu& /\.Î\k.vu~/ <\.Î\.k\.vu~> v.tr. .to       A8gmo /\¯.g\.mo/ <\.¯\.g\.mo> masc.
touch.                                           . dislike.

A6`e p6`e /\Î.k˙e p\Î.k˙e/                       A836 /\¯.g˙\Î/ <\.¯\.gh\.Î\> adj. .
<\.Î\.khe p\.Î\.khe> adv..1. beside,             unskilled
2. adjacent to, 3. side by side.
                                                 A80ayuR& /\¯.d˙a.rju~/ <\.¯\.dha.rju~> adj.
A6g /\.Î\g/ <\.Î\.g\> adj. .1.                   & advb. unexpected.
immovable, 2. unperturbed.
                                                 A8manItu& /\¯.ma.ni.tu~/ <\.¯\.ma.nii.tu~>
A6c8 /\Î.c\¯/ <\.Î\.c\.¯\> fem. .                adj. .unfavorable.
obstacle
                                                 A8vr /\¯.v\r/ <\.¯\.v\.r\> masc. a
A6talIs /\Î.ta.lis/ <\.Î\.ta.lii.s\> adj.        relative of the bridgroom who assists
forty eight.                                     him during marriage ritual.

A6d /\.Î\d/ <\.Î\.d\> masc. a kind of            Ai8 /\.¯i/ <\.¯i> fem. sharp point of
pulse                                            anything.

A60u& /\Î.d˙u~/ <\.Î\.dhu~> adj. half.           Aiti9 /\.ti.t˙i/ <\.ti.thi> masc. . a guest
                                                 who comes without prior information.
A6plu& /\.Î\p.lu~/ <\.Î\.p\.lu~> neut. .1.a
mischief, 2. a prank                             Aitrek /\.ti.rek/ <\.ti.re.k\> masc. . an
                                                 excess
A6vu& /\Î.vu~/ <\.Î\.vu~> v.tr. . to touch.
                                                 AtIt /\.tit/ <\.tii.t\> masc. . past.
A6s5 /\Î.s\ˇ˙/ <\.Î\.s\.ˇh\> adj. .sixty
eight.                                           Atu4 /\.tuˇ/ <\.tu.ˇ\> adj. . unbreakable.

A6oA6 /\Îo.\Î/ <\.Îo.\.Î\> postp.                A]ar /\ˇ.ˇ\r/ <\.tt\.r\> neut. .perfume
.very closely.
                                                 ATy&t /\t.j\n.t\/ <\.tj\~.t\> adj. .
A6\6o /\Î.Îo/ <\.ÎÎo> masc. .a meeting           excessive
place of unsocial element.
                                                 ATyacar /\t.ja.car/ <\.tja.ca.r\> masc. .
A7Xk /\.Î˙\.Æ\k/ <\.Î\.Æ\.k\> adj. .             tyranny
plentiful.
                                                 ATyare /\t.ja.re/ <\.tja.re> adv.. just now
A7ar /\.Î˙ar/ <\.Îha.r\> adj. . eighteen.
                                                 A{a /\t.r\/ <\.tr\> advb.. at this place
                                                                                       16


                                             A0Iru& /\.d˙i.ru~/ <\.dhii.ru~> adj. .
A96avu& /\t˙.Îa.vu~/ <\.th.Îa.vu~> v.intr.   impatient.
.1. to collide, 2. to hit against.
                                             A0ur&u /\.d˙u.ru~/ <\.dhu.ru~> adj. .
A9a8u& /\.t˙a.¯u~/ <\.tha.¯u~> neut. .       incomplete.
pickle
                                             A)0r /\d˙.d˙\r/ <\.dhdh\.r\> advb..1.
Ada /\.da/ <\.da> fem. . action.             unsupported, 2. hanging in mid air.

Adalt /\.da.l\t/ <\.da.l\.t\> fem. . a       An9R /\.n\r.t˙\/ <\.n\.rth\> masc. . a
judicial court.                              misinterpretation.

Adavt /\.da.v\t/ <\.da.v\.t\> fem. .         An&t /\.n\n.t\/ <\.n\~.t\> adj. .1.endless,
enmity.                                      2. infinite.

A±+y /\.dr\ß.j\/ <\.dr\.ßj\> adj. .          Anaj /\.naÔ/ <\.na.Ô\> neut. .grain.
invisible.
                                             Ana9 /\.nat˙/ <\.na.th\> adj. . orphan.
Ade`a; /\.de.k˙ai/ <\.de.kha.i> fem. .
jealously                                    Ana9a[am /\.na.t˙a.ßr\.m\/
                                             <\.na.tha.ßr\.m\> masc. . an
Ade`u& /\.de.k˙u~/ <\.de.khu~> adj. .        orphanage.
jealous
                                             Anadr /\.na.d\r/ <\.na.d\.r\> masc. .
Ad\-Ut /\d.b˙ut/ <\.d\.bhu.t\> adj. .        an insult.
wonderful                                    Anamt /\.na.m\t/ <\.na.m\.t\> fem. .
                                             deposit.
A0kcru& /\d˙.k\c.ru~/ <\.dh\.k\.c\.ru~>
adj. partly baked or cooked.                 AnamI /\.na.mi/ <\.na.mii> adj. .
                                             nameless.
A0m /\.d˙\m/ <\.dh\.m\> adj. mean.
                                             Ainyimt /\.nij.mit/ <\.ni.j\.mi.t\> adj.
A0mUw& /\d˙.mu.u~/ <\.dh\.mu.u> adj. .       irregular.
half-dead.
                                             Aini¾t /\.niß.cit/ <\.ni.ßci.t\> adj. .
A0mR /\.d˙\r.m\/ <\.dh\.rm\> masc. .1.       uncertain.
the reverse of religion, 2. immoral.
                                             AnIit /\.ni.ti/ <\.nii.ti> fem.
A0vc /\d˙.v\c/ <\.dh\.v\.c\> advb..1.        immorality.
in the middle, 2. midway.
                                             Anukr8 /\.nu.k\.r\¯/ <\.nu.k\.r\.¯\>
Ai0kar /\.d˙i.kar/ <\.dhi.ka.r\> masc. .     neut.
a right.                                     immitation.
                                                                                        17


AnukUX /\.nu.kuÆ/ <\.nu.kuu.Æ\> adj. .       Apvad /\p.vad/ <\.p\.va.d\> masc. . an
suitable.                                    exception.

Anuk/m /\.nu.kr\m/ <\.nu.kr\.m\>             Apiv{a /\.p\.vit.r\/ <\.p\.vi.tr\> adj.
masc. .1. order, 2. sequence.                unholy.

Anu-v /\.nu.b˙\v/ <\.nu.bh\.v\> masc.        Ap=Bd /\p.ß\b.d\/ <\.p\.ß\.bd\> masc.
experience.                                  an abuse.

Anu-vI /\.nu.b˙\.vi/ <\.nu.bh\.vii> adj.     Ap=ukn /\p.ßu.k\n/ <\.p\.ßu.k\.n\>
experienced.                                 masc. . ill-omen.

Anuman /\.nu.man/ <\.nu.ma.n\> neut. .       Ap&g /\.p\˜.g\/ adj. . <\.p\~.g\> 1. lame,
an inference.                                2. crippled.

Anuvad /\.nu.vad/ <\.nu.va.d\> masc.         Apasro /\.pa.s\.ro/ <\.pa.s\.ro> masc. .
translation.                                 a Jain monestry.

Anusrvu& /\.nu.s\r.vu~/ <\.nu.s\.r\.vu~>     ApUj /\.puÔ/ <\.puu.Ô\> adj. . not
v.intr to follow.                            worshipped.

AnuSnatk /\.nus.na.t\k/ <\.nu.sna.t\.k\>     Apexa /\.pek.ßa/ <\.pe.kßa> fem. .
adj. post-graduate.                          expectation.

AnuSvar /\.nus.var/ <\.nu.sva.r\> neut.      Ap/g4 /\.pr\.g\ˇ/ <\.pr\.g\.ˇ\> adj. .
a sign written on the top of a letter that   unpublished.
indicates a nasal sound or nasalization
of a vowel.                                  Aip/y /\p.ri.j\/ <\.pri.j\> adj. .
                                             disguisting.
Ane /\.ne/ <\.ne> conj.. and.
                                             Afva /\p˙.va/ <\.ph\.va> fem. . a
Anek /\.nek/ <\.ne.k\> adj. . many.          rumors.

ANyay /\n.jaj/ <\.nja.j\> masc. .            Afsos /\p˙.sos/ <\.ph\.so.s\> masc. .1.
injustice.                                   repentance, 2. alas.

Apco /\.p\.co/ <\.p\.co> masc. .             Abj /\.b\Ô/ <\.b\.Ô\> adj. . one
indigestion.                                 thousand millions.

Apj= /\p.Ô\ß/ <\.p\.Ô\.ß\> masc.             Abjopit /\.b\.Ôo.p\.ti/ <\.b\.Ôo.p\.tii>
.disgrace.                                   adj. a millionaire

Apman /\p.man/ <\.p\.ma.n\> neut. .          A-8 /\.b˙\¯/ <\.bh\.¯\> adj. .
an insult                                    illiterate.
                                                                                        18


                                            ArIso /\.ri.so/ <\.rii.so> masc. .a
A-av /\.b˙av/ <\.bha.v\> masc. .            mirror.
dislike.                                    Are /\.re/ <\.re> inter.. an exclamation
                                            expressing surprise, `oh’.
Ai-n&dn /\.b˙i.n\n.d\n/
<\.bhi.n\~.d\.n\> masc. congratulation.     A9R /\r.t˙\/ <\.rth\> masc. 1. meaning,
(Honorific)                                 2. wealth.

Ai-neta /\.b˙i.ne.ta/ <\.bhi.ne.ta> masc.   Alg /\.l\g/ <\.l\.g\> adj. . separate.
. a male actor.                             AlI /\.li/ <\.lii> fem. . a female friend
                                            for a female.
Ai-p/a.y /\.b˙i.pra.j\/ <\.bhi.pra.j\>
masc. . an opinion.                         Alop /\.lop/ <\.lo.p\> adj. . invisible.

Ai-man /\.b˙i.man/ <\.bhi.ma.n\> neut.      AlOkIk /\.l\u.kik/ <\.l\u.kii.k\> adj. .
. arrogance.                                devine.

Ai-manI /\.b˙i.ma.ni/ <\.bhi.ma.nii>        Avd=a /\v.d\.ßa/ <\.v\.d\.ßa> fem. .
adj. . arrogant.                            misfortune.

A_yas /\b˙.ja.s\/ <\.bhja.s\> masc. .1.     Avnvu& /\v.n\.vu~/ <\.v\.n\.vu~> adj. .
study, 2. practice.                         new.

Amr /\.m\r/ <\.m\.r\> adj. immortal.        Avyv /\.v\.j\v/ <\.v\.j\.v\> masc. .a
                                            limb.
Amaru& /\.ma.ru~/ <\.ma.ru~> pron.. our
(exclusive).                                Avro0 /\v.rod˙/ <\.v\.ro.dh\> masc. .a
                                            hurdle.
Amas /\.mas/ <\.ma.s\> fem. . the last
day of the dark half of a lunar month.      Avlokn /\v.lo.k\n/ <\.v\.lo.k\.n\>
                                            neut. . observation.
Amuk /\.muk/ <\.mu.k\> adj. . some.
                                            Av+y /\vß.j\/ <\.v\.ßj\> advb. . surely.
AmULy /\.mul.j\/ <\.muu.lj\> adj.
.priceless.                                 Avsr /\v.s\r/ <\.v\.s\.r\> masc. an
                                            occasion.
Ame /\.me/ <\.me> pron.. we
(exclusive).                                Avsan /\v.san/ <\.v\.sa.n\> neut.
                                            death.
AyoGy /\.jog.j\/ <\.jo.gj\> adj. .
improper.                                   AvXa; /\v.Æai/ <\.v\.Æa.i> fem. improper
                                            behavior.
                                                                                            19


AvXu& /\v.Æu~/ <\.v\.Æu~> adj. up side
down.                                           As&~y /\.s\¯.k˙j\/ <\.s\~.khj\> adj.
Avaj /\.vaÔ/ <\.va.Ô\> masc. .1.voice, 2.       innumerable.
sound.
                                                As&toq /\.s\n.toß/ <\.s\~.to.s°\> masc. .
Avarnvar /\.var.n\.var/                         dissatisfaction.
<\.va.r\.n\.va.r\> advb. .frequently.
                                                As&-v /\.s\m.b˙\v/ <\.s\~.bh\.v\> adj.
AvaXu& /\.va.Æu~/ <\.va.Æu~> neut. . the        .impossible.
gums of teeth.
                                                As&mt /\.s\m.m\t/ <\.s\~.m\.t\> adj.
Aivny /\.vi.n\j/ <\.vi.n\.j\> masc.             .disagreeing.
.immodesty.
                                                As&SkarI /\.sams.ka.ri/ <\.s\~.ska.rii>
A=kt /\.ß\k.t\/ <\.ß\.kt\> adj. . weak.         adj. . uncivilized.

A=a&t /\.ßa~n.t\/ <\.ßa~.t\> adj. . troubled.   Asa)y /\.sa.d˙j\/ <\.sa.dhj\> adj. .
                                                incurable.
A=u)0 /\.ßud˙.d˙\/ <\.ßu.dhdh\> adj. .
                                                Asur /\.sur/ <\.suu.r\> masc. . demon.
impure.

A=u- /\.ßub˙/ <\.ßu.bh\> adj.                   AiS9r /\.st˙i.r\/ <\.sthi.r\> adj. .
inauspicious.                                   unstable.

Aqa6 /\.ßaÎ/ <\.s°°a.Î\> masc. ninth            ASpQ4 /\.sp\ß.ˇ\/ <\.sp\.s°ˇ\> adj. .
month of the Vikram era.                        vague.

AsTy /\.s\t.j\/ <\.s\.tj\> neut. .1. false,     ASvC2 /\.sv\c.c˙\/ <\.sv\.cch\> adj. .
2. untrue.                                      impure.

Asr /\.s\r/ <\.s\.r\> fem. .effect.             ASvS9 /\.sv\s.t˙\/ <\.sv\.sth\> adj.
                                                1.restless 2. sick.
Asl /\.s\l/ <\.s\.l\> adj. .original.
                                                ASva-aivk /\.sva.b˙a.vi.k\/
Ashkar /\.s\h.kar/ <\.s\.h\.ka.r\>              <\.sva.bha.vi.k\> adj. . unnatural.
masc. .
non-co-operation.                               ASvIkar /\.svi.kar/ <\.svii.ka.r\> masc.
                                                1.rejection 2. denial.
Ashay /\.s\.haj/ <\.s\.ha.j\> adj. .
helpless.                                       Aih&sk /\.him.s\k/ <\.hi~.s\.k\> adj. .
                                                non-violent.
As¬ /\.s\h.j\/ <\.s\.hj\> adj. .
unbearable.
                                                                                                20


Aihsa /\.him.sa/ <\.hi~.sa> fem. . non-          A&tr /\n.t\r/ <\~.nt\.r\> neut. .1.the
vilence.                                         heart 2. the mind. [an abstract notion that
                                                 refers to one’s conscience.]
AhI& /\.hi~/ <\.hi~> advb. . here.
                                                 A&itm /\n.tim/ <\~.ti.m\> adj. . last.
AhI&ya& /\.hi~.ja~/ <\.hi~.ja~> advb. .same as
AhI&.                                            A&te /\n.te/ <\~.te> advb. .1. finally 2. at
                                                 last.
Ahoho /\.ho.ho/ <\.ho.ho> excl.. an
exclamation expressing surprise.                 A&dr /\n.d\r/ <\~.d\.r\> postp. .1. in 2.
                                                 within 3. inside 4. into.
AX`am8u& /\Æ.k˙am.¯u~/ <\.Æ\.kha.m\.¯u~>
adj. .1. unfavorable 2. disagreeable.            A&daj /\n.daÔ/ <\~.da.Ô\> masc. . an
                                                 estimate.
AXgu& /\Æ.gu~/ <\.Æ\.gu~> adj. .1.detached
2. uncommon.                                     A&0a0U&0I /\n.d˙a.d˙u~n.d˙i/
                                                 <\~.dha.dhuu~.dhii> fem. . chaos.
A&kur /\˜.ku.r\/ <\~.ku.r\> masc. .1. a
sprout 2. an offshoot.                           A&0apo /\n.d˙a.po/ <\~.dha.po> masc. .
                                                 blindness.
A&g /\˜.g\/ <\~.g\> neut. . the body.
                                                 A&0arIyu& /\n.d˙a.ri.ju~/ <\~.dha.rii.ju~> neut.
A&grxk /\˜.g\.r\k.ß\.k\/                         . the dark half of a lunar month.
<\~.g\.r\.kß\.k\> masc. .a body-guard.
                                                 A&0aru& /\n.d˙a.ru~/ <\~.dha.ri.ju~> neut. .
A&gU5I /\˜.gu.ˇ˙i/ <\~.guu.ˇhii> fem. . a        darkness.
finger ring.
                                                 A&bo6o /\m.bo.Îo/ <\~.bo.Îo> masc. . a
A&gU5o /\˜.gu.ˇ˙o/ <\~.gu.ˇho> masc. .a          knot of plaited hair of a woman.
thumb.
                                                 A&= /\mß/ <\~.ß\> masc. .a part, a section
A&g/ej /\˜.g\.reÔ/ <\~.gre.Ô\> masc. . an
Englishman.                                                            Aa
A&g/e@ /\˜.g\.re.Ôi/ <\~.gre.Ôii> fem.
                                                 Aa /a/ <a> proun.. this.
.English.
                                                 Aakar /a.kar/ <a.ka.r\> masc. .1. shape
A&t /\n.t\/ <\~.t\> masc. . an end.
                                                 2. form.
A&tr /\n.t\r/ <\~.t\.r\> neut. . distance.
                                                 Aaka= /a.kaß/ <a.ka.ß\> neut. . sky.

                                                 Aaka&xa /a.ka~.kßa/ <a.ka~.kßa> fem. .
                                                 desire.
                                                                                             21



Aak<it /ak.ru.ti/ <a.kru≤.ti> fem. . a         Aacrkucr /a.c\r ku.c\r/ neut.
diagram.                                       .miscellaneous food or household
                                               articles.
Aak/m8 /ak.r\.m\¯/ <a.kr\.m\.¯\> neut.
. an attack.                                   Aacar /a.c\r/ <a.ca.r\> masc. .behavior.

Aaxep /ak.ßep/ <a.kße.p\> masc.                AacayR /a.car.j\/ <a.ca.rj\> masc. 1. a
.accusation.                                   principal 2. a spritual leader. (Honorific)

Aa`re /a.k˙\.re/ <a.kh\.re> advb.              Aa2u& /a.c˙u~/ <a.chu~> adj. dim.
.finally.
                                               Aaj /aÔ/ <a.Ô\> fem. today.
Aa`lo /ak˙.lo/ <a.kh\.lo> masc. . a bull.
                                               Aa@@ /a.Ôi.Ôi/ <a.Ôii.Ôii> fem. an humble
Aag /ag/ <a.g\> fem. . fire.                   request.

Aagbo4 /ag.boˇ/ <a.g\.bo.ˇ\> fem. a            Aa@vn /a.Ôi.v\n/ <a.Ôii.v\.n\> adj. .
steamer.                                       lifelong.

Aagm /a.g\m/ <a.g\.m\> masc.                   Aaju baju /a.Ôu ba.Ôu/ <a.Ôu.ba.Ôu> adv.
religious texts of the Jains.                  around.

Aaglu& /ag.lu~/ <a.g\.lu~> adj. . previous.    Aa4lu& /aˇ.lu~/ <a.ˇ\.lu~> adj. .this much.

AagX /a.g\Æ/ <a.g\.Æ\> advb. .1. in front      Aa4o /a.ˇo/ <a.ˇo> masc. . flour.
of 2. in future.
                                               Aa5 /aˇ˙/ <a.ˇh\> adj. . eight.
AagamI /a.ga.mi/ <a.ga.mii> advb.
1.ensuing 2. forthcoming.                      Aa5m /a.ˇ˙\m/ <a.ˇh\.m\> fem. . the
                                               eighth day of bright or dark half of the
AagahI /a.ga.hi/ <a.gaa.hii> fem. .a           Hindu month.
prediction.
                                               Aa68I /aÎ.¯i/ <a.Î\.¯ii> fem. . a wooden
Aaigyo /a.gi.jo/ <a.gi.jo> masc. . 1. a fire   round stood to shape rotali or puri .
fly, 2. a glowworm, 3. a lightning bug.
                                               Aa6{aIs /a.Î\t.ris/ <a.Î\.trii.s\> adj. .
Aag/h /ag.r\.h\/ <a.gr\.h\> masc. .a           thirty eight.
strong request.
                                               Aa6u& /a.Îu~/ <a.Îu~> adj. . crosswise.
Aa3at /a.g˙at/ <a.gha.t\> masc. a shock.
                                               Aa6o=pa6o= /a.Îoß.pa.Îoß/
Aa3u& /a.g˙u~/ <a.ghu~> advb. . distant.       <a.Îo.ß\.pa.Îo.ß\> masc. neighbours.
                                                                                              22


                                                Aan&d /a.n\n.d\/ <a.n\~.d\> masc. .1.
Aa8vu& /a¯.vu~/ <a.¯\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to fetch   pleasure 2. joy.
2. to bring.
                                                AanakanI /a.na.ka.ni/ <a.na.ka.ni> fem.
Aa8u& /a.¯u~/ <a.¯u~> neut. .                   1.hesitation 2. indecision.

AaTma /at.ma/ <a.tma> masc. . soul.             Aap8e /ap.¯e/ <a.p\.¯e> pron.. we
                                                (inclusive).
Aa9m8u& /a.t˙\m.¯u~/ <a.th\.m\.¯u~> adj. .
western.                                        Aapi]a /a.p\t.ti/ <a.p\.¯e> fem. . trouble.

Aa9mvu& /a.t˙\m.vu~/ <a.th\.m\.vu~> v.intr      AapmeXe /ap.me.Æe/ <a.p\.me.Æe> advb. .
.to set.                                        atomatically.

Aadr /a.d\r/ <a.d\.r\> masc. .respect.          Aaple /ap.le/ <a.p\.le> fem. . give and
                                                take.
Aad=R /a.d\r.ß\/ <a.d\.rß\> adj. . ideal.
                                                AapvItI /ap.vi.ti/ <a.p\.vii.tii> fem. .1.
Aada=I=I /a.da.ßi.ßi/ <a.da.ßii.ßii> fem. .     autobiography 2. good and bad events of
migraine.                                       life.

Aaid /a.di/ <a.di> adj. first.                  Aapvu& /ap.vu~/ <a.p\.vu~> v.tr. . to give.

Aaid /a.di/ <a.di> advb. . etc.                 AapoAap /a.po.ap/ <a.po.a.p\> advb. .
                                                automatically.
AaidvasI /a.di.va.si/ <a.di.va.sii> masc.
.1. aboriginal, 2. tribal.                      Aafro /ap˙.ro/ <a.ph\.ro> masc. . gas
                                                due to indigestion.
Aadu& /a.du~/ <a.du~> neut. .green ginger.
                                                AafUs /a.p˙u:s/ <a.phuu.s\> fem. . a
Aade= /a.deß/ <a.de.ß\> masc. . an order.       kind of mango.

Aa0ar /a.d˙ar/ <a.dha.r\> masc. .1. a           Aab£ /ab.ru/ <a.b\.ruu> fem.
support 2. an evidence.                         .reputation.

Aa0uink /a.d˙u.nik/ <a.dhu.ni.k\> adj. .        AabehUb /a.be.hub/ <a.be.hu.b\> adj. .
modern.                                         exact.

Aa0e6 /a.d˙eÎ/ <a.dhe.Î\> adj. . elderly.       Aabohva /a.bo.h\.va/ <a.bo.h\.va> fem. .
                                                climate.
Aa)yaiTmk /a.d˙jat.mik/ <a.dhja.tmi.k\>
                                                Aa- /ab˙/ <a.bh\> neut. . sky.
adj. spiritual.
                                                                                            23


Aa-ar /a.b˙ar/ <a.bha.r\> masc. .              Aam&{a8 pi{aka /a.m\n.tr\¯ p\.tri.ka/
thanks.                                        <a.m\.ntr\.¯\ p\.tri.ka> fem. .an
                                               invitation letter.
Aa-as /a.b˙as/ <a.bha.s\> masc.
.illusion.                                     Aayno /aj.no/ <a.j\.no> masc. . a mirror.

Aa-Uq8 /a.b˙u.ß\¯/ <a.bhu.s°\.¯\> neut. .      Aaya. /a.ja/ <a.ja> fem. . a maid servent.
ornaments.
                                               Aayat /a.jat/ fem. . import.
Aam /am/ <a.m\> advb. .in this manner.
                                               Aayojn /a.jo.Ô\n/ <a.ja.t\> neut. .
Aamjnta /am.Ô\n.ta/ <a.m\.Ô\.n\.ta>            management.
adj. .1. the common people, 2. laymen.
                                               AartI /ar.ti/ <a.r\.tii> fem. .1. a sacred
Aam8e /am.¯e/ <a.m\.¯e> pron.. these           lamp 2. a religious prayer sung with a
persons.                                       sacred lamp.

Aamtem /am.tem/ <a.m\.te.m\> advb.             Aarpar /ar.par/ <a.r\.pa.r\> advb. .
.here and there.                               through one end to another.

Aam9I /am.t˙i/ <a.m\.thii> advb. .from         Aar&- /a.r\m.b˙\/ <a.r\~.bh\> masc. .
this side.                                     beginning.
                                               Aaram /a.ram/ <a.ra.m\> masc. . rest.
AamdanI /am.da.ni/ <a.m\.da.nii> fem.
.income.                                       AaroGy /a.rog.j\/ <a.ro.gj\> neut. .
                                               health.
AamNya /amn.ja/ <a.m\.nja> fem. .
respect for the elders.                        Aarop /a.rop/ <a.ro.p\> masc. .
                                               accusation.
Aamr8 /a.m\.r\¯/ <a.m\.r\.¯\> advb. .
till the end of life.                          Aalvu& /al.vu~/ <a.l\.vu~> v.tr. .to give.

AamlI /am.li/ <a.m\.lii> fem. .the             Aavk /a.v\k/ <a.v\.k\> fem. income.
tamrid tree.
                                               Aavkar /av.kar/ <a.v\.ka.r\> masc. .
AamXvu& /a.m\Æ.vu~/ <a.m\.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. . to
                                               welcome.
twist together.
                                               Aav6t /av.Î\t/ <a.v\.Î\.t\> fem. . a
Aam&{a8 /a.m\n.tr\¯/ <a.m\.ntr\.¯\>
                                               skill.
neut. an invitation.
                                               Aav6vu& /a.v\Î.vu~/ <a.v\.Î\.vu~> v.exp..
                                               to
                                               know.
                                                                                          24



Aav6u& /av.Îu~/ <a.v\.Îu~> adj. . of this     Aasn /a.s\n/ <a.s\.n\> neut. . a seat
size.                                         (formal).

Aavrda /a.v\r.da/ <a.v\.r\.da> fem.           Aas pas /as.pas/ <a.s\.pa.s\> advb.
.life-span.                                   around.

Aavvu& /av.vu~/ <a.v\.vu~> v.intr. to come.   Aasman /as.man/ <a.s\.ma.n\> neut. .
                                              the sky.
Aavu& /a.vu~/ <a.vu~> advb. .of this kind.
                                              AaiStk /as.ti.k\/ <a.sti.k\> adj. . theistic.
Aaveg /a.veg/ <a.ve.g\> masc. . an
excitement.                                   Aaso /a.so/ <a.so> masc. . the last month
                                              of Hindu calander.
Aave= /a.veß/ <a.ve.ß\> masc. . an
emotional excitement.                         AaS9a /as.t˙a/ <a.stha> fem. .1. faith 2.
                                              devotion.
Aa=y /a.ß\j/ <a.ß\.j\> masc. . an
intention.                                    AaSvad /as.va.d\/ <a.sva.d\> masc. .a
                                              tasting.
Aa=re /aß.re/ <a.ß\.re> advb. .1. about 2.
approximately 3. roughly.                     Aahaha /a.ha.ha/ <a.ha.ha> inter.. an
                                              exclamation signifying surprise.
Aa=ro /aß.ro/ <a.ß\.ro> masc. .shelter.
                                              Aahar /a.har/ <a.ha.r\> masc. . food
Aa=a /a.ßa/ <a.ßa> fem. . hope.               (formal).

Aa=a7 /a.ßaÎ˙/ <a.ßa.Îh\> masc. . the         AahIr /a.hir/ <a.hii.r\> masc. . a
nine month of the Hindu calendar.             shepherd community.

Aai=q /a.ßiß/ <a.ßi.s°\> fem. . a blessing.   Aahuit /a.hu.ti/ <a.huu.ti> fem. .1. an
                                              offering 2. a sacrifice.
Aai=vaRd /a.ßir.vad/ <a.ßi.rva.d\> masc.
a blessing. (honorific)                       AaXs /a.Æ\s/ <a.Æ\.s\> fem. .laziness.

Aa¾yR /aß.c\r.j\/ <a.ßc\.rj\> neut. . a       AaXo4vu& /a.Æoˇ.vu~/ <a.Æo.ˇ\.vu~> v.intr. . to
surprise.                                     wallow.

Aa[am /aß.r\m/ <a.ßr\.m\> masc. .a            Aa&k /a~k/ <a~.k\> masc. . tables of
hermitage.                                    multiplications.

Aa¼asn /aß.va.s\n/ <a.ßva.ß\.n\> masc.        Aa&k6a=aS{a /a~k.Îa.ßaß.tr\/
. consolation.                                <a~.k\.Îa.ßa.str\> neut. . statistics.
                                                                                                 25



Aa&k6o /a~k.Îo/ <a~.k\.Îo> masc. .1. a             Aa&bo /a~.bo/ <a~.bo> masc. . a mango tree.
number 2. a number-sign.
                                                   Aa&su& u/a~.su~/ <a~.su~> neut. . a tear.
Aa&kvu& /a~k.vu~/ <a~.k\.vu~> v.tr. . to
estimate a price.
                                                                            ;
Aa&` /a~k˙/ <a~.kh\> fem. . an eye.
                                                   ;C2vu& /ic.c˙\.vu~/ <i.cch\.vu~> v.tr. . to
Aa&g8u& /a~g.¯u~/ <a~.g\.¯u~> neut. . open         wish.
space in front of a house.
                                                   ;C2a /ic.c˙a/ <i.ccha> fem. .1. desire 2.
Aa&gXIyat /a~.g\.Æi.jat/ <a~.g\.Æi.ja.t\> adj. .   wish.
a child of the former husband of a
                                                   ;jner /iÔ.ner/ <i.Ô\.ne.r\> masc. . an
remarried woman.
                                                   engineer.
Aa&ckvu& /a~.c\k.vu~/ <a~.c\.k\.vu~> v.tr. . to
                                                   ;jaro /i.Ôa.ro/ <i.Ôa.ro> masc.
snatch forcfully.
                                                   .monopoly.
Aa&ckI /a~c.ki/ <a~.c\.kii> fem. .hiccup.
                                                   ;jjt /iÔ.Ô\t/ <i.ÔÔ\.t\> fem. .1. reputation
Aa&cko /a~c.ko/ <a~.c\.ko> masc. . a jerk.         2. a woman’s chasity.

                                                   ;5\5oter /iˇ˙.ˇ˙o.ter/ <i.ˇhˇho.te.r\> adj. .
Aa&jvu& /a~Ô.vu~/ <a~.Ô\.vu~> v.tr. . to anoint
                                                   seventy eight.
eyes with collyrium.
                                                   ;5\yasI /i.ˇ˙ja.si/ <i.ˇhja.sii> adj. . eighty
Aa&tr6u& /a~.t\r.Îu~/ <a~.t\.r\.Îu~> neut. .
                                                   eight.
intestine.
                                                   ;tr /i.t\r/ <i.t\.r\> adj. . another.
Aa&trraiQ4^y /a~n.t\r. raß.ˇri.ja/
<a~.t\.r\.ra.s°ˇri.j\> adj. . international.
                                                   ;ithas /i.ti.has/ <i.ti.ha.s\> masc.
                                                   .history.
Aa&trvu& /a~.t\r.vu~/ <a~.t\.r\.vu~> v.tr. .to
block.                                             ;nam /i.nam/ <i.na.m\> neut. .1. a gift
                                                   2. a present 3. a prize.
Aa&trIk /a~t.rik/ <a~.t\.rii.k\> adj. .
internal.                                          ;mam /i:.mam/ <i.ma.m\> masc. . the
                                                   chief prise of Muslims (honorific).
Aa&doln /a~n.do.l\n/ <a~.do.l\.n\> neut. .
agitation.                                         ;mart /i:.ma.r\t/ <i.ma.r\.t\> fem. . a
                                                   big building.
Aa&08 /a~.d˙\¯/ <a~.dh\.¯\> neut. . water
boild for cooking food.
                                                                                             26


;yX /i:.j\Æ/ <i.j\.Æ\> fem. . a kind of
worm.
                                                                    w
                                              wkr6o /u.k\r.Îo/ <u.k\.r\.Îo> masc. .a
;laj /i:.laÔ/ <i.la.Ô\> masc. .a cure.
                                              dunghill.
;laycI /i:.la.j\.ci/ <i.la.j\.cii> fem.
                                              wkXvu& /u.k\Æ.vu~/ <u.k\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. . to
.cardamom.
                                              boil.
;+k /i:ß.k\/ <i.ßk\> masc. . love.
                                              wkXa4 /uk.Æaˇ/ <u.k\.Æa.ˇ\> masc. .
                                              uneasiness and perspiration caused by
;iSptal /i:s.pi.tal/ <i.spi.ta.l\> fem. . a
                                              heat.
hospital.
                                              wkaXvu& /u.kaÆ.vu~/ <u.ka.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. .to
;Slam /is.lam/ <i.sla.m\> masc. . Islam.
                                              make something boiled.
;N±Iy /in.dri.j\/ <i.ndrii.j\> fem. . a       wkel /u.kel/ <u.ke.l\> masc. . a solution.
sense.
                                              wkelvu& /u.kel.vu~/ <u.ke.l\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                        :                     read (in the sense of deciphering).

                                              wkelvu& /u.kel.vu~/ <u.ke.l\.vu~> v.tr. .to
:ja /iŠ.Ôa/ <ii.Ôa> fem. .injury.             solve.

:6lI /iŠÎ.li/ <ii.Î\.lii> fem. . a South      wkelvu& /u.kel.vu~/ <u.ke.l\.vu~> v.tr. . to
Indian food dish.                             untwined.

:d /iŠd/ <ii.d\> fem. . a festival of         w`a8u& /u.k˙a.¯u~/ <u.kha.¯u~> neut. . a
Muslims.                                      riddle.

:d6u& /iŠd.Îu~/ <ii.d\.Îu~> neut. . a food    wgamvu& /u.gam.vu~/ <u.ga.m\.vu~> v.tr. .
item made out of fermented flour.             to raise something to strike.

:=an /iŠ.ßan/ <ii.ßa.n\> fem. .north-east.    w3ra8I /ug˙.ra.¯i/ <u.g\.ra.¯ii> fem. .
                                              collection of money due from.
:¼r /iŠß.v\r/ <ii.ßv\.r\> masc. .god.
                                              w3ravvu& /ug˙.rav.vu~/ <u.gh\.ra.v\.vu~>
:sa: /iŠ.sa.iŠ/ <ii.sa.ii> masc. a            v.tr. .to collect money by contribution.
Christian.
:&4 /iŠˇ/ <ii~.ˇ\> fem. .a brick.             wca4 /u.caˇ/ <u.ca.ˇ\> masc. .
                                              restlessness.
:&6u& /i~Š.¯du~/ <ii~.Îu~> neut. . an egg.
                                              wcapt /u.ca.p\t/ <u.ca.p\.t\> fem. .
                                              misappropriation.
                                                                                                27


wCcar /uc.car/ <u.cca.r\> masc. .                w6avvu& /u.Îav.vu~/ <u.Îa.v\.Îa.v\.vu~>
pronunciation.                                   v.tr. . to use up.

wCcarvu& /u.ccar.vu~/ <u.cca.r\.vu~> v.tr. .     wtarvu& /u.tar.vu~/ <u.ta.r\.vu~> v.tr. . to
to pronounce.                                    unload. See wtrvu&

wC2vas /uc.c˙\.vas/ <u.cch\.va.s\>               wtarvu& /u.tar.vu~/ <u.ta.r\.vu~> v.tr. .to
masc. . exhaling.                                make a copy.

w2Xvu& /u.c˙\Æ.vu~/ <u.ch\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr.       wtaru& /u.ta.ru~/ <u.ta.ru~> masc. . a
1. to jump, 2. to be tossed.                     passenger.

w2aXvu& /u.c˙aÆ.vu~/ <u.cha.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. .      wtaro /u.ta.ro/ <u.ta.ro> masc. .1. an
to toss up.                                      inn. 2. a lodging house.

w2ervu& /u.c˙er.vu~/ <u.che.r\.vu~> v.tr. . to   wtaro /u.ta.ro/ <u.ta.ro> masc. .1. a
raise.                                           copy. 2. a transcript.

wjagro /u.Ôag.ro/ <u.Ôa.g\.ro> masc. .           wtavX /u.ta.v\Æ/ <u.ta.v\.Æ\> fem. .
abstinence from sleep.                           haste.

wja8I /u.Ôa.¯i/ <u.Ôa.¯ii> fem. a picnic.        w]am /ut.t\m/ <u.tt\.m\> adj. . the best.

wjj6 /uÔ.Ô\Î/ <u.ÔÔ\.Î\> adj. barren             w]ar /ut.t\r/ <u.tt\.r\> masc. . an
(land)                                           answer.

w5m8u& /u.ˇ˙\m.¯u~/ <u.ˇh\.m\.¯u~> neut.         w]ar /ut.t\r/ <u.tt\.r\> masc. the North.
a ritual performed after death.
                                                 w]aejk /ut.te.Ô\k/ adj. . stimulating.
w5vu& /uˇ˙.vu~/ <u.ˇh\.vu~> v.intr. . to get
up.                                              wTpi]a /ut.p\t.ti/ <u.tte.Ô\.k\> fem. .
                                                 production.
w5a6vu& /u.ˇ˙aÎ.vu~/ <u.ˇha.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .
to wake up.                                      wTpadk /ut.pa.d\k/ <u.tpa.d\.k\> masc.
                                                 1. a producer. 2. a manufacturer.
w5a&trI /u.ˇ˙a~n.t\.ri/ <u.ˇha~.t\.rii> fem. .
a theft.                                         wTpadn /ut.pa.d\n/ <u.tpa.d\.n\> neut. .
                                                 an act of producing.
w6aw /u.Îa.u/ <u.Îa.u> adj. .
extravagant.                                     wTsv /ut.s\v/ <u.ts\.v\> masc. . a
                                                 festival.
w6avvu& /u.Îav.vu~/ <u.Îa.v\.vu~> v.tr. . to
make something fly.
                                                                                       28


wTsah /ut.sah/ <u.tsa.h\> masc. .1.        wpcar /up.car/ <u.p\.ca.r\> masc. .1. a
enthusiasm. 2. zeal.                       remedy. 2. cure.

w9lavvu& /ut˙.lav.vu~/ <u.th\.la.v\.vu~>   w pjvu& /u.p\Ô.vu~/ <u.p\.Ô\.vu~> v.intr.
v.tr. 1. to depose. 2. to over turn. See   .to grow
w9lvu&
                                           wpjavvu& /up.Ôav.vu~/ <u.p\.Ôa.v\.vu~>
wdar /u.dar/ <u.da.r\> adj. . generous.    v.tr. to reproduce.

wdas /u.das/ <u.da.s\> adj.                wpde= /up.deß/ <u.p\.de.ß\> masc. .
.1.unconcerned. 2. dejected.               preaching.

wdahr8 /u.da.h\.r\¯/ <u.da.h\.r\.¯\>       wpngr /up.n\.g\r/ <u.p\.n\.g\.r\>
neut. 1. an example. 2. an illustration.   neut. . a suburb.

wd\3a4n /ud.g˙a.ˇ\n/ <u.d.gha.ˇ\.n\>       wpnam /up.nam/ <u.p\.na.m\> neut. . a
neut. . an inauguration.                   nickname.

w¥e= /ud.de.ß\/ <u.dde.ß\> masc. . an      wpyog /up.jog/ <u.p\.jo.g\> masc. . use.
intention.
                                           wpr /u.p\r/ <u.p\.r\> postp. 1. above.
w)0ar /ud˙.d˙a.r\/ <u.dhdha.r\> masc. .    2. on. 3. over something.
salvation.
                                           wpra&t /up.ra~t/ <u.p\.ra~.t\> advb. .1.
wd\-v /ud.b˙\.v\/ <u.d.bh\.v\> masc.       additionally. 2. besides.
.1. birth. 2. creation.
                                           wprI /up.ri/ <u.p\.rii> masc. . a superior
wd\yog /ud.jo.g\/ <u.djo.g\> masc. .1. a   officier.
vocation. 2. an industry.
                                           wpvas /up.vas/ <u.p\.va.s\> masc. . a
w0rs /ud˙.r\s/ <u.dh\.r\.s\> fem. .        fasting.
cough.
                                           wps&har /up.sam.har/ <u.p\.s\~.ha.r\>
w0ar /u.d˙ar/ <u.da.r\> adj. . given or    masc. a summary.
taken on credit.
                                           wpa6 /u.paÎ/ <u.pa.Î\> masc. .
wnaXu& /u.na.Æu~/ <u.na.Æu~> adj. .        withdrawal of money.
pertaining to summer.
                                           wpa6vu& /u.paÎ.vu~/ <u.pa.Î\.vu~> v.tr. . to
wnaXo /u.na.Æo/ <u.na.Æo> masc. .          lift.
summer.
                                           wpay /u.paj/ <u.pa.j\> masc. . a cure.
wpkar /up.kar/ <u.p\.ka.r\> masc. . an
obligation.
                                                                                             29


wmda /um.da/ adj. . <u.m\.da> 1. best.           W`6vu& /u.k˙\Î.vu~/ <uu.kh\.Î\.vu~>
2. excellent.                                    v.intr. . to be ripped off.

wmr /u.m\r/ <u.m\.r\> fem. . age.                W`a6vu& /u.k˙aÎ.vu~/ <uu.k˙a.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
                                                 .1. to tear off, 2. to dismember.
wmXko /u.m\Æ.ko/ <u.m\.Æ\.ko> masc. .
an outburst of warm feeling.                     Wgrvu& /u.g\r.vu~/ <uu.g\.r\.vu~> v.intr. .
                                                 to escape.
wm&g /u.m\˜.g\/ <u.m\~.g\> masc. zeal.
                                                 Wgvu& /ug.vu~/ <uu.g\.vu~> v.intr. . to
wmervu& /u.mer.vu~/ <u.me.r\.vu~> v.tr. .to      grow.
add.
                                                 Wgvu& /ug.vu~/ <uu.g\.vu~> v.intr. . to
wmero /u.me.ro/ <u.me.ro> masc. . an             rise.
addition.
                                                 Wckvu& /u.c\k.vu~/ <uu.c\.k\.vu~> v.tr. .1.
wl4avvu& /ul.ˇav.vu~/ <u.l\.ˇa.v\.vu~> v.tr. .   to life. 2. to raise.
to turn up side down.
                                                 W2rvu& /u.c˙\r.vu~/ <uu.ch\.r\.vu~> v.intr.
wlecvu& /u.lec.vu~/ <u.le.c\.vu~> v.tr. . to     . to be brought up.
raise up water.
                                                 Wjvvu& /u.Ô\v.vu~/ <uu.Ô\.v\.vu~> v.tra.
wLle` /ul.lek˙/ <u.lle.kh\.vu~> masc. . a        .to celebrate.
mention.
                                                 WjXu& /uÔ.Æu~/ <uu.Ô\.Æu~> adj. .1. bright. 2.
w+kervu& /uß.ker.vu~/ <u.ßke.r\.vu~> v.tr. .     shining.
to instigate.
                                                 W5vu& /uˇ˙.vu~/ <uu.ˇh\.vu~> v.intr. . to
w&dr /un.d\r/ masc. .<u~.d\.r\> 1. a rat.        stand up.
2. a mouse.
                                                 W6vu& /uÎ.vu~/ <uu.Î\.vu~> v.intr. . to fly.
w&bro /um.b\.ro/ <u~.b\.ro> masc. the
threshold of a door.                             W8p /u.¯\p/ <uu.¯\.p\> fem. .a
                                                 deficiency.
                      W                          Wtrvu& /u.t\r.vu~/ <uu.t\.r\.vu~> v.intr. .
                                                 to climb down.
WkXvu& /u.k\ .vu~/ <uu.k\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. .
to boil.                                         W9lvu& /u.t˙\l.vu~/ <uu.th\.l\.vu~> v.intr. .
                                                 to be up-side-down.
WkaXvu& /u.ka.Æ\.vu~/ <u.ka.Æ\.vu~> v.tr.
.to boil.                                        W9lo /u.t˙.lo/ <uu.th\.lo> masc. .1. an
                                                 upset. 2. an overturning.
                                                                                            30


W0; /u.d˙\.i/ <uu.dh\.ii> fem. . a white
ant.                                            W&0Iyu& /u~n.d˙i.ju~/ <uu~.dhii.ju~> neut. . a
                                                food made of vegetables, various types
Wn /un/ <uu.n\> neut. . wool.                   of beans, roots and etc. Popular in South
                                                Gujarat.
Wpj /u.p\Ô/ <uu.p\.Ô\> fem. .1. a farm
product. 2. an income.                          W&0u& /u~n.d˙u~/ <uu.dhu~> adj. . bottom
                                                upward.
Wp6vu& /u.p\Î.vu~/ <uu.p\.Î\.vu~> v.intr.
.1. to be lifted. 2. to set out a journey.                           ¢
                                                ¢ju /ru.Ôu/ adj. . <ru≤.Ôu> 1.soft. 2.
W-aW- /u.b˙a.ub˙/ <uu.bha.uu.bh\>
                                                gentle.
advb.
hurriedly.                                      ¢8 /ru¯/ <ru≤.¯\> neut. . a debt.
W-u& /u.b˙u~/ <uu.bhu~> adj. . standing
                                                ¢tu /ru.tu/ <ru≤.tu> fem. . a season.
upright.
                                                ¢iq /ru.ßi/ <ru≤.s°i> masc. . a sage.
Wl4I /ul.ti/ <uu.l\.ˇii> fem. . vomiting.

Wl4u& /ul.ˇu~/ <uu.l\.ˇu~> adj. .1. opposite.                        Ae
2. contrary.
                                                Ae /e/ <e> adj. .that.
WlXvu& /u.l\Æ.vu~/ <uu.l\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. .
to be bumped.                                   Aek /ek/ <e.k\> adj. .one.1.

Whapoh /u.ha.poh/ <uu.ha.po.h\> masc.           Aek4a8u& /ek.ˇa.¯u~/ <e.k\.ˇa.¯u~> neut. . a
. uproar.                                       kind of fasting in which a person eats
                                                only once a day.
W&3 /u~˜.g\/ <uu~.gh\> fem. . sleep.
                                                Aek6o /ek.Îo/ <e.k\.Îo> masc. . the sign
W&ckvu& /u~.c\k.vu~/ <uu.c\.k\.vu~> v.tr.       of number 1.
.to lift up.
                                                Aekta /ek.ta/ <e.k\.ta> fem. . unity.
W&ca; /u~.cai/ <uu~.ca.ii> fem. . height.
                                                AektaXIs /ek.ta.Æis/ <e.k\.ta.Æi.s\> adj. .
W&cu& /u~.cu~/ <uu~.cu~> adj. . high.           forty one.

W&4 /u~ˇ/ <uu~.ˇ\> neut. . a camel..            Aek{aIs /e.k\.tris/ <e.k\.trii.s\> adj. .
                                                thirty one.
W&6a; /un.Îa.i/ <uu~.Îa.ii> fem. . depth.
                                                Aekdm /ek.d\m/ <e.k\.d\.m\> advb. . at
W&6u& /u~¯.Îu~/ <uu~.Îu~> adj. . deep.          once.
                                                                                                 31


                                                 Aeks5 /ek.s\ˇ˙/ <e.k\.vi.s\> adj. . sixty
Aek0aru& /ek.d˙a.ru~/ <e.k.dha.ru~> adj. .1.     one.
constant. 2. incessant.
                                                 Aeksr`u& /ek.s\r.k˙u~/ <e.k\.s\.r\.khu~>
AekpxI /ek.p\.kßi/ <e.k\.p\.kßii> adj. .         adj. . uniform.
one sided.
                                                 Aek&dr /ekn.d\r/ <e.k\~.d\.r\> advb. .
AekpiTn]v /ek.p\t.nit.v\/                        totally.
<e.k\.p\.tni.ttv\> neut. monogamy.
                                                 AekaAek /e.ka.ek/ <e.ka.e.k\> advb. .
Aekm /e.k\m/ <e.k\.m\> fem. . fist day           suddenly.
of bright or dark half of Hindu month.
                                                 Aeka8u& /e.ka.¯u~/ <e.ka.¯u~> adj. . ninety
Aekma{a /ek.mat.r\/ <e.k\.ma.tr\> adj. .         one.
the only one of a type.
                                                 Aekad=I /e.ka.d\.ßi/ <e.ka.d\.ßii> fem. .
Aekmek /ek.mek/ <e.k\.me.k\> advb. .             the eleventh day of dark or bright half of
mutually.                                        a Hindu month.

Aekrag /ek.rag/ masc. . <e.k\.ra.g\> 1.          Aeka=I /e.ka.ßi/ <e.ka.ßii> adj. . eighty
unity. 2. harmony.                               one.

Aek£p /ek.rup/ <e.k\.ruu.p\> adj. . of           Aeka&kI /e.ka~.ki/ <e.ka~.kii> adj. . one act
similar form.                                    play.

Aekl dokl /e.k\l do.k\l/                         Aeka&t /e.ka~n.t\/ <e.ka~.t\> neut. . lonely.
<e.k\.l\.do.k\.l\> adj. . lonely.
                                                 AekI sa9e /e.ki sa.t˙e/ <e.kii.sa.the> advb.
Aeklpe4u& /e.k\l.pe.ˇu~/ <e.k\.l\./pe.ˇu~>       . all at atime.
adj. . selfish.
                                                 Aekek /ek.kek/ <e.ke.k\> advb. . one by
Aeklvayu& /e.k\l.va.ju~/ <e.k\.l\.va.ju~> adj.   one.
. lonely.
                                                 Aekotr /e.ko.t\r/ <e.ko.t\.r\> adj. .
Aekvgu& /ek.v\.gu~/ <e.k\.v\.gu~> adj. . all     seventy one.
together.
                                                 Aekya=I /e.kja.ßi/ <e.kja.ßi> adj. . eighty
Aekvcn /ek.v\.c\n/ <e.k\.v.c\.n\> neut.          one.
. singular.
                                                 Ae4le /eˇ.le/ <e.ˇ\.le> advb. . therefore.
AekvIs /ek.vis/ <e.k\.vi.s\> adj. . twenty
one.                                             Ae5u& /´.ˇ˙u~/ <e.thu~> neut. . the left over
                                                 food.
                                                                                          32


Ae6I /e.Îi/ <e.Îii> fem. . heel.              seventy nine.

AelcI /el.ci/ <e.l\.cii> fem. . cardamom.     Aog8Is /og.¯is/ <o.g\.¯i.s\> adj.
                                              .nineteen.
AelcI /el.ci/ <e.l\.cii> masc. . an
ambassador. (honorific)                       AoXgvu& /ø.g\Æ.vu~/ <o.g\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr ..to
                                              melt.
Aev6u& /ev.Îu~/ <e.v\.Îu~> advb. . of that
size.                                         AoicNtu& /ø.cin.tu~/ <o.ci.ntu~> advb. .
                                              suddenly.
Aevu& /e.vu~/ <e.vu~> advb. . of that
manner.                                       AoC2v /oc.c˙\v/ <o.cch\.v\> masc. . a
                                              festival.
Aevama& /e.va.ma~/ <e.va.ma~> advb. . in
the mean time.                                Ao2abolu& /o.c˙a.bo.lu~/ <o.cha.bo.lu~> adj.
                                              . reserved.
Ae= /´ß/ <e.ß\> masc. .enjoyment.
.                                             Ao2u& /o.c˙u~/ <o.chu~> adj. . less than
                                              necessary.
                     AE
AEravt /\i.ra.v\t/ <\i.ra.v\.t\> masc. .      Aojar /o.Ôar/ <o.Ôa.r\> neut. . an
Indra’s elephant (with seven trunks).         instrument.
                                              Ao4 /oˇ/ <o.ˇ\> masc. . an ebb.
AE¼yR /\i.ßv\.rj\/ <\i.ßv\.rj\> neut.
godliness.                                    Ao4lo /oˇ.lo/ <o.ˇ\.lo> masc. . a raised
                                              platform adjoining the outer wall of a
                     Ao                       building.

Aog8calIs /o.g\¯.ca.lis/                      Ao4vu& /oˇ.vu~/ <o.ˇ\.vu~> v.tran.. to hem.
<o.g\.¯\.ca.lii.s\> adj. . thirty nine.
                                              Ao7vu& /oÎ˙.vu~/ <o.Îh\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to
Aog8{aIs /o.g\¯.tris/ <o.g\.¯\.tri.s\>        wrap over the body. 2. to wear a sari.
adj.
                                              Aor6o /or.Îo/ <o.r\.Îo> masc. . a room.
.twenty nine.

Aog8pcas /o.g\¯.p\.cas/                       Aorvu& /or.vu~/ <o.r\.vu~> v.tr. . to sow
<o.g\.¯\.p›.ca.s\> adj. .forty nine.          seeds.

                                              AorI /o.ri/ <o.rii> fem. .1. small-pox 2.
Aog8sa;5 /o.g\¯. sa.iˇ˙/
                                              measles.
<o.g\.¯\.sa.i.ˇh\> adj. .fifty nine.
                                              Aolvvu& /o.l\v.vu~/ <o.l\.v\.vu~> v.tr. . to
Aog*yaAe&=I./og.¯ja. ´~ßi/ <o.g\.¯ja.e.ßii>
                                              extinguish.
adj.
                                                                                             33


AosrI /os.ri/ <o.s\.rii> fem. . the front        kcrape4I /k\c.ra pe.ˇi/ <k\.c\.ra.pe.ˇii>
open part of a house.                            fem. a dust bin.

Ao=Iku& /o.ßi.ku~/ <o.ßii.ku~> neut. . a         kcro /k\c.ro/ <k\.c\.ro> masc. .
pillow.                                          garbage.

AoX` /o.Æ\k˙/ <o.Æ\.kh\> fem. . idenitity.       kcva4 /k\c.vaˇ/ <k\.c\.va.ˇ\> masc. .1.
                                                 grumbling. 2. dissatisfaction.
AoXvu& /oÆ.vu~/ <o.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. . to comb
(hair).                                          kca= /k\.caß/ <k\.ca.ß\> fem.
                                                 1.unripenness. 2. imperfection. 3.
AoX&gvu& /o.Æ\˜.g\.vu~/ <o.Æ\~.g\.vu~> v.tr. .   deficiency.
to cross over.
                                                 kcu&br /k\.cum.b\r/ <k\.cu~,b\.r\> neut.
                                                 raw vegetables cut into pieces.
                     AO
                                                 kcorI /k\.co.ri/ <k\.co.rii> fem. . a type
AOicTy /\u.ci.tj\/ <au.ci.tj\> adj. .            of food.
appropriateness.
                                                 kijya`or /k\.Ôi.ja.k˙or/ <k\.Ôi.ja.kho.r\>
AOdICy /\u.diŠ.cj\/ <\u.dii.cj\> masc. . a       adj. quarrelsome.
sub-caste of Brahmin
                                                 kjo6u& /k\.Ôo.Îu~/ <k\.Ôo.Îu~> neut. . an
AOpcarRIk /\up.ca.rik/ <\u.p\.ca.rii.k\>         unfit match.
adj. . formal.
                                                 k4ko /k\ˇ.ko/ <k\.ˇ\.ko> masc. . a piece.
AOq0 /\u.ß\d˙/ <\u.s°\.dh\> neut. a
medicine.                                        k4ok4I /k\.ˇo.k\.ˇi/ <k\.ˇo.k\.ˇii> fem. . a
                                                 crisis.
Aod\yoigk /\u.djo.gik/ <\u.djo.gi.k\>
adj. . industial.                                k4oro /k\.ˇo.ro/ <k\.ˇo.ro> masc. . a
                                                 bowl.
                       K                         k58 /k\.ˇ˙\¯/ <k\.ˇh\.¯\> adj. . hard.

kk\ko /k\k.ko/ <k\.kko> masc. .                  k5In /k\.ˇ˙in/ <k\.ˇhii.n\> adj. .
alphabet.                                        difficult.
kckc /k\c. k\c/ <k\.c\.k\.c\> fem. .1. a         ki5yaro /k\.ˇ˙i.ja.ro/ <k\.ˇhi.ja.ro> masc.
boring talk. 2. a quarrel.                       .a woodcutter.
kc6vu& /k\.c\Î.vu~/ <k\.c\.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to      k5e6o /k\.ˇ˙e.Îo/ <k\.ˇhe.Îo> masc. . a
trample.                                         railing.
                                                                                            34


k5or /k\.ˇ˙or/ <k\.ˇho.r\> adj. . harsh.       kd£pu& /k\d.ru.pu~/ <k\.d\.ruu.pu~> adj. .
                                               ugly.
k5oX /k\.ˇ˙oÆ/ <k\.ˇho.Æ\> neut. . pulses.
                                               kdavr /k\.da.v\r/ <k\.da.v\.r\> adj.
k6ko /k\Î.ko/ <k\.Î\.ko> masc. .1.a            .huge.
piece
2. penniless.                                  kn6gt /k\.n\Î.g\t/ <k\.n\.Î\.g\.t\>
                                               fem. . harassment.
k6vu& /k\Î.vu~/ <k\.Î\.vu~> adj. . bitter in
taste.                                         kNya /k\n.ja/ <k\.nja> fem. .1. an
                                               unmarried girl. 2. Virgo.
k6akU4 /k\.Îa.kuˇ/ <k\.Îa.kuu.ˇ\> fem. .
unnecessary botheration.                       kp4 /k\.p\ˇ/ <k\.p\.ˇ\> neut. . deceit.

k6Iyo /k\.Îi.jo/ <k\.Îii.jo> masc. .1. a       kp6a&l]aa& /k\p.Îa~.l\t.ta~/ <k\.p\.Îa~.l\.tta~>
mason 2. a brick-layer                         neut. pl.. clothes.

k6I /k\.Îi/ <k\.Îii> fem. .1. a hook 2. an     kp6u& /k\p.Îu~/ <k\.p\.Îu~> neut. . cloth.
earring.
                                               kpru& /k\p.ru~/ <k\.p\.ru~> adj. . tough.
k6u& /k\.Îu~/ <k\.Îu~> neut. . an armlet.
                                               kpaX /k\.pa / <k\.pa.Æ\> neut. . the
k7&gu& /k\.Î˙\˜.gu/ <k\.Îh\~.gu~> adj. .1.     forehead.
clumsy 2. awkward in shape.
                                               kpas /k\.pas/ <k\.pa.s\> masc. . a
k7I /k\.Î˙i/ <k\.Îhii> fem. .a food item.      cotton plant.

k8 /k\¯/ <k\.¯\> masc. a grain.                kpoX /k\.poÆ/ <k\.po.Æ\> adj. . a sub
                                               caste in Bania community.
k8svu& /k\.¯\s.vu~/ <k\.¯\.s\.vu~> v.intr.
. to groan.                                    kf /k\p˙/ <k\.ph\> masc. .cough.

k9Xvu& /k\.t˙\Æ.vu~/ <k\.th\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr.   kb@yat /k\.b\.Ôi.jat/ <k\.b\.Ôii.ja.t\>
.to deteriorate.                               masc.
                                               constipation.
k9a /k\.t˙a/ <k\.tha> fem. . a stroy.
                                               kbjo /k\b.Ôo/ <k\.b\.Ôo> masc. . a
k9akar /k\.t˙a.kar/ <k\.tha.ka.r\> masc.       blouse.
. a story teller.
                                               kbr /k\.b\r/ <k\.b\.r\> fem. . a grave.
kd /k\d/ <k\.d\> neut. . size.
                                               kba4 /k\.baˇ/ neut. . a cup-board.
                                                                                          35


kbUtr /k\.bu.t\r/ <k\.buu.t\.r\> neut. .
a pigeon.                                     kra /k\.ra/ <k\.ra> masc. pl..1. hail-
                                              stones.
kmnsIb /k\m.n\.sib/ <k\.m\.n\.sii.b\>
adj. . unfortunate.                           krar /k\.rar/ <k\.ra.r\> masc. . a written
                                              agreement.
kmr /k\.m\r/ <k\.m\.r\> fem. . a waist.
                                              kirya8u& /k\.ri.ja.¯u~/ <k\.ri.ja.¯u~> neut. .
kmX /k\.m\Æ/ <k\.m\.Æ\> neut. . a lotus.      grocery.

kmXo /k\m.Æo/ <k\.m\.Æo> masc. .              kiryavr /k\.ri.ja.v\r/ <k\.ri.ja.v\.r\>
jaundice.                                     neut. . a bride’s father’s gift to
                                              bridegroom and his relatives.
kma; /k\.ma.i/ <k\.ma.ii> fem. .
earnings.                                     kru8 /k\.ru¯/ <k\.ru.¯\> adj. .1.
                                              pathetic 2. tragic.
kmavu& /l\.ma.vu~/ <k\.ma.vu~> v.intr. . to
earn.                                         kru8a /k\.ru.¯a/ <k\.ru.¯a> fem. .
                                              kindness.
kmurt /k\.mu.r\t/ <k\.mu.r\.t\> neut.
inauspicious time or hour.                    k£p /k\.rup/ <k\.ruu.p\> adj. . ugly.

kmot /k\.mot/ <k\.mo.t\> neut. .              kro6 /k\.roÎ/ <k\.ro.Î\> adj. . ten
unnatural death.                              millions.

kmosm /k\.mo.s\m/ <k\.mo.s\.m\>               kro6 /k\.roÎ/ <k\.ro.Î\> fem. . a spine.
fem. .1. bad weather. 2. untimely.
                                              kro6rjju /k\.roÎ.r\Ô.Ôu/ <k\.ro.Î\.r\.ÔÔu>
krksr /k\r.k\.s\r/ <k\.r\.k\.s\.r\> fem.      fem. . the spinal cord.
. economy.
                                              kroiXyo /k\.ro.Æi.jo/ <k\.ro.Æi.jo> masc. .
krgrvu& /k\r.g\r.vu~/ <k\.r\.g\.r\.vu~>       a spider.
v.intr. . to request humbly.
                                              kl&k /k\.l\nk/ <k\.l\~.k\> neut. .1. a blot
krclo /k\.r\c.lo/ <k\.r\.c\.lo> masc. . a     2. a blemish.
crab.
                                              kla /k\.la/ <k\.la> fem. . art.
krj /k\.r\Ô/ <k\.r\.Ô\> neut. . a debt.
                                              klak /k\.lak/ <k\.la.k\> masc. . an hour.
krmavu& /k\r.ma.vu~/ <k\.r\.ma.vu~>
v.intr..to wither.                            klakar /k\.la.kar/ <k\.la.ka.r\> masc. .
                                              an artist.
krvu& /k\r.vu~/ <k\.r\.vu~> v.tr. . to do.
                                                                                              36


kLpna /k\l.p\.na/ <k\.lp\.na> fem. .             k;& /k\.i~/ <k\.ii~> advb. .1. where? 2.
imagination.                                     some.

kLpvu& /k\l.p\.vu~/ <k\.lp\.vu~> v.tr. . to      k;&k /k\.i~k/ <k\.ii~.k\> advb. .
imagine.                                         something.

kLya8 /k\l.ja.¯\/ <k\.lja.¯\> neut. .            k&kav4I /k\n.ka.vaˇi/ <k\~.ka.v\.ˇii> fem. .
well-being.                                      a small bowl to keep k&ku>

kviy{aI /k\.v\.ji.tri/ <k\.v\ji.tri> fem. .a     k&ku /k\n.ku/ <k\~.ku> neut. . a red
female poet.                                     powder/ paste used in rituals and certain
                                                 social customs such as putting bindi on
kiv /k\.vi/ masc. . <k\.vi> a male poet.         the forehead.

k=u& /k\.ßu~/ <k\.ßu~> adj. . whatever           k&kotrI /k\.nko.t\.ri/ <k\~.ko.t\.rii> fem. .
thing.                                           an invitation letter.

k=u&k /k\.ßu~k/ <k\.ßu~.k\> adj. .               k&jUs /k\n.Ôus/ <k\~.Ôu.s\> adj. . miserly.
something.
                                                 k&4aXvu& /k\n.ˇaÆ.vu~/ <k\~.ˇa.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. .
ksrt /k\s.r\t/ <k\.s\.r\.t\> fem. . an           to be bored.
exercise.
                                                 k&4aXo /k\n.ˇa.Æo/ <k\~.ˇa.Æo> masc. .
ksa; /k\.sai/ <k\.sa.ii> masc. . a               medium.
butcher.
                                                 k&5 /k\¯t˙/ <k\~.ˇh\> masc. .1. the throat
kso4I /k\.so.ˇi/ <k\.so.ˇii> fem. . a test.      2. a vocal tune.

khe8 /k\.he¯/ <k\.he.¯\> neut. . a               k&5I /k\¯.ˇ˙i/ <k\~.ˇhii> fem. . a kind of
message.                                         necklace.

khevt /k\.he.v\t/ <k\.he.v\.t\> fem. . a         k&do; /k\n.doi/ masc. . a confectioner.
proverb.
                                                 k&doro /k\n.do.ro/ <k\~.do.ro> masc. . a
khevu& /k\.he.vu~/ <k\.he.vu~> v.tr. . to say.   waist-band.

k¬agru& /k\h.ja.g\.ru~/ <k\.hja.g\.ru~>          k&parI /k\m.pa.ri/ <k\~.pa.rii> fem. . a
adj. . obedient.                                 shivering.

kXtr /k\Æ.t\r/ <k\.Æ\.t\.r\> neut. . a           k&pvu& /k\mp.vu~/ <k\~.p\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to
kind of body pain.                               shiver 2. to tremble.

kXI /k\.Æi/ <k\.Æii> fem. . a bud.               k&sar /k\m.sar/ <k\~.sa.r\> masc. .a
                                                 sweet.
                                                                                         37


kak6I /kak.Îi/ <ka.k\.Îii> fem. .            ka7vu& /kaÎ˙.vu~/ <ka.Îh\.vu~> v.tr. . to
cucumber.                                    take out.

kaka /ka.ka/ <ka.ka> masc. hon..             ka8u& /ka.¯u~/ <ka.¯u~> adj. .1. a hole, 2.
paternal uncle.                              one-eyed.

kaka@ /ka.ka.Ôi/ <ka.ka.Ôii> masc. . a       katr /ka.t\r/ <ka.t\.r\> fem. . scissors.
brother of the father-in-law.
                                             katrvu& /ka.t\r.vu~/ <ka.t\.r\.vu~> v.tr. . to
kakI /ka.ki/ <ka.kii> fem. . a paternal      cut with scissors.
uncle’s wife.
                                             katrI /kat.ri/ <ka.t\.rii> fem. .a wafer-
kakI@ /ka.ki.Ôi/ <ka.ka.Ôii> fem. . the      thin slice.
wife of the brother of the father-in-law.
                                             kadv /ka.d\v/ <ka.d\.v\> masc. . mud.
kag6o /kag.Îo/ <ka.g\.Îo> masc. . a
crow.                                        kan /kan/ <ka.n\> masc. . an ear.

kagX /ka.g\Æ/ <ka.g\.Æ\> masc. .1. paper     kap /kap/ <ka.n\> masc. . reduction.
2. a letter.
                                             kap6 /ka.p\Î/ <ka.p\.Î\> neut. . cloth.
kagaroX /ka.ga.roÆ/ <ka.ga.ro.Æ\> fem. .
rowdism.                                     kaplI /kap.li/ <ka.p\.lii> fem. . a
                                             clipping of a paper.
kac /kac/ <ka.c\> masc. .1. glass 2.
mirror.                                      kapvu& /kap.vu~/ <ka.p\.vu~> v.tr. . to cut.

kacbo /kac.bo/ <ka.c\.bo> masc. . a          kapo /ka.po/ <ka.po> masc. .1.a cut. 2 a
tortoise.                                    mark made by cutting.
kaic&6o /ka.ci¯.Îo/ <ka.c\~.Îo> masc. . a    kabr /ka.b\r/ <ka.b\.r\> neut. . a kind
chameleon.                                   of bird.
kacu& /ka.cu~/ <ka.cu~> adj. .1.unripe 2.    kabU /ka.bu/ <ka.buu> masc. . control.
raw.
                                             kam /kam/ <ka.m\> neut. . work
kajX /ka.Ô\Æ/ <ka.Ô\.Æ\> neut. .eye-salve.
                                             kam /kam/ <ka.m\> masc. . sexual
kaju /ka.Ôu/ <ka.Ôu> neut. . a cashew-nut.
                                             desire.
ka4 /kaˇ/ <ka.ˇ\> masc. . rust.              kamclaw& /kam.c\.lau~/ adj. .tentative.
                                                                                             38


kamcor /kam.cor/ <ka.m\.co.r\> adj. .
not inclined to work.                         kaXju& /kaÆ.Ôu~/ <ka.Æ\.Ôuu> neut. .1.the
                                              lever.
kamdar /kam.dar/ <ka.m\.da.r\> masc. .
a manual worker.                              kaXu& /la.Æu~/ <ka.Æu~> adj. . black.

kamdev /kam.dev/ <ka.m\.de.v\> masc. .        kaXotrI /ka.Æo.t\.ri/ <ka.Æo.t\.rii> fem. . a
ther god of love.                             letter containg someone’s death’s
                                              message.
kam0&0o /ka.d˙n.d˙o/ <ka.m\.dh\~.dho>
masc. .1. business 2. profession.             ka&krI /ka~k.ri/ <ka~.k\.rii> fem. . a smll
                                              pebble.
kaydo /kaj.do/ <ka.j\.do> masc. . a law.
                                              ka&kro /ka~k.ro/ <ka~.k\.ro> masc. . a
kaym /ka.j\m/ <ka.j\.m\> adj. . forever.      pebble.

karkun /kar.kun/ <ka.r\.ku.n\> masc. . a      ka&4aXu& /ka~.ˇa.Æu~/ <ka~.ˇa.Æu~> adj. . throny.
clerk.
                                              ka&4o /ka~.ˇo/ <ka~.ˇo> masc. . a thorn.
kar`anu& /kar.k˙a.nu~/ <ka.r\.kha.nu~>
neut. . a factory.                            ka&4o /ka~.ˇo/ <ka~.ˇo> masc. . a weighing
                                              machine.
kar8 /ka.r\¯/ <ka.r\.¯\> neut. .1. a
reason 2. a cause.                            ka&5o /ka~.ˇ˙o/ <ka~.ˇho> masc. .1. a bank 2.
                                              a shore 3 a coast.
kartk /kar.t\k/ <ka.r\.t\.k\> masc. . the
first month of Hindu year.                    ka&6u& /ka~¯.Îu~/ <ka~.Îu~> neut. . a wrist.

kartUs /kar.tus/ <ka.r\.tu.s\> neut. . a      ka&do /ka¯.do/ <ka~.do> masc. . onion.
cartridge.
                                              ka&0 /ka~n.d˙\/ <ka~.dh\> fem. . one of the
kar-ar /kar.b˙ar/ <ka.r\.bha.r\> masc. .      shoulders.
management.
                                              ka&skI /ka~s.ki/ <ka~.s\.kii> fem. . a small
kal /kal/ <ka.l\> fem. .1.tomrrow 2.          comb mainly for women.
yesterday.
                                              ka&sko /ka~s.ko/ <ka~.s\.ko> masc. . a
kavtru& /ka.v\t.ru~/ <ka.v\.t\.ru~> neut. .   comb.
fraud.
                                              ikLlo /kil.lo/ <ki.llo> masc. . a fortress.
kaVy /kav.j\/ <ka.vj\> neut. . a poem.
                                              ik=or /ki.ßor/ <ki.ßo.r\> masc. . a minor
kaX@ /kaÆ.Ôi/ <ka.Æ\.Ôii> fem. . care.        boy.
                                                                                              39


                                               ku&-ar /kum.b˙ar/ <ku~.bha.r\> masc. . a
ik=orI /ki.ßo.ri/ <ki.ßo.rii> fem. . a minor   potter.
girl.
                                               ku&varu& /ku~.va.ru~/ <ku~.vaa.ru~> adj. .
kI4lI /kiˇ.li/ <kii.ˇ\.lii> fem. . a kettle.   unmarried.

kI6I. /ki.Îi/ <kii.Îii> fem. . an ant.         kUk6o /kuk.Îo/ <kuu.k\.Îo> masc. . a
                                               cock.
kI6o /ki.Îo/ <kii.Îo> masc. . an insect.
                                               kUk6I /kuk.Îi/ <kuu.k\.Îii> fem. . a hen.
kImt /ki.m\t/ <kii.m\.t\> fem. . price.
                                               kUtrI /kut.ri/ <kuu.t\.rii> fem. . a female
kIitR /kir.ti/ <kii.rti> fem. . fame.          dog.

ku4u&b /ku.ˇum.b\/ <ku.ˇu~.b\> neut. . a       kUtru& /kut.ru~/ <kuu.t\.ru~> neut. . a dog.
family.
                                               kUtro /kut.ro/ <kuu.t\.ro> masc. . a male
ku4ev /ku.ˇev/ <ku.ˇe.v\> fem. . a bad         dog.
habit.
                                               kU9lI /kut˙.li/ <ku.th\.lii> fem. . scandal.
kutUhl /ku.tu.h\l/ <ku.tu.h\.l\> neut.
curiosity.                                     kUdvu& /kud.vu~/ <ku.d\.vu~> v.intr. . to
                                               jump.
kudrt /kud.r\t/ <ku.d\.r\.t\> fem. .
nature.                                        kudavvu& /ku.dav.vu~/ <ku.da.v\.vu~> v.tr.
                                               see kuda6vu.
kUXdev /kuÆ.dev/ <ku.Æ\.de.v\> masc. . a
family deity.                                  kUvo /ku.vo/ <ku.vo> masc. . a water-
                                               well.
kuStI /kus.ti/ <ku.stii> fem. . wrestling.
                                               kU&cI /ku~.ci/ <ku~.cii> fem. .1. a key 2. a
kuseva /ku.se.va/ <ku.se.vaa> fem. . a         clue.
disservice.
                                               kU&pX /ku.mp\Æ/ <kuu~.p\.Æ\> fem. . a
kuha6I /ku.ha.Îi/ <ku.ha.Îii> fem. . a         sprout.
small axe.
                                               ke4lu& /keˇ.lu~/ <ke.ˇ\.lu~> adj. . how much.
kuha6o /ku.ha.Îo/ <ku.ha.Îio> masc. . an
axe.                                           ke6 /k´Î/ <ke.Î\> fem. .a waist.

ku&6X /ku¯.Î\Æ/ <ku~.Î\.Æ\> masc. a kind       ked /k´d/ <ke.d\> fem. . a prison.
of ear ring.
                                               kem /k´m/ <ke.m\> advb. .why.
                                                                                             40


                                                 kotrvu& /ko.t\r.vu~/ <ko.t\.r\.vu~> v.tr. .1.
kedI /k´.di/ <ke.dii> masc. .a prisoner.         to engrave 2. to carve.

kerI /k´.ri/ <ke.rii> fem. .a mango.             ko9mIr /kot˙.mir/ <ko.th\.mii.r\> neut.
                                                 coriander.
kev6u& /kev.Îu~/ <ke.v\.Îu~> adj. .how big
                                                 ko9XI /kot˙.Æi/ <ko.th\.Æii> fem. .a purse
kevu& /ke.vu~/ <ke.vu~> adj. .of what kind.      of cloth.

kesr /ke.s\r/ <ke.s\.r\> neut. .saffron.         ko9Xo /koˇ˙.Æo/ <ko.th\.Æo> masc. .a
                                                 large beg of cloth.
kesrI /kes.ri/ <ke.s\.rii> adj. .saffron
colored.                                         kodaXI /ko.da.Æi/ <ko.da.Æii> fem. .1. a
                                                 hoe 2. a spade.
keX /keÆ/ <ke.Æ\> fem. .a banana-tree.
                                                 konu& /kø.nu~/ <ko.nu~> pron.. whose.
keXv8I /ke.Æ\v.¯i/ <ke.Æ\.v\.¯ii> fem. .1.
bringing up. 2. training.                        kopru& /kop.ru~/ <ko.p\.ru~> neut. .a kernel
                                                 of a coconut.
keXvvu& /ke.Æ\v.vu~/ <ke.Æ\.v\.vu~> v.tr. .to
bring up.                                        kom /kom/ <ko.m\> fem. .a caste-group.

keXu& /ke.Æu~/ <ke.Æu~> neut. .a banana.         komvad /kom.vad/ <ko.m\.va.d\> masc.
                                                 .1. communalism 2. castism.
ko; /ko.i/ <ko.i> prono..someone.
                                                 korvu& /kor.vu~/ <ko.r\.vu~> v.tr. .to bore a
kogXIyu& /kø.g\.Æi.ju~/ <ko.g\.Æii.ju~> neut.    hole.
cholera.
                                                 kolso /kol.so/ <ko.l\.so> masc. .coal.
kogXo /køg.Æo/ <ko.g\.Æo> masc. .1. a
mouthful of liquid 2. a gargle.                  kolahl /ko.la.h\l/ <ko.la.h\.l\> masc. .a
                                                 continuous loud noise.
ko5I /ko.ˇ˙i/ <ko.ˇhii> fem. .a large vessel
to stor grain.                                   koi== /ko.ßiß/ <ko.ßi.ß\> fem. .an effort.

ko6Iyu& /ko.Îi.ju~/ <ko.Îii.ju~> neut. .a kind   kohvu& /koh.vu~/ <ko.h\.vu~> v.intr. .to rot.
of earthern lamp.
                                                 koXI /ko.Æi/ <ko.Æii> fem. .a caste.
ko7 /koÎ˙/ <ko.Îh\> masc. .leprosy.
                                                 koXu& /ko.Æu~/ <ko.Æu~> neut. .a pumpkin.
ko8I /kø.¯i/ <ko.¯ii> fem. .an elbow.
                                                 kO4uiMbk /k\u.ˇum.bik/ <k\u.tu~.mbi.k\>
                                                 adj. pertaining to a family.
                                                                                      41


                                           `jU.rI /k˙\.Ôu.ri/ <kh\.Ôu.rii> fem. .a date
kO-a&6 /k\u.b˙a~nÎ/ <k\u.bha~.Î\> neut.    tree.
.a scandal.
                                           `jUro /k˙\.Ôu.ro/ <kh\.Ôuu.ro> masc. .a
kO&s /k\ums/ <k\u~.s\> masc. .a bracket.   centipede.
Ex. [], {}, ( ).
                                           `4kvu& /k˙\.ˇ\k.vu~/ <kh\.ˇ\.k\.vu~>
kyare /kja.re/ <kja.re> advb. .when.       v.exp.. to repent.

kya& /kja~/ <k\.ja~> advb. .where.         `4p4 /k˙\ˇ.p\ˇ/ <kh\.ˇ\.p\.ˇ\> fem. .an
                                           intrigue.
k/ur /kru.r\/ <kru.r\> adj. .cruel.
                                           `4ml /k˙\ˇ.m\l/ <kh\.ˇ\.m\.l\> masc.
k/o0 /kro.d˙\/ <kro.dh\> masc. .anger.     .a bug.

                                           `4mI5u& /k˙\ˇ.mi.ˇ˙u~/ <kh\.ˇ\.mii.ˇhu~>
                     `                     adj. sour and sweet.
``6vu& /k˙\.k˙\Î.vu~/ <kh\.kh\.Î\.vu~>     `4rag /k˙\ˇ.rag/ <kh\.ˇ\.ra.g\> masc. .a
v.intr. .to rattle.                        quarrel.
``6avvu& /k˙\k˙.Îav.vu~/                   `4lo /k˙\ˇ.lo/ <kh\.ˇ\.lo> masc. .a law-
<k˙\.k˙\.Îa.v\.vu~> v.tr. .to knock (on    suit.
a door etc.).
                                           `4vvu& /k˙\.ˇ\v.vu~/ <kh\.ˇ\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
`ckavu& /k˙\c.ka.vu~/ <kh\.c\.ka.vu~>      .to make things sour.
v.intr. .to hesitate.
                                           `4aro /k˙\.ˇa.ro/ <kh\.ˇa.ro> masc. .a
`ca`c /k˙\.ca.k˙\c/ <kh\.ca.kh\.c\>        motor truck.
advb. densely.
                                           `4u&b6u& /k˙\.ˇumb.Îu~/ <kh\.ˇu~.b\.Îu~>
`Ccr /k˙\c.c\r/ <kh\.cc\.r\> neut. .a      adj. slightly sour.
mule.
                                           `6k /k˙\.Î\k/ <kh\.Î\.k\> masc. .a
`jancI /k˙\.Ôan.ci/ <kh\.Ôa.n\.cii>        rock.
masc. .a cashier.
                                           `6klo /k˙\.Î\k.lo/ <kh\.Î\.k\.lo>
`jano /k˙\.Ôa.no/ <kh\.Ôa.no> masc. .a     masc. .a pile.
treasure.
                                           `6kI /k˙\Î.ki/ <kh\.Î\.kii> fem. .a lane.
`jUr /k˙\.Ôur/ <kh\.Ôu.r\> neut. .a date
fruit.                                     `6tl /k˙\Î.t\l/ <kh\.Î\.t\.l\> adj. .a
                                           strongly built.
                                                                                          42


`6bc6u& /k˙\Î.b\c.Îu~/
<kh\.Î\.b\.c\.Îu~> adj. .rough.              `ru& /k˙\.ru~/ <kh\.ru~> adj. .correct.

`6ecok /k˙\.Îe.cok/ <kh\.Îe.co.k\>           `re`r /k˙\.re.k˙\r/ <kh\.re.kh\.r\>
advb. publicly.                              advb. .1. truly 2. indeed.

`8vu& /k˙\¯.vu~/ <kh\.¯\.vu~> v.tr. .to      `cR /k˙\r.c\/ <kh\.rc\> neut. . expense.
scratch.
                                             `las /k˙\.las/ <kh\.la.s\> adj. .1.
`tro /k˙\t.ro/ <kh\.t\.ro> masc.             exhausted 2. the end.
.danger.
                                             `lasI /k˙\.la.si/ <kh\.la.sii> masc. .a
`tvvu& /k˙\.t\v.vu~/ <kh\.t\.v\.vu~> v.tr.   sailor.
.to make an entry in a ledger.
                                             `lel /k˙\.lel/ <kh\.le.l\> masc.
`dbdvu& /k˙\d.b\d.vu~/                       .disturbance.
<kh\.d\.b\.d\.vu~> v.intr. .to boil with
a simmering sound.                           `vas /k˙\.vas/ <kh\.va.s\> fem. .name
                                             of a community.
`pvu& /k˙\p.vu~/ <kh\.p\.vu~> v.intr. .to
be sold.                                     `s /k˙\s/ <kh\.s\> fem. .scabies.

`br /k˙\.b\r/ <kh\.b\.r\> fem. .news.        `s`s /k˙\s.k˙\s/ <kh\.s\.kh\.s\> fem.
                                             .poppy seeds.
`-o /k˙\.b˙o/ <kh\.bho> masc. .the
shoulder.                                    `se6vu& /k˙\.seÎ.vu~/ <kh\.se.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
                                             .to move.
`m8 /k˙\.m\¯/ <kh\.m\.¯\> neut. .a
food item.                                   `X`X /k˙\Æ. k˙\Æ/ <kh\.Æ\.kh\.Æ\> advb.
                                             .the rippling sound of a water flow.
`mvu& /k˙\m.vu~/ <kh\.m\.vu~> v.tr. .to
tolerate.                                    `&`ervu& /k˙\n.k˙er.vu~/ <kh\~.khe.r\.vu~>
                                             v.tr. .to pluck down.
`mIs /k˙\.mis/ <kh\.mi.s\> neut. .a
shirt.                                       `&jrI /k˙\µ.Ô\.ri/ <kh\~.Ô\.rii> fem. .a
                                             small tambourin.
`rpvu& /k˙\.r\p.vu~/ <kh\.r\.p\.vu~> v.tr.
.to hoe.                                     `&jvaXvu& /k˙\µ.Ô\.vaÆ.vu~/
                                             <kh\~.Ô\.va.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. .to seratch.
`rvu& /k˙\r.vu~/ <kh\.r\.vu~> v.intr. .to
fall (fruit, leaves etc.)                    `&6 /k˙\¯.Î\/ <kh\~.Î\> masc. .1. a part
                                             2. a room. 3. a continent.
`rab /k˙\.rab/ <kh\.ra.b\> adj. .bad.
                                                                                          43


`&i6yer /k˙\¯.Îi.jer/ <kh\~.Îi.je.r\> neut.
.a ruin.                                      `atr /k˙a.t\r/ <kha.t\.r\> neut. .house-
                                              breaking (by theif)
`a; /k˙a.i/ <kha.ii> fem. .1. a ditch 2. a
trench.                                       `atrI/k˙at.ri/ <kha.t\.rii> fem. .trust.

`aw0ru& /k˙a.u.d˙\.ru~/ <kha.u.dh\.ru~>       `atavhI /k˙a.ta.v\.hi/ <kha.ta.v\.hii>
adj. . gluttonous.                            fem. a ledger.

`ajlI /k˙aÔ.li/ <kha.Ô\.lii> fem. .a food     `atu& /k˙a.tu~/ <kha.tu~> neut. .an account.
item.
                                              `a0a`orakI /k˙a.d˙a.kho.ra.ki/
`aju /k˙a.Ôu/ <kha.Ôu> neut. .a food item.    <kha.dha.kho.ra.kii> fem. .1.
                                              maintenance 2. livelihood.
`a4kI /k˙aˇ.ki/ <kha.ˇ\.kii> masc. .a
butcher.                                      `angI /k˙an.gi/ <kha.n\.kii> adj.
                                              .secret.
`a4lo /k˙aˇ.lo/ <kha.ˇ\.lo> masc. .a cot.
                                              `anu& /k˙a.nu~/ <kha.nu~> neut. .a drawer.
`a4vu& /k˙aˇ.vu~/ <kha.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr. .to be
benefited.                                    `aboicyu& /k˙a.bo.ci.ju~/ <kha.bo.ci.ju~>
                                              neut. .a puddle.
`a4u& /k˙a.ˇu~/ <kha.ˇu~> adj. .sour.
                                              `amI /k˙a.mi/ <kha.mii> fem. .a defect.
`a6I /k˙a.Îi/ <kha.Îii> fem. .a creek.
                                              `aru& /k˙a.ru~/ <kha.ru~> adj. .salty.
`a6o /k˙a.Îo/ <kha.Îo> masc. .a pit.
                                              `arek /k˙a.rek/ <kha.re.k\> fem. .a dry
`a8 /k˙a¯/ <kha.¯\> fem. .a mine.             date.

`ai8yo /k˙a.¯i.jo/ <kha.¯i.jo> masc. .a       `al /k˙al/ <kha.l\> fem. .skin.
miner.
                                              `alI /k˙a.li/ <kha.lii> adj. .1. empty 2.
`a8u& /k˙a.¯u~/ <kha.¯u~> neut. .a dinner.    poor 3. purposelessly.

`atmurt /k˙at.mu.r\t/ <kha.t\.mu.r\.t\>       `avu& /k˙a.vu~/ <kha.vu~> v.tr. .to eat.
neut. .a ceremony of laying a foundation.
                                              `as /k˙as/ <kha.s\> adj. .1.special 2.
`atr /k˙a.t\r/ <kha.t\.r\> fem.               personal. Ex. Aa maro `as ma8s 2e.
.hospitality.
                                              `as /k˙as/ <kha.s\> advb. .specially.
`atr /k˙a.t\r/ <kha.t\.r\> neut.              Ex. hu& `as tmara 3er AavI=.
.fertilizer.
                                                                                              44


`aisyt /k˙a.si.j\t/ <kha.si.j\.t\> fem. .a     clarification.
special quality.
                                               `uLlu& /k˙ul.lu~./ <khu.llu~> adj. .open.
`aX /k˙aÆ/ <kha.Æ\> fem. .a drain.
                                               `u= /k˙uß/ <khu.ß\> adj. .joyful.
`a&co /k˙a~.co/ <kha~.co> masc. .1. a turn
2. a lane.                                     `u=numa /k˙uß.nu.ma/ <khu.ß\.nu.ma>
                                               adj. .pleasant (climate).
`a&6 /k˙a~Î/ <kha~.Î\> fem. .sugar.
                                               `u=amt /k˙u.ßa.m\t/ <khu.ßa.m\.t\>
`a&6vu& /k˙a~¯Î.vu~/ <kha~.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .to   fem..flattery.
pound.
                                               `u=I /k˙u.ßi/ <khu.ßii> fem. .pleasure.
`a&sI /k˙a~.si/ <kha~.sii> fem. .cough.
                                               `UjlI /k˙uÔ.li/ <khu.Ô\.lii> fem. .itching
i`skolI /k˙is.ko.li/ <khi.s\.ko.lii> fem.      sensation.
.a squirrel.
                                               `U4vu& /k˙uˇ.vu~/ <khu.ˇ\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to
`Ic6I /k˙ic.Îi/ <khii.c\.Îii> fem. .a          be used up 2. to run out.
food.
                                               `U8o /k˙u.¯o/ <khuu.¯o> masc. .1. an
`Ico`Ic /k˙i.co.k˙ic/ <khii.co.khii.c\>        angle 2. a corner.
advb. densely.
                                               `Un /k˙un/ <khuu.n\> neut. .1. blood 2.
`Ijvvu& /k˙i.Ô\v.vu~/ <khii.Ô\.v\.vu~> v.tr.   murder.
.to tease.
                                               `Ub /k˙ub/ <khu.b\> adj. .1. plentiful 2.
`I8 /k˙i¯/ <khii.¯\> fem. .1. a valley 2.      much.
a rift.
                                               `UbI /k˙u.bi/ <khu.bii> fem. peculiar
`Ir /k˙ir/ <khii.r\> fem. .a food item.        quality.

`Il /k˙il/ <khii.l\> masc. .a pimple.          `Ulvu& /k˙ul.vu~/ <khuu.l\.vu~> v.intr. .to
                                               open.
`Ilvu& /k˙il.vu~/ <khii.l\.vu~> v.intr. .to
blossom.                                       `U&cvvu& /k˙u~.c\v.vu~/ <khuu.c\.v\.vu~>
                                               v.tr. .to snatch away.
`ISsu& /k˙is.su~/ <khii.ssu~> neut. .a
pocket.                                        `U&cvu& /k˙u~c.vu~/ <kh\.c\.vu~> v.intr. .to
                                               prick.
`ur=I /k˙ur.ßi/ <khu.r\.ßii> fem. .a chair.
                                               `U&0 /k˙u~d˙/ <khuu~.dh\> fem. .a hump.
`ulaso /k˙u.la.so/ <khu.la.so> masc. .a
                                                                                           45


`e6vu& /k˙eÎ.vu~/ <khe.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .to      `o6 /k˙oÎ/ <kho.Î\> fem. .1. a defect 2.
plow.                                         a deficiency.

`e6Ut /k˙e.Îut/ <khe.Îuu.t\> masc. .a         `o6vu& /k˙oÎ.vu~/ <kho.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .to
farmer.                                       erect.

`etr /k˙e.t\r/ <khe.t\.r\> neut. .a farm.     `otrvu& /k˙o.t\r.vu~/ <kho.t\.r\.vu~> v.tr.
                                              .1. to scratch 2. to dig by scrapping.
`etI /k˙e.ti/ <khe.tii> fem. .farming.
                                              `odvu& /k˙od.vu~/ <kho.d\.vu~> v.tr. .to
`erat /k˙e.rat/ <khe.ra.t\> fem. .1. alms-    dig.
giving 2. charity.
                                              `oda8 /k˙o.da¯/ <kho.da.¯\> neut. .a
`el /k˙el/ <khe.l\> masc. .1. a sport.2. a    digging.
show (of play, cinema etc.)
                                              `oprI /k˙op.ri/ <kho.p\.rii> fem. .the
`elvu& /k˙el.vu~/ <khe.l\.vu~> v.intr. to     skull.
play.
                                              `obo /k˙o.bo/ <kho.bo> masc. .the shape
`ela6I /k˙e.la.Îi/ <khe.la.Îii> masc. .a      formed by the joined palms.
player.
                                              `orvavu& /k˙or.va.vu~/ <kho.r\.va.vu~>
`evna /k˙ev.na/ <khe.v\.naa> fem. .care.      v.intr. .to be disrupted.

`e&ca8 /k˙´~.ca¯/ <khe~.ca.¯\> neut.          `orak /k˙o.rak/ <kho.ra.k\> masc. .food.
.attraction.
                                              `olvu& /k˙ol.vu~/ <kho.l\.vu~> v.tr. .to
`o`ru& /k˙ok˙.ru~/ <kho.kh\.ru~> adj. .1.     open.
dull 2. broken.
                                              `ovu& /k˙o.vu~/ <kho.vu~> v.tr. .to miss.
`o`u& /k˙o.k˙u~/ <kho.khu~> neut. .an
empty box.                                    `osvu& /k˙os.vu~/ <kho.s\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to
                                              drive into 2. to penetrate 3. to pierce.
`oja /k˙o.Ôa/ <kho.Ôa> masc. .a Muslim
caste.                                        `oXa-r8u& /kho.Æa.b˙\r.¯u~/
                                              <kho.Æa.bh\.r\.¯u~> neut. .the
`o4 /k˙oˇ/ <kho.ˇ\> fem. .loss.               celebration of first pregnancy.

`o4kavu& /k˙oˇ.ka.vu~/ <kho.ˇ\.k\.vu~>        `oXIyu& /k˙o.Æi.ju~/ <kho.Æii.ju~> neut. .1. a
v.intr. to stop functioning.                  bed or pillow cover 2. the body.

`o4u& /k˙o.ˇu~/ <kho.ˇu~> adj. .1.wrong. 2.   `oXo /k˙o.Æo/ <kho.Æo> masc. .the lap.
false.
                                                                                           46


                                               g7vI /g\Î˙.vi/ <g\.Îh\.vii> masc. .a
                    g                          keeper of a fortress.
g;kal /g\i.kal/ <g\.ii.ka.l\> fem.
                                               g7vI /g\Î˙.vi/ <g\.Îh\.vii> fem. .a
yesterday.
                                               community.
gg6vu& /g\.g\Î.vu~/ <g\.g\.Î\.vu~> v.intr.
                                               g8karvu& /g\¯.kar.vu~/ <g\.¯\.ka.r\.vu~>
.to roll down.
                                               v.tr. .to care for.
gjro /g\Ô.ro/ <g\.Ô\.ro> masc. .a
bouquet of flowers.                            g8g8vu& /g\¯.g\¯.vu~/ <g\.¯\.g\.¯\.vu~>
                                               v.intra..1. to murmur 2. to grumble.
gjvu& /g\Ô.vu~/ <g\.Ô\.vu~> neut. .a pocket.
                                               g8trI /g\.¯\t.ri/ <g\.¯\.t\.rii> fem. .1.
gzl /g\.z\l/ <g\.Ôh\.l\> fem. .a type of
                                               calculation 2. counting
poem.
                                               g8pit /g\¯.p\ti/ <g\.¯\.p\.ti> masc.
g4g4avvu& /g\ˇ.g\.ˇav.vu~/
                                               hon..the god Ganpati.
<g\.ˇ\.g\.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr. .to swallow
quickly.                                       g8vu& /g\¯.vu~/ <g\.¯\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to
                                               count 2. to calculate.
g4r /g\.t\r/ <g\.ˇ\.r\> fem. .a gutter.
                                               g8ve= /g\¯.veß/ <g\.¯\.ve.ß\> masc. .a
g5\5o /g\ˇ˙.ˇ˙o/ <g\.ˇhˇho> masc. .a           uniform.
lump.
                                               gi8t /g\.¯it/ <g\.¯i.t\> neut.
g6da pa4u& /g\Î.da.pa.ˇu~/                     .mathematics.
<g\.Î\.da.pa.ˇu~> neut. .blows by hand
and feet.                                      g8e= /g\.¯eß/ <g\.¯e.ß\> masc. the god
                                               Ganesh.
g6do /g\Î.do/ <g\.Î\.do> masc. .a
punch.                                         g*yu&ga&5yu& /g\.¯ju~. ga~.ˇ˙ju~/
                                               <g\.¯ju~.ga~.ˇhju~> adj. .a little.
g6b6 /g\Î.b\Î/ <g\.Î\.b\.Î\> fem. .1.
a rowdyism 2. misappropriation.                gtagm /g\.ta.g\m/ <g\.ta.g\.m\> fem. .
                                               understanding.
g6m9l /g\Î.m\.t˙\l/ <g\.Î\.m\.th\.l\>
fem. .hard work.                               git /g\.ti/ <g\.ti> fem. .1. motion 2.
                                               speed.
g6I /g\.Îi/ <g\.Îii> fem. .a fold (of
cloth, paper etc.).                            gd\y /g\.dj\/ <g\.dj\> neut. .prose.

g7 /g\Î˙/ <g\.Îh\> masc. .a fortress.          g0e6u& /g\.d˙e.Îu~/ <g\.dhe.Îu~> neut. .s
                                               donkey.
                                                                                           47


                                              gmar /g\.mar/ <g\.ma.r\> adj. .manner
gpgoXo /g\p.go. o/ <g\p.go.Æo> masc.          less.
.a rumor.
                                              gr /g\r/ <g\.r\> masc. .pulp.
gpsp /g\p.s\p/ <g\.p\.s\.p\> fem.
.gossip.                                      grj /g\.r\Ô/ <g\.r\.Ô\> fem. .need.

gPpIdas /g\p.pi.das/ <g\.ppii.da.s\>          grju /g\r.Ôu/ <g\.r\.Ôu> adj. .needy.
masc. a rumor-monger.
                                              grjvu& /g\.r\Ô.vu~/ <g\.r\.Ô\.vu~> v.intr.
gflt /g\p˙.l\t/ <g\.ph\.l\.t\> fem. .1. a     .to thunder.
mistake 2. carelessness.
                                              grdn /g\r.d\n/ <g\.r\.d\.n\> fem. .the
gb6vu& /g\.b\Î.vu~/ <g\.b\.Î\.vu~> v.intr.    neck.
.to roll down.
                                              grnaXu& /g\r.na.Æu~/ <g\.r\.na.Æu~> neut. .a
gbI /g\.bi/ <g\.bii> fem. .a foolish girl     culvert.
or woman.
                                              grbI /g\r.bi/ <g\.r\.bii> fem. .a kind of
gbo /g\.bo/ <g\.bo> masc. .a foolish          poem.
boy or man.
                                              grbo /g\r.bo/ <g\.r\.bo> masc. .1. a
g-ra4 /g\b˙.raˇ/ <g\.bh\.ra.ˇ\> masc.         kind of poem 2. a pot with holes that
.frightful confusion.                         used during Navaratri festival.

g-ravu& /g\b˙.ra.vu~/ <g\.bh\.ra.vu~>         grm /g\.r\m/ <g\.r\.m\> adj. .hot.
v.intr.
.to get frightened.                           grmI /g\r.mi/ <g\.r\.mii> fem. .heat.

g-ru& /g\b˙.ru~/ <g\.bh\.ru~> adj. .simple-   grmagrm /g\r.ma.g\.r\m/
hearted.                                      <g\.r\.ma.g\.r\.m\> adj. .fresh and
gm /g\m/ <g\.m\> masc. .sadness.              hot.

                                              grvu& /g\r.vu~/ <g\.r\.vu~> v.intr. .to fall
gmgIn /g\m.gin/ <g\.m\.gii.n\> adj.
                                              slowly (of leaves, flowers, dew etc.)
.sad.
                                              grIb /g\.rib/ <g\.rii.b\> adj. .poor.
gMmt /g\m.m\t/ <g\.mm\.t\> fem.
.merriment.                                   grIba; /g\.ri.bai/ <g\.rii.ba.i> fem.
gmvu& /g\m.vu~/ <g\.m\.vu~> v.exp.. to        .poverty.
like.                                         gru6 /g\.ruÎ/ <g\.ru.Î\> neut. .an eagle.
                                                                                              48


groXI /g\.ro.Æi/ <g\.ro.Æii> fem. .a lizard.
                                                  gX8I /g\.Æ\.¯i/ <g\.Æ\.¯ii> fem. .a
g-aR0an /g\r.b˙a.d˙an/ <g\.rbha.dha.n\>           funnel.
neut. .impregnation.
                                                  gXp8 /g\Æ.p\¯/ <g\.Æ\.p\.¯\> neut.
g-aR=y /g\r.b˙a.ß\j/ <g\.rbha.ß\.j\>              .sweetness.
neut. .the uterus.
                                                  gXvu& /g\Æ.vu~/ <g\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. .to ooze.
gvR /g\r.v\/ <g\.rv\> masc. .proud.
                                                  gXa4U&po /g\.Æa.ˇu~.po/ <g\.Æa.ˇu~.po>
glkI /g\l.ki/ <g\.l\.kii> fem. .a kind of         masc. .a strangling.
creeper (vegetable).
                                                  gXafa&so /g\.Æa.p˙a~.so/ <g\.Æa.pha~.so>
glgo4o /g\l.go.ˇo/ <g\.l\.go.ˇo> masc. .a         masc. .a strangulation.
kind of flower plant.
                                                  gXu& /g\.Æu~/ <g\.Æu~> neut. .the throat.
glI /g\.li/ <g\.lii> fem. .a street.
                                                  gâyu& /g\.Æju~/ <g\.Æju~> adj. .sweet.
glU6I/yu& /g\.lu.Îi.ju~/ <g\.luu.Îii.ju~> neut.
.a pup.                                           g&@ /g\µ.Ôi/ <g\~.Ôii> fem. .a stack of
                                                  hay.
glofu& /g\.lo.p˙u~/ <g\.lo.phu~> neut. .the
inside of the cheek.                              g&dkI /g\nd.ki/ <g\~.d\.kii> fem .filth.

gLla&tLla& /g\l.la~.t\l.ta~/ <g\.lla~.t\.lla~>    g&du /g\n.du~/ <g\~.du> adj. .dirty.
masc. pl. .pretexts.
                                                  g&0 /g\n.d˙\/ <g\~.dh\> fem. .smell.
gLlo /g\l.lo/ <g\.llo> masc. .a cash-box.
                                                  g&0avu& /g\n.d˙a.vu~/ <g\~.dha.vu~> v.intr.
gvn /g\.v\n/ <g\.v\.n\> neut. .a kind             .to
of sari.                                          stink.

gvEyo /g\.v\i.jo/ <g\.v\i.jo> masc. .a            g&-Ir /g\m.b˙ir/ <g\~.bhii.r\> adj. .1.
songster.                                         deep 2. cool-minded 3. serious.

gXc4u& /g\Æ.c\.ˇu~/ <g\.Æ\.c\.ˇu~> adj.           gaj /gaÔ/ <ga.Ô\> neut. .a button-hole.
.sweetish.
                                                  gajr /ga.Ô\r/ <ga.Ô\.r\> neut. .a carrot.
gXcvu& /g\.Æ\c.vu~/ <g\.Æ\.c\.vu~> v.tr. .to
over eat.                                         gajvIj /gaÔ.viÔ/ <ga.Ô\.vii.Ô\> fem.
                                                  .lightening and thunder together.
gXcI /g\Æ.ci/ <g\.Æ\.cii> fem. .1. the
neck 2. the throat.
                                                                                           49


gajvu& /gaÔ.vu~/ <ga.Ô\.vu~> v.intr. .to
thunder.                                      ga&5 /ga~ˇ˙/ <ga~.ˇh\> fem. .a knot.

ga6I /ga.Îi/ <ga.Îii> fem. .a vehicle.        ga&6u& /ga~.Îu~/ <ga~.Îu~> adj. .1. mad 2.
                                              lunatic.
ga6u& /ga.Îu~/ neut. .a cart.
                                              gIc /gic/ <gii.c\> adj. .overcroweded.
ga7 /gaÎ˙/ <ga.Îh\> adj. .thick.
                                              gIt /git/ <gii.t\> neut. .a song.
ga8u& /ga.¯u~/ <ga.¯u~> neut. .a song.
                                              gI0 /gid˙/ <gii.dh\> neut. .a vulture.
ga9a /ga.t˙a/ <ga.tha> fem. .a moral or
religous story.                               gIrvI /gir.vi/ <gii.r\.vii> adj. .on
                                              mortgage.
gadlu& /gad.lu~/ <ga.d\.lu~> neut. .a
mattress.                                     gIro /gi.ro/ <gii.ro> adj. .on mortgage.

gadI /ga.di/ <ga.dii> fem. .1. a throne, 2.   gujrvu& /gu.Ô\r.vu~/ <gu.Ô\.r\.vu~> v.intr.
a cushion.                                    .1. to pass by 2. to die.

gab6u& /gab.Îu~/ <ga.b\.Îu~> neut. .1. a      gujran /guÔ.ran/ <gu.Ô\.ra.n\> neut.
hole 2. a pit.                                .livelihood.

gam /gam/ <ga.m\> neut. .a village.           gujarvu& /gu.Ôar.vu~/ <gu.Ôa.r\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                              pass time.
gayk /ga.j\k/ <ga.j\.k\> masc. .a male
singer.                                       gu4ko /guˇ.ko/ <gu.ˇ\.ko> masc. .a small
                                              booklet.
gaiyka /ga.ji.ka/ <ga.ji.ka> fem. .a female
singer.                                       gu8 /gu¯/ <gu.¯\> masc. .quality.

galIco /ga.li.co/ <ga.lii.co> masc. .a        gu8gan /gu¯.gan/ neut. .an eulogy.
carpet.
                                              gu8doq /gu¯.doß/ <gu.¯\.do.s°\> masc.
gavu& /ga.vu~/ <ga.vu~> v.tr. .to sing.       .merits and demerits.

gaX /gaÆ/ <ga.Æ\> fem. .a curse word.         gu8vu& /gu¯.bv~/ <gu.¯\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                              multiply.
gaXvu& /gaÆ.vu~/ <ga.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to
filter 2. melt 3. to pass time.               gu8akar /gu.¯a.kar/ <gu.¯a.ka.r\> masc.
                                              .multiplication.
ga&g6o /ga~g.Îo/ <ga~.g\.Îo> masc. .a
solid lump.
                                                                                                50


gu8o]ar /gu.¯o.tt\r/ <gu.¯o.tt\.r\> masc.
.a ratio.                                        gU7 /guÎ˙/ <guu.Îh\> adj. .secret.

gunegar /gu.ne.gar/ <gu.ne.ga.r\> adj.           gU8 /gu¯/ <guu.¯\> fem. .a sack.
.criminal.
                                                 gUm6u& /gum.Îu~/ <guu.m\.Îu~> neut. .a
guno /gu.no/ <gu.no> masc. .a crime.             skin-boil.

gupcUp /gup.cup/ <gu.p\.cu.p\> advb.             gU&gXavu& /gu˜.g\.Æa.vu~/ <guu~.g\.Æa.vu~>
.quietly.                                        v.intr. .to be suffocated.

guPt /gu.pt\/ <gu.pt\> adj. .secret.             gU&c /gu~c/ <guu~.c\> fem. .1.a twisting of
                                                 threads 2. intricacy.
gufa /gu.p˙a/ <gu.pha> fem. .a cave.
                                                 gU&9vu& /gu~t˙.vu~/ <guu~.th\.vu~> v.tr. .to
gumavvu& /gu.mav.vu~/ <gu.ma.v\.vu~>             knit.
v.tr. .to lose.
                                                 gU&dvu& /gu~d.vu~/ <guu~.d\.vu~> v.tr. .to
guru /gu.ru/ <gu.ru> masc. . a teacher.          trample.

guru /gu.ru/ <gu.ru> adj. .1. big 2. large.      gerkayde /ger.kaj.de/ <ge.r\.ka.j\.de> adj.
                                                 and advb. .illegal.
gulmor /gul.mør/ <gu.la.mo.r\> neut. .a
tree.                                            gerkaydesr /ger.kaj.de.s\r/
                                                 <ge.r\.ka.j\.de.s\.r\> advb. .illegally.
gulab /gu.lab/ <gu.la.b\> neut. .1. the
rose plant. 2. a rose flower                     gerrSte /ger.r\s.te/ <ge.r\.r\.ste> advb.
                                                 .wrongly.
gulam /gu.lam/ <gu.la.m\> masc. .a
slave.                                           gerla- /ger.lab˙/ <ge.r\.la.bh\> masc.
                                                 .loss.
guSso /gu.sso/ <gu.sso> masc. .anger.
                                                 gervLle /ger.v\.lle/ <g\.r\.v\.lle> advb.
gu&jvu& /guµÔ.vu~/ <gu~.Ô\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to   .at a wrong place.
hum 2. to buzz.
                                                 gervvu& /ge.r\v.vu~/ <ge.r\.v\.vu~> v.tr. .to
gu&6o /gu¯.Îo/ <gu~.Îo> masc. .a bully.          make things (fruits, leaves) fall.

gu&dr /gun.d\r/ <gu~.d\.r\> masc. .1.            gervhIv4 /ger.v\.hi.v\ˇ/
glue 2. gum.                                     <ge.r\.v\.hii.v\.ˇ\> masc.
                                                 mismanagement.
gu&bj /gum.b\Ô/ <gu~.b\.Ô\> masc. .a
dome.
                                                                                           51


gersmj /ger.s\.m\Ô/ <ge.r\.s\.m\.Ô\>          goma&s /go.ma~s/ <go.ma~.s\> neut. .beef.
fem. . misunderstanding.
                                              gor /gør/ <go.r\> masc. .a priest
gokXgay /go.k\Æ.gaj/ <go.k\.Æ\.ga.j\>         (normally a Brahmin)
fem. .a snail.
                                              gora8I /gø.ra.¯i/ <go.ra.¯ii> fem. .a
go`lo /gok˙.lo/ <go.kh\.lo> masc. .a          priest’s wife.
small recess in a wall.
                                              gorI /go.ri/ <go.rii> adj. .a white-
go`vu& /gok˙.vu~/ <go.kh\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to   skinned woman.
cram 2. to memorize.
                                              golmal /gol.mal/ <go.l\.ma.l\> fem. .
gozaru& /go.Ô˙a.ru~/ <go.Ôha.ru~> adj.        misappropriation.
.sinful.
                                              govaX /go.vaÆ/ <go.va.Æ\> masc. .a cow-
go4lI /goˇ.li/ <go.ˇ\.lii> masc. .a mango     herd.
seed (usually soft)
                                              govaX8I /go.va.Æ\.¯i/ <go.va.Æ\.¯ii> fem.
go4lo /goˇ.lo/ <go.ˇ\.lo> masc. .a mango      .a cow-herd’s wife.
seed (usually hard)
                                              goX /goÆ/ <go.Æ\> adj. .round.
go4lo /goˇ.lo/ <go.ˇ\.lo> masc. .a hard
muscle.                                       goX /goÆ/ <go.Æ\> masc. .a sub-group of
                                              a caste.
go58 /go.t˙\¯/ <go.ˇh\.¯\> masc. .one
of the knees.                                 goX /gøÆ/ <go.Æ\> masc. .jiggery.

go5vvu& /go.ˇ˙\v.vu~/ <go.ˇh\.v\.vu~> v.tr.   goXgoX /goÆ.goÆ/ <go.Æ\.go.Æ\> adj.
.to arrange.                                  .evasive.

goi5y8 /go.ˇ˙i.j\¯/ <go.ˇhi.j\.¯\> fem. .a    goXpap6I /goÆ.pap.Îi/ <go.Æ\.pa.p\.Îii>
female friend.                                fem. .a sweet food itm.

god /god/ <go.d\> fem. .the lap.              goXm4oX /goÆ.m\.ˇoÆ/ <go.Æ\.m\.ˇo.Æ\>
                                              adj. .pulpy.
god6I /god.Îi/ <go.d\.Îii> fem. .a kind
of mattress.                                  goXI /go.Æi/ <go.Æii> fem. .1. a pill 2. a
                                              bullet.
godam /go.dam/ <go.da.m\> neut. .a
store house.                                  goXo /go.Æo/ <go.Æo> masc. .1.a globe 2.
                                              a round lamp 3. a bulb.
gobo /go.bo/ <go.bo> masc. .a hollow
on a metallic surface.                        gO8 /g\u¯/ <g\u.¯\> adj. .secondary.
                                                                                     52


                                            34a4op /g˙\.ˇa.ˇop/ <gh\.ˇa.ˇo.p\> masc.
gOrv /g\u.r\v/ <g\u.r\.v\> neut. .pride.    .1. thick clods 2. false show.

g/h /gr\h/ <gr\.h\> masc. .a planet.        34a6vu& /g˙\.ˇaÎ.vu~/ <gh\.ˇa.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
                                            1. to lessen 2. to reduce.
g/h8 /gr\.h\¯/ <g\.h\.¯\> neut. .an
eclipse.                                    34a6o /g˙\.ˇa.Îo/ <gh\.ˇa.Îo> masc.
                                            decrease.
g/&9 /gr\nt˙/ <g\~.th\> masc. .a book.
                                            34avvu& /g˙\.ˇav.vu~/ <gh\.ˇa.v\.vu~> v.tr.
g/ahk /gra.h\k/ <gra.h\.k\> masc. .a        to interpret.
customer.
                                            36tr /g˙\Î.t\r/ <gh\.Î\.t\.r\> neut. .1.
                                            a thing made 2. training.
                     3
                                            36p8 /g˙\Î.p\¯/ <gh\.Î\.p\.¯\> neut.
3w& /g˙\.u~/ <gh\.u~> masc. .wheat.         .old age.

3w&v8uR& /g˙\.u~.v\.r¯u~/ <gh\.u.v\.r¯u~>   36vu& /g˙\Î.vu~/ <gh\.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to
adj. .of whitish color.                     shape 2. to mould 3. to manufacture.

34 /g˙\ˇ/ <gh\.ˇ\> fem. .a shortage.        36a; /g˙\.Îa.i/ <gh\.Îa.ii> fem. .wages
                                            for shaping, molding or manufacturing.
34k /g˙\.ˇ\k/ <gh\.ˇ\.k\> adj.
                                            3i6yaX /g˙\.Îi.jaÆ/ <gh\.Îi.ja.Æ\> fem. .1.
component.
                                            a watch 2. a clock.
34tu& /g˙\ˇ.tu~/ <gh\.ˇ\.tu~> advb.
                                            3i6yaXI /g˙\.Îi.ja.Æi/ <gh\.Îi.ja.Æi> masc.
.properly.
                                            .a match maker.
34na /g˙\ˇ.na/ <gh\.ˇ\.na> fem. .event.
                                            36o /g\.Îo/ <gh\.Îo> masc. .a pot.
34maX /g˙\ˇ.ma / <gh\.ˇ\.ma.Æ\> fem. a
                                            38 /g˙\¯/ <gh\.¯\> masc. .a large
series of events.
                                            heavy hammer.
34vu& /g˙\ˇ.vu~/ <gh\.ˇ\.vu~> v.intr. .to
                                            38u& /g˙\.¯u~/ <gh\.¯u~> adj. .1. much 2.
dcrease.
                                            very.
34Sfo4 /g˙ˇ.sp˙oˇ/ <gh\.ˇ\.spho.ˇ\>
                                            3n /g˙\n/ <gh\.n\> adj. .solid.
masc. .a revealing of secret.

34a /g˙\.ˇa/ <gh\.ˇa> fem. .a dense         3m&6 /g˙\.m\¯Î/ <gh\.m\~.Î\> masc. .a
formation of trees, clouds etc.             false pride.
                                                                                             53


3m&6I /g˙\.m\¯.Îi/ <gh\.m\~.Îii> adj.         3vavu& /g˙\.va.vu~/ <gh\.va.vu~> v.intr. .to
arrogant.                                     be wounded.

3r /g˙\r/ <gh\.r\> neut. .a home.             3s3sa4 /g˙\s.g˙\.saˇ/ <gh\.s\.g\.sa.ˇ\>
                                              advb. .to sleep soundly.
3rkam /g˙\r.kam/ <gh\.r\.ka.m\> neut.
1. a household work 2. a homework.            3s6vu& /g˙\.s\Î.vu~/ <gh\.s\.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
                                              .to drag.
3r`cR /g˙\r.k˙\r.c\/ <gh\.r\.kh\.rc\>
neut. household expenses.                     3s6avu& /g˙\s.Îa.vu~/ <gh\.s\.Îa.vu~>
                                              v.tr. to be dragged.
3rg(9u /g˙\r.g\t˙t˙u/ <gh\.r\.g\.ththu>
adj. produced at home.                        3srko /g˙\.s\r.ko/ <gh\.s\.r\.ko> masc.
                                              1. a cut 2. a scratch.
3rcoXu& /g˙\r.co.Æu~/ <gh\.r\.co.Æu~> neut.
1.a silk bodies for women.                    3savu& /g˙\.sa.vu~/ <gh\.sa.vu~> v.intr.
                                              .1.to be rubbed 2. to be worn out 3. to
3rjma; /g˙\r.Ô\.mai/ <gh\.r\.Ô\.ma.ii>        sacrifice for others.
masc. .a married man living with his
father-in-law’s family.                       3&4 /g˙\¯ˇ/ <gh\~.ˇ\> masc. .a bell.

3r6u& /g˙\r.Îu~/ <gh\.r\.Îu~> adj. .old.      3&46I /g˙\¯ˇ.Îi/ <gh\~.ˇ\.Îi> fem. ..a
                                              small bell.
3rbar /g˙\r.bar/ <gh\.r\.ba.r\> neut.
members of the family.                        3&4I /g˙\.¯ˇi/ <gh\~.ˇii> fem. .a grinding
                                              hand-mill or machine.
3rv`rI /g˙\r.v\.k˙.ri/
<gh\.r\.v\.kh\.rii> fem. . household          3a /g˙a/ <gha> adj. .two dozen papers.
things such as furniture, utensils etc.
                                              3a /g˙a/ <gha> masc. .a wound.
3rs&sar /g˙\r.sam.sar/ <gh\.r\.s\~.sa.r\>
masc. . worldly life.                         3a3ro /g˙\g˙.ro/ <gha.gh\.ro> masc. .a
                                              petticoat.
3rs&sarI /g˙\r.sam.sa.ri/
<gh\.r\.s\~.sa.rii> adj. .a person            3a3rI /g˙ag˙.ri/ <gha.gh\.rii> fem. .a
leading a worldly life.                       small petticoat.

3rak /g˙\.rak/ <gh\.ra.k\> masc. .1. a        3a4 /g˙aˇ/ <gha.ˇ> masc. . a shape.
customer 2. a client.
                                              3a4Ilu& /g˙a.ˇi.lu~/ <gha.ˇi.lu~> adj. .well
3re8u& /g˙\.re.¯~/ <gh\.re.¯u~> neut. .an     built.
ornament.
                                                                                              54


3a8 /g˙a¯/ <gha.¯\> masc. .a unit of            3U&48 /g˙u~.ˇ\¯/ <ghuu~.ˇ\.¯\> masc. .the
production.                                     knee.

3ayl /g˙a.j\l/ <gha.j\.l\> adj. .wounded.       3U&4I /g˙u~.ˇi/ <ghuu~.ˇii> fem. .the shin-
                                                bone.
3arI /g˙a.ri/ <gha.rii> fem. .a kind of
sweet.                                          3U&4I /g˙u~.ˇi/ <ghuu~.ˇii> fem. .a puzzle.

3alvu& /g˙al.vu~/ <gha.l\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to     3e4u& /g˙e.ˇu~/ <ghe.ˇu~> neut. .a sheep.
thrust into 2. to penetrate.
                                                3en /g˙en/ <ghe.n\> neut. .intoxication.
3as /g˙as/ <gha.s\> neut. .grass.
                                                3ebr /g˙e.b\r/ <ghe.b\.r\> neut. .a kind
3I /g˙i/ <ghii> neut. .ghee (refined            of sweet.
butter).
                                                3er /g˙er/ <ghe.r\> masc.
3uv6 /g˙u.v\Î/ <ghu.v\.Î\> masc. .an            .circumference.
owl.
                                                3ervu& /g˙er.vu~/ <ghe.r\.vu~> v.tr. .to
3U3rI /g˙ug˙.ri/ <ghuu.gh\.rii> fem. .a         surround.
small mealic balls (usually of
ornaments).                                     3eru& /g˙e.ru~/ <ghe.ru~> adj. .deep or dark
                                                (usually a color).
3U3vvu& /g˙u.g˙\v.vu~/ <ghuu.gh\.v\.vu~>
v.intr. .to roar (of sea)                       3el2a /g˙el.c˙a/ <ghe.la.cha> fem. .a
                                                craze.
3Umravu& /g˙um.ra.vu~/ <ghuu.m\.ra.vu~>
v.intr. .to turn or move around.                3elu& /g˙e.lu~/ <ghe.lu~> adj. .craziness.

3UmrI /g˙um.ri/ <ghuu.m\.rii> fem. .a           3o /g˙o/ <gho> fem. .a kind of lizard.
whirlpool.
                                                3o6aga6I /g˙o.Îa.g˙a.Îi/
3Umvu& /g˙um.vu~/ <ghuu.m\.vu~> v.intr.         <gho.Îa.gha.Îii> fem. .a horse-
.to move around.                                carriage.
3Urkvu& /g˙u.r\k.vu~/ <ghuu.r\.k\.vu~>          3o6apUr /g˙o.Îa.pur/ <gho.Îa.puu.r\>
v.intr. .1. to roar angrily 2. to snarl.        neut. .a sudden flood.
3Usi8yu& /g˙u.s\.¯i.ju~/ <ghu.s\.¯i.ju~> adj.   3o6Iyu& /g˙o.Îi.ju~/ <gho.Îii.ju~> neut. .a
.a person with intruding nature.                cradle.
3Usvu& /g˙us.vu~/ <ghuu.s\.vu~> v.intr. .1.     3o6I /g˙o.Îi/ <gho.Îii> fem. .a mare.
to thrust into 2. to enter forcefully or
withour prior permission.
                                                                                           55


3o6o /g˙o.Îo/ <gho.Îo> masc. .a horse.          ckkr /c\k.k\r/ <c\.kk\.r\> neut. .a
                                                circle.
3or /g˙or/ <gho.r\> adj. .terrible.
                                                ck/m /c\k.r\m/ <c\.kr\.m\> masc. .a
3orvu& /g˙or.vu~/ <gho.r\.vu~> v.intr. .to      senseless person.
snore.
                                                ck/v<i)0 /c\k.r\.vrud˙.d˙i/
3oXvu& /g˙oÆ.vu~/ <gho.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. .to        <c\.kr\.vr≤.dhdhi> adj. . compound
soften by pressing on all sides.                interest.

                                                ck/akar /c\k.ra.kar/ <c\.kra.ka.r\> adj.
                     c                          .circular.
ckckvu& /c\k.c\k.vu~/ <c\.k\.c\.k\.vu~>
v.intr. .1.to shine 2. to glitter.              cgdvu& /c\.g\d.vu~/ <c\.g\.d\.vu~> v.tr.
                                                .1. to trample 2. to crush.
ckckIt /c\k.c\.kit/ <c\.k\.c\.kii.t\>
adj. .shining.                                  cgXvu& /c\.g\Æ.vu~/ <c\.g\.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. .1.
                                                to chew slowly 2. to munch.
ck6oX /c\k.ÎoÆ/ <c\.k\.Îo.Æ\> masc.
.marry-go-round.                                cc8vu& /c\.c\¯.vu~/ <c\.c\.¯\.vu~> v.exp.
                                                .to feel a burning pain.
cktI /c\k.ti/ <c\.k\.tii> fem. .a name
plate.                                          c4kvu& /c\.ˇ\k.vu~/ <c\.ˇ\.k\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                                string.
cklo /c\k.lo/ <c\.k\.lo> masc. .a male
sparrow.                                        c48I /c\ˇ.¯i/ <c\.ˇ\.¯ii> fem. .ketchup.

cklI /c\k.li/ <c\.k\.lii> fem. .a female        c4p4 /c\ˇ.p\ˇ/ <c\.ˇ\.p\.ˇ\> advb.
sparrow.                                        .instantly.

ckXivkX /c\.k\Æ.vi.k\Æ/                         c4p4I /c\ˇ.p\.ˇi/ <c\.ˇ\.p\.ˇii> fem.
<c\.k\.Æ\.vi.k\.Æ\> adj. . frightened and       .uneasiness.
puzzled.
                                                c4a; /c\.ˇai/ <c\.ˇa.i> fem. .a mat.
ckamu& /c\.ka.mu~/ <c\.ka.mu~> neut. .1.
sun-burn 2. sore.                               c6wtr /c\Î.u.t\r/ <c\.Î\.u.t\.r\> fem.
                                                .1. rise and fall 2. ascent and descent.
ckasvu& /c\.kas.vu~/ <c\.ka.s\.vu~> v.tr. .to
examine.                                        c6c6vu& /c\Î.c\Î.vu~/ <c\.Î\.c\.Î\.vu~>
                                                v.intr. .to burn with a creaking sound.
ckor /c\.kor/ <c\.ko.r\> adj. .alert.
                                                c6tI /c\Î.ti/ <c\.Î\.tii> fem. .1. rise 2.
                                                increase.
                                                                                       56


                                              cp4I /c\p.ˇi/ <c\.p\.ˇii> fem. .a snap of
c6tI p6tI /c\Î.ti p\Î.ti/                     fingers.
<c\.Î\.tii.p\.Î\.tii> fem. . rise and fall.
                                              cpX /c\.p\Æ/ <c\.p\.Æ\> adj. .skilful.
c6tu& /c\Î.tu~/ <c\.Î\.tu~> adj. .rising.
                                              cpa4I /c\.pa.ˇi/ <c\.pa.ˇii> fem. .a bread.
c6vu& /c\Î.vu~/ <c\.Î\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to
climb 2. to rise.                             cpocp /c\.po.c\p/ <c\.po.c\.p\> advb.
                                              .quickly.
c6sac6sI /c\Î.sa. c\Î.si/
<c\.Î\.sa.c\.Î\.sii> fem. . intense           cPpu /c\p.pu/ <c\p.pu> neut. .a knife.
rivalry.
                                              cbr`I /c\.b\r.k˙i/ <c\.b\.r\.khii> fem.
c6a; /c\.Îai/ <c\.Îa.i> fem. .an              .a small piece of paper (mainly hand
invasion.                                     written)

c6\6I /c\Î.Îi/ <c\.ÎÎii> fem. .shorts.        cbrak /c\b.rak/ <c\.b\.ra.k\> adj.
                                              .1.clever 2. talkative.
c8 /c\¯/ <c\.¯\> masc. .grains for
birds.                                        cbUtro /c\.but.ro/ <c\.buu.t\.ro> masc.
                                              .a public bird feeder.
c8vu& /c\¯.vu~/ <c\.¯\.vu~> v.tr. .to
construct.                                    cmk /c\.m\k/ <c\.m\.k\> fem.
                                              .brightness.
c8vu& /c\¯.vu~/ <c\.¯\.vu~> v.tr. .to eat
(by birds).                                   cmco /c\m.co/ <c\.m\.co> masc. .a
                                              spoon.
ci8yo /c\.¯i.jo/ <c\.¯i.jo> masc.
.petticoat.                                   cmTkar /c\.m\t.kar/ <c\.m\.tka.r\>
                                              masc. .a miracle.
c8o /c\.¯o/ masc. <c\.¯o> a grain of
gram.                                         cmelI /c\.me.li/ <c\.me.lii> fem. .a kind
                                              of flower plant.
ctur /c\.tur/ <c\.tu.r\> adj. .clever.
                                              crk /c\.r\k/ <c\.r\.k\> fem. .a bird’s
ctura /c\.tu.ra/ <c\.tu.ra> fem. .a clever    excrement.
woman (used mainly in literary
language)                                     cr`o /c\r.k˙o/ <c\.r\.kho> masc. .a
                                              spinning wheel.
ctura; /c\.tu.rai/ <c\.tu.ra> fem.
.cleverness.                                  cr8 /c\.r\¯/ <c\.r\.¯\> masc. .legs
                                              (formal).
                                                                                              57


crbI /c\r.bi/ <c\.r\.bii> fem. .fat.           c&dn /c\n.d\n/ <c\~.d\.n\> neut. .a
                                               sandal-tree.
crvu& /c\r.vu~/ <c\.r\.vu~> v.tr. .to graze.
                                               c&± /c\n.dr\/ <c\~.dr\> masc. .the moon.
cir{a /c\.rit.r\/ <c\.ri.tr\> neut.
.character.                                    c&pl /c\m.p\l/ <c\~.p\.l\> masc.
                                               .sleeper.
cru /c\.ru/ <c\.ru> masc. .a pot with
broad mouth.                                   c&po /c\m.po/ <c\~.po> masc. .a flower
                                               plant.
ccRvu& /c\rc.vu~/ <c\.rc\.vu~> v.tr. .to
discuss.                                       ca /ca/ <ca> fem. .tea.

ccaR /c\r.ca/ <c\.rca> fem. .discussion.       cakI /ca.ki/ <ca.kii> fem. .a small metal
                                               bolt.
cl8 /c\.l\¯/ <c\.l\.¯\> neut. .currency.
                                               caku /ca.ku/ <ca.ku> neut. .a knife.
cva8u& /c\.va.¯u~/ <c\.va.¯u~> neut. .a
type of                                        ca`vu& /cak˙.vu~/ <ca.kh\.vu~> v.tr. .to
food.                                          taste.

cskvu& /c\.s\k.vu~/ <c\.s\.k\.vu~> v.intr.     ca4vu& /caˇ.vu~/ <ca.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr. .to lick.
.1.to slip 2. to escape 3. to be lost-
minded.                                        ca5u& /ca.ˇ˙u~/ <ca.ˇhu~> neut. .1. a scar 2. a
                                               skin-burn.
csko /c\s.ko/ <c\.s\.ko> masc.
.1.mascular pain 2. addiction.                 caplUsI /cap.lu.si/ <ca.p\.lu.sii> fem.
                                               .flattery.
chero /c\.he.ro/ <c\.he.ro> masc. .a face.
                                               cab`o /cab.k˙o/ <ca.b\.kho> masc. .1. a
cX /c\Æ/ <c\.Æ\> fem. .itching sensation.      whip 2. a kind of poem that criticizes
                                               social evils.
cXvX /c\.v\Æ/ <c\.Æ\.v\.Æ\> fem. .a
movement.                                      cabUk /ca.buk/ <ca.buu.k\> masc. .a
                                               whip.
cXvu& /c\Æ.vu~/ <c\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to
move 2. to break a promise.                    cam6I /cam.Îi/ <ca.m\.Îii> fem. .skin.

cXam8 /c\.Æa.m\¯/ <c\.Æa.m\.¯\> neut.          cam6u& /cam.Îu~/ <ca.m\.Îu~> neut.
.leftover after sifting.                       .leather.

c&cX /c\µ.c\Æ/ <c\~.c\.Æ\> adj. .unsteady.     camacI6Iyu& /ca.ma.ci.Îi.ju~/
                                               <ca.ma.cii.Îii.ju~> neut. .a bat.
                                                                                                58



car /car/ <ca.r\> fem. .1. fresh grass 2.        caX8I /ca.Æ\.¯i/ <ca.Æ\.¯ii> fem. .a sieve.
fodder.
                                                 caXvu& /caÆ.vu~/ <ca.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. .to sift.
car8 /ca.r\¯/ <ca.r\.¯\> masc. .1. a
bard 2. a name of a caste/ community.            calIs /ca.lis/ <ca.li.s\> adj. .forty.

carpa; /car.pai/ <ca.r\.pa.i> fem. .a cot.       co&c /cø~c/ <co~.c\> fem. .a beak.

cair{a /ca.rit.r\/ <c\.ri.tr\> neut.             ca&c6 /ca~.c\Î/ <co~.c\.Î\> masc. .a flea.
.character.
                                                 ca&d /ca~d/ <co~.d\> masc. .the moon.
caro /ca.ro/ <ca.ro> masc. .fodder.
                                                 ca&dnI /ca~d.ni/ <co~.d\.nii> fem.
cal /cal/ <ca.l\> fem. .style of walking.        .moonlight.

cal /cal/ <ca.l\> fem. .a strategy.              ca&dlo /ca~d.lo/ <ca~.d\.lo> masc. .an
                                                 auspicious mark done on the forehead.
cal /cal/ <ca.l\> masc. .1. a tradition 2.
a custom.                                        ca&dI /ca~.di/ <ca~.dii> fem. .silver.

calclgt /cal.c\l.g\t/ <ca.l\.c\.l\.g\.t\>        ca&dI /ca~.di/ <ca~.dii> fem. .syphilis.
fem. . behavior.
                                                 ca&du& /ca~.du~/ <ca~.du~> neut. .an ulcer.
calba@ /cal.ba.Ôi/ <ca.l\.ba.Ôii> fem.
cleverness.                                      ca&do /ca~.do/ <ca~.do> masc. .the moon.

calvu& /cal.vu~/ <ca.l\.vu~> v.intr. .to walk.   ca&p /ca~p/ <ca~.p\> fem. .a switch.

calak /ca.lak/ <ca.la.k\> adj. .1.clever 2.      ca&plu& /ca~p.lu~/ <ca~.p\.lu~> adj. .over
skilful.                                         wise.
calakI /ca.la.ki/ <ca.la.kii> fem. .1. a         ickar /ci.kar/ <ci.ka.r\> adj. .full.
trick 2. cleverness.
                                                 iccyarI /cic.ja.ri/ <ci.c\.ja.rii> fem. .a
calu /ca.lu/ <ca.lu> adj. .1.moving 2. a
                                                 shrilling cry.
person with loose character.
                                                 ic5\5I /ciˇ˙.ˇ˙i/ <ci.ˇhˇhii> fem. .1. a note
cavvu& /cav.vu~/ <ca.v\.vu~> v.tr. .to chew.
                                                 2. a small informal letter.
cavI /ca.vi/ <ca.vii> fem. .a key.               ic6avu& /ci.Îa.vu~/ <ci.Îa.vu~> v.intr. .to be
                                                 vexed.
cas /cas/ <ca.s\> masc. .a furrow.               icta /ci.ta/ <ci~.ta> fem. .a funeral-pyre.
                                                                                                  59


                                                cIj /ciÔ/ <ci.Ô\> fem. .a thing.
ictar /ci.tar/ <ci.ta.r\> masc. .1.a picture
2. a detail narration.                          cI6 /ciÎ/ <cii.Î\> fem. .disgust.

ic]a /cit.t\/ <ci.tt\> neut. .the mind.         cItrvu& /ci.t\r.vu~/ <cii.t\.r\.vu~> v.tr. .1.
                                                to sketch 2. to draw.
ic]ao /cit.to/ <ci.tto> masc. .1.a panther
2. a leopard.                                   cItXo /cit.Æo/ <cii.t\.Æo> masc. .a kind of
                                                serpent.
ic{a /cit.r\/ <ci.tr\> neut. .1. a picture 2.
a drawing.                                      cInI /ci.ni/ <cii.nii> adj. .Chinese.

icbavlu& /ci.bav.lu~/ <ci.ba.v\.lu~> adj.       cIp /cip/ <cii.p\> fem. .1. a strip 2. a
1.overwise 2. childish.                         deal in the card game.

icbuk /ci.buk/ <ci.buu.k\> fem. .the            cIipyo /ci.pi.jo/ <cii.pi.jo> masc.
chin.                                           .pincers.

icr&@vI /ci.r\n..Ôi.vi/ <ci.r\~.Ôii.vii> adj.   cIbu& /ci.bu~/ <cii.bu~> adj. .flat-nosed.
1. having longevity 2. also used to
address a son, a daughter or any person         cImXvu& /ci.m\Æ.vu~/ <ci.m\.Æ\.vu~> v.tr.
who is younger to the addresser.                .1. to pinch 2. to twist.
icrag /ci.rag/ <ci.ra.g\> masc. .a lamp.        cIrvu& /cir.vu~/ <cii.r\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to tear
                                                2. to split.
ich\.n /cih..n\/ <ci.hn\> neut. .1. a mark
2. a trait.                                     cIrI /ci.ri/ <cii.rii> fem. .a slice of fruit
                                                or pickle.
ic&tk /cin.t\k/ <ci~.t\.k\> masc. .thinker.
                                                cIro /ci.ro/ <cii.ro> masc. .1. a cut 2. a
ic&tn /cin.t\n/ <ci~.t\.n\> neut. .1. deep      long piece of cloth.
thinking 2. meditation.
                                                cIv4 /ci.v\ˇ/ <cii.v\.ˇ\> fem. .care.
ic&ta /cin.ta/ <ci~.ta> fem. .worry.
                                                cIs /cis/ <cii.s\> fem. .a scream.
cIk8u& /cik.¯u~/ <ci.k\.¯u~> adj. .1. sticky
2. greasy.                                      cI&9ru& /ci~t˙.ru~/ <cii.th\.ru~> neut. .a arg.

cIkI /ci.ki/ <cii.kii> fem. .a kind of          cI&9rehal /cith˙.re.hal/ <cii.th\.re.ha.l\>
sweet.                                          adj. 1. dressed in rags 2. extremely poor.
cIku /ci.ku/ <cii.ku> neut. .1. a tree 2. a     cI&0vu& /ci~d˙.vu~/ <ci~.dh\.vu~> v.tr. .to
fruit of the cIku tree.                         point with a finger.
                                                                                             60


cUkado /cu.ka.do/ <cuu.ka.do> masc. .a        cUnI /cu.ni/ <cuu.nii> fem. .a nose ring.
judgment.
                                              cUmvu& /cum.vu~/ <cuu.m\.vu~> v.tr. .to
cu6el /cu.Îel/ <cu.Îe.l\> fem. .a kind of     kiss.
female ghost.
                                              cUlo /cu.lo/ <cuu.lo> masc. .a fire-place
cup /cup/ <cuu.p\> adj. .quite.               for cooking.

cUpkIdI /cup.ki.di/ <cu.p\.kii.dii> fem.      cUvu& /cu.vu~/ <cuu.vu~> v.intr. .to ooze.
.silence.
                                              cUsvu& /cus.vu~/ <cuu.s\.vu~> v.tr. .to suck.
cUpcap /cup.cap/ <cuu.p\.ca.p\> advb.
.stealthily.                                  cU&k /cu~k/ <cu~.k\> fem. .stomach pain.

cUSt /cus.t\/ <cu.st\> adj. .1. tight 2.      cU&k /cu~k/ <cuu~.k\> fem. .a nail.
staunch.
                                              cU&9vu& /cu~t˙.vu~/ <cuu~.th\.vu~> v.tr. .to
cu&gal /cu˜.gal/ <cu~.ga.l\> fem. .1. a       ransack.
claw 2. a trap.
                                              cU&d6I /cu~nd.Îi/ <cu~.d\.Îii> fem. .a kind
cu&gI /cu˜.gi/ <cu~.gii> fem. .a smoking-     of sari.
pipe.
                                              cekvu& /cek.vu~/ <ce.k\.vu~> v.tr. .to erase.
cu&bn /cum.b\n/ <cu~.b\.n\> neut. .a
kiss.                                         cetn /ce.t\n/ <ce.t\.n\> adj. .animate.

cu&maXIs /cu~.ma.Æis/ <cu~.ma.Æii.s\> adj.    cetna /cet.na/ <ce.t\.na> fem.
.forty four.                                  .consciousness.
cu&moter /cu~.mo.ter/ <cu~.mo.te.r\> adj.     cetv8I /ce.t\v.¯i/ <ce.t\.v\.¯ii> fem.
.seventy four.                                .1.a warning 2. caution.
cUkvvu& /cu.k\v.vu~/ <cuu.k\.v\.vu~> v.tr.    cetvvu& /ce.t\v.vu~/ <ce.t\.v\.vu~> v.tr. .to
.to make the payment.                         warn.
cUkvu& /cuk.vu~/ <cuu.k\.vu~> v.intr. .to     cetvu& /cet.vu~/ <ce.t\.vu~> v.intr. .to be
miss.                                         alert.
cUgvu& /cug.vu~/ <cuu.g\.vu~> v.tr. .to eat   cen /cen/ <ce.n\> neut. .peace.
(by birds).
                                              cep /cep/ <ce.p\> masc. .infection.
cU6I /cu.Îi/ <cuu.Îii> fem. .a bangle.
                                                                                           61


celo /ce.lo/ <ce.lo> masc. .a male            co36Iyu& /co.g˙\.Îi.ju~/ <co.gh\.Îio.ju~>
disciple.                                     neut. .a unit of time divided to determine
                                              auspicious and inauspicious period.
celI /ce.li/ <ce.lo> fem. .a female
disciple.                                     co4 /coˇ/ <co.ˇ\> fem. .a blow.

cev6o /cev.Îo/ <ce.v\.Îo> masc. .a food       co4vu& /cøˇ.vu~/ <co.ˇ\.vu~> v.intr. .to stick.
item.
                                              co6vu& /cøÎ.vu~/ <co.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .to strike.
ceh /ceh/ <ce.h\> fem. .a funeral pyre.
                                              cotrf /co.t\.r\p˙/ <co.t\.r\.ph\> advb.
cEtNy /c\i.t\n.j\/ <c\.t\.nj\> neut. .1.      .on
life-spirit 2. the supreme being.             all sides.

cE{a /c\it.r\/ <c\.tr\> masc. .the sixth      co{aIs /cøt.ris/ <co.trii.s\> adj. .thirty
month of the Vikram year.                     four.

cok /cøk/ <co.k\> masc. .a square.            co9 /cot˙/ <co.th\> fem. .fouth day of
                                              both of the fortnights of a lunar month.
cok6I /cøk.Îi/ <co.k\.Îii> fem. .1. a
washing place in house 2. a place where       co0ar /co.d˙ar/ <co.dha.r\> adj.
four roads                                    .immense (tears and rain)
cross.
                                              copgu& /co.p\.gu~/ <co.p\.gu~> adj.
cok\ks /cok.k\s/ <co.kk\.s\> advb.            quadruped.
.surely.
                                              cop6vu& /co.p\Î.vu~/ <co.p\.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
coksI /cøk.si/ <co.k\.sii> masc. .1. a        .1. to lubricate 1. to grease.
surname 2. a dealer in gold and silver.
                                              cop6I /cop.Îi/ <co.p\.Îii> fem. .a book.
cokI /cø.ki/ <co.kii> fem. .1. a police
station 2. a watch-gate.                      cop6o /cop.Îo/ <co.p\.Îo> masc. .an
                                              account book.
co`a /co.k˙a/ <co.kha> masc. .rice.
                                              copn /co.p\n/ <co.p\.n\> adj. .fifty
co~`a.; /cok˙.k˙a.i/ <co.khkha.ii> adj.       four.
.cleanliness.
                                              copanIyu& /co.pa.ni.ju~/ <co.pa.nii.ju~> neut.
co~`u& /cok˙.k˙u~/ <co.khkhu~> adj. .clean.   .a pamphlet.

cogan /co.gan/ <co.ga.n\> neut. .a plain.     comasu& /co.ma.su~/ <co.ma.su~> neut.
                                              monsoon.
                                                                                            62


cor /cor/ <co.r\> masc. .a thief.
                                                2 /c˙\/ <ch\> adj. .six.
corvu& /cor.vu~/ <co.r\.vu~> v.tr. .to steal.
                                                2kvu& /c˙\k.vu~/ <ch\.k\.vu~> v.intr. .to go
cors /co.r\s/ <co.r\.s\> masc. .1. a
                                                astray.
square figure 2. a square.
                                                2kko /c\k.ko/ <ch\.kko> masc. .the six
cora=I /co.ra.ßi/ <co.ra.ßii> adj. .eighty
                                                in a suit of playing cards.
four.
                                                22u&dr /c˙\.c˙un.d\r/ <ch\.chu~.d\.r\>
corI /co.ri/ <co.rii> fem. .a theft.
                                                neut. .a mole.
corI /cø.ri/ <co.rii> fem. .a square            24kvu& /c˙\.ˇ\k.vu~/ <ch\.ˇ\.k\.vu~> v.intr.
structure where marriage ritaul is              .1. to slip away 2. to escape.
performed.
                                                24ku& /c˙\ˇ.ku~/ <ch\.ˇ\.k\.vu~> neut. .a
coro /cø.ro/ <co.ro> masc. .a public
                                                trap.
meeting
place in villages.                              25 /c˙\ˇ˙/ <ch\.ˇh\> fem. .sixth day of
                                                the fortnight of the Hindu month.
covIs /co.vis/ <co.vii.s\> adj. .twenty
four.                                           26vu& /c˙\Î.vu~/ <ch\.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                                thrash.
cos5 /co.s\ˇ˙/ <co.s\.ˇh\> adj. .sixty
four.                                           26a /c˙\.Îa/ <ch\.Îa> masc. .anklets.
coslu& /cos.lu~/ <co.s\.lu~> neut. .a thick
                                                28kvu& /c˙\.¯\k.vu~/ <ch\.¯\.k\.vu~>
block or slice.
                                                v.intr. .to speak angrily.
coXvu& /coÆ.vu~/ <co.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. .to rub.
                                                28ko /c˙\¯.ko/ <ch\.¯\.ko> masc. .a
                                                rude angry uterance.
coXa /co.Æa/ <co.Æa> masc. .a kind of
pulse.                                          2t /c˙\t/ <ch\.t\> fem. .availability.
coXI /co.Æi/ <co.Æii> fem. a woman’s
                                                2t /c˙\t/ <ch\.t\> fem. .a ceiling.
bodies.
                                                2ta& /c˙\.ta~/<ch\.ta~> advb. .however.
co&kvu& /co~k.vu~/ <co.k\.vu~> v.intr. .to be
startled.
                                                2{aI /c˙\t.ri/ <ch\.trii> fem. .an
cOd /c\ud/ <c\u.d\> adj. .fourteen.             umbrella.

                                                2{aIs /c˙\t.ris/ <ch\.trii.s\> adj. .thirty
                      2                         six.
                                                                                           63


                                             2apru& /c˙ap.ru~/ <cha.p\.ru~> neut. .a hut.
2br6o /c˙\.b\r.Îo/ <ch\.b\.r\.Îo>
masc. .a fiasco.                             2apvu& /c˙ap.vu~/ <cha.p\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                             print.
2bI /c˙\.bi/ <ch\.bii> fem. .1. a picture
2. a portrait.                               2apu& /c˙a.pu~/ <cha.pu~> neut. .a
                                             newspaper.
2m2m /c˙\m.c˙\m/ <ch\.m\.ch\.m\>
advb. .with a jingling sound.                2ab /c˙ab/ <cha.b\> fem. a bamboo
                                             basket.
2l&g /c˙\.l\˜.g\/ <ch\.l\~.g\> fem. .a
long leap.                                   2ab6I /c˙ab.Îi/ <cha.b\.Îii> fem. a
                                             bamboo basket.
2la2l /c˙\.la.c˙\l/ <ch\.la.ch\.l\> advb.
.over flowing.                               2aya /c˙a.ja/ <cha.ja> fem. .a shadow.

2VvIs /c˙\v.vis/ <ch\.vvii.s\> adj.          2al /c˙al/ <cha.l\> fem. .a bark.
.twenty six.
                                             2alk /c˙a.l\k/ <cha.l\> fem. .a splash.
2X /c˙\Æ/ <ch\.Æ\> neut. .a fraud.
                                             2ala& /c˙a.la~/ <cha.la~> neut. pl..1. husks
2&2e6vu& /c˙\.nc˙eÎ.vu~/ <ch\~.che.Î\.vu~>   2. peels.
v.tr. .to enrage.
                                             2av8I /c˙av.¯i/ <cha.v\.¯ii> fem. .a
2&d /c˙\n.d\/ <ch\~.d\> masc. .an            camp.
addiction.
                                             2avrvu& /c˙a.v\r.vu~/ <cha.v\.r\.vu~> v.tr.
2&d /c˙\n.d\/ <ch\~.d\> masc. .a poetic      .to conceal.
meter.
                                             2a= /c˙aß/ <cha.ß\> fem. .butter milk.
2a8 /c˙a¯/ <cha.¯\> neut. .a dung of
buffalo, cow, bullock and oxen.              2as5 /c˙a.s\ˇ˙/ <cha.s\.ˇ\> adj. .sixty
                                             six.
2a8u& /c˙a.¯u~/ <cha.¯u~> neut. .a dung-
cake used as fuel.                           2a&4o /c˙a~.ˇo/ <cha~.ˇo> masc. .a drop.

2atI /c˙a.ti/ <cha.tii> fem. .the chest.     2a&6vu& /c˙a~Î.vu~/ <cha~.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                             leave surplus food in the dining plate.
2anu& /c˙a.nu~/ <cha.nu~> adj. . secret.
                                             2I /c˙i/ <chii> fem. .excretion.
2ap /c˙ap/ <cha.p\> fem. .1. an
impression 2. a print.                       2I /c˙i/ <chii> advb. .an expression
                                             showing hatred.
                                                                                              64



2Invvu& /c˙i.n\v.vu~/ <chii.n\.v\.vu~> v.tr.    2e6o /c˙e.Îo/ <che.Îo> masc. .the end.
.to snatch.
                                                2etrpI&6I /c˙e.t\r.pi¯.Îi/
2Ip /c˙ip/ <chii.p\> fem. .a shell.             <che.t\.r\.pi~.Îii> fem. .a cheating.

2U4 /c˙uˇ/ <chuu.ˇ\> fem. .1. leave 2.          2etrvu& /c˙e.t\r.vu~/ <che.t\.r\.vu~> v.tr.
speciousness.                                   .1. to cheat 2. to deceive.

2U4k /c˙u.t\k/ <chuu.ˇ\.k\> adj. .retail.       2etram8 /c˙et.ra.m\¯/ <che.t\.ra.m\.¯\>
                                                fem. .cheating.
2U4k /c˙u.t\k/ <chuu.ˇ\.k\> advb. .by
retail.                                         2etram8u& /c˙et.ram.¯u~/
                                                <che.t\.ra.m\.¯u~> adj. .deceitful.
2U42a4 /c˙uˇ.c˙aˇ/ <chuu.ˇ\.cha.ˇ\> fem.
a concession.                                   2etaXIs /c˙e.ta.Æi.s/ <che.ta.Æii.s\> adj. .
                                                forty six.
2U4vu& /c˙uˇ.vu~/ <chuu.ˇ\.vu~> v.intr. .1.to
be free 2. to be relieved.                      2ed /c˙ed/ <che.d\> masc. .a cut.

2U4a2e6a /c˙u.ˇa.c˙e.Îa/ <chuu.ˇa.che.Îa>       2edvu& /c˙ed.vu~/ <che.d\.vu~> v.tr. .to cut.
masc. .a divorce.
                                                2eLlu& /c˙el.lu~/ <che.llu~> adj. .last.
2U4u& /c˙u.tu~/ <chuu.ˇu~> adj. .free.
                                                2ev4e /c˙e.v\.ˇe/ <che.v\.ˇe> advb. .at
2Upu& /c˙u.pu~/ <chuu.pu~> adj. .1.
                                                last.
concealed 2. secret.
                                                2okrmt /c˙o.k\r.m\t/ <cho.k\.r\.m\.t\>
2U&d8u& /c˙u~n.d\.¯u~/ <chuu~.d\.¯u~> neut.
                                                adj. . childish.
.tattoo.
                                                2okrI /c˙ok.ri/ <cho.k\.rii> fem. .a girl.
2U&do /c˙u~.do/ <chu~.do> masc. .minced
pickle.                                         2okru& /c˙ok.ru~/ <cho.k\.ru~> neut. .a
2ek /c˙ek/ <che.k\> advb. .entirely.            child.

                                                2okro /c˙ok.ro/ <cho.k\.ro> masc. .a
2ekvu& /c˙ek.vu~/ <che.k\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                                boy.
strike.
                                                2o6vu& /c˙oÎ.vu~/ <cho.Î\.vu~> v.tr..1. to
2e6tI /c˙eÎ.ti/ <che.Î\.tii> fem. .a prank.
                                                release 2. to free 3. to untie.
2e6vu& /c˙eÎ.vu~/ <che.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .to        2otru& /c˙ot.ru~/ <cho.t\.ru~> neut. .a peel.
tease.
                                                                                            65


2ol /c˙ol/ <cho.t\.ru~> masc. .wood-
scraping                                        j8 /Ô\¯/ <Ô\¯> neut. .1. an individual 2.
                                                a person.
2olvu& /c˙ol.vu~/ <cho.l\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to
scrape 2. peel.                                 j8vu& /Ô\¯.vu~/ <Ô\.¯\.vu~> v.tr. .to give a
                                                birth.
2oter /c˙o.ter/ <cho.te.r\> adj. .seventy-
six.                                            j8avvu& /Ô\.¯av.vu~/ <Ô\.¯a.v\.vu~> v.tr.
                                                .to inform.
2\yasI /c˙ja.si/ <chja.sii> adj. .eighty-six.
                                                jtn /Ô\.t\n/ <Ô\.ka.t\> neut. .care.

                      j                         jNm /Ô\n.m\/ <Ô\.nm\> masc. .birth.

j /Ô\/ <Ô\> part.. emphasis marker.             jnm /Ô\.n\m/ <Ô\.n\.m\> masc. .birth.

jkat /Ô\.kat/ <Ô\.ka.t\> fem. .custom           jNmku&6XI /Ô\.nm\.ku¯.Î\.Æi/
duty.                                           <Ô\.nm\.ku~.Î\.Æii> fem. .a horoscope.

jk\kI /Ô\k.ki/ <Ô\.kkii> adj. .stubborn.        jNm4Ip /Ô\n.m\.ˇip/ <Ô\.nm\.ˇii.p\>
                                                fem. .a life time imprisonment.
j`m /Ô\.k˙\m/ <Ô\.kh\.m\> masc. .a
wound.                                          jNmaQ4mI /Ô\n.maß.ˇ\.mi/
                                                <Ô\.nma.s°ˇ\.mii> fem. .Lord Krishna’s
jgt /Ô\.g\t/ <Ô\.g\.t\> neut. .the world.       birth day.

jGya /Ô\.gja/ <Ô\.gja> fem. .a place.           jnmojnm /Ô\n.mo.Ô\.n\m/
                                                <Ô\.n\.mo.Ô\.n\.m\> advb. .in each
j6 /Ô\Î/ <Ô\.Î\> adj. .inanimate.               birth.

j6bato6 /Ô\Î.ba.toÎ/ <Ô\.Î\.ba.to.Î\>           jp /Ô\p/ <Ô\.p\> masc. .1. a muttering
adj. . irrefutable.                             of a deity’s name, 2. recition.

j6bu& /Ô\Î.bu~/ <Ô\.Î\.bu~> neut. .the jaw.     jpvu& /Ô\p.vu~/ <Ô\.p\.vu~> v.tr. .to mutter
                                                s deity’s name as a part of some ritual.
j6-rt /Ô\Î.b˙\.r\t/ <Ô\.Î\.bh\.r\.t\>
adj. stupid.                                    jm8 /Ô\.m\¯/ <Ô\.m\.¯\> neut. .a
                                                formal dinner.
j6vu& /Ô\Î.vu~/ <Ô\.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .to fix
things with nails etc.                          jm8var /Ô\.m\¯.var/ <Ô\.m\.¯\.va.r\>
                                                masc. .a formal community dinner.
j6vu& /Ô\Î.vu~/ <Ô\.Î\.vu~> v.dat.. to
regain a lost thing.                            jm8u& /Ô\m.¯u~/ <Ô\.m\.¯u~> adj. .right.
                                                                                            66



jmvu& /Ô\m.vu~/ <Ô\.m\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to       jvab /Ô\.vab/ <Ô\.va.b\> masc. .answer.
eat, 2. dine (formal).
                                               jvu& /Ô\.vu~/ <Ô\.vu~> v.intr. .to go.
jma /Ô\.ma/ adj. .<Ô\.ma> 1. of the
credit side 2. accumulated.                    j= /Ô\ß/ <Ô\.ß\> masc. .reputation.

jma; /Ô\.ma.i/ <Ô\.ma.ii> masc. .a son-        jhaj /Ô\.haÔ/ <Ô\.ha.Ô\> neut. .a large
in-law.                                        ship.

jmat /Ô\.mat/ <Ô\.ma.t\> fem. .a body of       j&gl /Ô\˜.g\l/ <Ô\~.g\.l\> neut. .a forest.
monks.
                                               j&tu /Ô\n.tu/ <Ô\~.tu~> neut. .an insect.
jmadar /Ô\.ma.dar/ <Ô\.ma.da.r\> masc.
.a head of a small police unit.                j&p /Ô\m.p\/ <Ô\~.p\> masc. ..ease 2.
                                               peace.
jmano /Ô\.ma.no/ <Ô\.ma.no> masc. .an
age or era.                                    jagr8 /Ôag.r\¯/ <Ôa.g\.r\.¯\> neut. .1.
                                               sleeplessness 2. a religious vow of the
jmIn /Ô\.min/ <Ô\.mii.n\> fem. .land.          women.

jr /Ô\r/ <Ô\.r\> neut. .wealth.                jagvu& /Ôag.vu~/ <Ôa.g\.vu~> v.intr. .to
                                               wake from sleep.
jr` /Ô\.r\k˙/ <Ô\.r\.kh\> neut. .a wild
animal.                                        jajm /Ôa.Ô\m/ <Ôa.Ô\.m\> fem. .a carpet.

jra /Ô\.ra/ <Ô\.ra> advb. .a little.           jajru& /ÔaÔ.ru~/ <Ôa.Ô\.ru~> neut. .a latrine.

jldI ~ jLdI /Ô\l.di/ <Ô\.l\.dii> ~ <Ô\.ldii>   jajrman /Ôa.Ô\r.man/ <Ôa.Ô\.r\.ma.n\>
advb. .quickly.                                adj. .glorious.

jlso /Ô\l.so/ <Ô\.l\.so> masc. .a meeting      ja6a; /Ôa.Îai/ <Ôa.Îa.ii> fem. .thickness.
for entertainment.
                                               ja6u& /Ôa.Îu~/ <Ôa.Îu~> adj. .1. fat 2. thick.
jlebI /Ô\.le.bi/ <Ô\.le.bii> fem. .a kind of
sweet.                                         ja8 /Ôa¯/ <Ôa.¯\> fem. .information.

jLlad /Ô\l.lad/ <Ô\.lla.d\> masc. .an          ja8vu& /Ôa¯.vu~/ <Ôa.¯\.vu~> v.tr. .to know.
executioner.
                                               ja8Itu& /Ôa.¯i.tu~/ <Ôa.¯ii.tu~> adj. .famous.
jv /Ô\v/ <Ô\.v\> masc. .barley.
                                               ja8e /Ôa.¯e/ <Ôa.¯e> advb. .as if.
jvLle /Ô\.v\l.le/ <Ô\.v\.lle> advb. .rarely.
                                                                                             67


jat /Ôat/ <Ôa.t\> fem. .1.a tribe 2. a caste   jamIn /Ôa.min/ <Ôa.mii.n\> masc. .a
3. a community.                                surety.

jatkma; /Ôat.k\.ma.i/ <Ôa.t\.k\.ma.ii>         javk /Ôa.v\k/ <Ôa.v\.k\> fem. .being
fem. self-earned income.                       dispatched.

jait /Ôa.ti/ <Ôa.ti> fem. .1. a caste 2. a     jasUs /Ôa.sus/ <Ôa.suu.s\> masc. .1. a
group 3. a community.                          spy 2. a detective 3. a secret agent.

jatIy /Ôa.ti.j\/ <Ôa.tii.j\> adj. .sexual.     jaso /Ôa.so/ <Ôa.so> masc. .a threatening
                                               letter written anonymously.
jate /Ôa.te/ <Ôa.te> advb. .personally.
                                               jaher /Ôa.her/ <Ôa.he.r\> adj. .1. open 2.
ja{aa /Ôat.ra/ <Ôa.tra> fem. .a pilgrim.       public.

jadu /Ôa.du/ <Ôa.du> masc. .a magic.           jaherat /Ôa.he.rat/ <Ôa.he.ra.t\> fem.
                                               .1.an advertisement 2. a notification 3.
jan /Ôan/ <Ôa.n\> fem. .a marriage party       an announcement.
of the bridegroom.
                                               jaX /ÔaÆ/ <Ôa.Æ\> fem. .a net of a hunter
jan /Ôan/ <Ôa.n\> masc. .the jiva (life).      or a fisherman.

janmal /Ôan.mal/ <Ôa.n\.ma.l\> masc.           jaXv8I /Ôa.Æ\v.¯i/ <Ôa.Æ\.v\.¯ii> fem.
.life and property.                            .preservation.

janvr /Ôan.v\r/ <Ôa.n\.v\.r\> neut. .an        jaiXyu& /Ôa.Æi.ju~/ <Ôa.Æi.ju~> neut. .a kind of
animal.                                        ventilator.

janEyo /Ôa.n\i.jo/ <Ôa.n\i.jo> masc. .a        ja&3 /Ôa~˜.g\/ <Ôa~.gh\> fem. .the thigh.
member of the bride groom’s marriage
party.                                         ja&bu /Ôa~m.bu/ <Ôa~.bu> neut. .a kind of
                                               berry.
jap /Ôap/ <Ôa.p\> masc. .recitation.
                                               ij@ivqa /Ôi.Ôi.vi.ßa/ <Ôi.Ôii.vi.s°a> fem. .a
jam /Ôam/ <Ôa.m\> masc. .a glass.              desire for life.

jamfX /Ôam.p\Æ/ <Ôa.m\.ph\.Æ\> neut. .a        ij}aasa /Ôi.gna.sa/ <Ôi.gna.sa> fem.
guava.                                         .curiosity.

jamvu& /Ôam.vu~/ <Ôa.m\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to    ijd /Ôid/ <Ôi.d\> fem. .obstinacy.
be solidify 2. to congeal 3. to get
assembled.                                     ij¥I /Ôid.di/ <Ôi.ddii> adj. obstinate.
                                                                                            68


ijLlo /Ôil.lo/ <Ôi.llo> masc. .a district.      @v-xI /Ôiv.b˙\k.ßi/ <Ôii.v\.bh\.kshii>
                                                adj. . carnivorous.
ij&dgI /Ôind.gi/ <Ôii~.d\.gii> fem. .life.
                                                @vle8 /Ôiv.le¯/ <Ôii.v\.le.¯\> adj. .fatal.
@t /Ôit/ <Ôii.t\> fem. .victory.
                                                @vvu& /Ôiv.vu~/ <Ôii.v\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to be
@tvu& /Ôit.vu~/ <Ôii.t\.vu~> v.intr. .to win.   alive 2. to exist.

@n /Ôin/ <Ôii.n\> neut. .a kind of ghost.       @vs4os4 /Ôiv.s\.ˇo.s\ˇ/
                                                <Ôii.v\.s\.ˇo.s\.ˇ\> advb. .at the risk of
@n /Ôin/ <Ôii.n\> neut. .a saddle.              the life.

@- /Ôi.b˙/ <Ôii.bh\> fem. .the tongue.          @va8u& /Ôi.va.¯u~/ <Ôii.va.¯u~> masc. .a
                                                bacterium.
@-ajo6I /Ôi.b˙a.Ôo.Îi/ <Ôii.bha.Ôo.Îii>
fem. .a quarrel.                                @vat /Ôi.vat/ <Ôii.va.t\> fem. .insects.

@rvvu& /Ôi.r\v.vu~/ <Ôii.r\.v\.vu~> v.tr. .to   @vaTma /Ôi.vat.ma/ <Ôii.va.tma> masc.
digest.                                         .embodied soul.

@ru& /Ôi.ru~/ <Ôii.ru~> neut. .cumin seed.      jugl /Ôu.g\l/ <Ôu.g\.l\> neut. .1. a pair
                                                2. a couplet.
@v /Ôiv/ <Ôii.v\> masc. .embodied soul.
                                                jugar /Ôu.gar/ <Ôu.ga.r\> masc.
@vj&tu& /Ôiv.Ô\n.tu~/ <Ôii.v\.Ô\~.tu~> neut.    .gambling.
.insects.
                                                jugarI /Ôu.ga.ri/ <Ôu.ga.rii> masc. .a
@v6u& /Ôiv.Îu~/ <Ôii.v\.Îu~> neut. .a small     gambler.
insect.
                                                juguPsa /Ôu.gup.sa/ <Ôu.gu.psa> fem.
@vtr /Ôiv.t\r/ <Ôii.v\.t\.r\> neut. .life.      .nausea.

@vtu& /Ôiv.tu~/ <Ôii.v\.tu~> adj. .living.      ju5\5u /Ôuˇ˙.ˇ˙u~/ <Ôu.ˇhˇhu~> adj. .lie.

@vdya /Ôiv.d\.ja/ <Ôii.va.d\.ja> fem.           juda; /Ôu.da.i/ <Ôu.da.ii> fem.
.kindness to all living beings.                 .separation.

@vn /Ôi.v\n/ <Ôii.v\.n\> neut. .life.           ju\du& /Ôu.du~/ <Ôu.du~> adj. .separate.

@vncir{a /Ôi.v\n.c\.rit.r\/                     junva8I /Ôun.va.ni/ <Ôu.n\.va.¯ii> adj.
<Ôii.v\.n\.c\.ri.tr\> neut. .biography.         .orthodox.
                                                                                              69


jubanI /Ôu.ba.ni/ <Ôu.ba.nii> fem. .oral        jev6u& /Ôev.Îu~/ <Ôe.v\.Îu~> adj. .as large
testimony.                                      as.

jumlo /Ôum.lo/ <Ôu.m\.lo> masc. .total          jevu& /Ôe.vu~/ <Ôe.vu~> adj. .similar.
Ex. total runs in criket.
                                                jehad /Ôe.had/ <Ôe.ha.d\> fem. .a
julab /Ôu.lab/ <Ôu.la.b\> masc.. laxative.      crusade.

juvar /Ôu.var/ <Ôu.va.r\> fem. .a kind of       jEn /Ôain/ <Ô\i.n\> masc. .a Jain.
corn.
                                                jEn /Ô\in/ <Ô\i.n\> masc. .Jain religion.
juSso /Ôus.so/ <Ôu.sso> masc. .energy.
                                                jEn /Ô\in/ <Ô\i.n\> adj. .pertaining to
jU /Ôu/ <Ôuu> fem. .a louse.                    Jain
                                                religion.
jU; /Ôu.i/ <Ôu.ii> fem. .a kind of flower
plant.                                          jo /Ôo/ <Ôo> advb. .1. if 2. provided that.

jUj /ÔuÔ/ <Ôuu.Ô\> adj. .little.                jo;Ý /Ôoi-/ <Ôo.ii> v.dat.. to need. (the
                                                only verb in Gujarati which does not
jU5 /Ôuˇ˙/ <Ôu.ˇh\> neut. .a lie.                                  &
                                                have infinitive -vu).

jU5u& /Ôu.ˇ˙u~/ <Ôu.ˇhu~> adj. .untrue.         jo`m /Ôo.k˙\m/ <Ôo.kh\.m\> neut. .risk.

jU5u& /Ôu.ˇ˙u~/ <Ôhu.ˇhu~> adj. .the left out   jo`mavu& /Ôo.k˙\.ma.vu~/ <Ôo.kh\.ma.vu~>
food.                                           v.intr. .to be at risk.

jU9 /Ôut˙/ <Ôuu.th\> neut. .a group.            jo`vu& /Ôok˙.vu~/ <Ôo.kh\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                                weigh.
jUnu& /Ôu.nu~/ <Ôuu.nu~> adj. .old.
                                                jogva; /Ôog.va.i/ <Ôo.g\.va.ii> fem.
je5 /Ôeˇ˙/ <Ôe.ˇh\> masc. .the eight month      .provision.
of Vikram samvat.
                                                joganu&jog /Ôo.ga.nu~.Ôog/ <Ôo.ga.nu.Ôo.g\>
je5 /Ôeˇ˙/ <Ôe.ˇh\> masc. .the husband’s        advb. . incidentally.
elder brother.
                                                jogI /Ôo.gi/ <Ôo.gii> masc. .a sadhu.
je5a8I /Ôe.ˇ˙a.¯i/ <Ôe.ˇha.¯ii> fem. .the
husband’s elder brother’s wife.                 jo6 /ÔoÎ/ <Ôo.Î\> fem. .a pair.

jel /Ôel/ <Ôe.l\> fem. .jail.                   jo68I /ÔoÎ.¯i/ <Ôo.Î\.¯ii> fem. .spelling.
                                                                                             70


jo68Iko= /ÔoÎ.¯i.koß/ <Ôo.Î\.¯ii.ko.ß\>         zgmgvu& /Ô˙\g.m\g.vu~/
masc. . spelling dictionary.                    <Ôh\.g\.m\.g\.vu~> v.intr. to glitter.

jo6vu& /ÔoÎ.vu~/ <Ôo.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to       zgmga4 /Ô˙\g.m\.gaˇ/ <Ôh\.g\.m\.ga.ˇ\>
connect 2. to join.                             masc. . glaring light.

jo6axr /Ôo.Îa.kß\r/ <Ôo.Îa.kß\.r\> masc.        z36a`or /Ô˙\g.Îa.k˙or/
.a conjunct consonant.                          <Ôh\.g\.Îa.kho.r\> adj. . quarrelsome.

jo6ajo6 /Ôo.Îa.ÔoÎ/ <Ôo.Îa.Ôo.Î\> advb.         z36az36I /Ô˙\g.Îa.Ô˙\g.Îi/
.side by side.                                  <Ôh\.g\.Îa.Ôh\.g\.Îii> fem. quarreling.
jo6a8 /Ôo.Îa¯/ <Ôo.Îa.¯\> neut. .1. a
                                                z36o /Ô˙\g.Îo/ <Ôh\.gh\.Îo> masc. .a
connection 2. a joint.
                                                quarrel.
jo6Iyu& /Ôo.Îi.ju~/ <Ôo.Îii.ju~> adj. .twin.
                                                zzUmvu& /Ô˙\.Ô˙um.vu~/ <Ôh\.Ôhuu.m\.vu~>
jo6I /Ôo.Îi/ <Ôo.Îii> fem. .a pair.             v.intr. .1. to hand over 2. to struggle on.

                                                z4 /Ô˙\ˇ/ <Ôh\.ˇ\> advb. .quickly.
jo6o /Ôo.Îo/ <Ôo.Îo> masc. .a shoe.
                                                z4kvu& /Ô˙\.ˇ\k.vu~/ <Ôh\.ˇ\.k\.vu~> v.tr.
jor /Ôor/ <Ôo.r\> neut. .strength.
                                                .to jerk.
jovu& /Ôo.vu~/ <Ôo.vu~> v.tr. .to look.         z4ko /Ô˙\ˇ.ko/ <Ô\.ˇ\.ko> masc. .a sharp
                                                blow.
jyar9I /Ôjar.t˙i/ <Ôja.r\.thii> advb. .since.
                                                z4p4 /Ô˙\ˇ.p\ˇ/ <Ôh\.ˇ\.p\.ˇ\> advb.
jyare /Ôja.re/ <Ôja.re> advb. .when.            .hurriedly.

jya& /Ôja~/ <Ôja~> advb. .where.                z6tI /Ô˙\Î.ti/ <Ôh\.Î\.tii> fem. .a
                                                confiscation.
jyot /Ôjot/ <Ôjo.t\> fem. .a flame.
                                                z6p /Ô˙\.Î\p/ <Ôh\.Î\.p\> fem. .speed.
jyoitqI /Ôjo.ti.ßi/ <Ôjo.ti.s°ii> masc. .an
astrologer.                                     z6pvu& /Ô˙\.Î\p.vu~/ <Ôh\.Î\.p\.vu~> v.tr.
                                                .to seize.
jvaXamu`I /Ôva.Æa.mu.k˙i/
<Ôva.Æa.mu.khii> masc. .a volcano.              z6pI /Ô˙\Î.pi/ <Ôh\.Î\.pii> adj. .speedy.

                                                z8z8 /Ô˙\¯.Ô˙\¯/ <Ôh\.¯\.Ôh\.¯\>
                       z                        masc. .a tinkling sound.
                                                                                              71


zpazpI /Ô˙\.pa.Ô˙\.pi/ <Ôh\.pa.Ôh\.pii>        zXzXIya& /Ô˙\Æ.Ô˙\Æ.i.ja~/ <Ôh\.Æ\.Ôh\.Æii.ja~>
fem. .a scuffle.                               neut. pl.. tears welled up in the eyes.

zbkvu& /Ô˙\.b\k.vu~/ <Ôh\.b\.k\.vu~>           zXu&zXu& /Ô˙\.Æu~.Ô˙.Æu~/ <Ôh\.Æu~.Ôh\.Æu~> neut.
v.intr. .1. to flash 2.to twinkle.             .twilight.

zbkaro /Ô˙\b.ka.ro/ <Ôh\.b\.ka.ro> masc.       zXhXvu& /Ô˙\Æ.h\Æ.vu~/ <Ôh\.Æ\.h\.Æ\.vu~>
.a flash of light.                             v.intr. .to shine brightly.

zbkoXvu& /Ô˙\b.koÆ.vu~/ <Ôh\.b\.ko.Æ\.vu~>     z&`na /Ô˙\˜.k˙\.na/ <Ôh\~.kh\.na> fem.
v.tr. .to soak in a liquid.                    .an intense desire.

zbUkvu& /Ô˙\.buk.vu~/ <Ôh\.buu.k\.vu~>         z&`vavu& /Ô˙\˜k˙.va.vu~/ <Ôh\~.kh\.va.vu~>
v.intr.                                        v.intr. .to be crestfallen.
1. to flash 2. to twinkle.
                                               z&`vu& /Ô˙\˜k˙.vu~/ <Ôh\~.kh\.vu~> v.tr. .to
z-lu& /Ô˙\.b˙lu~/ <Ôh\.bh\.lu~> neut. .a       desire something eagerly.
child’s frock.
                                               z&z4 /Ô˙\µ.Ô˙\ˇ/ <Ôh\~.Ôh\.ˇ\> fem.
z_-o /Ô˙\.b˙b˙o/ <Ôh\.bhbho> masc. .a          .useless discussion.
long loose gown.
                                               z&zavat /Ô˙\µ.Ô˙a.vat/ <Ôh\~.Ôha.va.t\>
zmvu& /Ô˙\m.vu~/ <Ôh\.m\.vu~> v.intr. .to      masc. .a cyclone.
ooze.
                                               z&6o /Ô\.¯Îo/ <Ôh\~.Îo> masc. .a flag.
zr8u& /Ô˙\r.¯u~/ neut. .1. a stream 2. a
rivulet.                                       z&plavvu& /Ô˙\mp.lav.vu~/
                                               <Ôh\~.p\.la.v\.vu~> v.intr. .to start some
zrmr /Ô˙\r.m\r/ <Ô\.r\.m\.r\> advb. .a         work without considering risk factors.
type of slow rain.
                                               zakX /Ô˙a.k\ / <Ôha.k\.Æ\> fem. .dew.
zrvu& /Ô˙\r.vu~/ <Ôh\.r\.vu~> v.intr. .to
dribble.                                       zazu& /Ô˙a.Ô˙u~/ <Ôha.Ôhu~> adj. .plentiful.

zru`o /Ô˙\.ru.k˙o/ <Ôh\.ru.kho> masc. .a       za4kvu& /Ô˙a.ˇ\k.vu~/ <Ôha.ˇ\.k\.vu~> v.tr.
balcony.                                       .1. to winnow 2. to scold.
zro /Ô˙\.ro/ <Ôh\.ro> masc. .a stream.         za6 /Ô˙aÎ/ <Ôha.Î\> neut. .a tree.

zverat /Ô˙\.ve.rat/ neut. .jewelry.            za6vu& /Ô˙aÎ.vu~/ <Ôha.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                               clean by sweeping.
zXkvu& /Ô˙\.Æ\k.vu~/ <Ôh\.Æ\.k\.vu~> v.intr.
.to shine.
                                                                                               72


za6I /Ô˙a.Îi/ <Ôha.Îii> fem. .a dense            zIlvu& /Ô˙il.vu~/ <Ôii.l\.vu~> v.tr. .to catch.
bush.
                                                 zUkvu& /Ô˙uk.vu~/ <Ôhuu.k\.vu~> v.intr. .to
za6u& /Ô˙a.Îu~/ <Ôha.Îu~> neut. .a broom.        bow.

za6o /Ô˙a.Îo/ <Ôha.Îo> masc. .excretion.         zUzvu& /Ô˙uÔ˙.vu~/ <Ôhuu.Ôh\.vu~> v.intr. .to
                                                 fight desperately.
zap4vu& /Ô˙a.p\ˇ.vu~/ <Ôha.p\.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. .to
clean by striking a piece of cloth.              zU&4vvu& /Ô˙u~.ˇ\v.vu~/ <Ôhu~.ˇ\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
                                                 .to snatch.
zap4vu& /Ô˙a.p\ˇ.vu~/ <Ôha.p\.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr.
.to eat speedily.                                zU6vu& /Ô˙uÎ.vu~/ <Ôhuu.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                                 thrash.
zap4u& /Ô˙ap.ˇu~/ <Ôha.p\.ˇu~> neut. .a
sudden rain that comes for a short time.         zU6I /Ô˙u.Îi/ <Ôhuu.Îii> fem. .a small
                                                 bunch or bundle.
zar8 /Ô˙a.r\¯/ <Ôha.r\.¯\> neut. .solder.
                                                 zU6o /Ô˙u.Îo/ <Ôuu.Îo> masc. .a big
zarvu& /Ô˙ar.vu~/ <Ôha.r\.vu~> v.tr. .to         bunch or bundle.
solder.
                                                 zu&be= /Ô˙um.beß/ <Ôhu~.be.ß\> fem. .a
zalr /Ô˙a.l\r/ <Ôha.l\.r\> masc. .a kind         movement.
of pulse.
                                                 zUmvu& /Ô˙um.vu~/ <Ôuu.m].vu~> v.intr. .to
zalvu& /Ô˙al.vu~/ <Ôha.l\.vu~> v.tr. .to hold    hand over.
with hands.
                                                 zUrvu& /Ô˙ur.vu~/ <Ôhuu.r\.vu~> v.intr. .to
zaX /Ô˙aÆ/ <Ôha.Æ\> fem. .a flame (of            grieve for some thing or some person.
fire).
                                                 zUlvu& /Ô˙ul.vu~/ <Ôuu.l\.vu~> v.intr. .to
za&`ru& /Ô˙a~k˙.ru~/ <Ôa~.kh\.ru~> neut. .a      swing.
thorny shrub.
                                                 zulavvu& /Ô˙u.lav.vu~/ <Ôhu.la.v\.vu~> v.tr.
za&zr /Ô˙a~.Ô\r/ <Ôha~.Ôh\.r\> neut. .a          .1. to swing 2. to rock.
jingling anklet.
                                                 zU&p6u& /Ô˙u~p.Îu~/ <Ôhu~.p\.Îu~> neut. .a hut.
za&zrI /Ô˙a~Ô˙.ri/ <Ôha~.Ôh\.rii> fem. .a
jingling anklet for children.                    zer /Ô˙er/ <Ôhe.r\> neut. .poison.

za&po /Ô˙a~.po/ <Ôha~.po> masc. .a gate.         zerI /Ô˙e.ri/ <Ôhe.rii> adj. .poisonous.

zI8u& /Ô˙i.¯u~/ <Ôhii.¯u~> adj. .small (in       zerIlu& /Ô˙e.ri.lu~/ <Ôhe.rii.lu~> adj.
size).                                           .1.jealous 2. envious.
                                                                                              73


                                                4cko /ˇ\c.ko/ <ˇ\.c\.ko> masc. .a mild
zokvu& /Ô˙ok.vu~/ <Ôho.k\.vu~> v.intr. .to      stroke to cut a piece of wood.
doze.
                                                4clI /ˇ\c.li/ <ˇ\.c\.lii> fem. .the last
zoku& /Ô˙o.ku~/ <Ôho.ku~> neut. .a dozing.      finger.

                                                4cUk6u& /ˇ\.cuk.Îu~/ <ˇ\.cuu.k\.Îu~> adj.
                      4                         .very small.

                                                44ar /ˇ\.ˇar/ <ˇ\.ˇa.r\> adj. .stiff.
4kvu& /ˇ\k.vu~/ <ˇ\.k\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to
survive 2. to last.                             44\4u /ˇ\ˇ.ˇu/ <ˇ\.ˇˇu> neut. .1. a pony 2. a
                                                lean horse.
4kaw /ˇ\.ka.u/ <ˇ\.ka.u> adj. ..durable 2.
lasting.                                        4pkvu& /ˇ\.p\k.vu~/ <ˇ\.p\.k\.vu~> v.intr.
                                                .to drip.
4kavarI /ˇ\.ka.va.ri/ <ˇ\.ka.va.rii> fem.
.percentage.                                    4pkavvu& /t\p.kav.vu~/ <ˇ\.p\.ka.v\.vu~>
                                                v.tr. 1. to write down briefly 2. to copy
4ko /ˇ\.ko/ <ˇ\.ko> masc. .percentage.          out.

4kor /ˇ\.kor/ <ˇ\.ko.r\> fem. .1. a             4pku& /ˇ\p.ku~/ <ˇ\.p\.ku~> neut. .1. a drop
suggestion, 2. a mild scolding.                 2. a dot.

4korvu& /ˇ\.kor.vu~/ <ˇ\.ko.r\.vu~> v.tr. .1.   4p4p /ˇ\p.ˇ\p/ <ˇ\.p\.ˇ\.p\> advb. .to
to suggest 2. to scold mildly.                  prattle.

4k\kr /ˇ\k.k\r/ <ˇ\.kk\.r\> fem. .1. a          4p/lI /ˇ\p.li/ <ˇ\.p\.lii> fem. .1. a light
collision 2. a resistance.                      stroke with a finger 2. a light slap.

4ko /t\.ko/ <ˇ\.ko> masc. .a shaved off         4po4p /ˇ\.po.ˇ\p/ <ˇ\.po.ˇ\.p\> advb.
head.                                           .one by one.

4gr 4gr /ˇ\.g\r ˇ\.g\r/                         4pa4pI /ˇ\.pa.ˇ\.pi/ <ˇ\.pa.ˇ\.pii> fem. .a
<ˇ\.g\.r\.ˇ\.g\.r\> advb. . with a fixed        hot exchange of words.
gaze.
                                                4parvu& /ˇ\.par.vu~/ <ˇ\.pa.r\.vu~> v.tr. .to
4gumgu /ˇ\.gu.m\.gu/ <ˇ\.gu.m\.gu>              warn in a mild language.
advb. .1. shaking 2. shaking.
                                                4pal /ˇ\.pal/ <ˇ\.pa.l\> fem. .1. post 2.
4ckavvu& /ˇ\c.kav.vu~/ <ˇ\.c\.ka.v\.vu~>        mail.
v.tr. .to cut with a stroke.
                                                4palI /ˇ\.pa.li/ <ˇ\.pa.lii> masc. .a
                                                postman.
                                                                                                   74


                                                    4a&kI /ˇa~.ki/ <ˇa~.kii> fem. .a tank (of some
4bUk6u& /ˇ\.buk.Îu~/ <ˇ\.bu.k\.Îu~> adj. .a         liquid).
very small.
                                                    4a&ko /ˇa~.ko/ <ˇa~.ko> masc. .a stitch.
4mkvu& /ˇ\.m\k.vu~/ <ˇ\.m\.k\.vu~> v.intr.
.to twinkle slowly.                                 4a&g /ˇa~˜g/ <ˇa~.g\> fem. .a leg
                                                    (derogatory use).
4hU&ko /ˇ\.hu~.ko/ <ˇ\.huu~.ko> masc. .a
bird’s cooing.                                      4a&gvu& /ˇa~˜g.vu~/ <ˇa~.g\.vu> v.tr. .to hang.

4XvXvu& /ˇ\Æ.v\Æ.vu~/ <ˇ\.Æ\.v\.Æ\.vu~>             4a&c8 /ˇa~.c\¯/ <ˇa~.c\.¯\> neut. .a short
v.intr. .to wail.                                   note.

4Xvu& /ˇ\Æ.vu~/ <ˇ\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. .to be          4a&i4yo /ˇa~.ˇi.jo/ <ˇa~.ˇi.jo> masc. .a leg
removed.                                            (derogatory).

4&k=aX /t\˜.k\.ßaÆ/ <ˇ\~.k\.ßa.Æ\> fem. .a          i4cavu& /ˇi.ca.vu~/ <ˇi.ca.vu~> v.intr. .1.to be
mint.                                               collided 2. to run errands vainly.

4&4o /ˇ\¯.ˇo/ <ˇ\~.ˇo> masc. .a quarrel.            i44o6I /ˇi.ˇo.Îi/ <ˇi.ˇo.Îii> fem. .a kind of
                                                    bird.
4a7 /ˇaÎ˙/ <ˇa.Îh\> fem. .cold.
                                                    i4Pp8I /ˇip.p\.¯i/ <ˇi.pp\.¯ii> fem. .a
4a7u& /ˇa.Î˙u~/ <ˇa.Îhu~> adj. .1. cold 2.          commentary.
stale.
                                                    4Ik6I /ˇik.Îi/ <ˇi.k\.Îii> fem. .a pill.
4a8u& /ˇa.¯u~/ <ˇa.¯u~> neut. .occasion.
                                                    4Ika /ˇi.ka/ <ˇii.ka> fem. .criticism.
4ap4Ip /ˇap.ˇip/ <ˇa.p\.ˇii.p\> fem. .an
external pomp.                                      4I`X /ˇi.k˙\ / <ˇii.kh\.Æ\> neut. .a quip.

4apu /ˇa.pu/ <ˇa.pu> masc. .an island.              4Icvu& /ˇic.vu~/ <ˇii.c\.vu~> v.tr. .to forge.

4al /ˇal/ <ˇa.l\> fem. .baldness.                   4Ipvu& /ˇip.vu~/ <ˇii.p\.vu~> v.tr. .to strike.

4aXvu& /ˇaÆ.vu~/ <ˇa.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to avoid     4Ipu& /ˇi.pu~/ <ˇii.pu~> neut. .a drop.
2. to avert.
                                                    4Il6I /ˇil.Îi/ <ˇii.l\.Îii> fem. .a small
4a&k8I /ˇa~k.¯i/ <ˇa~.k\.¯ii> fem. .a pin.          mark on the forehead.

4a&kvu& /ˇa~k.vu~/ <ˇa~.k\.vu~> v.tr. .to chisel.   4IlI /ˇi.li/ <ˇi.li> fem. .a blot of disgrace.
                                                                                                75


4I&6oru& /ˇi¯.Îo.ru~/ <ˇi.Îo.ru~> neut. .a kind     4oc /ˇoc/ <ˇo.c\> fem. .1. a peak 2. a top
of vegetable.                                       part.

4uk6I /ˇuk.Îi/ <ˇuu.k\.Îii> fem. .a team.           4ocvu& /ˇoc.vu~/ <ˇo.c\.vu~> v.tr. .to prick.

4uk6o /ˇuk.Îo/ <ˇu.k\.Îo> masc. .a piece.           4oplI /ˇop.li/ <ˇo.p\.lii> fem. .a small
                                                    basket.
4Ucko /ˇuc.ko/ <ˇu.c\.ko> masc. .1. a
black art 2. a joke.                                4oplo /ˇop.lo/ <ˇo.p\.lo> masc. .a big
                                                    basket.
4uval /ˇu.val/ <ˇu.vo> masc. .a towel.
                                                    4opI /ˇo.pi/ <ˇo.pii> fem. .a cap.
4U&kavvu& /ˇu~.kav.vu~/ <ˇu~.ka.v\.vu~> v.tr. .1.
to shorten 2. to abridge.                           4opo /ˇo.po/ <ˇo.po> masc. .a hat.

4U&pvu& /ˇu~p.vu~/ <ˇu~.p\.vu~> v.tr. .to           4oXkI /ˇoÆ.ki/ <ˇo.Æ\.kii> fem. .a gang.
remove grass.
                                                    4oXI /ˇo.Æi/ <ˇo.Æii> fem. .a small group.
4U&po /ˇu~.po/ <ˇu~.po.> masc. .a strangling.
                                                    4oXu& /ˇo.Æu~/ <ˇo.Æu~> neut. .a crowd.
4ekrI /ˇek.ri/ <ˇe.k\.rii> fem. .a hill.

4ekvvu& /ˇe.k\v.vu~/ <ˇe.k\v.vu~> v.tr. .to                               5
prop.

4ekvu& /ˇek.vu~/ <ˇe.k\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to         5g /ˇ˙\g/ <ˇh\.g\> masc. . a cheat.
lean on 2. to be propped.
                                                    5gvu& /ˇ˙\g.vu~/ <ˇh\.g\.vu~> v.tr. .to
4eko /ˇe.ko/ <ˇe.ko> masc. .1. a support 2.         cheat.
a prop.
                                                    5ga; /ˇ˙\.ga.i/ <ˇh\.ga.ii> fem. .cheating.
4ervu& /ˇer.vu~/ <ˇe.r\.vu~> neut. .a tip (of
finger).                                            5garu& /ˇ˙\.ga.ru~/ <ˇh\.ga.ru~> adj.
                                                    deceitful.
4ev /ˇev/ <ˇe.v]> fem. .a habit.
                                                    5p/ko /ˇ˙\p.ko/ <ˇh\.p\.ko> masc. .a
4evavu& /ˇe.va.vu~/ <ˇe.va.vu~> v.intr. .to be      scolding.
acquainted with.
                                                    5rvu& /ˇ˙\r.vu~/ <ˇh\.r\.vu~> v.intr. .to
4okvu& /ˇok.vu~/ <ˇ\.ko.vu~> v.tr. .to blame        become cold.
a person for his or her fault.
                                                    5rvu& /ˇ˙\r.vu~/ <ˇh\.r\.vu~> v.intr. .to be
                                                    stabilized.
                                                                                                   76


                                                5alvvu& /ˇ˙a.l\v.vu~/ <ˇha.l\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
5rav /ˇ˙\.rav/ <ˇh\.r\.vu~> masc. .1.a          .to empty.
proposal 2. a resolution.
                                                5alu& /ˇ˙a.lu~/ <ˇha.lu~> adj. empty.
5ravvu& /ˇ˙\.rav.vu~/ <ˇh\.ra.v\.vu~>
v.tr..1. to fix 2. to decide.                   5avku& /ˇ˙av.ku~/ <ˇha.v\.ku~> adj. .1.
                                                serious 2. cool-minded.
5rel /ˇ˙\.rel/ <ˇh\.re.l\> adj. .1.cool-
minded 2. wise.                                 5a&svu& /ˇ˙a~s.vu~/ <ˇha~.s\.vu~> v.tr. .to fill
                                                closely.
5lvavu& /ˇ˙\l.va.vu~/ <ˇh\.l\.va.vu~> v.intr.
.to be emptied.                                 5Ik /ˇ˙ik/ <ˇhii.k\> advb. .1. o.k. 2.
                                                suitable.
5svu& /ˇ˙\s.vu~/ <ˇh\.s\.vu~> v.intr. .to be
convinced.                                      5I&gravu& /ˇ˙i˜g.ra.vu~/ <ˇhi~.g\.ra.vu~>
                                                v.intr. .to suffer heavy cold.
5so5s /ˇ˙\.so.ˇ˙\s/ <ˇh\.so.th\.s\> advb.
full to the mouth.                              5U&5vavu& /ˇ˙u~ˇ˙.va.vu~/ <ˇhu~.ˇh\.va.vu~>
                                                v.intr. .to be troubled by heavy cold.
5iXyo /ˇ˙\.Æi.jo/ <ˇh\.Æi.jo> masc. .the
stone of a fruit.                               5U&5u& /ˇ˙u~.ˇ˙u~/ <ˇhu~.ˇhu~> neut. .1. the
                                                stump of a tree 2. a stump of cigarette
5&6k /ˇ˙\¯.Î\k/ <ˇh\~.Î\.k\> fem.               etc.
.coldness.
                                                5ek6I /ˇ˙ek.Îi/ <ˇhe.k\.Îii> fem.
5&6I /ˇ˙\¯.Îi/ <ˇh\~.Îii> fem. .cold.           .mockery.

5&6u& /t˙\¯.Îu~/ <ˇh\~.Îu~> adj. .cold.         5ek5eka8e /ˇ˙ek.ˇ˙e.ka.¯e/
                                                <ˇhe.k\.ˇhe.ka.¯e> advb. . everywhere.
5akor /ˇ˙a.kor/ <ˇha.ko.r\> masc. .a
community.                                      5ek6o /ˇ˙ek.Îo/ <ˇhe.k\.Îo> masc. .a
                                                jump.
5akor@ /ˇ˙a.kor.Ôi/ <ˇha.ko.r\.Ôii> masc.
.a name of Lord Vishnu.                         5ekvu& /ˇ˙ek.vu~/ <ˇhe.k\.vu~> v.intr. .to
                                                jump or peap over.
5a5 /ˇ˙aˇ˙/ <ˇha.ˇh\> masc. .pomp.
                                                5eka8u& /t˙e.ka.¯u~/ <ˇhe.ka.¯u~> neut. .1.an
5a56I /ˇ˙aˇ˙.Îi/ <ˇha.ˇh\.Îii> fem. .a          address 2. a place 3. a location.
funeral bier.
                                                5er 5er /ˇ˙er.ˇ˙er/ <ˇhe.r\.ˇhe.r\> advb.
5arvu& /ˇ˙ar.vu~/ <ˇha.r\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to     everywhere.
cool 2. to freeze 3. to pacify.
                                                                                             77


5ervvu& /ˇ˙e.r\v.vu~/ <ˇhe.r\.v\.vu~> v.intr.   6gvu& /Î\g.vu~/ <Î\.g\.vu~> v.intr. .to
.to fix the price.                              become unstable.

5elvu& /ˇ˙el.vu~/ <ˇhe.l\.vu~> v.tr. .to puch   6gXu& /Î\g.Æu~/ <Î\.g\.Æu~> neut. .1. a big
forward.                                        slice of fruit 2. a piece of wood.

5elo /ˇ˙e.lo/ <ˇhe.lo> masc. .a puch.           63avu& /Î\.g˙a.vu~/ <Î\.gha.vu~> v.intr. .to
                                                be stunned.
5e= /ˇ˙eß/ <ˇhe.ß\> fem. .a light kick.
                                                64\4o /Î\ˇ.ˇo/ <Î\.ˇˇo> masc. .a cork.
5okr /ˇ˙o.k\r/ <ˇho.k\.r\> fem. .a
stumbling.                                      68kvu& /Î\.¯\k.vu~/ <Î\.¯\.k\.vu~> v.intr.
                                                .to roar.
5okvu& /ˇ˙ok.vu~/ <ˇho.k\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to
strike against 2. to hammer.                    6f8u& /Î\p˙.¯u~/ <Î\.ph\.¯u~> neut. .a
                                                short thick staff.
5ok&5ok /ˇ˙o.k\m.ˇ˙ok/ <ˇho.k\~.ˇho.k\>
advb.                                           6blu& /Î\b.lu~/ <Î\.b\.lu~> neut. .a tin
an act of striking repeatedly.                  box.

5o5 /ˇ˙oˇ˙/ <ˇho.ˇh\> adj. stupid.              6bI /Î\.bi/ <Î\.bii> fem. .a small
                                                metalic, wooden or ivory box.
5o&so /ˇ˙o~.so/ <ˇha~.so> masc. .a fist blow.
                                                6bo /Î\.bo/ <Î\.bo> masc. .a large tin-
                      6                         box.

6`o /Î\.k˙o/ <Î\.kho> masc. .1.                 6mro /Î\m.ro/ <Î\.m.ro> masc. .a kind
confusion 2. a dispute 3. a quauurel.           of fragrant plant.

6gmg /Î\g.m\g/ <Î\.g\.m\.g\> adj.               6r /Î\r/ <Î\.r\> masc. .fear.
unstable.
                                                6rpok /Î\r.pok/ adj. . craven.
6gmgvu& /Î\g.m\g.vu~/ <Î\.g\.m\.g\.vu~>
v.intr. .to become unstable.                    6rvu& /Î\r.vu~/ <Î\.r\.vu~> v.intr. .to fear.

6glu& /Î\g.lu~/ <Î\.g\.lu~> neut. .a jacket.    6ram8u& /Î\.ra.m\.¯u~/ <Î\.ra.m\.¯u~>
                                                adj. . frightening.
6glu& /Î\g.lu~/ <Î\.g\.lu~> neut. .a
footstep.                                       6svu& /Î\s.vu~/ <Î\.s\.vu~> v.tr. .to bite
                                                (of serpent etc).
6glo /Î\g.lo/ <Î\.g\.lo> masc. .a coat.
                                                6hap8 /Î\.ha.p\¯/ <Î\.ha.p\.¯\> neut.
                                                wisdom.
                                                                                            78


                                               6am /Îam/ <Îa.m\> masc. .a burn given
6hoXvu& /Î\.hoÆ.vu~/ <Î\.ho.Æ\.vu~> v.tr.      as a part of a ritual or a custom.
.to dirty liquid by shaking.
                                               6amvu& /Îam.vu~/ <Îa.m\.vu~> v.tr. .to
6hoXu& /Î\.ho.Æu~/ <Î\.ho.Æu~> adj. .dirty     give a burn as a part of a ritual or a
(water).                                       custom.

6&` /Î\¯.k˙\/ <Î\~.kh\> masc. .a sting.        6ama6oX /Îa.ma.ÎoÆ/ <Îa.ma.Îo.Æ\> adj.
                                               .1. unsteady 2. chaotic.
6&`vu& /Î\˜k˙.vu~/ <Î\~.kh\.vu~> v.intr. .to
sting.                                         6aX /ÎaÆ/ <Îa.Æ\> fem. .a branch of a
                                               tree.
6&`Ilu& /Î\¯.k˙i.lu~/ <Î\~.khii.lu~> adj.
vindictive.                                    6a&`XI /Îø~k˙.Æi/ <Îa~.kh\.Æii> fem. .1. a
                                               tender offshoot 2. a thin branch.
6&fa= /Î\m.p˙aß/ <Î\~.pha.ß\> fem.
boastfulness.                                  6a&gr /Îa~.g\r/ <Îa~.g\.r\> fem. .peddy.

6ak8 /Îa.k\¯/ <Îa.k\.¯\> fem. .a witch.        6a&6 /Îa~Î/ <Îa~.Î\> adj. .1. shameless 2.
                                               bullying.
6aku /Îa.ku/ <Îa.ku> masc. .robber.
                                               6a&i6yo /Îa~.Îi.jo/ <Îa~..jo> masc. .1. a
6a3 /Îag˙/ <Îa.gh\> masc. .1. a blot 2. a      drumstick 2. a small stick used to play a
stain 3. a spot.                               Raas - a kind of collective dance.

6ai3yu& /Îa.g˙i.ju~/ <Îa.ghi.ju~> adj. .wild   6a&6I /Îa~¯.Îi/ <Îa~.Îii> fem. .a small thin
(usually used to modify a dog.).               stick.

6a3u& /Îa.g˙u/ <Îa.ghu~> masc. pl..a           6uk\kr /Îuk.k\r/ <Îu.kk\.r\> neut. .a
member of a funeral procession.                pig.

6a3o /Îa.g˙o/ <Îa.gho> masc. .a spot.          6U&gr /Îu˜.g\r/ <Îuu~.g\.r\> masc. .a
                                               small mountain.
6acu& /Îa.cu~/ <Îa.cu~> neut. .the mouth
(derogatory).                                  6&ugraX /Îu˜g.raÆ/ <Îuu~.g\.ra.Æ\> adj.
                                               mountainous.
6abu& /Îa.bu~/ <Îa.bu~> adj. .left.
                                               6u&grI /Îu˜g.ri/ <Îu~.g\.rii> fem. .a hill.
6aberI /Îa.be.ri/ <Îa.be.rii> adj. .leftist.
                                               6u&gXI /Îu˜g.Æi/ <Îu~.g\.Æii> fem. .an
6abo6I /Îa.bo.Îi/ <Îa.bo.Îii> adj. .left-      onion.
handed.
                                               6Uco /Îu.co/ <Îuu.co> masc. .a roll of
                                               rags or papers.
                                                                                            79


                                              7glo /Î˙\g.lo/ <Îh\.g\.lo> masc. .1. a
6UbkI /Îub.ki/ <Îuu.b\.kii> fem. .a dive.     pile 2. a heap.

6Ubvu& /Îub.vu~/ <Îu.b\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to   7glab&0 /Î˙\g.la.b\nd˙/
sink 2. to drown.                             <Îh\.g\.la.b\~.dh\> adj. . abundant.

6Umo /Îu.mo/ <Îu.mo> masc.                    7cupcu /Î˙\.cu.p\.cu/ <Îh\.cu.p\.chu>
.suffocation caused by sobbing.               advb. .1. wavering 2. hesitating.

6Usku& /Îus.ku~/ <Îu.s\.ku~> neut. .a sob.    7b /Î˙\b/ <Îh\.b\> fem. .1.a style 2. a
                                              method.
6U&4I /Îu~.ˇi/ <Îuu~.ˇii> fem. .the navel.
                                              7s6vu& /Î˙\.s\Î.vu~/ <Îh\.s\.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
6U&6U& /Îu¯.Îu~/ <Îuu~.Îuu~> neut. .an ear    .to drag.
of corn.
                                              7Xvu& /Î˙\ .vu~/ <Îh\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to
6ok /Îok/ <Îo.k\> fem. .the neck.             come out (of liquid) 2. to incline.

6oikyu& /Îo.ki.ju~/ <Îo.ki.ju~> neut. .a      7&kavu& /Î˙\˜.ka.vu~/ <Îh\~.ka.vu~> v.intr.
glance.                                       .to be covered.

6oku& /Îo.ku~/ <Îo.ku~> neut. .the head.      7&g /Î˙\˜g/ <Îh\~.g\> masc. .manners.

6o6o /Îo.Îo/ <Îo.Îo> masc. .a spike of        7&7ero /Î˙\¯.Î˙e.ro/ <Îh\~.Îhe.ro> masc.
maize.                                        proclamation.

6obu& /Îo.bu~/ <Îo.bu~> neut. .a buffalo.     7&7oXvu& /Î˙\¯.Î˙oÆ.vu~/ <Îh\~.Îho.Æ\.vu~>
                                              v.tr. to shake soneone to awake him or
6obu& /Îo.bu~/ <Îo.bu~> adj. 1.dull 2.        her.
stupid.
                                              7ak7oX /Î˙ak.Î˙oÆ/ <Îha.k\.Îho.Æ\>
6ol /Îol/ <Îo.l\> fem. .a bucket.             masc. outward appearance.

6olvu& /Îol.vu~/ <Îo.l\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to   7al /Î˙al/ <Îha.l\> fem. .a shield.
swing 2. to oscillate.
                                              7aX /Î˙aÆ/ <Îha.l\> masc. .a slpoe.
6o=I /Îo.ßi/ <Îo.ßii> fem. .an old woman.
                                              7aXvu& /Î˙aÆ.vu~/ <Îha.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. .1.to
6oXo /Îo.Æo/ <Îo.Æo> masc. .the eyeball.      lower 2. to let incline downwards 3. to
                                              mould with a die.
                      7                       7a&k8 /Î˙a~.k\¯/ <Îha~.k\.¯\> neut. .a
                                              cover.
                                                                                           80



7a&k8u& /Î˙a~k.¯u~/ <Îha~.k\.¯u~> neut. .a
                                                                       t
                                                 tk /t\k/ <t\.k\> fem. .opportunity.
cover.

7a&kvu& /Î˙a~k.vu~/ <Îha.k\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to    tktkvu& /t\k.t\k.vu~/ <t\.k\.t\.k\.vu~>
cover 2. to shut with a lid.                     v.intr. to glitter.

7Il /Î˙il/ <Îhii.l\> fem. .a delay.              tkrar /t\k.rar/ <t\.k\.ra.r\> fem. .a
                                                 quarrel.
7Ilu& /Î˙i.lu~/ <Îhii.lu~> adj. .loose.
                                                 tkladI /t\k.la.di/ <t\.k\.la.dii> adj.
7I&glI /Î˙i˜g.li/ <Îhii~.g\.lii> fem. .a doll.   .fragile.

                                                 tklIf /t\k.lip˙/ <t\.k\.lii.ph\> fem.
7I&c8 /Î˙i~.c\¯/ <Îhii~.c\.¯\> masc.
                                                 trouble.
.knee.
                                                 tkIyo /t\.ki.jo/ <t\.kii.jo> masc. .a
7I&cvu& /Î˙i~c.vu~/ <Îhii~.c\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                                 pillow.
drink excessively.
                                                 tkedarI /t\.ke.da.ri/ <t\.ke.da.rii> fem. .a
7ebru& /Î˙eb.ru~/ <Îhe.b\.ru~> neut. .a food
                                                 watch.
item.
                                                 t`to /t\k˙.to/ <t\.kh\.to> masc. .the
7okXI /Î˙ok.Æi/ <Îho.k\.Æii> fem. .a food
                                                 stage.
item.
                                                 tg6o /t\g.Îo/ <t\.g\.Îo> masc. .the
7okXu& /Î˙ok.Æu~/ <Îho.k\.Æu~> neut. .a
                                                 figure 3.
food item.
                                                 tgtgvu& /t\g.t\g.vu~/ <t\.g\.t\.g\.vu~>
7or /Î˙or/ <Îho.r\> neut. .cattle.
                                                 v.intr. to glitter.
7ol /Î˙ol/ <Îho.Æ\> masc. .a kind of
                                                 tgaru& /t\.ga.ru~/ <t\.ga.ru~> neut. .a broad
drum.
                                                 mouthed bucket.
7olI /Î˙o.li/ <Îho.lii> masc. .a drummer.
                                                 tge6vu& /t\.geÎ.vu~/ <t\.ge.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                                 cause to run away.
7oX /Î˙oÆ/ <Îho.Æ\> masc. .metal-
plating.                                         tj /t\Ô/ <t\.Ô\> masc. .cinnamon.
7oXvu& /Î˙oÆ.vu~/ <Îho.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. .to
                                                 tjvIj /t\Ô.viÔ/ <t\.Ô\.vii.Ô\> fem.
spill.
                                                 .planning.
7o&g /Î˙ø~˜.g\/ <Îho~.g\> masc. .1.false
                                                 tjvu& /t\Ô.vu~/ <t\.Ô\.vu~> v.tr. .to
show 2. disguise.
                                                 renounce.
                                                                                             81


                                                ttkal /t\t.kal/ <t\.t\.ka.l\> advb. .at
tj}a /t\.Ô\.gn\/ <t\.Ô\.gn\> adj. .expert.      once.

t4 /t\ˇ/ <t\.ˇ\> masc. .a shore.                tt6avvu& /t\t.Îav.vu~/ <t\.t\.Îa.v\.vu~>
                                                v.tr. to rebuke.
t4S9 /t\.ˇ\s.t˙\/ <t\.ˇ\.sth\> adj.
.neutral.                                       t]v /t\t.v\/ <t\.tv\> neut. .an element.

t6 /t\Î/ <t\.Î\> fem. .a crack.                 t]v}aan /t\t.v\.gna.n\/ <t\.tv\.gna.n\>
                                                neut. .philosphy.
t6 /t\Î/ <t\.Î\> neut. .a subdivision of
a caste.                                        t]v}aanI /t\t.v\.gna.ni/ <t\.tv\.gna.nii>
                                                masc. .a philosopher.
t6ko /t\Î.ko/ <t\.Î\.ko> masc.
.sunshine.                                      t9a /t\.t˙a/ <t\.tha> conj.. and.

t6ko2a&y6o /ˇ\Î.ko.c˙a~j.Îo/                    t9aip /t\.t˙a.pi/ <t\.tha.pi> advb. .even
<t\.Î\.ko.cha~.j\.Îo> masc. .a cycle of         then.
happiness and unhappiness.
                                                tdupra&t /t\.dup.ra~t/ <t\.d\.u.p\.ra~.t\>
t6kI.2a&y6I /ˇ\Î.ki.c˙a~j.Îi/                   advb. .1. in addition 2. moreover.
<t\.Î\.kii.cha~.j\.Îii> fem. ..a cycle of
happiness and unhappiness.                      tn /t\n/ <t\.n\> neut. .the body
                                                (human).
t6f6 /t\Î.p˙\Î/ <t\.Î\.ph\.Î\> advb.
instantly.                                      tp`Ir /t\p.k˙ir/ <t\.p\.khii.r\> fem.
                                                .snuff.
t6f6vu& /t\Î.p˙\Î.vu~/ <t\.Î\.ph\.Î\.vu~>
v.intr. .to struggle hard hopelessly.           tpvu& /t\p.vu~/ <t\.p\.vu~> v.intr. .1. to be
                                                heated 2. to become angry.
t6amar /t\.Îa.mar/ <t\.Îa.ma.r\> advb.
nonstop.                                        tpas /t\.pas/ <t\.pa.s\> fem. .1.an
                                                examination 2. a check up 3. an
t8`lu& /t\.¯\.k˙\.lu~/ <t\.¯\.kh\.lu~>          investigation.
neut. .a straw.
                                                tpasvu& /t\.pas.vu~/ <t\.pa.s\.vu~> v.tr. .1.
t8`o /t\¯.k˙o/ <t\.¯\.kho> masc. .a             to examine 2. to investigate.
spark.
                                                tpelI /t\.pe.li/ <t\.pe.lii> fem. .a
t8avu& /t\.¯a.vu~/ <t\.¯a.vu~> v.intr. .to be   cooking vessel.
dragged.
                                                tf6&cI /t\p˙.Î\µ.ci/ <t\.ph\.Î\~.cii> fem.
                                                1. misappropriation 2. theft 3.
                                                plagiarism.
                                                                                             82


                                                trt /t\.r\t/ <t\.r\.t\> advb. .. 1. at once
tf6avvu& /t\p˙.Îav.vu~/ <t\.ph\.Îa.v\.vu~>      2. promptly.
v.tr. .1. to misappropriate 2. to steal 3. to
plagiarize.                                     trfe8 /t\r.p˙e¯/ <t\.r\.phe.¯\> fem.
                                                .partiality.
tfavt /t\.p˙a.v\t/ <t\.pha.v\.t\> masc.
.difference.                                    trvra4 /t\r.v\.raˇ/ <t\.r\.v\.ra.ˇ\>
                                                masc. .intense zeal.
tbk\ko /t\.b\k.ko/ <t\.b\.kko> masc. .a
stage (in development).                         trvu& /t\r.vu~/ <t\.r\.vu~> v.intr. .to swim.

tibyt /t\.bi.j\t/ <t\.bi.j\.t\> fem.            trvu& /t\r.vu~/ <t\.r\.vu~> v.intr. .to float.
.health.
                                                tr&g /t\.r\˜.g\/ masc. . <t\.r\~.g\> 1. a
tbIb /t\.bib/ <t\.bii.b\> masc. .a              ripple 2. imagination.
doctor.
                                                tr&gI /t\.r\˜.gi/ <t\.r\~.gi> adj.
tbelo /t\.be.lo/ <t\.be.lo> masc. .a            .whimsical.
stable.
                                                trap /t\.rap/ <t\.ra.p\> fem. .a sudden
tmru& /t\m.ru~/ <t\.m\.ru~> neut. .cricket      attack.
(insect).
                                                trIke /t\.ri.ke/ <t\.rii.ke> advb. .in the
tm&co /t\.m\µ.co/ <t\.m\~.co> masc. .a          manner of.
country made pistol.
                                                tru8 /t\.ru¯/ <t\.ru.¯\> masc. .young.
tmaku& /t\.ma.ku~/ <t\.ma.ku~> fem.
.tobacco.                                       tkR /t\r.k\/ <t\.rk\> masc. .1. an
                                                inference 2. a hypothesis.
tmaco /t\.ma.co/ <t\.ma.co> masc. .a
slap.                                           tkR=aS{a /t\r.k\.ßas.tr\/ <t\.rk\.ßa.str\>
                                                neut. .logic.
tmam /t\.mam/ <t\.ma.m\> adj. .all.
                                                tl /t\l/ <t\.l\> masc. .sesame.
tmaru& /t\.ma.ru~/ <t\.ma.ru~> adj. .yours.
                                                tlp /t\.l\p/ <t\.l\.p\> fem. .a frenzied
tma=o /t\.ma.ßo/ <t\.ma.ßo> masc. .a            desire.
public show.
                                                tlpvu& /t\.l\p.vu~/ <t\.l\.p\.vu~> v.intr.
tme /t\.me/ <t\.me> pron.. you.                 .to desire something or someone
                                                intensely.
tr2o6vu& /t\r.c˙oÎ.vu~/ <t\.r\.cho.Î\.vu~>
v.tr. to renounce.
                                                                                               83


tlvar /t\l.var/ <t\.l\.va.r\> fem. .a            <ta.g\.Î\.dhi.nna> masc. .to spend
sward.                                           money carelessly.

tlsa&kXI /t\l.sa~k.Æi/ <t\.l\.sa~.k\.Æii> fem.   tagvu& /tag.vu~/ <ta.g\.vu~> v.intr. .to
.a kind of sweet made of sesame.                 estimate.

tvarI` /t\.va.rik˙/ <t\.va.rii.kh\> fem.         taj /taÔ/ <ta.Ô\> masc. .a crown.
.a chronicle.
                                                 tajaklm /ta.Ôa.k\.l\m/ <ta.Ôa.k\.l\.m\>
tsvIr /t\s.vir/ <t\.s\.vii.r\> fem. .a           fem. a postscript.
photograph.
                                                 taju /ta.Ôu/ <ta.Ôu> adj. .fresh.
tXpdu& /t\Æ.p\.du~/ <t\.Æ\.p\.du~> adj. .1.
regional 2. local.                               tajetrma& /ta.Ôe.t\r.ma~/ <ta.Ôe.t\.r\.ma~>
                                                 advb. .recently.
tXvu& /t\Æ.vu~/ <t\.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. .to fry.
                                                 ta8 /ta¯/ <ta.¯\> fem. .1. scarcity 2.
tXa; /t\.Æa.i/ <t\.Æa.ii> fem. .a mattress.      shortage.

t&tu /t\n.tu/ <t\~.tu> masc. .a fiber.           ta8 /ta´/ <ta.¯\> fem. .a muscle strain.

t&{a /t\n.tr\/ <t\~.tr\> neut. .1.               ta8vu& /ta¯.vu~/ <ta.¯\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to
management 2. administration.                    stretch 2. to drag.

t&{aI /t\n.tri/ <t\~.trii> masc. .editor.        taTkailk /tat.ka.lik/ <ta.tka.li.k\> advb.
                                                 immediately.
t&durSt /t\n.du.r\st/ <t\~.du.r\.st\> adj.
healthy.                                         tai]vk /tat.tvik/ <ta.tvi.k\> adj.
                                                 philosophical.
t&durStI /t\.ndu.r\s.ti/ <t\.du.r\.stii>
fem. health.                                     tap /tap/ <ta.p\> masc. .sunshine (refers
                                                 to the heat and not the light).
t&bU /t\m.bu/ <t\~.bu> masc. .a tent.
                                                 tap8u& /tap.¯u~/ <ta.p\.¯u~> neut. .a
t&bUro /t\m.bu.ro/ <t\~.buu.ro> masc. .a         bonfire.
kind of musical instrument.
                                                 tapvu& /tap.vu~/ <ta.p\.vu~> v.intr. .to
takvu& /tak.vu~/ <ta.k\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to aim    warm up by sitting beside a fire place.
at 2. to take a target.
                                                 tab6tob /ta.b\Î.tob/ <ta.b\.Î\.to.b\>
takat /ta.kat/ <ta.ka.t\> fem. .strength.        advb. at once.

tag6i0NNaa /ta.g\Î.d˙in.na/
                                                                                              84


tar /tar/ masc. . <ta.r\> 1. a fiber 2. a       ta&i{ak /ta~.trik/ <ta~.tri.k\> adj. .pertaining
string 3. a thread.                             to occultism.

tar /tar/ <ta.r\> masc. .a telegram.            ta&i{ak /ta~.trik/ <ta~.tri.k\> masc. .an
                                                occultist.
tarvvu& /ta.r\v.vu~/ <ta.r\.v\.vu~> v.tr. .1.
to summarize 2. to prepare a balance-           ta&bu& /ta~.bu~/ <ta~.bu~> neut. .copper.
sheet.
                                                itjorI /ti.Ôo.ri/ <ti.Ôo.rii> fem. .1. a safe
taraj /ta.raÔ/ <ta.ra.Ô\> adj. .ruined.         2. a wardrobe.

tarI` /ta.rik˙/ <ta.rii.kh\> fem. .a date.      iti9 /ti.t˙i/ <ti.thi> fem. .a date according
                                                to Hindu calander.
taru& /ta.ru~/ <ta.ru~> adj. .your (sing).
                                                itrSkar /ti.r\s.kar/ <ti.r\.ska.r\> masc.
taro /ta.ro/ <ta.ro> masc. .a star.             .hatred.
taikRk /tar.kik/ <ta.rki.k\> adj. .logical.
                                                itlk /ti.l\k/ <ti.l\.k\> neut. .an
talavelI /ta.la.ve.li/ <ta.la.ve.lii> fem. .a   auspicious mark on the forehead.
strong facination.
                                                tI`u& /ti.k˙u~/ <tii.khu~> adj. .1. hot 2.
talIm /ta.lim/ <ta.lii.m\> fem. .training.      acrid 3. bitter.

taluko /ta.lu.ko/ <ta.lu.ko> masc. .a sub-      tI6 /tiÎ/ <tii.Î\> neut. .a locust.
district.
                                                tI8u& /ti.¯u~/ <tii.¯u~> adj. .sharp.
tav /tav/ <ta.v\> masc. .fever.
                                                tItI3o6o /ti.ti.g˙o.Îo/ <tii.tii.gho.Îo>
tavvu& /tav.vu~/ <ta.v\.vu~> v.tr. .to purify   masc. a grasshopper.
a thing by heating.
                                                tIr /tir/ <tii.r\> neut. .an arrow.
tavIj /ta.viÔ/ <ta.vii.Ô\> neut. .1.
talisman 2. an amulet.                          tI9Rya{aa /tirt˙.ja.tra/ <tii.rth\.ja.tra> fem.
                                                .a pilgrimage.
taXvu& /taÆ.vu~/ <ta.Æ\.vu~> neut. .the
palate.                                         tI9RS9an /tirt˙.st˙an/ <ti.rth\.stha.n\>
                                                neut. a pilgrimage place.
taXI /ta.Æi/ <ta.Æii> fem. .a clapping.
                                                tIv/ /ti.vr\/ <tii.vr\> adj. .1. intense 2.
ta&t8o /ta~t.¯o/ <ta~.t\.¯o> masc. .1.a         actuate.
sting 2. a fiber 3. a thread.
                                                tuC2 /tuc.c˙\/ <tu.cch\> adj.
                                                .insignificant.
                                                                                               85


                                                  te6vu& /teÎ.vu~/ <te.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .1.to invite
tuma`I /tu.ma.k˙i/ <tu.ma.khii> fem.              2. to carry a child.
.hot-tempered.
                                                  te6u& /te.Îu~/ <te.Îu~> neut. .an invitation.
turt /tu.r\t/ <tu.r\.t\> advb. .at once.
                                                  te8I /te.¯i/ <te.¯ii> pron.. she. (mainly
tulna /tul.na/ <tu.l\.na> fem. .a                 in legal language)
comparison.
                                                  tetalIs /te.ta.lis/ <te.ta.lii.s\> adj. .forty
tula /tu.la/ <tu.la> fem. .Libra.                 three.

tuver /tu.ver/ <tu.ve.r\> fem. .a kind of         te{aIs /te.tris/ <te.trii.s\> adj. .33 (thirty
pulse.                                            three).

tu& /tu~/ <tu~> pron.. you (singular).            te9I /te.ˇ˙i/ <t\.thii> advb. .1. therefore
                                                  2. so 3. hense.
tU4vu& /tuˇ.vu~/ <tu.ˇ\.vu~> v.intr. .to be
destroyed.                                        tem /tem/ <te.m\> advb. .in that manner.

tUt /tut/ <tu.t\> neut. .1. a lie 2. a hoax.      ter /ter/ <te.r\> adj. .thirteen,

tUtk /tu.t\k/ <tuu.t\.k\> neut. .a deck.          termu& /ter.mu~/ <te.r\.mu~> adj.
                                                  .thirteenth.
tUru& /tu.ru~/ <tu.ru~> adj. .astringent.
                                                  termu& /ter.mu~/ <te.r\.mu~> neut. .the
te /te/ <te> pron.. Third person singular         religious ritual performed on the 13th day
pronoun (He, She, It).                            after a person’s death.

tej /teÔ/ <te.Ô\> adj. .1. speedy 2. intense      ter= /te.r\ß/ <te.r\.ß\> fem. .thirteenth
3. sharp-edued 4. active.                         day of a bright or dark fortnight of the
                                                  Hindu calendar.
tej /teÔ/ <te.Ô\> neut. .light.
                                                  tel /tel/ <te.l\> neut. .oil.
tejSvI /te.Ô\.svi/ <te.Ô\.svii> adj.
1.brilliant 2. shining.                           te&talIs /t´~.ta.lis/ <te.ta.lii.s\> adj. .forty
                                                  three.
tejab /te.Ôab/ <te.Ôa.bii> masc. .acid.
                                                  te&s5 /t´~.s\ˇ˙/ <te~.s\.ˇh\> adj. .sixty
te@ /te.Ôi/ <te.Ôii> fem. .good business.         three.

te4lu& /teˇ.lu~/ <te.ˇ\.lu~> adj. .of a certain   tEyar /t\i.jar/ <t\i.ja.r\> adj. .ready to
proportion.                                       use.
                                                                                          86


tEyarI /t\i.ja.ri/ <t\i.ja.rii> fem.          tolo /to.lo/ <to.lo> masc. .an unit of
.readiness.                                   weight.

to /to/ <to> advb. .1.then 2. in that case.   toXvu& /toÆ.vu~/ <to.l\.vu~> v.tr. .to weigh.

to26a; /toc˙.Îai/ <to.ch\.Îa.ii> fem.         Tyjvu& /tj\Ô.vu~/ <tj\.Ô\.vu~> v.tr. .to
rudeness.                                     abandon.

to26u& /toc˙.Îu~/ <to.ch\.Îu~> adj. .blunt.   Tyag /tja.g\/ <tja.g\> masc.
                                              .renunciation.
to4o /to.ˇo/ <to.ˇo> masc. .shortage.
                                              Tyagvu& /tjag.vu~/ <tja.g\.vu~> v.tr. .to
to6 /toÎ/ <to.Î\> masc. .1. a settlement      renounce.
2. a compromise.
                                              TyagI /tja.gi/ <tja.gii> adj. .one who has
to6vu& /toÎ.vu~/ <to.Î\.vu~> v.tr. .1. to     renounced material comforts.
break 2. to pluck.
                                              TyagI /tja.gi/ <tja.gii> masc. .an ascetic.
tot6u& /tot.Îu~/ <to.t\.Îu~> neut.
.stammering.                                  Tyare /tja.re/ <tja.re> advb. .1. at taht time
                                              2. then.
toit&g /to.ti˜.g\/ <to.ti~.g\> adj. .huge.
                                              Tya=I /tja.ßi/ <tja.ßii> adj. .eighty three.
toter /to.ter/ <to.te.r\> adj. .seventy
three.                                        Tya& /tja~/ <tja~> advb. .there.

top /top/ <to.p\> fem. .a cannon.             {a8 /tr\¯/ <tr\.¯\> adj. .three.

to p8 /to p\¯/ <to p\.¯\> advb. .even         {aa4kvu& /tra.ˇ\k.vu~/ <tra.ˇ\.k\.vu~> v.intr.
then.                                         .to raid or attack suddenly.

tofan /to.p˙an/ <to.pha.n\> neut. .1.riot     {aa6 /traÎ/ <tra.Î\> fem. .a roar.
2. disturbance.
                                              {aa8u& /tra.¯u~/ <tra.¯u~> adj. .ninety three.
tofanI /to.p˙a.ni/ <to.pha.nii> adj.
mischievous.                                  {aas /tras/ <tra.s\> masc. .1. terror 2.
                                              nuisance.
tor8 /to.r\¯/ <to.r\.¯\> neut. .an arch
of a gate.                                    {aasvad /tras.vad/ <tra.s\.va.d\> masc.
                                              terrorism.
tol /tol/ <to.l\> masc. .1.weight 2.
value.                                        {aaiht /tra.hit/ <tra.hi.t\> adj. .third
                                              party.
                                                                                            87


                                                99rvu& /t˙\.t\r.vu~/ <th\.th\.r\.vu~> v.intr.
i{ako8 /tri.kø¯/ <tri.ko.Î\> masc. .a           .to shiver.
triangle.
                                                9ngnvu& /t˙\n.g\n.vu~/ <th\.n\.g\.n\.vu~>
i{a-e4o /tri.b˙e.ˇo/ <tri.bhe.ˇo> masc. .a      v.intr. .to be very excited for soemthing.
meeting place of three roads.
                                                9PpI /t˙\p.pi/ <th\.ppi> fem. .an orderly
i{ar&gI /tri.r\˜.gi/ <tri.r\~.gii> adj.         pile or stack.
.tricolor.
                                                9r /t˙\r/ <th\.r\> masc. .1. a layer 2. a
{aIj /tri:Ô/ <trii.Ô\> fem. .the third day...   crust.

{aIju /tri:.Ôu/ <trii.Ôu> adj. .third.          9r9r /t˙\r.t˙\r/ <th\.r\.th\.r\> advb.
                                                shivering manner.
{aIs /tris/ <trii.s\> adj. .thirty.
                                                9vu& /t˙\.vu~/ <th\.vu~> v.intr. .1.to be 2. to
{aepn /tre.p\n/ <tre.p\.n\> adj. .53 (fifty     happen 3. to occur.
three).
                                                9ak /t˙ak/ <tha.k\> masc. fatigue.
{aevIs /tre.vis/ <tre.vii.s\> adj. .twenty
three.                                          9ag69Ig6 /t˙a.g\Î.t˙i.g\Î/
                                                <tha.g\.Î\.thi.g\.Î\> neut. .1. a
{aes5 /tre.s\ˇ˙/ <tre.s\.ˇh\> adj. .sixty       repairing 2. a patching.
three.
                                                9a\8u& /t˙a.¯u~/ <tha.¯u~> neut. .1. a center
{aEmaisk /tr\i.ma.sik/ <tr\i.ma.si.k\> adj.     2. a post.
quarterly.
                                                9ank /t˙a.n\k/ <tha.n\.k\> neut. .a place
{aofvu& /trop˙.vu~/ <tro.ph\.vu~> v.tr. .to     of worship.
tattoo.
                                                9ap4 /t˙a.p\ˇ/ <tha.p\.ˇ\> fem. .a light
]vca /tv\.ca/ <tv\.ca> fem. .skin.              blow.

                                                9ap8 /t˙a.p\¯/ <tha.p\.¯\> fem.
                       9                        .capital.

                                                9apo /t˙ap/ <tha.po> masc. .the hip.
96 /t˙\Î/ <th\.Î\> neut. .the trunk of a
tree.                                           9ab6vu& /t˙a.b\Î.vu~/ <tha.b\.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
                                                .1. to pat 2. to encourage.
96kvu& /t˙\Î\k.vu~/ <th\.Î\.k\.vu~> v.intr.
.1. to stammer 2. to tremble with fear.         9aX /t˙aÆ/ <tha.Æ\> masc. .a large plate.
                                                                                           88


9aXI /t˙a.Æi/ <tha.Æii> fem. .a dinner plate.
                                                 9o-vu& /t˙ob˙.vu~/ <tho.bh\.vu~> v.intr. .to
9a&-lo /t˙a~b˙.lo/ <tha~.bh\.lo> masc. .a        stop.
small pillar.
                                                 9or /t˙or/ <tho.r\> masc. .a throny plant.
9Ig6u& /t˙ig.Îu~/ <thii.g\.Îu~> neut. .a
patch.
                                                                      d
9Ijvu& /t˙iÔ.vu~/ <thii.Ô\.vu~> v.intr. .to be
froze.
                                                 dix8 /d\k.ßi¯/ <d\.kßi.¯\> fem. .the
9UlI /t˙u.li/ <thuu.lii> fem. .half              south.
grounded wheat.
                                                 dix8a /d\k.ßi.¯a/ <d\.kßi.¯a> fem. .alms
9Ulu& /t˙u.lu~/ <thuu.lu~> neut. .husks          (given to the Brahmins).
separated from flour.
                                                 dga`or /d\.ga.k˙or/ <d\.ga.kho.r\> adj.
9U&k /t˙u~k/ <thu~.k\> neut. .1. saliva 2.       treacherous.
spittle.
                                                 dgabaj /d\.ga.baÔ/ <d\.ga.ba.Ô\> adj.
9eplu& /t˙ep.lu~/ <the.p\.lu~> neut. .a kind     treacherous.
of bread.
                                                 dga`orI /d\.ga.k˙o.ri/ <d\.ga.kho.rii>
9elI /t˙e.li/ <the.lii> fem. .a small bag.       fem. . treachery.

9elo /t˙e.lo/ <the.lo> masc. .a big bag.         dgaba@ /d\.ga.ba.Ôi/ <d\.ga.ba.Ôii> fem.
                                                 treachery.
9ok6I /t˙ok.Îi/ <tho.k\.Îii> fem. .a small
                                                 dgo /d\.go/ <d\.go> masc. .treachery.
bundle.

9ok6o /t˙ok.Îo/ <tho.k\.Îo> masc. .a big         d6 d6 /d\Î d\Î/ <d\.Î\.d\.Î\> advb. .a
bundle.                                          sound like that of water falling
                                                 incessantly.
9okb&0 /t˙ok.b\nd˙/ <tho.k\.b\~.dh\>
                                                 d6 b6 /d\Î b\Î/ <d\.Î\.b\.Î\> advb.. a
adj. wholesale.
                                                 sound like that of running of a human
9o6u& /t˙o.Îu~/ <tho.Îu~> adj. .little.          being.

                                                 d6bu& /d\Î.bu~/ <d\.Î\.vu~> neut. .a slice
9o9vavu& /t˙ot˙.va.vu~/ <tho.th\.va.vu~>
                                                 of solid food (not of a fruit).
v.intr. to stammer.
                                                 d6o /d\.Îo/ <d\.Îo> masc. .a ball.
9o9u& /t˙o.t˙u~/ <tho.thu~> neut. .a book
(derogatory).
                                                                                      89


ddU6I /d\.du.Îi/ <d\.duu.Îii> fem. .a        dr@ /d\r.Ôi/ <d\.r\.Ôii> masc. .a tailor.
thin current of water falling down.
                                             drj8 /d\r.Ô\¯/ <d\.r\.Ô\.¯\> fem. .1. a
dbdbo /d\b.d\.bo/ <d\.b\.d\.bo> masc.        tailor’s wife, 2. a woman tailor.
pomp.
                                             drjjo /d\.r\Ô.Ôo/ <d\.r\.ÔÔo> masc. .a
dba8 /d\.ba¯/ <d\.ba.¯\> neut. .1.           rank.
pressure 2. force.
                                             drd /d\.r\.d/ <d\.r\.d\> neut. .1.
dbavu& /d\.ba.vu~/ <d\.ba.vu~> v.intr. .to   disease 2. pain.
be pressed.
                                             drdI /d\r.di/ <d\.r\.dii> masc. .patient
dm /d\m/ <d\.m\> masc. .asthma.
                                             drdagIno /d\r.da.gi.no/ <d\.r\.da.gii.no>
dm /d\m/ <d\.m\> masc. .stamina.             masc. . money, ornaments, valuables etc.
                                             together.
dmkvu& /d\.m\k.vu~/ <d\.m\.k\.vu~>
v.intr. to glow.                             dpR8 /d\r.p\¯/ <d\.rp\.¯\> neut. .a
                                             mirror.
dmda4I /d\m.da.ˇi/ <d\.m\.da.ˇii> fem.
.a threatening.                              drbar /d\r.bar/ <d\.r\.ba.r\> masc. .a
                                             royal court.
dmn /d\.man/ <d\.m\.n\> neut.
.tyranny.                                    drbar /d\r.bar/ <d\.r\.ba.r\> masc.
                                             Rajput- a community.
dmam /d\.mam/ <d\.ma.m\> masc.
grandeur.                                    drimyan /d\r.mi.jan/ <d\.r\.mi.ja.n\>
                                             advb. meanwhile.
dya /d\.ja/ <d\.ja> fem. .compassion.
                                             drroj /d\r.roÔ/ <d\.r\.ro.Ô\> advb.
dr /d\r/ <d\.r\> masc. .rate.                everyday.

dr /d\r/ <d\.r\> masc. .1. a burrow 2. a     drvajo /d\r.va.Ôo/ <d\.r\.va.Ôo> masc.
hole.                                        .1. a gate 2. an entrance.

drkar /d\r.kar/ <d\.r\.ka.r\> fem. .care.    drvan /d\r.van/ <d\.r\.va.n\> masc. .a
                                             gate-keeper.
dr`aSt /d\r.k˙as.t\/ <d\.r\.kha.st\>
fem. proposal.                               drve= /d\r.veß/ <d\.r\.ve.ß\> masc. .a
                                             Muslim saint.
drgah /d\r.gah/ <d\.r\.ga.h\> fem. .the
tomb of a Muslim saint.                      d=Rn /d\.rß\n/ <d\.rß\.n\> neut. .1.
                                             seeing 2. viewing, 3. a form of
                                             worshiping
                                                                                           90


d=Rn /d\.rß\n/ <d\.rß\.n\> neut.
philosophy.                                    d= /d\ß/ <d\.ß\> adj. .ten.

d=aRvvu& /d\r.ßav.vu~/ <d\.rßa.v\.vu~> v.tr.   d=k /d\.ß\k/ <d\.ß\.k\> masc. .the tenth
1. to show 2. to suggest.                      part.

draj /d\.raÔ/ <d\.ra.Ô\> fem. .ringworm        d=m /d\.ß\m/ <d\.ß\.m\> fem. .tenth
(a skin disease).                              day of the Hindu fortnight.

dirya; /d\.ri.ja.i/ <d\.ri.ja.ii> adj.         d=/mu& /d\ß.mu~/ <d\.ß\.mu~> neut. .tenth
.marine.                                       day after a person’s death.

diryo /d\.ri.jo/ <d\.ri.jo> masc. .the sea.    d=a /d\.ßa/ <d\.ßa> fem. .condition.

drek /d\.rek/ <d\.re.k\> adj. .1.each 2.       d=a&= /d\.ßa~ß/ <d\.ßa~.ß\> adj. decimal.
every.
                                               d=I /d\.ßi/ <d\.ßi> fem. .1. hem of a
dro6o /d\.ro.Îo/ <d\.ro.Îo> masc. .a           garment 2. wick.
raid.
                                               d=era /d\.ße.ra/ <d\.ße.ra> masc. .the
dlal /d\.lal/ <d\.la.l\> masc. .a broker.      tenth day of the bright half of the Aso
                                               month.
dlalI /d\.la.li/ <d\.la.lii> fem.
.brokerage.                                    ds /d\s/ <d\.s\> adj. .10 (ten).

dilt /d\.lit/ <d\.li.t\> adj. .1. oppressed    d=ko /d\ß.ko/ <d\.s\.ko> masc. a
2. down-trodden.                               decade.

dlIl /d\.lil/ <d\.lii.l\> fem. .an             dStavej /d\.sta.veÔ/ <d\.sta.ve.Ô\> masc.
argument.                                      a document.

dv /d\v/ <d\.v\> masc. .a wild-fire.           dha6o /d\.ha.Îo/ <d\.ha.Îo> masc. a
                                               day.
dva /d\.va/ <d\.va> fem. .a medicine.
                                               dhI& /d\.hi~/ <d\.hii~> neut. 1. yogurt 2.
dva`anu& /d\.va.k˙a.nu~/ <d\.va.kha.nu~>       curd.
neut. .1. a hospital 2. a clinic.
                                               dhI&tru& /d\.hi~.t\.ru~/ <d\.hii.t\.ru~> neut.
dvada£ /d\.va.da.ru~/ <d\.va.da.ru~>           a food item.
neut. pl.. medicines in general.
                                               dhI&v6u& /d\.hi~.v\.Îu~/ <d\.hi.v\.Îu~>
dvapa8I /d\.va.pa.ni/ <d\.va.pa.¯i>            neut. a food item.
neut. medicines in general.
                                                                                          91


dhej /d\.heÔ/ <d\.he.Ô\> neut. dowry.         da`lo /da.k˙.lo/ <da.kh\.lo> masc. 1.
                                              an example 2. an illustration 3. a
dhe=t /d\.he.ß\t/ <d\.he.ß\.t\> fem.          mathematical problem.
apprehension.
                                              dagIno /da.gi.no/ <da.gii.no> masc. an
dXdar /d\ .dar/ <d\.Æ\.da.r\> adj. 1.         ornament.
thick 2. heavy.
                                              da3 /dag˙/ <da.gh\> masc. 1. a spot 2.
dXvu& /d\Æ.vu~/ <d\.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. to grind.   burning.

d&gl /d\˜.g\l/ <d\~.g\.l\> neut. a            daz /daÔ˙/ <da.Ôh\> fem. feeling.
quarrel.
                                              dazvu& /daÔ˙.vu~/ <da.Ôh\.vu~> v.intr. to
d&6 /d\¯.Î\/ <d\~.Î\> masc.                   get burn.
punishment.
                                              da4vu& /daˇ.vu~/ <da.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr. to bury.
d&6vu& /d\¯Î.vu~/ <d\~.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to
punish.                                       da6m /da.Î\m/ <da.Î\.m\> neut. a
                                              pomegranate.
d&tk9a /d\nt.k\.t˙a/ <d\.t\.k\.tha> fem.
1. a legend 2. a fable.                       da7 /daÎ˙/ <da.Îh\> fem. a molar
                                              tooth.
d&tm&jn /d\nt.m\µ.Ô\n/
<d\.nt\.m\~.Ô\.n\> neut. 1. tooth-            da7I /da.Î˙i/ <da.Îhii> fem. 1. the chin
powder 2. tooth-paste.                        2. the beard.

d&t=UX /d\nt.ßuÆ/ <d\~.t\.ßu.Æ\> masc. an     da8o /da.¯o/ <da.¯o> masc. a grain.
elephant’s tusk.
                                              dat8 /da.t\¯/ <da.t\.¯\> neut. a small
d&ptI /d\m.p\.ti/ <d\~.p\.tii> neut. a        piece of a branch of a tree or a plant used
couple (husband and wife).                    to clean teeth.

d&- /d\mb˙/ <d\~.bh\> masc.                   dadr /da.d\r./ <da.d\.r\> masc. a
hypocrisy.                                    staircase.

d&-I /d\m.b˙i/ <d\~.bhii> adj.                dadro/dad.ro./ <da.d\.ro> masc. a
hypocritical.                                 staircase.

d&= /d\mß/ <d\~.ß\> masc. 1. a biting         dadagIrI /da.da.gi.ri/ <da.da.gii.rii>
(of a serpent or scorpian) 2. a sting.        fem. bullying.

                                              dadI /da.di/ <da.dii> fem. grandmother.
                                                                                        92


dado /da.do/ <da.do> masc.
grandfather.                                das /das/ <da.s\> masc. a male servant.

dan /dan/ <da.n\> neut. 1. a gift 2. a      dasI /da.si/ <da.sii> fem. a male
donation.                                   servant.

dant /da.n\t/ <da.n\.t\> fem.               daX /daÆ/ <da.Æ\> fem. 1. pulses
intention.                                  grounded into two parts 2. a food item
                                            prepared from
danv /da.n\v/ <da.n\.v\> masc. a            such pulses.
monster.
                                            da&t /da~t/ <da~.t\> masc. tooth.
dane=rI /da.ne.ß\.ri/ <da.ne.ß\.rii>
masc. a liberal donor.                      da&ityo /da~.ti.jo/ <da~.ti.jo> masc. a comb.

dab6I /dab.Îi/ <da.b\.Îii> fem. a very      idGd=Rk /dig.d\r.ß\k/ <di.gd\.rß\.k\>
small box.                                  masc.

dabvu& /dab.vu~/ <da.b\.vu~> v.tr. to       a director (of a film or a drama).
press.
                                            idGmU7 /dig.muÎ˙/ <di.gmu.Îh\> adj. 1.
dayko /daj.ko/ <da.j\.ko> masc. a           stunned 2. wonderstruck.
decade.
                                            idncyaR /din.c\.rja/ <di.n\.c\.rja> fem. a
day8 /da.j\¯/ <da.j\.¯\> fem. a mid-        daily routine activities.
wife.
                                            idnrat /din.rat/ <di.n\.ra.t\> advb. day
da£ /da.ru/ <da.ruu> masc. 1. wine 2.       and night.
liquor.
                                            idmag /di.mag/ <di.ma.g\> neut. the
da£`anu& /da.ru.k˙a.nu~/ <da.ruu.kha.nu~>   brain.
masc. fire-works.
                                            idyr /di.j\r/ <di.j\.r\> masc. a
da£i6yo /da.ru.Îi.jo/ <da.ru.Îii.jo>        husband’s younger brother.
masc. a drunkard.
                                            idl /dil/ <di.l\> neut. the heart.
da=Rink /da.rß\.nik/ <da.rß\.ni.k\> adj.
philosophical.                              idlgIr /dil.gir/ <di.l\.gi.r\> adj.
                                            dejected.
dav /dav/ <da.v\> masc. a person’s turn
in a game.                                  idlgI.rI /dil.gi.ri/ <di.l\.gii.rii> fem.
                                            dejection.
davo /da.vo/ <da.vo> masc. 11. a right
2. a claim 3. a law-suit 4. a demand.
                                                                                          93


idlcSp /dil.c\ß.p\/ <di.l\.c\.ßp\> adj.       dIpavlI /di.pav.li/ <dii.pa.v\.lii> fem.
fascinating.                                  the Diwali festival.

idlcSpI /dil.c\ß.pi/ <di.l\.c\.ßpii> fem.     dI3R /dir.g\/ <dii.rgh\> adj. long.
fascination.
                                              dIvada&6I /di.va.da~.Îi/ <dii.va.da~.Îii>
idldar /dil.dar/ <di.l\.da.r\> adj. 1.        fem. a light-house.
beloved 2. liberal.
                                              dIval /di.val/ <dii.va.l\> fem. a wall.
idlaso /di.la.so/ <di.la.so> masc.
consolation.                                  dIvasXI /di.va.s\.Æi/ <dii.va.s\.Æii> fem.
                                              a matchstick.
idvs /di.v\s/ <di.v\.s\> masc. a day.
                                              dIvI /di.vi/ <dii.vii> fem. a lamp-stand.
idvaso /di.va.so/ <di.va.so> masc. a
festival.                                     dIvo /di.vo/ <dii.vo> masc. a lamp.

idvaXI /di.va.Æi/ <di.va.Æii> fem. the        dukan /du.kan/ <du.ka.n\> fem. a shop.
Hindu festival on the last day of the
Hindu year.                                   dukaX /du.kaÆ/ <du.ka.Æ\> masc. a
                                              famine.
idve4 /di.veˇ/ <di.ve.Î\> fem. a wick.
                                              du`vu& /duk˙.vu~/ <du.kh\.vu~> v.intr. 1.
idvel /di.vel/ <di.ve.l\> neut. castor-oil.   to pain 2. to ache.

idVy /div.j\/ <di.vj\> adj. divine.           du`avo /du.k˙a.vo/ <du.kha.vo> masc.
                                              1. pain 2. ache.
dIkrI /dik.ri/ <dii.k\.rii> fem. a
daughter.                                     dui`yaru& /du.k˙i.ja.ru~/ <du.khi.ja.ru~> adj.
                                              unhappy.
dIkro /dik.ro/ <dii.k\.ro> masc. a son.
                                              du8avu& /du.¯a.vu~/ <du.¯a.vu~> v.intr. to
dIdI /di.di/ <dii.dii> fem. elder sister.     be burnt (of food).

dIn /din/ <din> adj. poor (literary).         duinya /du.ni.ja/ <du.ni.ja> fem. 1. the
                                              world 2. the universe.
dIp /dip/ <dii.p\> masc. a lamp.
                                              dup4\4o /du.p\.ˇˇo/ <du.p\.ˇˇo> masc. a
dIpk /di.p\k/ <dii.p\.k\> masc. lamp.         scarf.

dIp6o /dip.Îo/ <dii.p\.Îo> masc. a            du-agvu& /du.b˙ag.vu~/ <du.bha.g\.vu~>
lamp.                                         v.tr. to divide by two.
                                                                                         94


du-avvu& /du.b˙av.vu~/ <du.bha.v\.vu~>       dusa)y /du.sad˙.j\/ <du.sa.dhj\> adj.
v.tr. to displease.                          difficult to achieve.

du-avu& /du.b˙a.vu~/ <du.bha.vu~> v.intr.    duzvu& /duÔ˙.vu~/ <du.Ôh\.vu~> v.intr. to
to be displeased.                            ooze.

du-aiqyo /du.b˙a.ßi.jo/ <du.bha.s°i.jo>      dU0 /dud˙/ <du.dh\> neut. milk.
masc. an interpreter.
                                             dUi0ya /du.d˙i.ja/ <du.dhi.ja> adj. milk-
durag/h /du.ra.gr\h/ <du.ra.gr\.h\>          white.
masc. excessive and undue insistence.
                                             dU0I /du.d˙i/ <du.dhii> fem. a kind of
duracr8 /du.ra.c\.r\¯/ <du.ra.c\.r\.¯\>      gourd.
neut. immoral behavior.
                                             dUbXu& /dub.Æu~/ <du.b\.Æu~> adj. weak.
duracr8I /du.ra.c\.r\.¯i/
<du.ra.c\.r\.¯ii> adj. a person who          dU-vvu& /du.b˙\v.vu~/ <du.bh\.v\.vu~>
behaves immorally.                           v.tr. to afflict.

duracar /du.ra.car/ <du.ra.ca.r\> neut.      dU-avu& /du.b˙a.vu~/ <du.bha.vu~> v.intr.
immoral behavior.                            to be afflicted.

duracarI /du.ra.ca.ri/ <du.ra.ca.rii> adj.   dUr /dur/ <du.r\> adj. far away.
a person who behaves immorally.
                                             dUr/bIn /dur.bin/ <du.r\.bii.n\> neut. 1.
dugRit /dur.g\.ti/ <du.rg\.tii> fem.         a telescope 2. a binocular.
spiritual degeneration.
                                             ±7 /dr\Î˙/ <dr\.Îh\> adj. 1. firm 2.
dugR&0 /dur.g\nd˙/ <du.rg\~.dh\> fem.        strong.
unpleasant smell.
                                             ±iQ4 /dr\.ߡi/ <dr\.s°ˇi> fem. sight.
dubRX /dur.b\Æ/ <du.rb\.Æ\> adj. weak.
                                             de`re` /dek˙.rek˙/ <de.kh\.re.kh\> fem.
dulR- /dur.l\b˙/ <du.rl\.bh\> adj. rare.     1. watch 2. guardianship.

duva /du.va/ <du.va> fem. blessing.          de`vu& /dek˙.vu~/ <de.kh\.vu~> v.tr. to see.

du+mn /duß.man/ <du.ßm\.n\> masc. an         de`ade`I /de.k˙a.de.k˙i/ <de.kha.de.khii>
enemy.                                       fem. senseless imitation.

duŠ` /duk˙/ <duŠ.kh\> neut. 1.               de`av /de.k˙av/ <de.kha.v\> masc.
unhappiness 2. pain.                         appearance.
                                                                                           95


de`av6u& /de.k˙av.Îu~/ <de.kha.v\.Îu~>
adj. 1. attractive 2. handsome                  devu& /de.vu~/ <de.vu~> v.tr. to give.
3.beautiful.
                                                de= /deß/ <de.ß\> masc. 1. a country 2. a
de`avu& /de.k˙a.vu~/ <de.kha.vu~> v.tr. to      region.
appear.
                                                de=kaX /deß.kaÆ/ <de.ß\.ka.Æ\> masc.
de`Itu& /de.k˙i.tu~/ <de.khii.tu~> adj.         time and space.
obvious.
                                                de=daz /deß.daÔ˙/ <de.ß.da.Ôh\> fem.
de6kI /deÎ.ki/ <de.Î\.kii> fem. a               patriotism.
(female/ small) frog.
                                                de=a4n /de.ßa.ˇ\n/ <de.ß\.ˇ\.n\> neut.
de6ku& /deÎ.ku~/ <de.Î\.ku~> neut. a frog.      traveling in foreign country.

de6ko /deÎ.ko/ <de.Î\.ko> masc. a               de=ai-man /de.ßa.b˙i.man/
(male) frog.                                    <de.ßa.bhi.ma.n\> neut. patriotism.

dera8I /de.ra.¯i/ <de.ra.¯ii> fem.              de=I /de.ßi/ <de.ßii> masc. 1. native 2.
husband’s younger brother’s wife.               indigenous.

derasr /de.ra.s\r/ <de.ra.s\.r\> neut. a        de=I /de.ßi/ <de.ßii> adj. a villager.
Jain temple.
                                                deh /deh/ <de.h\> masc. body.
derI /de.ri/ <de.rii> fem. a small temple.
                                                dehTyag /deh.tjag/ <de.h\.tja.g\> masc.
dev /dev/ <de.v\> masc. a deity (male).         death.

devta /dev.ta/ <de.v\.ta> masc. a fire.         dEink /d\i.nik/ <d\i.ni.k\> adj. daily.

devnagrI /dev.nag.ri/ <de.v\.na.g\.rii>         dEvI /d\i.vi/ <d\i.vii> adj. devine.
adj. the Sanskrit script.
                                                do4 /doˇ/ <do.ˇ\> fem. an act of
devX /de.v\Æ/ <de.v\.Æ\> neut. a church.        running.

devadar /de.va.dar/ <de.va.da.r\> adj.          do6 /doÎ/ <do.Î\> fem. an act of
indebted.                                       running.

devaXIyu& /de.va.Æi.ju~/ <de.va.Æii.ju~> adj.   do60am /doÎ.d˙am/ <do.Î\.dha.m\>
bankrupt.                                       fem. turmoil

devI /de.vi/ <de.vii> fem. 1. a deity           do6vu& /doÎ.vu~/ <do.Î\.vu~> v.intr. to
(female) 2. goddess.                            run.
                                                                                           96


do6ado6 /do.Îa.doÎ/ <do.Îa.do.Î\> fem.
1. hurry 2. haste.                            ±ax /drakß/ <dra.kßha> fem. a grape.

do7 /ÎoÎ˙/ <do.Îh\> adj. one and half.        ±oh /droh/ <dro.h\> masc. a betrayal.

do76a¬u& /doÎ˙.Îahju~/ <do.Îh\.Îa.hju~>       µIp /dvip/ <dvi.pa> masc. an island.
adj. over wise.
                                              µEmaisk /dv\i.ma.sik/ <dw\i.ma.si.k\.>
do7u& /do.Î˙u~/ <do.Îhu~> adj. one and        adj. bi-monthly.
half time.

dodXu& /dod.Æu~/ <do.d\.Æu~> adj. weak.                            0
dor6I /dor.Îi/ <do.r\.Îii> fem. a string.
                                              0kelvu& /d˙\.kel.vu~/ <d\.ke.l\.vu~> v.tr.
dor6u& /dor.Îu~/ <do.r\.Îu~> neut. a rope.    to push.

dorv8I /do.r\v.¯i/ <do.r\.v\.Îii> fem.        0k\k&0k\ka /d˙\.kk\m.d˙\k.ka/
guidance.                                     <d\.kke.dh\.kka> masc. intensely
                                              crowded state.
dorvu& /dor.vu~/ <do.r\.vu~> v.tr. to draw
(picture, figure etc.)                        0k\ka0k\kI /d˙\.kka.d˙\k.ki/
                                              <dh\.kka.mu.kkii> fem. . intensely
dorvu& /dor.vu~/ <do.r\.vu~> v.tr. to guide   crowded state.
a person or any other animal.
                                              0k\kamuk\kI /d˙\.kka.muk.ki/
dorI /do.ri/ <do.rii> fem. a string.          <dh\.kka.mu.kkii> fem. a crowd
                                              marked with pushes and blows.
doro /do.ro/ masc. <do.ro> 1. a thread 2.
a kind of necklace.                           0kko /d˙\k.ko/ <dh\.kko> masc. a
                                              push.
doq /doß/ <do.s°\> masc. 1. mistake 2.
fault.                                        0kko /d˙\k.ko/ <dh\.kko> masc. an
                                              errand.
doSt /dost/ <dos.t\> masc. a friend.
                                              0g0gvu& /d˙\g.d˙\g.vu~/
dohvu& /doh.vu~/ <do.h\.vu~> v.tr. to milk.   <dh\.g\.dh\.g\.vu~> v.intr. to burn
                                              intensely.
doih{a /do.hi.tr\/ <do.hi.tr\> masc. a
daughter’s son.                               0g= /d˙\.g\ß/ <dh\.g\.ß\> fem. 1. zeal
                                              2. enthusiasm.
doih{aI /do.hi.tri/ <do.hi.trii> fem. a
daughter’s daughter.
                                                                                       97


0ja /d˙\.Ôa/ <dh\.Ôa> fem. 1. a flag 2. a
banner.                                      0nuQy /d˙\.nu.ßj\/ <dh\.nu.ßj\> neut. a
                                             bow.
06 /d˙\Î/ <dh\.Î\> neut. the human
body without head.                           0Ny /d˙\.nj\/ <dh\.nj\> adj. 1.
                                             fortunate 2. praiseworthy.
06k /d˙\.Î\k/ <dh\.Î\.k\> fem.
throbbing of the heart due to fright,        0b6ko /d˙\.b\Î.ko/ <dh\.b\.Î\.ko>
shock etc.                                   masc. a fiasco.

06kvu& /d˙\.Î\k.vu~/ <dh\.Î\.k\.vu~>         0mkvu& /d˙\.m\k.vu~/ <dh\.m\.k\.vu~>
v.intr. to throb.                            v.intr. to tremble.

06ako /d˙\.Îa.ko/ <dh\.Îa.ko> masc. an       0mkavvu& /d˙\m.kav.vu~/ <dh\.m\.ka.vu~>
exploding sound.                             v.tr. to scold.

06a06 /d˙\.Îa.d˙\Î/ <dh.Îa.dh\.Î\>           0mkI /d˙\m.ki/ <dh\.m\.kii> fem. a
advb. quickly and violently.                 threat.

06a06I /d˙\.Îa.d˙\.Îi/ <dh\.Îa.dh\.Îii>      0m0okar /d˙\m.d˙o.kar/
fem. commotion.                              <dh\.m\.dho.ka.r\> advb. at full
                                             speed.
08 /d˙\¯/ <dh\.¯\> neut. a herd of
cattle.                                      0min /d˙\m.ni/ <dh\.m\.ni> fem. an
                                             artery.
0808vu& /d˙\¯.d˙\¯.vu~/
<dh\.¯\.dh\.¯\.vu~> v.intr. to quake         0mp2a6a /d˙\m.p\.c˙a.Îa/
(of earth etc).                              <dh\.m\/p\.cha.Îa> masc. vain
                                             efforts made impatiently.
08I /d˙\.¯i/ <dh\.¯ii> masc. 1. a
master 2. an owner 3. the husband.           0mal /d˙\.mal/ <dh\.ma.l\> fem.
                                             commotion.
08Iya8I /d˙\.¯i.ja.¯i/ <dh\.¯ii.ja.¯ii>
fem.1. master’s wife 2. owner’s wife 3. a    0rtI /d˙\r.ti/ <dh\.r\.tii> fem. 1. the
female owner.                                earth 2. the soil.

0it&g /d˙\.ti˜.g\/ <dh\.ti~.g\> neut. 1. a   0rpk6 /d˙\r.p\.k\Î/ <dh\.r\.p\.k\.Î\>
sham 2. phoniness.                           fem. an arrest.

0n /d˙\n/ <dh\.n\> neut. 1. money 2.         0rbvu& /d˙\.r\b.vu~/ <dh\.r\.b\.vu~> v.tr.
wealth.                                      to over fill.

0nter= /d˙\n.te.r\ß/ <dh\.n\.te.r\.ß\>
fem. a Hindu festival.
                                                                                         98


0rmUX /d˙\r.mu / <dh\.r\.muu.Æ\>              0sms /d˙\s.m\s/ <dh\.s\.m\.s\> fem.
neut. the very beginning.                     excitement.

0rvu& /d˙\r.vu~/ <dh\.r\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to     0svu& /d˙\s.vu~/ <dh\.s\.vu~> v.intr. to
hold by hand 2. to assume 3. to offer.        rush forcefully.

0ravu& /d˙\.ra.vu~/ <dh\.ra.vu~> v.intr. to   0saro /d˙\.sa.ro/ <dh\.sa.ro> masc.
be satisfied.                                 rush.

0rI /d˙\.ri/ <dh\.rii> fem. an axle.          0&0o /d˙\n.d˙o/ <dh\~.dho> masc. a
                                              business.
0ro /d˙\.ro/ <dh\.ro> masc. a deep pit
in a river.                                   0ak /d˙ak/ <dha.k\> fem. fright.

0mR /d˙\r.m\/ <dh\.rm\> masc. 1.              0a6 /d˙aÎ/ <dha.Î\> fem. robbery.
religion 2. duty.
                                              0a6pa6u /d˙aÎ.pa.Îu/ <dha.Î\.pa.Îu>
0mRguru /d˙\r.m\.gu.ru/ <dh\.rm\.gu.ru>       masc. a robber.
masc. a spiritual teacher.
                                              0a8I /d˙a.¯i/ <dha.¯ii> fem. popcorn.
0mRg/&9 /d˙\r.m\.gr\nt˙/
<dh\.rm\.gr\~.th\> masc. a religious          0atu /d˙a.tu/ <dha.tu> fem. a metal.
book.
                                              0an /d˙an/ <dha.n\> neut. grain.
0mRs&k4 /d˙\r.m\.s\m.k\ˇ/
<dh\.rm\.s\~.k\.ˇ\> neut. a moral             0ap /d˙ap/ fem. a cheating.
dilemma.
                                              0abu& /d˙a.bu~/ <dha.bu~> neut. a terrace.
0maRTma /d˙\r.mat.ma/ <dh\.rma.tma>
masc. a man with a holy soul.                 0abu& /d˙a.bu~/ <dha.bu~> neut. a blot.

0maRda /d˙\r.ma.da/ <dh\.rma.da> adj.         0am /d˙am/ <dha.m\> neut. a dwelling
pertaining to religious charity.              place.

0maRNtr /d˙\r.man.t\r/ <dh\.rma.nt\.r\>       0am0Um /d˙am.d˙um/ <dha.m\.dhu.m\>
neut. an act of adopting another’s            fem. grandeur.
religion.
                                              0amo /d˙a.mo/ <dha.mo> masc.
0maR&0 /d˙\r.man.d˙\/ <dh\.rma~.dh\>          unexpected stay.
adj. fanatic.
                                              0ar /d˙ar/ <dha.r\> fem. 1. the edge of
0imRQ4 /d˙\r.miߡ/ <dh\.rmi.s°ˇ\> adj.        a weapon 2. a thin current of falling
religious minded.                             water.
                                                                                             99


                                                0Ime9I /d˙i.me.t˙i/ <dhii.me.thii> advb.
0ar8a /d˙ar.¯a/ <dha.r\.¯a> fem.                slowly.
inference.
                                                0Irj /d˙i.r\Ô/ <dhi.r\.Ô\> fem. patience.
0arvu& /d˙ar.vu~/ <dha.r\.vu~> v.tr. to
infer.                                          0Ir0ar /d˙ir.d˙ar/ <dhi.r\.dha.r\> fem.
                                                money-landing.
0ara0or8 /d˙a.ra.d˙o.r\¯/
<dha.ra.dho.r\.¯\> neut. 1. rules and           0Irvu& /d˙ir.vu~/ <dhii.r\.vu~> v.tr. 1.to
regulations 2. code and conduct.                give on credit 2. to lend money on
                                                interest.
0ara=aS{aI /d˙a.ra.ßaß.tri/ <dha.ra.ßa.ßtrii>
masc. a lawyer.                                 0utarI /d˙u.ta.ri/ <dhu.ta.rii> fem. a
                                                deceitful woman.
0aras-a /d˙a.ra.s\.b˙a/ <dha.ra.sa.bha>
fem. a legislative assembly.                    0utaro /d˙u.ta.ro/ <dhu.ta.ro> masc. a
                                                deceitful man.
0aro /d˙a.ro/ <dha.ro> masc. 1. a
custom 2. a tradition.                          0upel /d˙u.pel/ <dhu.pe.l\> neut. hair-
                                                oil.
0aimRk /d˙ar.mik/ <dha.rmi.k\> adj.
religious.                                      0umai6yu& /d˙u.ma.Îi.ju~/ <dhu.ma.Îi.ju~>
                                                neut. a chimney.
0av8 /d˙a.v\¯/ <dha.v\.¯\> neut.
mother’s milk.                                  0uma6o /d˙u.ma.Îo/ <du.ma.Îo> masc.
                                                smoke.
0avvu& /d˙av.vu~/ <dha.v\.vu~> v.intr. to
suck milk from mother’s breasts.                0U8vu& /d˙u¯.vu~/ <dhuu.¯\.vu~> v.intr. to
                                                shake or swing head under the influence
0a&0l /d˙a~.d˙\l/ <dha~.dh\.l\> fem.            of black art.
commotion.
                                                0Utvu& /d˙ut.vu~/ <dhuu.t\.vu~> v.intr. to
i0kavvu& /d˙i.kav.vu~/ <dhi.kka.r\.vu~>         cheat.
v.tr. to burn intensely.
                                                0Un /d˙un/ <dhuu.n\> fem. a strong
i0k\kar /d˙i.kkar/ <dhi.kka.r\> masc.           addiction.
hatred.
                                                0Up /d˙up/ <dhuu.p\> masc. a kind of
0Imu& /d˙i.mu~/ <dhii.mu~> adj. slow.           fragrant substance.

0Ime /d˙i.me/ <dhii.mu~> advb. slowly.          0UpsXI /d˙up.s\.Æi/ <dhu.p\.s\.Æii> fem.
                                                an incense stick.

                                                0UX /d˙uÆ/ <dhuu.Æ\> fem. dust.
                                                                                          100


                                                0ova8 /d˙o.va¯/ <dho.va.¯\> neut.
0U&AapU&Aa /d˙u~.a.pu~.a/ <dhuu~.a.puu~.a>      attrition.
adj.
burning with anger.                             0ovu& /d˙o.vu~/ <dho.vu~> v.tr. 1. to wash
                                                2. to clean.
0U&0vavu& /d˙u~nd˙.va.vu~/ <dhu~.dh\.va.vu~>
v.intr. to grudge silently.                     0oX /d˙oÆ/ <dho.Æ\> neut. a kind of
                                                devotional song.
0U&0Xu& /d˙u~d˙.Æu~/ <dhu~.dh\.Æu~> adj. 1.
misty 2. dim.                                   0oXu& /d˙o.Æu~/ <dho.Æu~> adj. white.

0U&srI /d˙u~s.ri/ <dhu~.s\.rii> fem. a yoke.    )yan /d˙ja.n\/ <dhj.n\> neut. attention.

0oka4vu& /d˙o.kaˇ.vu~/ <do.ka.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr.     )yey /d˙jej/ <dhje.j\> masc. goal.
to beat with a club.
                                                0/ujarI /d˙ru.Ôa.ri/ <dhru.Ôa.rii> fem.
0oko /d˙o.ko/ <dho.ko> masc. a short            trembling.
tick staff.
                                                )vj /d´v\Ô/ <dhv\.Ô\> masc. a flag.
0oko /d˙o.ko/ <dho.ko> masc. 1. harm
2. betrayal.                                    )vin /d˙va.ni/ <dhv\.ni> masc. sound.

0oityu& /d˙o.ti.ju~/ <dho.ti.ju~> neut. a big
scarf-like lower garment of Hindu males.                             n
0otI /d˙o.ti/ <dho.tii> fem. a big scarf-
like lower garment of Hindu males.              nkl /n\.k\l/ <n\.k\.l\> fem. 1. a copy
                                                2. a transcript.
0o0 /d˙od˙/ <dho.dh\> masc. a water-
fall.                                           nklI /n\k.li/ <n\.k\.lii> adj. 1.
                                                artificial 2. unoriginal.
0ob8 /d˙o.b\¯/ <dho.b\.¯\> fem. 1. a
washer man’s wife 2. a washer-woman.            nk=Ikam /n\k.ßi.kam/ <n\.k\.ßii.ka.m\>
                                                neut. carving.
0obI /d˙o.bi/ <dho.bii> masc. a washer
man.                                            nk=o /n\k.ßo/ <n\.k\.ßo> masc. 1. a
                                                map 2. an outline.
0or8 /d˙o.r\¯/ <dho.r\.¯\> neut. a
grade (first, second etc) of a school.          nkamu& /n.ka.mu~/ <n\.ka.mu~> adj.
                                                useless.
0ola; /d˙o.la.i/ <dho.la.ii> fem. 1.
washing 2. remuneration for washing.            nkar /n\.kar/ <n\.ka.r\> masc.
                                                negation.
                                                                                      101


nkUco /n\.ku.co/ <n\.kuu.co> masc. a         ngd /n\.g\d/ <n\.g\.d\> adj. in cash.
hook for locking.
                                             ngr /n\.g\r/ <n\.g\.r\> neut. a city.
nkor6o /n\.kor.Îo/ <n\.ko.r\.Îo> adj.
without food and water (fasting).            ngrI /n\g.ri/ <n\.g\.rii> fem. a small
                                             city.
nkkr /n\k.k\r/ <n\.kk\.r\> adj. 1.
solid 2. authentic.                          ngru& /n\g.ru~/ <n\.g\.ru~> adj. 1. a
                                             person who has no guru 2. shameless.
nkkI /n\k.ki/ <n\.kki> adj. 1. sure 2.
certain 3. fixed.                            nGn /n\g.n\/ <n\.gn\> adj. 1. naked 2.
                                             nude 3. shameless.
nx{a /n\.kß\.tr\/ <n\.kß\.tr\> neut. a
constellation.                               nic&t /n\.ci~nt/ <n\.ci~.t\> adj. free from
                                             worries.
n` /n\k˙/ <n\.kh\> masc. a nail.
                                             n2U4ke /n\.c˙uˇ.ke/ <na.chuu.t\.ke>
n`raXu& /n\k˙.ra.Æu~/ <n\.kh\.ra.Æu~> adj.   advb. 1. compulsorily 2. helplessly.
1. prudish 2. coquettish.
                                             njdIk /n\Ô.dik/ <n\.Ô\.dii.k\> advb. 1.
n`ra`or /n\k˙.ra.k˙or/                       near 2. beside.
<n\.kh\.ra.kho.r\> adj. 1. prudish 2.
coquettish.                                  njr /n\.Ô\r/ <n\.Ô\.r\> fem. sight.

n`rabaj /n\k˙.ra~.baÔ/ <n\.kh\.ra.ba.Ô\>     njra8u& /n\Ô.ra.¯u~/ <n\.Ô\.ra.¯u~> neut. a
adj. 1. prudish 2. coquettish.               gift.

n`ru& /n\k˙.ru~/ <n\.kh\.ru~> neut. 1.       njravu& /n\Ô.ra.vu~/ <n\.Ô\.ra.¯u~> v.intr.
prudery 2. coquetry.                         to be the victim of evil sight.

n`lI /n\k˙.li/ <n\.kh\.lii> fem. a nail-     njronjr /n\Ô.ro.n\.Ô\r/
polish.                                      <n\.Ô\.ro.n\.Ô\.r\> advb. in front of.

n`i=` /n\k˙.ßik˙/ <n\.kh\.ßi.kh\> adj.       n@k /n\.Ôik/ <n\.Ôii.k\> postp. 1. near
from the toe to the head.                    2. beside.

n~`od /n\k˙.k˙od/ <n\.khokho.d\>             n@vu& /n\.Ôi.vu~/ <n\.Ôii.vu~> adj.
neut. 1.end of a family generation 2.        insignificant (in amount and quantity).
complete destruction.
                                             n4 /n\ˇ/ <n\.ˇ\> masc. a male actor.
ng8u& /n\.g\.¯u~/ <n\.g\.¯u~> adj.
ungrateful.                                  n4I /n\.ˇi/ <n\.ˇii> fem. a female actor.
                                                                                    102


n5aru& /n\.ˇ˙a.ru~/ <n\.ˇha.ru~> adj. 1.   npas /n\.pas/ <n\.pa.s\> adj. fail.
wicked 2. harmful.
                                           npu&sk /n\.pu~m.s\k/ <n\.pu~.s\.k\> adj.
n5or /n\.ˇ˙or/ <n\.ˇho.r\> adj. 1.         1. impotent 2. neuter gender.
heartless 2. cruel.
                                           nfkru& /n\.p˙\k.ru~/ <n\.ph\.k\.ru~> adj.
n6tr /n\Î.t\r/ <n\.Î\.t\.r\> neut. 1. an   careless.
obstruction 2. troubles assumed to be
created by ghosts and evil spirits.        nf\f4 /n\p˙.p˙\ˇ/ <n\.phph\.ˇ\> adj.
                                           1.shameless 2. rude.
n8dl /n\¯.d\l/ <n\.¯\.d\.l\> fem.
husband’s sister.                          nfa`or /n\.p˙a.k˙or/ <n\.pha.kho.r\>
                                           adj. inclined to profiteering.
n8dI /n\¯.di/ <n\.¯\.dii> fem.
husband’s sister.                          nifkru& /n\.p˙ik.ru~/ adj. careless.

n8do; /n\¯.do.i/ <n\.¯\.do.ii> fem.        nfo /n\.p˙o/ <n\.pho> masc. profit.
husband’s sister’s husband.
                                           nbXa; /n\b.Æa.i/ <n\.b\.Æa.ii> fem.
ntIjo /n\.ti.Ôo/ <n\.tii.Ôo> masc. 1.      weakness.
result 2. an outcome.
                                           nbXu& /n\b.Æu~/ <n\.b\.Æu~> adj. weak.
n8&d /n\.¯\nd/ <n\~.¯\.d\> fem.
husband’s sister.                          nbapu& /n\.ba.pu~/ <n\.ba.pu~> adj.
                                           fatherless.
n9 /n\t˙/ <n\.th\> fem. a nose-ring.
                                           n- /n\b˙/ <n\.bh\> neut. the sky.
n9I /t\.t˙i/ <n\.thii> neg. is not.
                                           n-vu& /n\b˙.vu~/ <n\.bh\.vu~> v.intr. to
ndI /n\.di/ <n\.dii> fem. a river.         last.
                                           nmk /n\.m\k/ <n\.m\.k\> neut. salt.
n0i8yatu& /n\.d˙\.¯i.ja.tu~/
<n\.dh\.¯i.ja,tu~> adj. 1. unguarded 2.    nm8u& /n\m.¯u~/ <n\.m\.¯u~> adj.
stray.                                     humble.

nnamI /n\.na.mi/ <n\.na.mii> fem. a        nmn /n\.m\n/ <n\.m\.n\> neut. a
bier.                                      bowing in reverence.

nnamu& /n\.na.mu~/ <n\.na.mu~> adj.        nmvu& /n\m.vu~/ <n\.m\.vu~> v.intr. to
nameless.                                  bend down.

nNno /n\n.no/ <n\.nno> masc.               nmaj /n\.maÔ/ <n\.ma.Ô\> fem. prayer
negation.                                  to god (in Islam).
                                                                                       103


                                            nvjot /n\v.Ôot/ <n\.v\.Ôo.t\> fem. the
nmayu& /n\.ma.ju~/ <n\.ma.ju~> adj.         sacred-thread ceremony of the Parsi
orphan.                                     comunity.

nmUi2yu& /n\.mu.c˙i.ju~/ <n\.muu.chi.ju~>   nvtr /n\v.t\r/ <n\.v\.t\.r\> adj. novel.
adj. having no mustache.
                                            nv0a /n\v.d˙a/ <n\.v\.dha> fem. nine
nmUnedar /n\.mu.ne.dar/                     types of Bhakti.
<n\.mu.ne.da.r\> adj. ideal.
                                            nvra= /n\v.raß/ <n\.v\.ra.ß\> fem.
nmUno /n\.mu.no/ <n\.muu.no> masc.          leisure.
1. a sample 2. a model.
                                            nvru& /n\v.ru~/ <n\.v\.ru~> adj.
nm/ /n\m.r\/ <n\.mr\> adj. humble.          unemployed.

nyn /n\.j\n/ <n\.j\.n\> fem. am eye.        nvlk9a /n\.v\l.k\.t˙a/ <n\.v\.l\.k\.tha>
                                            fem. novel.
nr /n\r/ <n\.r\> masc. a male.
                                            nvilka /n\v.li.ka/ <n\.v\.li.ka> fem.
nrk /n\.r\k/ <n\.r\.k\> neut. hell.         short story.

nrjait /n\r.Ôa.ti/ <n\.r\.Ôa.ti> fem. the   nvv0U /n\v.v\.d˙u/ <n\.v\.v\.dhuu>
male class.                                 fem. a bride.

ntRk /n\r.t\k/ <n\.rt\.k\> masc. a male     nv=eku& /n\v.ße.ku/ <n\.v\.ße.ku~> adj.
dancer.                                     lukwarm.

ntRkI /n\r.t\.ki/ <n\.rt\.kii> fem. a       nvS{au& /n\.v\s.tru~/ <n\.v\.stru~> adj.
female dancer.                              undressed.

nXakar /n\.Æa.kar/ <n\.Æa.ka.r\> adj.       nva; /n\.va.i/ <n\.va.ii> fem. a wonder.
cylindrical.
                                            nvajvu& /n\.vaÔ.vu~/ <n\.va.Ô\.vu~> v.tr.
nv /n\v/ <n\.Æa.ka.r\> adj. nine.           to honor.

nvjuvan /n\v.Ôu.van/ <n\.v\.Ôu.va.n\>       nvajUnI /n\.va.Ôu.ni/ <n\.va.Ôuu.nii>
masc. a blooming youth.                     fem. a new development.

nv@vn /n\v.Ôi.v\n/ <n\.v\.Ôii.v\.n\>        nvIn /n\.vin/ <n\.vii.n\> adj. new.
neut. new life.
                                            nvu& /n\.vu~/ <n\.vu~> adj. new.
                                                                                        104


nvesr9I /n\.ve.s\r.t˙i/ <n\.ve.s\.r\.thii>    naku& /na.ku~/ <na.ku~> neut. 1. the eye of
advb. to start a work again from the          a needle 2. an entrance or end of a road
beginning.                                    3. a hole.

nVva8u& /n\v.va.¯u~/ <n\.vva.¯u~> adj.        na`vu& /nak˙.vu~/ <na.kh\.vu~> v.tr. to
ninety nine.                                  throw.

n=o /n\.ßo/ <n\.ßo> masc. intoxication.       nag /nag/ <na.g\> masc. a male cobra.

ns /n\s/ <n\.s\> fem. a vein.                 nag8 /na.g\¯/ <na.g\.¯\> fem. a
                                              female cobra.
nskoru& /n\s.ko.ru~/ <n\s.ko.ru~> neut. 1.
a nostril 2. the nose.                        nagr /na.g\r/ <na.g\.r\> masc. a
                                              community of that name.
nsIb /n\.sib/ <n\.sii.b\> neut. 1. fate
2. fortune.                                   nagrvel /na.g\r.vel/ <na.g\.r\.ve.l\>
                                              fem. the betel plant.
nih /n\.hi/ <n\.hi> advb. 1. no 2. not.
                                              nagirk /nag.rik/ <na.g\.ri.k\> masc. a
nihvt\ /n\.hi.v\t/ <n\.hi.v\.t> adj.          citizen.
slightly.
                                              nagrI /nag.ri/ <na.g\.rii> adj. 1. related
nher /n\.her/ <n\.he.r\> fem. a canal.        to the Nagar community, 2. civilized, 3.
                                              urban.
nhor /n\.hor/ <n\.ho.r\> masc. a claw.
                                              nagu& /na.gu~/ <na.gu~> adj. 1. naked 2.
niXyu& /n\.Æi.ju~/ <n\.Æi.ju~> neut. a roof   nude.
tile.
                                              nac /nac/ <na.c\> masc. a dance.
nXI /n\.Æi/ <n\.Æii> fem. a tube.
                                              nacvu& /nac.vu~/ <na.c\.vu~> v.intr. to
n&g /n\˜.g\/ <n\~.g\> neut. a unit of a       dance.
thing.
                                              na2U4ke /na.c˙uˇ.ke/ <na.chuu.ˇ\.ke>
na /na/ <na> advb. 1. no 2. not.              advb. helplessly.

na;laj /na.i.laÔ/ <na.i.la.Ô\> adj.           najuk /na.Ôuk/ <na.Ôu.k\> adj. tender.
incurable.
                                              na4k /na.ˇ\k/ <na.ˇ\.k\> neut. 1. a
nak /nak/ <na.k\> neut. the nose.             drama 2. a play.

                                              na4kkar /na.ˇ\k.kar/ <na.ˇ\.k\.ka.r\>
                                              masc. 1. a playwright 2. a dramatist.
                                                                                           105


na4kIyu& /na.ˇ\.ki.ju~/ <na.ˇ\.kii.ju~> adj. 1.   nadan /na.dan/ <na.da.n\> adj.
dramatic 2. not real.                             childish.

nai4ka /na.ˇi.ka/ <na.ˇi.ka> fem. a short         nadar /na.dar/ <na.da.r\> adj. bankrupt.
play.
                                                  nan`4a; /nan.k˙\.ˇa.i/ <na.n\.kh\.ˇa.ii>
na6a26I /na.Îa.c˙\.Îi/ <na.Îa.ch\.Îii>            fem. a kind of sweet.
fem. a many colored cotton string used
in various rituals.                               nanp /na.n\p/ <na.n\.p\> fem.
                                                  inferiority complex.
na6I /na.Îi/ <na.Îii> fem. 1. a vain 2. an
artery.                                           nanm /na.n\m/ <na.n\.m\> fem.
                                                  inferiority complex.
na6u& /na.Îu~/ <na.Îu~> neut. a string of a
garment.                                          nanp8 /nan.p\¯/ <na.n\.p\.¯\> neut.
                                                  childhood.
na8vu& /na¯.vu~/ <na.¯\.vu~> v.tr. to
examine.                                          nanu& /na.nu~/ <na.nu~> adj. small.

na8akIy /na.¯a.kij/ <na.¯a.kii.j\> adj. 1.        napas /na.pas/ <na.pa.s\> adj. failed.
monetary 2. financial.
                                                  nai- /na.b˙i/ <na.bhi> fem. the navel.
na8abjar /na.¯a.b\.Ôar/
<na.¯a.b\.Ôha.r\> neut. money-                    nam /nam/ <na.m\> neut. a name.
market.
                                                  namcIn /nam.cin/ <na.m\.cii.n\> adj.
na8a-I6 /na.¯a.b˙iÎ/ <na.¯a.bhii.Î\>              infamous.
fem. financial stringency.
                                                  nam5am /nam.ˇ˙am/ <na.m\.ˇha.m\>
na8u& /na.¯u~/ <na.¯u~> neut. money.              neut. a person’s name and address.

nat /nat/ <na.t\> fem. a caste.                   namdar /nam.dar/ <na.m\.da.r\> adj.
                                                  honorable.
natvro /nat.v\.ro/ <na.t\.v\.ro> masc.
a caste-dinner.                                   namna /nam.na/ <na.m\.na> fem. fame.

natal /na.tal/ <na.ta.l\> fem. the                namu& /na.mu~/ <na.mu~> neut. a credit
Christmas.                                        and debit account.

nato /na.to/ <na.to> masc. relation.              nayk /na.j\k/ <na.j\.k\> masc. a hero of
                                                  a novel, a play etc.
na9 /nat˙/ <na.th\> masc. 1. a master 2.
the husband.
                                                                                          106


naiyka /na.ji.ka/ <na.ji.ka> fem. a            nahvu& /nah.vu~/ <na.h\.vu~> v.intr. to
heroine of a novel, a play etc.                bathe.

nar&gI /na.r\˜.gi/ <na.r\~.gii> fem. an        naX /naÆ/ <na.Æ\> fem. a horse shoe.
orange.
                                               naXcu& /naÆ.cu~/ <na.Æ\.cu~> neut. a funnel.
naraj /na.raÔ/ <na.ra.Ô\> adj.
displeased.                                    naXu& /na.Æu~/ <na.Æu~> neut. a rivulet.

nairyeX /na.ri.jeÆ/ <na.ri.je.Æ\> neut. 1. a   inkal /ni.kal/ <ni.ka.l\> masc. 1.
coconut 2. a coconut tree.                     disposal 2. judgment.

narI /na.ri/ <na.rii> fem. a woman.            inkas /ni.kas/ <ni.ka.s\> fem. export.

nalayk /na.la.j\k/ <na.la.j\.k\> adj.          inkah /ni.kah/ <ni.ka.h\> masc. Muslim
unworthy.                                      marriage.

nav /nav/ <na.v\> fem. a small boat.           in`als /ni.k˙a.l\s/ <ni.kha.l\.s\> adj.
                                               open-hearted.
naivk /na.vik/ <na.vi.k\> masc. 1. a
sailor 2. a boatman.                           ingU7 /ni.guÎ˙/ <ni.guu.Îh\> adj.
                                               mysterious.
na= /naß/ <na.ß\> masc. destruction.
                                               incovvu& /ni.cov.cu~/ <ni.cho.v\.vu~> v.tr.
nas /nas/ <na.s\> masc. inhalation of          1. to squeeze 2. to extract.
vapor for curing a disease.
                                               injan&d /ni.Ôa.n\nd/ <ni.Ôa.n\~.d\> masc.
naspit /nas.p\.ti/ <na.s\.p\.ti> neut. a       the joy caused by self-realization.
pear fruit or tree.
                                               intarvu& /ni.tar.vu~/ <ni.ta.r\.vu~> v.tr. to
nas-ag /nas.b˙ag/ <na.s\.bha.g\> fem.          filter.
a retreat.
                                               inTy /ni.tj\/ <ni.tj\> adj. eternal.
nasvu& /nas.vu~/ <na.s\.vu~> v.intr. to run
away.                                          inTykmR /nit.j\.k\r.ma/ <ni.tj\.k\.rm\>
                                               neut. daily worship.
naSto /nas.to/ <na.sto> masc. a
breakfast.                                     indan /ni.dan/ <ni.da.n\> neut.
                                               diagnosis.
nahk /na.h\k/ <na.h\.k\> advb.
unnecessarily.                                 in0n /ni.d˙\n/ <ni.dh\.n\> neut. death.

                                               inpu8 /ni.pu¯/ <ni.pu.¯\> adj. expert.
                                                                                         107



inb&0 /ni.b\nd˙/ <ni.b\~.dh\> masc. an         inr&tr /ni.r\n.t\r/ <ni.r\~.t\.r\> adj.
essay.                                         1incessant.

in-avvu& /ni.b˙av.vu~/ <ni.bha.v\.vu~> v.tr.   inrakrr8 /ni.ra.k\.r\¯/ <ni,ra.k\.r\.¯\>
to maintain.                                   neut. 1. settlement 2. disposal.

inm8U&k /nim.¯u~k/ <ni.m\.¯u~.k\> fem.         inrakar /ni.ra.kar/ <ni.ra.ka.r\> adj.
an appointment.                                shapeless.

inm&{a8 /ni.m\n.tr\¯/ <ni.m\~.tr\.¯\>          inra0ar /ni.ra.d˙ar/ <ni.ra.dha.r\> adj.
neut. an invitation.                           1. orphan 2. support less.

inm&{avu& /ni.m\n.tr\.vu~/ <ni.m\~.tr\.vu~>    inra= /ni.raß/ <ni.ra.sh\> adj.
v.tr. to invite.                               disappointed.

inma6o /ni.ma.Îo/ <ni.ma.Îo> masc. a           inraXu& /ni.ra.Æu~/ <ni.ra.Æu~> adj. 1.
potter’s kiln.                                 peculiar 2. distinct 3. different.

inym /ni.j\m/ <ni.j\.m\> masc. a rule.         inra&t /ni.ra~t/ <ni.ra~.t\> fem. 1. peace 2.
                                               repose.
inymn /ni.j\.m\n/ <ni.j\.m\.n\> neut.
controlling.                                   inrIxk /ni.ri.kß\k/ <ni.ri.kß\.k\> masc.
                                               1. an observer 2. an inspector.
inyimt /ni.j\.mit/ <ni.j\.mi.t\> adj.
regular.                                       inru]ar /ni.ru.tt\r/ <ni.ru.tt\.r\> neut. 1.
                                               un-answering 2. silent, 3. speechless in
inyamk /ni.ja.m\k/ <ni.ja.m\.k\> masc.         response.
1. director 2. controller.
                                               inrupyogI /ni.rup.jo.gi/ <ni.ru.p\.jo.gii>
inyuikt /ni.juk.ti/ <ni.ju.kti> fem.           adj. useless.
appointment.
                                               in£p8 /ni.ru.p\¯/ <ni.ruu.p\.¯\> neut.
inrxr /ni.r\.kß\r/ <ni.r\.kß\.r\> adj.         narration.
illiterate.
                                               in£pvu& /ni.rup.vu~/ <ni.ruu.p\.vu~> v.tr.
inrpex /nir.pek.ß\/ <ni.r\.pe.kß\> adj.        to narrate.
independent.
                                               injRn /nir.Ô\n/ <ni.rÔ\.n\> adj.
inr9Rk /ni.r\r.t˙\k/ <ni.rth\.k\> adj.         uninhabited.
useless.
                                               injRX /nir.Ô\Æ/ <ni.rÔ\.Æ\> adj. 1. dry 2.
inr&ku= /ni.r\˜.kuß/ <ni.r\~.ku.ß\> adj.       waterless.
uncontrolled.
                                                                                        108


                                              invaR8 /nir.va¯/ <nir.va.¯\> neut.
in@Rv /nir.Ôiv/ <ni.rÔii.v\> adj. lifeless.   salvation.

in8Ry /nir.¯\j/ <ni.r¯\.j\> masc.             invaRist /nir.va.sit/ <ni.rva.si.t\> adj.
decision.                                     refugee.

in8aRyk /nir.¯a.j\k/ <ni.r¯a.j\.k\> adj.      invaRh /nir.vah/ <nir.va.h\> masc.
decisive.                                     maintenance.

indRy /nir.d\j/ <ni.rd\.j\> adj. cruel.       inivR#n /nir.vign/ <ni.rvi.ghn\> adj. free
                                              from obstacles.
indeR= /nir.deß/ <ni.rde.ß\> masc. an
indication.                                   invarvu& /ni.var.vu~/ <ni.va.r\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                              prevent.
indoRq /nir.doß/ <ni.rdo.s°\> adj.
innocent.                                     invas /ni.vas/ <ni.va.si> masc.
                                              residence.
in0Rn /nir.d˙\n/ <ni.rdh\.n\> adj.
moneyless.                                    invasI /ni.va.si/ <ni.va.sii> masc. a
                                              resident.
in0aRr /nir.d˙ar/ <ni.rdha.r\> masc.
determination.                                inv<]a /ni.vru.tt\/ <ni.vr≤u.tt\> adj.
                                              retired.
inbRX /nir.b\ / <ni.rb\.Æ\> adj.
powerless.                                    inv<i]a /ni.vrut.ti/ <ni.vr≤u.tti> fem.
                                              retirement.
in-Ry /nir.b˙\j/ <ni.rbh\.j\> adj.
fearless.                                     inve6o /ni.ve.Îo/ <ni.ve.Îo> masc.
                                              .settlement 2. verdict.
in-eRX /nir.b˙e / <ni.rbhe.Æ\> adj.
unadulterated.                                invedn /ni.ve.d\n/ <ni.ve.d\.n\> neut. a
                                              statement.
inmRX /nir.m\Æ/ <ni.rm\.Æ\> adj. without
dirt.                                         in=an /ni.ßan/ <ni.ßa.n\> neut. 1. target
                                              2. a mark.
inmaR8 /nir.ma¯/ <ni.rma.¯\> neut. a
creation.                                     in=anI /ni.ßa.ni/ <ni.ßa.nii> fem. a mark.

inmaRLy /nir.ma.lj\/ <ni.rma.lj\> adj.        in=aX /ni.ßaÆ/ <ni.ßa.Æ\> fem. a school.
powerless.
                                              in=aiXyo /ni.ßa.Æi.jo/ <ni.ßa.Æi.jo> masc.
inmURX /nir.muÆ/ <ni.rmuu.Æ\> adj.            1. a school boy 2. a student.
rootless.
                                                                                            109


in¾y /niß.c\.j\/ <ni.ßc\.j\> masc. a           inStej /nis.teÔ/ <ni.ste.Ô\> adj. 1. dim 2.
determination.                                 dull.

ini¾t /niß.cit/ <ni.ßci.t\> adj. decided.      inSbt /nis.b\t/ <ni.sb\.t\> fem. 1.
                                               relation 2. concern.
in¼as /niß.vas/ <ni.ßva.s\> masc. a
sigh.                                          inhairka /ni.ha.ri.ka/ <ni.ha.ri.ka> fem.
                                               a nebula.
inqe0 /ni.ßed˙/ <ni.s°e.dh\> masc.
prohibition.                                   inhaXvu& /ni.haÆ.vu~/ <ni.ha.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                               see with full attention.
inQkl&k /niß.ka.la˜k/ <ni.s°k\.l\~.k\> adj.
1. free from blamsih.                          in&dvu& /nind.vu~/ <ni~.d\.vu~> v.tr. . to
                                               backbite.
inQk/Iy /niß.kri.j\/ <ni.s°krii.j\> adj.
inactive.                                      in&da /nin.da/ <ni~.da> fem. backbiting.
                                               inŠ=Bd /ni.ß\b.d\/ <ni:.ß\.bd\> adj.
inQ5a /niß.ˇ˙a/ <ni.s°ˇha> fem.                silent.
faithfulness.
                                               inŠ=S{a /ni.ß\s.tr\/ <ni:.ß\.str\> adj.
inQ5ur /niß.ˇur/ <ni.s°ˇhu.r\> adj. 1. cruel   unarmed.
2. merciless.
                                               inŠ=uLk /ni.ßul.k\/ <ni:.ßu.lk\> adj. free
inQ8at /niß.¯at/ <ni.s°¯a.t\> adj. an          of charge.
expert.
                                               inŠs&tan /ni.s\n.tan/ <ni:.s\~.ta.n\> adj.
inQpx /niß.p\k.ß\/ <ni.s°p\.kß\> adj.          childless.
impartial.
                                               inŠs&deh /ni.s\n.deh/ <ni:.s\~.de.h\> adj.
inQpap /niß.pap/ <ni.s°pa.p\> adj.             without any doubt.
sinless.
                                               inŠSva9R /ni.svar.th\/ <ni:.sva.rth\> adj.
inQp/a8 /niß.pra¯/ <ni.s°pra.¯\> adj. 1.       unselfish.
weak 2. spiritless.
                                               nIk /nik/ <nii.k\> fem. a drain.
inQfX /niß.p˙\l/ <ni.s°ph\.Æ\> adj.
unsuccessful.                                  nIkXvu& /ni.k\Æ.vu~/ <nii.k\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr.
                                               1. to come out 2. to go out 3. to appear.
insr8I /ni.s\r.¯i/ <ni.s\.r\.¯ii> fem. a
ladder.                                        nIc /nic/ <nii.c\> adj. 1. wicked 2.
                                               mean.
insaso /ni.sa.so/ <ni.sa.so> masc. a
sigh.
                                                                                              110


nIcajo8u& /ni.ca.Ôo.¯u~/ <nii.ca.Ôo.¯u~>
neut. shameful condition.                         nIl /nil/ <nii.l\> adj. dark-blue.

nIca8 /ni.ca¯/ <nii.ca.¯\> neut.                  nIv6vu& /ni.v\Î.vu~/ <nii.v\.Î\.vu~> v.intr.
descent.                                          to be accomplished.

nIcu& /ni.cu~/ <nii.cu~> adj. 1. low 2. vile.     nI&d8 /nin.d\¯/ <nii~.d\.¯\> neut. the
                                                  act of removing weeds.
nI6r /ni.Î\r/ <nii.Î\.r\> adj. fearless.
                                                  nI&dvu& /nind.vu~/ <nii~.d\.vu~> v.tr. to
nItrvu& /ni.t\r.vu~/ <nii.t\.r\.vu~> v.intr.      weed.
1. to ooze 2. to be filtered.
                                                  nuksan /nuk.san/ <nu.k\.sa.n\> neut.
nItyuR& /nit.rju~/ <nii.t\.rju~> adj. filtered.   damage.

nIit /ni.ti/ <nii.ti> fem. morality.              nUtn /nu.t\n/ <nuu.t\.n\> adj. new.

nIit=aS{a /ni.ti.ßas.tr\/ <nii.ti.ßa.str\>        nUr /nur/ <nuu.r\> neut. fright.
neut. ethics.
                                                  n<Ty /nrut.j\/ <nr≤u.tj\> neut. a dance.
nIpj /ni.p\Ô/ <nii.p\.Ô\> fem. product.
                                                  nek /nek/ <ne.k\> adj. honest.
nIpjvu& /ni.p\Ô.vu~/ <nii.p\.Ô\.vu~> v.intr.
to be produced.                                   neta /ne.ta/ <ne.ta> masc. a leader.

nIm /nim/ <nii.m\> masc. a religious              netagIrI /ne.ta.gi.ri/ <ne.ta.gii.rii> fem.
vow.                                              leadership.

nImvu& /nim.vu~/ <nii.m\.vu~> v.tr. to            nevu& /ne.vu~/ <ne.vu~> adj. ninety.
appoint.
                                                  neVya=I /nev.ja.ßi/ <ne.vja.ßii> adj.
nIr`vu& /ni.r\k˙.vu~/ <nii.r\.kh\.vu~> v.tr.      eighty nine.
to observe.
                                                  nEitk /n\i.tik/ <n\i.ti.k\> adj. 1. ethical
nIr8 /ni.r\¯/ <nii.r\.¯\> neut. fodder.           2. moral.

nIrv /ni.r\v/ <nii.r\.v\> adj. noiseless.         nE¢Ty /n\i.rut.j\/ <n\i.ru≤.tj\> adj.
                                                  south-west (direction).
nIrvu& /nir.vu~/ <nii.r\.vu~> v.tr. to feed
cattle fodder.                                    nEved /n\i.ved/ <n\i.ve.d\> masc. the
                                                  food offered to a god or deity.
nIrogI /ni.ro.gi/ <nii.ro.gii> adj.
healthy.
                                                                                         111


nEsigRk /n\i.s\r.gik/ <n\i.s\r.gi.k\> adj.     Nyay /njaj/ <nja.j\> masc. justice.
natural.
                                               Nyaya0I= /nja.ja.d˙iß/ <nja.ja.dhii.ß\>
nokr /no.k\r/ <no.k\.r\> masc. a male          masc. a judge.
servant.
                                               NyayI /njaji/ <nja.jii> adj. righteous.
nokr=ahI /no.k\r.ßa.hi/ <no.k\.r\.ßa.hii>
fem. a bureaucracy.
                                                                    p
nokiryat /no.k\.ri.jat/ <no.k\.ri.ja.t\>
adj.                                           pk6 /p\.k\Î/ <p\.k\.Î\> fem. an act of
salaried (person).                             holding or gripping.
notrvu& /no.t\r.vu~/ <no.t\.r\.vu~> v.tr. to   pk6vu& /p\.k\Î.vu~/ <p\.k\.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
give a formal invitation on an auspicious      1. to hold 2. to catch 3. to grasp.
occasion.
                                               pkvvu& /p\.k\v.vu~/ <p\.k\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
notru& /not.ru~/ <no.t\.ru~> neut. a formal
                                               1. to ripen 2. to cook 3. to produce
invitation.
                                               pkvan /p\k.van/ <p\.k\.va.n\> neut.
no0aru& /no.d˙a.ru~/ <no.dha.ru~> adj.
                                               sweets.
support less.
                                               px /p\k.ß\/ <p\.kß\> masc. 1. side 2. a
nobt /nob\t/ <no.b\.t\> fem. a big
                                               party (political).
drum used normally in temples.
                                               pxa3at /p\k.ßa.g˙at/ <p\.kßa.gha.t\>
nom /nom/ <no.m\> fem. ninth day of
                                               masc. paralysis.
the bright or dark half of a Hindu month.
                                               pxpat /p\k.ß\.pat/ <p\.kß\.pa.t\>
noiXyo /no.Æi.jo/ <no.Æi.jo> masc. a
                                               masc. partiality.
mongoose.
                                               pxapxI /p\k.ßa.p\k.ßi/ <p\.kßa.p\.kßii>
no&0 /nø~d˙/ <no~.dh\> fem. a noting
                                               fem. discord.
down.                                          pxI /p\k.ßi/ <p\.kßii> neut. a bird.
nOka /n\u.ka/ <n\u.ka> fem. a boat.
                                               p`vaj /p\k˙.vaÔ/ <p\.kh\.va.Ô\> fem. a
nOkadX /n\u.ka.d\Æ/ <n\u.ka.d\.Æ\>
                                               kind of drum.
neut. navy.
                                               p`vai6yu& /p\k˙.va.Îi.ju~/
Nyat /njat/ <nja.t\> fem. a caste.
                                               <p\.kh\.va.Îi.ju~> neut. a fortnight.
NyatIlu& /nja.ti.lu~/ <nja.tii.lu~> adj. a
                                               p`vai6k /p\k˙.va.Îik/ <p\.kh\.va.Îi.k\>
person from the same caste.
                                               adj. fortnightly.
                                                                                        112



p`aXvu& /p\.k˙aÆ.vu~/ <p\.kha.Æ\.vu~> v.tr.     pCcIs /p\c.cis/ <p\.ccii.s\> adj. 25
to wash (formal).                               (twenty five).

pg /p\g/ <p\.g\> masc. 1. a leg 2. a            p26a4 /p\ch.Îaˇ/ <p\.ch\.Îa.ˇ\> fem.
foot.                                           an act of being knocked.

pgi9yu& /p\.g\.t˙i.ju~/ <p\.g\.thi.ju~> neut.   p2a6vu& /p\.c˙aÎ.vu~/ <p\.cha.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
a footstep.                                     1. to throw 2. to defeat .

pgpaXu& /p\g.pa.Æu~/ <p\.g\.pa.Æu~> adj.        p2at /p\.c˙at/ <p\.cha.t\> adj.
pedestrian.                                     backward.

pgpesaro /p\g.pe.sa.ro/ <p\.g\.pe.sa.ro>        p2I /p\.c˙i/ <p\.chii> postp.
masc. intrusion.                                afterwards.

pg-r /p\g.b˙\r/ <p\.g\.bh\.r\> adj.             p2It /p\.c˙it/ <p\.chii.t\> fem. a rear
self-reliant.                                   wall of a building.

pgr`u& /p\.g\r.k˙u~/ <p\.g\.r\.khu~> neut.      p2e6I /p\.c˙e.Îi/ <p\.che.Îii> fem. a
a shoe.                                         kind of shawl.

pgrv /p\g.r\v/ <p\.g\.r\.v\> masc.              pjv8I /p\.Ô\v.¯i/ <p\.Ô\.v\.¯ii> fem.
the sound of foot-steps.                        harassment.

pglu& /p\g.lu~/ <p\.g\.lu~> neut. a             pjvvu& /p\.Ô\v.vu~/ <p\.Ô\.v\.vu~> v.tr. to
footprint.                                      harass.

pgar /p\.gar/ <p\.ga.r\> masc. 1. pay           p4ko /p\ˇ.ko/ <p\.ˇ\.ko> masc. a small
2. salary.                                      piece of cloth used to wra round the
                                                waist or
pgI /p\.gi/ <p\.gi> masc. 1. a foot-print       the head.
reader 2. a village watchman.
                                                p4p4 /p\ˇ.p\ˇ/ <p\.ˇ\.p\.ˇ\> advb.
pgeru& /p\.ge.ru~/ <p\.ge.ru~> neut. a          quickly.
foortprint.
                                                p4p4avvu& /p\ˇ.p\.ˇav.vu~/
pcr&gI /p\c.r\˜.gi/ <p\.c\.r\~.gii> adj.        <p\.ˇ\.p\.ˇa.v\.vu~> v.tr. to wag.
colorful.
                                                p4la; /p\ˇ.lai/ <p\.ˇ\.la.ii> fem. a
pcvu& /p\c.vu~/ <p\.c\.vu~> v.intr. to be       village headman’s duty.
digested.

pcas /p\.cas/ <p\.ca.s\> adj. fifty.
                                                                                         113


p4la8I /p\ˇ.la.¯i/ <p\.ˇ\.la.¯ii> fem. 1.
the wife of the village headman 2. the         p6tI /p\Î.ti/ <p\.Î\.tii> fem. a fall.
wife of a Patel.
                                               p6tu& /p\Î.tu~/ <p\.Î\.tu~> adj. 1.
p4abaj /p\.ˇa.baÔ/ <p\.ˇa.ba.Ô\> adj.          decaying 2. falling.
skilled in swordsmanship.
                                               p6do /p\Î.do/ <p\.Î\.do> masc. a
p4aba@ /p\.ˇa.ba.Ôi/ <p\.ˇa.ba.Ôii> fem.       curtain.
skill in swordmanship.
                                               p6pU2 /p\Î.puc˙/ <p\.Î\.puu.ch\> fem.
p4am8I /p\.ˇam.¯i/ <p\.ˇa.m\.¯ii> fem.         inquiry.
deceit by flattering.
                                               p6vu& /p\Î.vu~/ <p\.Î\.vu~> v.intr. to fall.
p4avvu& /p\.ˇav.vu~/ <p\.ˇa.v\.vu~> v.tr. to
cheat by flattery.                             p6vo /p\Î.vo/ <p\.Î\.vo> masc. the
                                               first day of the first or second fortnight
p4avaXo /p\.ˇa.va.Æo/ <p\.ˇa.va.Æo> masc.      of a Hindu month.
a peon.
                                               p6av /p\.Îav/ <p\.Îa.v\> masc. a
p4\4I /p\ˇ.ˇi/ <p\.ˇˇii> fem. a strip.         camp.

p4el /p\.ˇel/ <p\.ˇe.l\> masc. 1. the          pi6yo /p\.Îi.jo/ <p\.Îi.jo> masc. a bowl
headman of a caste 2. the headman of a         made of leaves.
village 3. a surname so named 4. the
name of a community.                           p6I /p\.Îi/ <p\.Îii> fem. a small
                                               packet.
p4\4o /p\ˇ.ˇo/ <p\.ˇˇo> masc. a belt.
                                               p6IkI /p\.Îi.ki/ <p\.Îii.kii> fem. a very
p6 /p\Î/ <p\.Î\> neut. a layer.                small packet.

p6kar /p\Î.kar/ <p\.Î\.ka.r\> masc. a          p6Iku& /p\.Îi.ku~/ <p\.Îii.ku~> neut. a
challenge.                                     small packet.

p6`u& /p\Î.k˙u~/ <p\.Î\.khu~> neut. a          p8 /p\¯/ <p\.¯\> conj. 1. but 2. stll 3.
side.                                          yet.

p62ayo /p\Î.c˙a.jo/ <p\Î.cha.jo> masc.         p82 /p\.¯\c˙/ <p\.¯\.ch\> fem. the
a shadow.                                      string of a bow.

p6tr /p\Î.t\r/ <p\.Î\.t\.r\> adj. a            pt /p\t/ <p\.ˇ\> neut. laprosy.
base price.
                                               ptn /p\.t\n/ <p\.ˇ\.n\> neut. 1. a fall
p6tr /p\Î.t\r/ <p\.Î\.t\.r\> adj.              2. a defeat.
uncultivated (land).
                                                                                         114


ptrI /p\t.ri/ <p\.t\.rii> fem. a small           p{akar /p\.tr\.kar/ <p\.tr\.ka.r\> masc.
thin metal piece.                                a journalist.

ptru& /p\t.ru~/ <p\.t\.ru~> neut. a sheet of     p{akar]v /p\tr.ka.r\t.r\/
metal.                                           <p\.tr\.ka.r\.tv\> neut. journalism.

ptvu& /p\t.vu~/ <p\.t\.vu~> v.intr. 1. to be     p{aVyvhar /p\.tr\.vj\v.har/
settled (account), 2. to end 3. to be            <p\.tr\.vj\.v\.ha.r\> masc.
concluded.                                       correspondance.
pt&g /p\.t\˜.g\/ <p\.t\~.g\> masc. a             pi{aka /p\.tri.ka/ <p\.tri.ka> fem. a
kite.                                            pamphlet.
pt&igyu& /p\.t\˜.gi.ju~/ <p\.t\~.gi.ju~> neut.   p9raX /p\t˙.raÆ/ <p\.th\.ra.Æ\> adj.
a butterfly.                                     stony.
ptak6u& /p\.tak.Îu~/ <p\.ta.k\.Îu~> neut.        p9rI /p\t˙.ri/ <p\.th\.rii> fem. a small
a small piece of paper.                          stone.
ptav4 /p\.ta.v\ˇ/ <p\.ta.v\.ˇ\> fem. a           p9ro /p\t˙.ro/ <p\.th\.ro> masc. a
settlement.                                      stone.
ptavvu& /p\.tav.vu~/ <p\.ta.v\.vu~> v.tr. 1.     p9arI /p\.t˙a.ri/ <p\.tha.rii> fem. a bed.
to settle 2. finalise.
                                                 p(9r /p\t˙.t˙\r/ <p\.thth\.r\> masc. a
ptasu& /p\.ta.su~/ <p\.ta.su~> neut. a kind
                                                 stone.
of cookie.
                                                 pd /p\d/ <p\.d\> masc. a rank.
pit /p\.ti/ <p\.ti> masc. the husband.
                                                 pd /p\d/ <p\.d\> neut. a sentential
pityu& /p\.ti.ju~/ <p\.ti.ju~> adj. suffering
                                                 phrase.
from leprosy.
                                                 pdvI /p\d.vi/ <p\.d\.vii> fem. 1. a title
p]au /p\t.tu~/ <p\.ttu~> neut. 1. a leaf 2. a
                                                 2. a rank.
playing card.
                                                 pda9R /p\.dar.t˙\/ <p\.da.rth\> masc. 1.
p]ao /p\t.to/ <p\.tto> masc. 1.
                                                 a substance 2. an object.
whereabouts 2. address.
                                                 pda9R /p\.dar.t˙\/ <p\.da.rth\> masc. a
pTnI /p\t.ni/ <p\.tnii> fem. the wife.
                                                 meaning of phrase.
p{a /p\t.r\/ <p\.tr\> masc. a letter.            pdavil /p\.dav.li/ <p\.da.v\.li> fem.
                                                 diction.
                                                                                       115


pdavvu& /p\.dav.vu~/ <p\.da.v\.vu~> v.tr.    prgju /p\r.g\.Ôu~/ <p\.r\.g\.Ôu> adj.
to cause work hard.                          benevolent.

p(9it /p\.d˙d˙\.ti/ <p\.dhdh\.ti> fem.       prgam /p\r.gam/ <p\.r\.ga.m\> neut.
a method.                                    another’s village.

pd\y /p\.dj\/ <p\.dj\> neut. verse.          prcUr8 /p\r.cu.r\¯/ <p\.r\.cu.r\.¯\>
                                             neut. 1. change (coins), 2. miscellaneous.
p0ram8I /p\d˙.ram.¯i/
<p\.dh\.ra.m\.¯ii> fem. a formal             prco /p\r.co/ <p\.r\.co> masc. a
visit.                                       miracle.

p0ravvu& /p\d˙.rav.vu~/ <p\.dh\.ra.v\.vu~>   pr@vI /p\r.Ôi.vi/ <p\.r\.Ôii.vii> adj.
v.tr. to offer respectfully.                 parasite.

p0arvu& /p\.0˙ar.vu~/ <p\.dha.r\.vu~>        pr8vu& /p\.r\¯.vu~/ <p\.r\.¯\.v~> v.tr. to
v.intr. to come or go respectfully.          marry.

pno /p\.no/ <p\.no> masc. breadth of         prt /p\.r\t/ <p\.r\.t\> advb. in return.
cloth.
                                             prt&{a /p\r.t\n.tr\/ <p\.r\.t\~.tr\> adj.
pnotI /p\.no.ti/ <p\.no.tii> fem.            dependence.
misfortune.
                                             prdado /p\r.da.do/ <p\.r\.da.do> masc.
pnotu& /p\.no.tu~/ <p\.no.tu~> adj.          a great grand-father.
auspicious.
                                             prduŠ` /p\r.duk˙/ <p\.r\.duŠ.kh\> neut.
ppEyu& /p\.p\i.ju~/ <p\.p\i.ju~> neut.       other’s misery.
papaya.
                                             prde= /pre.deß/ <p\.r\.de.ß\> masc. a
pr /p\r/ <p\.r\> postp. 1. on 2. over 3.     foreign country.
above.
                                             prdo /p\r.do/ <p\.r\.do> masc. a
prkIy /p\r.kij/ <p\.r\.kii.j\> adj. 1.       curtain.
belonging to others 2. belongingto
foreign.                                     pr0n /p\r.d˙\n/ <p\.r\.dh\.n\> neut.
                                             other’s money or wealth.
pr` /p\.r\k˙/ <p\.r\.kh\> fem. 1. a test
2. an examination.                           pr0mR /p\r.d˙\r.ma/ <p\.r\.dh\.rm\>
                                             masc. other’s religion.
pr`avvu& /p\r.k˙av.vu~/ <p\.r\.kha.v\.vu~>
v.tr. to tell unscrupulously.                prnatIlu& /p\r.na.ti.lu~/ <p\.r\.na,tii.lu~>
                                             adj. belonging to others’ caste.
                                                                                           116


prpuruq /p\r.pu.ruß/ <p\.r\.pu.ru.s°\>          prv= /p\r.v\ß/ <p\.r\.v\.ß\> adj.
masc. a man other than one’s husband.           dependent.

prpo4I /p\r.po.ˇi/ <p\.r\.po.ˇii> fem. a        prvX /p\r.v\ / <p\.r\.v\.Æ\> neut. a
small bubble.                                   kind of vegetable.
                                                prva /p\r.va/ <p\.r\.va> fem. care.
prpo4o /p\r.po.ˇo/ <p\.r\.po.ˇo> masc.
a big bubble.                                   prvangI /p\r.van.gi/ <p\.r\.va.n\.gii>
                                                fem. permission.
prb /p\.r\b/ <p\.r\.b\> fem. a public
water house.                                    prvano /p\r.va.no/ <p\.r\.va.no> masc.
                                                a licence.
prbI6Iyu& /p\r.bi.Îi.ju~/ <p\.r\.bii.Îii.ju~>
neut. an envelope.                              prsevo /p\r.se.vo/ <p\.r\.se.vo> masc.
                                                perspiration.
pr-v /p\r.b˙\v/ <p\.r\.bh\.v\> masc.
a previous or the next birth.                   prS{aI /p\r.stri/ <p\.r\.strii> fem. other
                                                than one’s wife.
prm /p\.r\m/ <p\.r\.m\> adj. highest.
                                                prSpr /p\.r\s.p\r/ <p\.r\.sp\.r\> advb.
prma8u /p\r.ma.¯u/ <p\.r\.ma.¯u~>               1. mutually 2. reciprocally.
neut. an atom.
                                                pr&t u/p\.r\n.tu/ <p\.r\~.tu> advb. but.
prmaTma /p\r.mat.ma/ <p\.r\.ma.tma>
masc. 1. the supreme being 2. god.              pr&pra /p\.r\m.p\.ra/ <p\.r\~.p\.ra> fem.
                                                a tradition.
prman&d /p\r.ma.nand/
<p\.r\.ma.n\~.d\> masc. supreme                 pr&pragt /p\.r\m.p\.ra.g\t/
bliss.                                          <p\.r\~.p\.ra.g\.t\> adj. traditional.

prma9R /p\r.mar.t˙\/ <p\.r\.ma.rth\>            prakaQ5a /p\.ra.kaß.t˙a/ <p\.r\.ka.s°ˇa>
masc. 1. the highest aim 2. benevolence.        fem. 1. climax 2. extremity.

prme¼r /p\r.meß.v\r/ <p\.r\.me.ßv\.r\>          prak/m /p\.ra.kr\m/ <p\.ra.kr\.m\>
masc. god.                                      neut. 1. an adventure 2. heroism.

prlok /p\r.lok/ <p\.r\.lo.k\> masc. the         prak/mI /p\.ra.kr\.mi/ <p\.ra.kr\.mii>
other world where the soul is believed o        adj. enterprising.
be going after death.
                                                prajy /p\.ra.Ô\j/ <p\.ra.Ô\.j\> masc. a
prv6vu& /p\r.v\Î.vu~/ <p\.r\.v\.Î\.vu~>         defeat.
exp. to afford.
                                                                                         117


pra8e /p\.ra.¯e/ <p\.ra.¯e> advb. 1.          pirml /p\.ri.m\l/ <p\.ri.m\.l\> fem.
unwillingly 2. forcibly.                      fragrance.

pra0In /p\.ra.d˙in/ <p\.ra.dhii.n\> adj.      pirvtRn /p\.ri.v\r.t\n/ <p\.ri.v\.rt\.n\>
dependent.                                    neut. a change.
                                              pirvar /p\.ri.var/ <p\.ri.va.r\> neut. a
pram=R /p\.ra.m\r.ß\/ <p\.ra.m\.rß\>          family.
masc. contact.
                                              piri=Q4 /p\.ri.ßiß.ˇ˙\/ <p\.ri.ßi.s°ˇ\> adj.
prayu& /p\.ra.ju~/ <p\.ra.ju~> adj. other’s   an appendix.

pir3 /p\.rig˙/ <p\.ri.dh\> masc.              pir=Iln /p\.ri.ßi.l\n/ <p\.ri.ßii.l\.n\>
circumference.                                neut. deep study.

pircy /p\.ri.c\j/ <p\.ri.c\.j\> masc.         pir[am /p\.ri.ßr\m/ <p\.ri.ßr\.m\> masc.
familiarity.                                  hard work.

pircairka /p\.ri.ca.ri.ka/ <p\.ri.ca.ri.ka>   pirqd /p\.ri.ß\d/ <p\.ri.s°\.d\> fem. an
fem. a maid-servant.                          assembly.

pirict /p\.ri.cit/ <p\.ri.ci.t\> adj.         piriS9it /p\.riß.t˙i.ti/ <p\.ri.sthi.ti> fem.
knowing.                                      circumstances.

pirC2ed /p\.ric.c˙ed/ <p\.ri.cche.d\>         prI /p\.ri/ <p\.rii> fem. a fairy.
masc. a paragraph.
                                              prIxk /p\.rik.ß\k/ <p\.rii.kß\.k\> masc.
pir8am /p\.ri.¯am/ <p\.ri.¯a.m\> neut.        an examinar.
1. result 2. outcome.
                                              prIx8 /p\.rik.ß\¯/ <p\.rii.kß\.¯\> neut.
pir8It /p\.ri.¯it/ <p\.ri.¯ii.t\> adj.        a testing.
married.
                                              prIxa /p\.rik.ßa/ <p\.ri.kßa> fem.
pir0an /p\.ri.d˙an/ <p\.ri.dha.n\> neut.      examination.
clothing.
                                              pru /p\.ru/ <p\.ru> neut. pus.
pirpkv /p\.ri.p\k.v\/ <p\.ri.p\.kva>
adj. mature.                                  pru& /p\.ru~/ <p\.ru~> neut. a suburban
                                              area.
pirbX /p\.ri.b\ / <p\.ri.b\.Æ\> neut. 1.
force 2. a factor.                            pre=an /p\.re.ßan/ <p\.re.ßa.n\> adj.
                                              perplexed.
pir-aqa /p\.ri.b˙a.ßa/ <p\.ri.bha.s°a>
fem. terminology.
                                                                                          118


prox /p\.rok.ß\/ <p\.ro.kß\> adj.              pl&g /p\.l\˜g/ <p\.l\~.g\> masc. a big
indirect.                                      cot.

pro7 /p\.roÎ˙/ <p\.ro.Îh\> neut.               pla&5I /p\.la~.ˇ˙i/ <p\.la~.ˇhii> fem. a
daybreak.                                      posture of sitting with crossed-legs.

pro8o /p\.ro.¯o/ <p\.ro.¯o> masc. a            plIt /p\.lit/ <p\.lii.t\> neut. an evil
guest.                                         spirit.

propkar /p\.rop.kar/ <p\.ro.p\.ka.r\>          plo4vu& /p\.loˇ.vu~/ <p\.lo.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr. to
masc. benevolence.                             train animals.
                                               pvn /p\.v\n/ <p\.v\.n\> masc. wind.
propkarI /p\.rop.ka.ri/ <p\.ro.p\.ka.rii>
adj. benevolent.                               piv{a /p\.vit.r\/ <p\.vi.tr\> adj. sacred.

provvu& /p\.rov.vu~/ <p].ro.v\.vu~> v.tr. 1.   p=u /p\.ßu/ <p\.ßu> neut. a quadruped
to thread a needle 2. to string beads.         animal.

pyaRPt /p\.ri.jap.t\/ <p\.rja.pt\> adj.        p¾atap /p\ß.ca.tap/ <p\.ßca.ta.p\>
sufficient.                                    masc. repentance.

pyuRq8 /p\r.ju.ß\¯/ <p\.rju.s°\.¯\> neut.      pi¾m /p\ß.cim/ <p\.ßci.m\> adj.
a festival of the Jains.                       western.

plk /p\.l\k/ <p\.l\.k\> fem. a moment.         pi¾m /p\ß.cim/ <p\.ßci.m\> fem. the
                                               west (direction).
plk /p\.l\k/ <p\.l\.k\> fem. a
twinkling of the eye.                          ps&d /p\.s\nd/ <p\.s\~.d\> fem. choice.

plkaro /p\l.ka.ro/ <p\.l\.ka.ro> masc. a       pStavu& /p\s.ta.vu~/ <p\.sta.vu~> v.intr. to
twinkling.                                     repent.

pl48 /p\l.ˇ\¯/ <p\.l\.ˇ\.¯\> fem. a            pStI /p\s.ti/ <p\.stii> fem. paper scrap.
battalion.
                                               pha6 /p\.haÎ/ <p\.ha.Î\> masc. a
pl4vu& /p\.l\ˇ.vu~/ <p\.l\.ˇ\.vu~> v.tarns.    mountain.
to change.
                                               pha8o /p\.ha.¯o/ <p\.ha.¯o> masc. a
pl4o /p\l.ˇo/ <p\.l\.ˇo> masc. a big           stone.
change.
                                               pher8 /p\.he.r\¯/ <p\.he.r\.¯\> neut. a
plXvu& /p\.l\Æ.vu~/ <p\.l\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr.     kind of shirt.
to be drenched.
                                                                                          119


phervu& /p\.her.vu~/ <p\.he.r\.vu~> v.tr. to     p&gt /p\˜.g\t/ <p\~.g\.t\> fem. a row of
wear.                                            diners.

pherve= /p\.her.veß/ <p\.he.r\.ve.ß\>            p&c /p\µ.c\/ <p\~.c\> neut. a arbitrator
masc. dress.                                     (traditionally a body of five arbitrators).

phero /p\.he.ro/ <p\.he.ro> masc. a              p&ca8u& /p\µ.ca.¯u~/ <p\~.ca.¯u~> adj.
watch.                                           ninty five.

phel /p\.hel/ <p\.he.l\> fem. an                 p&cat /p\µ.cat/ <p\~.ca.t\> fem. a body
initiation.                                      of arbitrators.

phelvan /p\.hel.van/ <p\.he.l\.va.n\>            p&cam<t /p\µ.ca.mrut/ <p\~.ca.mru≤.t\>
masc. a wrestler.                                neut. a mixture of milk, yogurt, ghee,
                                                 honey and sugar.
phelu& /p\.he.lu~/ <p\.he.lu~> adj. first.
                                                 p&cayt /p\µ.ca.j\t/ <p\~.ca.j\.t\> fem. an
pho&c /p\.ha~c/ <p\.ho~.c\> fem. a               executive body of a caste or village.
receipt.
                                                 p&cal /p\µ.cal/ <p\~.ca.l\> masc. a
pho&c /p\.ha~c/ <p\.ha~.c\> fem. a power         blacksmith.
affecting a person, thing, or course of
events.                                          p&cavn /p\µ.ca.v\n/ <p\~.ca.v\.n\> adj.
                                                 fifty five.
pho&cvu& /p\.ha~c.vu~/ <p\.ha~.c\.vu~> v.intr.
1. to reach 2. to arrive.                        p&ca=I /p\µ.ca.ßi/ <p\~.ca.ßii> adj. eighty
                                                 five.
phoXu& /p\.ho.Æu~/ <p\.ho.Æu~> adj. broad.
                                                 p&ca&g /p\µ.ca~.˜g\/ <p\~.ca~.g\> neut. an
pho&cI /p\.ha~.ci/ <p\.ha~.cii> fem.             almanac.
wristler.
                                                 p&coter /p\µ.co.ter/ <p\~.co.te.r\> adj.
pho&co /p\.ha~.co/ <p\.ha~.co> masc. the         seventy five.
wrist.
                                                 p&jo /p\µ.Ôo/ <p\~.Ôo> masc. 1. a paw 2.
pX /p\Æ/ <p\.Æ\> fem. 1. aperiod of              a claw.
twenty four second 2. a moment.
                                                 p&6 /p\¯.Î\/ <p\~.Î\> neut. the human
p&ikt /p\˜.ki/ <p\~.kti> fem. a line.            body.

p&`I /p\˜.k˙i/ <p\~.khii> neut. a bird.          p&i6t /p\¯.Îit/ <p\~.¯i.t\> masc. a
                                                 scholar.
p&`o /p\˜.k˙o/ <p\~.kho> masc. a fan.
                                                                                            120


p&9 /p\n.t˙/ <p\~.th\> masc. 1. a road, 2.     pagl /pa.g\l/ <pa.g\.l\> adj. 1. mad 2.
a sect 3. a cult.                              lunatic.

p&dr /p\n.d\r/ <p\~.d\.r\> adj. fifteen.       pa36I /fem./ <pa.gh\.Îii> fem. turban.

p&paXvu& /p\m.paÆ.vu~/ <p\~.pa.Æ\.vu~> v.tr.   pa36I /fem./ <pa.gh\.Îii> fem. bribe.
1. to pat 2. to fondle.
                                               pa36I /fem./ <pa.gh\.Îii> fem. an
pa /pa/ <pa> adj. one forth.                   illegal payment for having tenancy rights
                                               of a house, place etc.
pak /pak/ <pa.k\> masc. crop.
                                               pacn /pa.c\n/ <pa.c\.n\> neut.
pak /pak/ <pa.k\> masc. pus.                   digestion.

pakvu& /pak.vu~/ <pa.k\.vu~> v.intr. to be     pacn=ikt /pa.c\n.ß\k.ti/
produced.                                      <pa.c\.n\.ß\.kti> fem. digestive
                                               power.
pakvu& /pak.vu~/ <pa.k\.vu~> v.intr. to
ripen.                                         pa2lu& /pac˙.lu~/ <pa.ch\.lu~> adj. 1.
                                               former 2. later.
pakvu& /pak.vu~/ <pa.t\.vu~> v.intr. the
formation of pus.                              pa2X /pa.c˙\Æ/ <pa.ch\.Æ\> postp.
                                               behind.
pak=aS{a /pak.ßaß.tr\/ <pa.k\.ßa.ßtr\>
neut. the science of cooking.                  pa2u& /pa.c˙u~/ <pa.chu~> adj. again.

paku& /pa.ku~/ <pa.ku~> adj. ripened.          pa@ /pa.Ôi/ <pa.Ôii> adj. mean.

paku& /pa.ku~/ <pa.ku~> adj. properly          pa4 /paˇ/ <pa.ˇ\> masc. a plank of
cooked.                                        wood.

paku& /pa.ku~/ <pa.ku~> adj. 1. skillful 2.    pa4ngr /paˇ.n\.g\r/ <pa.ˇ\.n\.g\.r\>
shrewd.                                        neut. the capital of a country, state etc.

paixk /pak.ßik/ <pa.kßi.k\> adj.               pa4lUn /paˇ.lun/ <pa.ˇ\.luu.n\> neut.
fortnightly.                                   trousers.

pa`&6 /pa.k˙\¯Î/ <pa.kh\~.Î\> neut.            pai4yu& /pa.ˇi.ju~/ <pa.ˇi.ju~> neut. 1. a
deceit.                                        board 2. a black-board.

pa`&6I /pa.k˙\¯.Îi/ <pa.kh\~.Îii> adj.         pa4Idar /pa.ˇi.dar/ <pa.ˇi.da.r\> masc. a
deceitful.                                     name of a caste.
                                                                                          121


pa4u /pa.ˇu~/ <pa.ˇu> neut. a kick.             pa8Icu& /pa.¯i.cu~/ <pa.¯ii.cu~> neut.
                                                discharge from a position of
pa5 /paˇ˙/ <pa.ˇh\> masc. a reading.            employment:

pa5 /paˇ˙/ <pa.ˇh\> masc. a                     pa8Idar /pa.¯i.dar/ <pa.¯ii.da.r\> adj.
punishment.                                     sharp.

pa5 /paˇ˙/ <pa.ˇh\> masc. a school              patXu& /pat.Æu~/ <pa.t\.Æu~> adj. thin.
lesson.
                                                pa9r8u& /pa.t˙\r.¯u~/ neut. a carpet.
pa5vvu& /pa.ˇ\v.vu~/ <pa.ˇh\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
to send.                                        padrI /pad.ri/ <pa.d\.rii> masc. a
                                                Christian priest.
pa6vu& /paÎ.vu~/ <pa.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to
cause to fall.                                  pan /pan/ <pa.n\> neut. a leaf.

pa6vu& /paÎ.vu~/ <pa.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to           pan`r /pan.k˙\r/ <pa.n\.kh\.r\> fem.
draw.                                           the fall (season).

pa6I /pa.Îi/ <pa.Îii> fem. a female calf        panI /pa.ni/ <pa.nii> fem. the heel.
of a buffalo.
                                                panu& /pa.nu~/ <pa.nu~> neut. 1. a leaf of a
pa6u& /pa.Îu~/ <pa.Îu~> neut. a calf of a       book 2. a playing card.
buffalo.
                                                panetr /pa.ne.t\r/ <pa.ne.t\.r\> neut. a
pa6o /pa.Îo/ <pa.Îo> masc. a male calf          wedding sari.
of a buffalo.
                                                pap6 /pa.p\Î/ <pa.p\.Î\> masc. a food
pa6o= /pa.Îoß/ <pa.Îo.ß\> masc.                 item.
neighborhood.
                                                pap6I /pap.Îi/ <pa.p\.Îii> fem. a pod
pa6o=I /pa.Îo.ßi/ <pa.Îo.ßii> masc. a           of a kind of pulse.
neighbor.
                                                papI /pa.pi/ <pa.pii> adj. sinful.
pa6o=8 /pa.Îo.ß\¯/ <pa.Îo.ß\.¯\> fem.
a female neighbor.                              pamr /pa.m\r/ <pa.m\.r\> adj.
                                                miserable.
pai8yaru& /pa.¯i.ja.ru~/ <pa.¯i.ja.ru~> neut.
a water room in a house.                        pamvu& /pam.vu~/ <pa.m\.vu~> v.dat. to
                                                gain.
pa8I /pa.¯i/ <pa.¯ii> neut. water.
                                                payjamo /paj.Ôa.mo/ <pa.j\.Ôa.mo> masc.
                                                trousers.
                                                                                            122


                                               pairjat /pa.ri.Ôat/ <pa.ri.Ôa.t\> neut. a
paymal /paj.mal/ <pa.j\.ma.l\> adj. 1.         kind of flower plant.
ruined 2. destroyed.
                                               pairtoiqk /pa.ri.to.ßik/ <pa.ri.to.s°i.k\>
payl /pa.j\l/ <pa.j\.l\> neut. a tinkling      neut. a prize.
anklet.
                                               parevu& /pa.re.vu~/ <pa.re.vu~> neut. a
payo /pa.jo/ <pa.j\.l\> masc. a                pegion.
foundation.
                                               palk /pa.l\k/ <pa.l\.k\> adj. a
parku& /par.ku~/ <pa.r\.ku~> adj. others’      guardian.

par`vu& /pa.r\k˙.vu~/ <pa.r\.kh\.vu~> v.tr.    pal`I /pal.k˙i/ <pa.l\.khii> fem. a
to test.                                       palanquin.

par`u& /par.k˙u~/ <pa.r\.khu~> neut. a test.   palvvu& /pa.l\v.vu~/ <pa.l\.v\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                               rear.
par8u& /par.¯u~/ <pa.r\.¯u~> neut. a
cradle.                                        palvvu& /pa.l\v.vu~/ <pa.l\.v\.vu~> v.exp.
                                               to afford.
par8u& /par.¯u~/ <pa.r\.¯u~> neut. a
dinner after completation of a fast.           palo /pa.lo/ <pa.lo> masc. green
                                               foliage.
pard=Rk /par.d\r.ß\k/ <pa.r\.d\.rß\.k\>
adj. transparent.                              pavtI /pav.ti/ <pa.v\.tii> fem. a receipt.

par3I /par.g˙i/ <pa.r\.ghii> masc. a           pavr0u& /pa.v\r.d˙u~/ <pa.v\.r\.dhu~> adj.
hunter.                                        proficient.

parsmi8 /pa.r\s.m\.¯i/                         pasu& /pa.su~/ <pa.su~> neut. a side.
<pa.r\.s\.m\.¯ii> masc. a
mythological stone that turnn iron             pase /pa.se/ <pa.se> postp. near.
into gold.
                                               paX /paÆ/ <pa.Æ\> fem. an edge of a
parsI /par.si/ <pa.r\.sii> masc. a name        water form.
of a community.
                                               paXvu& /paÆ.vu~/ <pa.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
par&gt /pa.r\m.g\t/ <pa.r\~.g\.t\> adj.        foster 2. to bring up.
expert.
                                               paiXyo /pa.Æi.jo/ <pa.Æi.jo> masc. a
paray8 /pa.ra.j\¯/ <pa.ra.j\.¯\> neut. a       memorial stone.
recitation of a religious text.
                                               pa&` /pa~k˙/ <pa~.kh\> fem. a wing.
                                                                                             123


                                                 ip]a /pit.t\/ <pi.tt\> neut. bile.
pa&`6I /pa~k˙.Îi/ <pa~.kh\.Îii> fem. a
petal.                                           ip]aX /pit.t\Æ/ <pi.tt\.Æ\> neut. brass.

pa&`u& /pa~.k˙u~/ <pa~.khu~> adj. 1. not         ip{aa; /pit.rai/ <pi.tr\.ii> masc. a
dense 2. thinly catered.                         cousin.

pa&grvu& /pa~.g\r.vu~/ <pa~.g\.r\.vu~> v.intr.   iptra; /pi.t\.rai/ <pi.t\.ra.ii> masc. a
to blossom.                                      cousin.

pa&c /pa~c/ <pa~.c\> adj. five.                  ippU6I /pi.pu.Îi/ <pi.puu.Îii> fem. a
                                                 pipe-like whistle.
pa&cm /pa~.c\m/ <pa~.c\.m\> fem. the
fifth day of either of the fortnight of the      ipyr /pi.j\r/ <pi.j\.r\> neut. the paternal
Hindu calander.                                  house of a married woman.

pa&jrapoX /pa~Ô.ra.poÆ/ <pa~.Ô\.ra.po.Æ\>        ipyu /pi.ju/ <pi.ju> masc. a lover.
fem. a charitable aylum for domestic
animals and birds.                               ipLlu& /pil.lu~/ <pi.llu~> neut. a skein.

pa&jru& /pa~Ô.ru~/ <pa~.Ô\.ru~> neut. a cage.    ip=ac /pi.ßac/ <pi.ßa.c\> neut. ghost.

pa&{aIs /pa~t.ris/ <pa~.trii.s\> adj. thirty     ipStaXIs /pis.ta.Æis/ <pi.sta.Æii.s\> adj.
five.                                            forty-five.
pa&9I /pa~.t˙i/ <pa~.thii> fem. the line         ip&6I /pi¯.Îi/ <pi~.Îii> fem. the calf of
caused by combed hair.                           the leg.
pa&d6I /pa~d.Îi/ <pa~.d\.Îii> fem. a small       pIgXvu& /pi.g\Æ.vu~/ <pii.g\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr.
tender leaf.                                     to melt.
pa&p8 /pa~.p\¯/ <pa~.p\.¯\> fem. the eye-        pI2u& /pi.c˙u~/ <pii.chu~> neut. a feather.
lash.
                                                 pI2eh5 /pi.c˙e.h\ˇ˙/ <pii.che.h\.ˇh\>
pa&s5 /pa~.s\ˇ˙/ <pa~.s\.ˇh\> adj. sixty
                                                 fem. a retreat.
five.
                                                 pI2o /pi.c˙o/ <pii.cho> masc. a pursuit.
pa&sXI /pa~.s\.Æi/ <pa~.s\.Æii> fem. a rib.
                                                 pI4vu& /piˇ.vu~/ <pii.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr. to beat
ipckarI /pic.ka.ri/ <pi.c\.ka.rii> fem. a
                                                 severely.
kind of water-gun.
                                                 pI5 /piˇ˙/ <pii.ˇh\> fem. the back (of the
ipta /pi.ta/ <pi.ta> masc. the father.
                                                 body).
                                                                                         124



pI5Ika /pi.ˇ˙i.ka/ <pii.ˇhii.ka> fem. a         pu~t /puk˙.t\/ <pu.kht\> adj. mature.
background.
                                                pu*y /pu¯.j\/ <pu.¯j\> neut.
pI5I /pi.ˇ˙i/ <pii.ˇhii> fem. fragrant          righteousness.
yellow mixture applied to the bodies of
the bridegroom and the bride.                   pu{a /put.r\/ <pu.tr\> masc. a son.

pI6a /pi.Îa/ <pii.Îa> fem. pain.                pu{av0U /put.r\.v\.d˙u/ <pu.tr\.v\.dhuu>
                                                fem. a son’s wife.
pI8u& /pi.¯u~/ <pii.¯u~> neut. drink.
                                                pU{aI /put.ri/ <pu.trii> fem. a daughter.
pIp /pip/ <pii.p\> neut. a barrel.
                                                punr\ /pu.n\r/ <pu.n\.r> advb. again.
pIpX /pi.p\Æ/ <pii.p\.Æ\> fem. a kind of
tree.                                           punravlokn /pun.rav.lo.k\n/
                                                <pu.n\.ra.v\.lo.k\.n\> neut. a
pIpXo /pip.Æo/ <pii.p\.Æo> fem. a kind of       revision.
tree.
                                                puravtRn /pun.ra.v\r.t\n/
pIrsvu& /pi.r\s.vu~/ <pii.r\.s\.vu~> v.tr. to   <pu.n\.ra.v\.rt\.n\> neut. a
serve food (formal).                            repetition.
pIlvu& /pil.vu~/ <pii.l\.vu~> v.tr. to crush.   punrav<i]a /pun.ra.vrut.ti/
                                                <pu.n\.ra.vr≤u.tti> fem. a reprint.
pIlu& /pi.lu~/ <pii.lu~> neut. a baby
chicken.                                        punruikt /pu.n\.ru.kti/ <pu.n\.ru.kti>
pIvu& /pi.vu~/ <pii.vu~> v.tr. to drink.        fem. a repetition (of an expression).

                                                punjRNm /pu.n\r.Ô\n.m\/
pIsvu& /pis.vu~/ <pii.s\.vu~> v.tr. to grind.
                                                <pu.n\.rÔ\.nm\> masc. a rebirth.
pIXa= /pi.Æaß/ <pii.Æa.ß\> fem.
                                                punlRGn /pu.n\r.l\g.n\/ <pu.n\.rl\.gn\>
yellowness.
                                                neut. a remarriage.
pIXu& /pi.Æu~/ <pii.Æu~> adj. yellow.
                                                puint /pu.nit/ <pu.ni.t\> adj. holy.
pI&`vu& /pi~k˙.vu~/ <pi~.kh\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                                purbhar /pur.b\.har/ <pu.r\.b\.ha.r\>
ransack.
                                                adj. at the climax.
pI&jvu& /pi~µÔ.vu~/ <pi~.Ô\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
                                                purv5o /pur.v\.ˇ˙o/ <pu.r\.v\.ˇho> masc.
card 2. to comb 3. to lengthen a talk etc.
unduly.                                         supply.
                                                                                      125


purv8I /pu.r\v.¯i/ <pu.r\.v\.¯ii> fem. a     puiStka /pus.ti.ka/ <pu.sti.ka> fem. a
supplement.                                  booklet.

purvar /pur.var/ <pu.r\.va.r\> adj.          puiLl&g /pul.ling/ <pu.lli~.g\> neut.
proved.                                      masculine.

purSktaR /pu.r\s.k\r.ta/ <pu.r\.sk\.rta>     pU2pr2 /puc˙.p\.r\c˙/
masc. an originator.                         <puu.ch\.p\.r\.ch\> fem. a verbal
                                             inquiry.
purSkar /pu.r\s.kar/ <pu.r\.ska.r\>
masc. a prize.                               pU2vu& /puc˙.vu~/ <puu.ch\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
                                             ask 2. to inquire.
pura8 /pu.ra¯/ <pu.ra.¯\> neut. Purana.
                                             pUjvu& /puÔ.vu~/ <puu.Ô\.vu~> v.tr. to
pura8u& /pu.ra.¯u~/ <pu.ra.¯u~> adj. 1.      worship.
ancient 2. old.
                                             pUja /pu.Ôa/ <puu.Ôa> fem. worship.
puratn /pu.ra.t\n/ <pu.ra.t\.n\> adj.
ancient.                                     pUjapo /pu.Ôa.po/ <puu.Ôa.po> masc.
                                             articles of worship.
puravo /pu.ra.vo/ <pu.ra.vo> masc. 1. a
proof 2. an evidence 3. a testimony.         pUjar8 /pu.Ôa.r\¯/ <puu.Ôa.r\.¯\> fem.
                                             a female worshiper.
pura&t /pu.ra~nt/ <pu.ra~.t\> fem. balance
(in account).                                pUjarI /pu.Ôa.ri/ <puu.Ôa.rii> masc. a
                                             male worshiper.
puruq /pu.ruß/ <pu.ru.s°\> masc. 1. a
man 2. a husband.                            pUjy /puÔ.j\/ <puu.Ôj\> adj. worth
                                             worshiping (lit. meaning). Used to
puroiht /pu.ro.hit/ <pu.ro.hi.t\> masc. a    address
family prist.                                the elders in letter writing.

pulav /pu.lav/ <pu.la.v\> masc. a food       pU5 /puˇ˙/ <puu.ˇh\> fem. the back.
item (made of rice).
                                             pUtXI /put.Æi/ <puu.t\.Æii> fem. 1. a doll
puQkX /puß.k\ / <pu.s°k\.Æ\> adj.            2. the pupil of the eye.
plentiful.
                                             pUrk /pu.r\k/ <pu.r\.k\> adj.
puQp /puß.p\/ <pu.s°p\> neut. a flower.      supplementary.

puStk /pus.t\k/ <pu.st\.k\> neut. a          pUrtu& /pur.tu~/ <puu.r\.tu~> adj.
book.                                        sufficient.
                                                                                          126


pUrpa4 /pur.paˇ/ <puu.r\.pa.ˇ\> advb.           pUXo /pu.Æo/ <puu.Æo> masc. a bundle of
at full speed.                                  grass.

pUrvu& /pur.vu~/ <puu.r\.vu~> v.tr. to fill     pU&26u& /pu~c˙.Îu~/ <puu~.ch\.Îu~> neut. a
up air etc.                                     tail.

pUrI /pu.ri/ <puu.rii> fem. a food item.        pU&@ /pu~.Ôi/ <puu~.Ôii> fem. wealth.

pUru& /pu.ru~/ <puu.ru~> adj. complete.         pU&jo /pu~.Ôo/ <puu~.Ôo> masc. dirt.

pUrepUru& /pu.re.pu.ru~/ <puu.re.pu.ru~> adj.   p<(9kr8 /pru.t˙\k.k\.r\¯/
absolutely complete.                            <pr≤u.thth\.k\.r\.¯\> neut. analysis.

pU8R /pur.¯\/ <puu.r¯\> adj. complete.          p<(vI /pru.t˙vi/ <pr≤uth\.vii> fem. the
                                                earth.
pU8Rivram /pur.¯\.vi.ram/
<puu.r¯\.vi.ra.m\> neut. a full-stop.           pe4 /peˇ/ <pe.ˇ\> neut. 1. the stomach 2,
                                                the belly.
pU8aR&k /pur.¯a~k/ <puu.r¯a~.k\> masc. an
integer.                                        pe4-ru& /peˇ.b˙\.ru~`/ <pe.ˇ\.bh\.ru~> adj.
                                                self-centered.
pUi8Rma /pur.¯i.ma/ <puu.r¯i.ma> fem. a
full moon day.                                  pe4avvu& /pe.ˇav.vu~/ <pe.ˇa.v\.vu~> v.tr. 1.
                                                to light 2. to ignite 3. to kindle.
pUvR /pur.v\/ <puu.rv\> adj. east.
                                                pe4I /pe.ˇi/ <pe.ˇii> fem. a box.
pUvRg/h /pur.v\.gr\.h\/ <puu.rv\.gr\.h\>
masc. prejudice.                                pe7I /pe.Î˙i/ <pe.Îhii> fem. a business
                                                house.
pUvRj /pur.v\Ô/ <puu.rv\.Ô\> masc. an
ancestor.                                       pe7u& /pe.Î˙u~/ <pe.Îhu~> neut. the gum of
                                                a tooth.
pUvRjNm /pur.v\.Ô\n.m\/
<puu.rv\.Ô\.nm\> masc. a previous               pe8I /p´.¯i/ <pe.¯ii> fem. a frying pan.
birth.
                                                pelu& /pe.lu~/ <pe.lu~> pron. that.
pUvRpx /pur.v\.p\k.ß\/ <puu.rv\.p\.kß\>
masc. an initail argument.                      pe=ab /pe.ßab/ <pe.ßa.b\> masc. urine.

pUvaRpr /pur.va.p\r/ <puu.rva.p\.r\>            pesvu& /pes.vu~/ <pe.s\.vu~> v.intr. to
adj. contextual.                                eneter.
                                                                                        127


pe&6o /pe¯.Îo/ <pe~.Îo> masc. a kind of        pote /po.te/ <po.te> pron. self.
sweet.
                                               po9I /po.t˙i/ <po.thii> fem. an unbound
pe&tro /p´~t.ro/ <pe~.t\.ro> masc. a           book.
stratagem.
                                               podXo /pod.Æo/ <po.d\.Æo> masc. a lump
pE6u& /p\i.Îu~/ <p\i.Îu~> neut. a wheel.       of fresh dung.

pEsadar /p\i.sa.dar/ <p\i.sa.da.r\> adj.       popcu& /pop.cu~/ <po.p\.cu~> neut. the
rich.                                          eye-lid.

pEso /p\i.so/ <p\i.so> masc. 1. money          pop4 /po.p\ˇ/ <po.p\.ˇ\> masc. a
2. a one paisa coin.                           parrot.

pok /pok/ <po.k\> fem. a lod cry of            pop6o /pop.Îo/ <po.p\.Îo> masc. a thin
wailing.                                       crust.

pokX /po.k\Æ/ <po.k\.Æ\> adj. hollow.          poy8u& /poj.¯u~/ <po.j\.¯u~> neut. a white
                                               lotus.
pokar /po.kar/ <po.ka.r\> masc. a loud
cry.                                           polad /po.lad/ <po.la.d\> neut. steel.

pocu& /po.cu~/ <po.chu~> adj. soft.            polu& /po.lu~/ <po.lu~> adj. hollow.

po4lI /poˇ.li/ <po.ˇ\.lii> fem. a small        po=ak /po.ßak/ <po.ßa.k\> masc.
bundle.                                        apparel.

po5 /poˇ˙/ <po.ˇh\> fem. a caravan.            poq /poß/ <po.s°\> masc. the third
                                               month of the Vikram samvat.
po7vu& /poÎ˙.vu~/ <po.Îh\.vu~> v.intr. to
sleep (literary, formal).                      poqk /po.ß\k/ <po.s°\.k\> adj. nutritive.

po8u& /po.¯u~/ <po.¯u~> adj. equal to          poq8 /po.ß\¯/ <po.s°\.¯\> neut. 1.
three quarters.                                nourishment 2. nutrition.

po8oso /po.¯o.so/ <po.¯o.so> adj. 3/4th        poX /poÆ/ <po.Æ\> fem. a street
of hundred.                                    (originally with a gate).

pot /pot/ <po.t\> neut. texture.               po&k /pø~k/ <po~.k\> masc. roasted green
                                               grains of ceratin corns such as wheat,
potu& /po.tu~/ <po.tu~> neut. a wet piece of   etc.
cloth used for cleaning various surfaces.
                                                                                        128


po&`vu& /pø~k˙.vu~/ <po~.kh\.vu~> v.tr. the   p/g4vu& /pr\.g\ˇ.vu~/ <pr\.g\.ˇ\.vu~>
formal ritual of receiving bride and          v.intr. to come into existence.
bridegroom.
                                              p/git /pr\.g\.ti/ <pr\.g\.ti> fem.
pO{a /p\ut.r\/ <p\u.tr\> masc. a              progress.
grandson.
                                              p/cilt /pr\.c\.lit/ <pr\.c\.li.t\> adj.
pO{aI /p\ut.ri/ <p\u.trii> fem. a             prevalent.
granddaughter.
                                              p/c&6 /pr\.c\¯.Î\/ <pr\.c\~.Î\> adj.
pOrai8k /p\u.ra.¯ik/ <p\u.ra.¯i.k\> adj.      terribly huge.
related to the Puranas.
                                              p/car /pr\.car/ <pr\.ca.r\> masc.
pOiQ4k /p\uß.ˇik/ <p\u.s°ˇi.k\> adj.          propaganda.
nutritious.
                                              p/cur /pr\.cur/ <pr\.cu.r\> adj.
pOAa /p\u.a/ <p\u.a> masc. a kind of          excessive.
rice flake.
                                              p/C2Nn /pr\.c˙\nn/ <pr\.ch\.nn\> adj.
p/k4 /pr\.k\ˇ/ <pr\.k\.ˇ\> adj. open.         covered.

p/kr8 /pr\k.r\¯/ <pr\.k\.r\.¯\> neut.         p/jnn /pr\.Ô\.n\n/ <pr\.Ô\.n\.n\> neut.
1. a chapter 2. a subject.                    biological reproduction

p/kar /pr\.kar/ <pr\.ka.r\> masc. 1. sort     p/jXvu& /pr\.Ô\Æ.vu~/ <pr\.Ô\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr.
2. kind.                                      to burn.

p/ka= /pr\.kaß/ <pr\.ka.ß\> masc. light.      p/ja /pr\.Ôa/ <pr\.Ôa> fem. people.

p/ka=vu& /pr\.kaß.vu~/ <pr\.ka.ß\.vu~>        p/jas]aak /pr\.Ôa.s\t.tak/
v.intr. 1. to shine 2. to glow.               <pra.Ôa.s\.tta.k\> adj. republic.

p/k<it /pr\.kru.ti/ <pr\.kr≤u.ti> fem.        p/8am /pr\.¯am/ <pr\.¯a.m\> masc. 1.
nature.                                       a bow 2. a salutation.

p/kop /pr\.kop/ <pr\.ko.p\> masc.             p/8alI /pr\.¯a.li/ <pr\.¯a.mii> fem. 1. a
anger.                                        custom 2. a tradition.

p/k/Iya /pr\.kri.ja/ <pr\.krii.ja> fem. a     p/8alIka /pr\.¯a.li.ka/ <pr\.¯a.lii.ka>
method.                                       fem. 1. a custom 2. a tradition.

p/~yat /pr\k˙.jat/ <pr\.khja.t\> adj.         p/8eta /pr\.¯e.ta/ <pr\.¯e.ta> masc. 1.
renowned.                                     the author 2. the originator.
                                                                                             129



p/t /pr\t/ <pr\.t\> fem. a copy of a             p/itvad /pr\.ti.vad/ <pr\.ti.va.d\> masc.
book.                                            refutation.

p/it /pr\.ti/ <pr\.ti> postp. towards.           p/itQ5a /pr\.tiß.ˇ˙a/ <pr\.ti.s°ˇha> fem.
                                                 reputation.
p/itkar /pr\.ti.kar/ <pr\.ti.k\.r\> masc.
resistance.                                      p/itSp0IR /pr\.ti.sp\r.d˙i/
                                                 <pr\.ti.sp\.rdhii> masc. a rival.
p/itkaVy /pr\.ti.kav.j\/ <pr\.ti.ka.vj\>
neut. a parody.                                  p/ithar /pr\.ti.har/ <pr\.ti.ha.r\> masc.
                                                 a gate-keeper.
p/itkUX /pr\.ti.kuÆ/ <pr\.ti.kuu.Æ\> adj.
unsuitable.                                      p/tIk /pr\.tik/ <pr\.tii.k\> neut. a
                                                 symbol.
p/itik/ya /pr\.ti.kri.ja/ <pr\.ti.kri.ja> fem.
reaction.                                        p/tIxa /pr\.tik.ßa/ <pr\.tii.kßa> fem. a
                                                 waiting for.
p/it3oq /pr\.ti.g˙oß/ <pr\.ti.gho.s°\>
masc. an echo.                                   p/tIit /pr\.ti.ti/ <pr\.tii.ti> fem.
                                                 conviction.
p/it}aa /pr\.tig.na/ <pr\.ti.gna> fem. 1. a
vow 2. a promise.                                p/Tyx /pr\.tj\k.ß\/ <pr\.tj\.kß\> adj. 1.
                                                 visible 2. the knowledge gain through
p/it)vin /pr\.ti.d˙v\.ni/ <pr\.ti.dhv.ni>        senses.
masc. an echo.
                                                 p/Tyy /pr\.tj\.j\/ <pr\.tj\.j\> masc. an
p/itini0 /pr\.ti.ni.d˙i/ <pr\.ti.ni.dhi>         affix.
masc. a representative.
                                                 p/Ty&Cya /pr\.tj\n.ca/ <pr\.tj\~.ca> fem.
p/itpx /pr\.ti.p\k.ß\/ <pr\.ti.p\.kß\>           the string of a bow.
masc. an opposite argument.
                                                 p/Tyagmn /pr\t.ja.g\.m\n/
p/itb&0 /pr\.ti.b\n.d˙\/ <pr\.ti.b\~.dh\>        <pr\.tja.g\.m\.n\> neut. a return.
masc. 1. prohibition 2. restriction.
                                                 p/Tyu]ar /pr\t.u.tt\r/ masc. 1. a reply 2. a
p/itib&b /pr\.ti.bim.b\/ <pr\.ti.bi~.b\>         rejoinder.
neut. a reflection.
                                                 p/Tye /pr\t.je/ <pr\.tje> postp. 1. at 2.
p/it-a /pr\.ti.b˙a/ <pr\.ti.bha> fem.            towards.
natural or extraordinary mental faculty.
                                                 p/Tyek /pr\t.jek/ <pr\.tje.k\> adj. every
p/itro0 /pr\.ti.rod˙/ <pr\.ti.ro.dh\>            one.
masc. resistance.
                                                                                     130



p/9m /pr\.t˙\m/ <pr\.th\.m\> adj. 1.          p/-av /pr\.b˙av/ <pr\.bha.v\> masc. 1.
first 2. fundamental 3. initial.              effectiveness 2. influence.

p/9ma /pr\.t˙\.ma/ <pr\.th\.ma> fem. a        p/-u /pr\.b˙u/ <pr\.bhu> masc. god.
nominative case.
                                              p/-u]v /pr\.b˙ut.v\/ <pr\.bhu.ttv\>
p/9a /pr\.t˙a/ <pr\.tha> fem. 1. a custom     neut. mastery.
2. a tradition.
                                              p/m]a /pr\.m\t.t\/ <pr\.m\.tt\> adj.
p/dix8a /pr\.d\k.ßi.¯a/ <pr\.d\.kßi.¯a>       excited.
fem. moving circular (left to right)
motion round a person or thing as a part      p/ma8 /pr\.ma¯/ <pr\.ma.¯\> neut. 1.
of a religious ritual.                        norm 2. standard 3. proof (in logic).

p/d=Rk /pr\.d\r.ß\k/ <pr\.d\.rß\.k\>          p/ma8-Ut /pr\.ma¯.b˙ut/
masc. exhibitor.                              <pr\.ma.¯\.bhuu.t\> adj. reliable.

p/d=Rn /pr\.d\r.ß\n/ <pr\.d\.rß\.n\>          p/mai8k /pr\.ma.¯ik/ <pr\.ma.¯i.k\>
neut. exhibition.                             adj. honesty.
p/dan /pr\.dan/ <pr\.da.n\> neut.             p/mad /pr\.mad/ <pr\.ma.d\> masc.
contribution.                                 laziness.
p/de= /pr\.deß/ <pr\.de.ß\> masc. 1. a        p/mu` /pr\.muk˙/ <pr\.mu.kh\> masc.
region 2. territory.                          1. chief 2. president.
p/doq /pr\.doß/ <pr\.do.s°\> masc. dusk.      p/mey /pr\.me.j\/ <pr\.me.j\> masc. a
                                              theorem.
p/0an /pr\.d˙n/ <pr\.dha.n\> masc.
minister.                                     p/yTn /pr\.j\t.n\/ <pr\.j\.tn\> masc. an
                                              effort.
p/p&c /pr\.p\µc/ <pr\.p\~.c\> masc.
deceit.                                       p/ya8 /pr\.ja¯/ <pr\.ja.¯\> neut. a
                                              departure.
p/bX /pr\.b\Æ/ <pr\.b\.Æ\> adj. very
strong.                                       p/yas /pr\.jas/ <pr\.ja.s\> masc. an
                                              effort.
p/-at /pr\.b˙at/ <pr\.bha.t\> neut.
dawn.                                         p/yog /pr\.jog/ <pr\.jo.g\> masc. 1. an
                                              experiment 2. a trial.
p/-aityu& /pr\.b˙a.ti.ju~/ <pr\.bha.ti.ju~>
neut. a devotional song that sung at
dawn.
                                                                                       131


p/yojk /pr\.jo.Ô\k/ <pr\.jo.Ô\.k\> masc.      p/s&=a /pr\.ß\m.ßa/ <pr\.s\~.ßa> fem.
an organizer.                                 eulogy.

p/ly /pr\.l\j/ <pr\.l\.j\> masc.              p/½ /pr\ß.n\/ <pr\.ßn\> masc. a
destruction of the creation by a deluge.      question.

p/lap /pr\.lap/ <pr\.la.p\> masc. 1.          p/½p{a /pr\ß.n\.p\t.r\/ <pr\.ßn\.p\.tr\>
lamentation 2. prattle.                       neut. a question paper.

p/lo-n /pr\.lo.b˙\n/ <pr\.lo.bh\.n\>          p/sNn /pr\.s\n.n\/ <pr\.s\.nn\> adj. 1.
neut. a temptation.                           pleased 2. satisfied.

p/vcn /pr\.v\.c\n/ <pr\.v\.c\.n\> neut.       p/srvu& /pr\.s\r.vu~/ <pr\.s\.r\.vu~> v.intr.
a lecture.                                    to spread.

p/vah /pre.vah/ <pr\.va.h\> masc. 1. a        p/s&g /pr\.s\˜g/ <pr\.s\~.g\> masc. 1. an
flow 2. a current.                            occasion 2. an event.

p/vahI /pr\.va.hi/ <pr\.va.hii> fem.          p/sad /pr\.sad/ <pr\.sa.d\> masc. 1.
liquid.                                       grace 2. favor.

p/vahI /pr\.va.hi/ <pr\.va.hii> adj.          p/sadI /pr\.sa.di/ <pr\.sa.dii> fem. 1a
liquid.                                       thing or etable offered to a deity.

p/vI8 /pr\.vi¯/ <pr\.vii.¯\> adj. expert.     p/sa0n /pr\.sa.d˙\n/ <pr\.sa.dh\.n\>
                                              neut. equipment.
p/v<i]a /pr\.vrut.ti/ <pr\.vr≤u.tti> fem.
activity.                                     p/sar /pr\.sar/ <pr\.sa.r\> masc.
                                              spread.
p/ve= /pr\.veß/ <pr\.ve.ß\> masc.
entrance.                                     p/is)0 /pr\.sid˙.d˙\/ <pr\.si.dhdh\> adj.
                                              famous.
p/ve=k /pr\.ve.ß\k/ <pr\.ve.ß\.k\> masc.
introduction of a book or a play etc.         p/Stav /pr\s.tav/ <pr\.sta.v\> masc. a
                                              proposal.
p/vei=ka /pr\.ve.ßi.ka/ <pr\.ve.ßi.ka> fem.
an introductory book.                         p/S9an /pr\s.t˙an/ <pr\.stha.n\> neut. a
                                              departure.
p/=iSt /pr\.ß\s.ti/ <pr\.ß\.sti> fem.
eulogy.                                       p/hsn /pr\.h\.s\n/ <pr\.h\.s\.n\> neut.
                                              a comical play.
p/s&=k /pr\.ß\m.ß\k/ <pr\.s\~.ß\.k\>
masc. admirer.                                p/har /pr\.har/ <pr\.ha.r\> masc. 1. a
                                              blow 2. a striking.
                                                                                        132


                                              p/exk /prek.ß\k/ <pre.kß\.k\> masc. 1.
p/acIn /pra.cin/ <pra.cii.n\> adj.            an onlooker 2. a member in audience 3. a
ancient.                                      spectator.

p/a8 /pr\¯/ <pra.¯\> masc. breath.            p/et /pret/ <pre.t\> neut. a ghost.

p/a8I /pra.¯i/ <pra.¯ii> neut. an animal.     p/em /prem/ <pre.m\> masc. love.

p/a9imk /prat˙.mik/ <pra.th\.mi.k\> adj.      p/erk /pre.r\k/ <pre.r\.k\> adj. 1.
primary.                                      inspiring 2. causal (form).

p/adei=k /pra.de.ßik/ <pra.de.ßi.k\> adj.     p/er8a /pre.r\.¯a/ <pre.r\.¯a> fem.
1. regional 2. territorial.                   inspiration.

p/a0aNy /pra.d˙an.j\/ <pra.dha.nj\> neut.     p/ervu& /prer.vu~/ <pre.r\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
priority.                                     inspire 2. to encourage.

p/a)yapk /pra.d˙ja.p\k/ <pra.dhja.p\.k\>      p/oTsahn /prot.sa.h\n/ <pro.tsa.h\.n\>
masc. a professor.                            neut. encouragement.

p/ayi¾t /pra.j\ß.cit/ <pra.j\.ßci.t\> neut.   p/O7 /pr\uÎ˙/ <pr\u.Îh\> adj. mature.
repentance.

p/ayoigk /pra.jo.gik/ <pra.jo.gi.k\> adj.                           f
experimental.

p/arB0 /pra.r\b.d˙\/ <pra.r\.bdh\> neut.      fkro /p˙\k.ro/ <ph\.k\.ro> masc. a
1. fate 2. destiny.                           paragraph.

p/as /pras/ <pra.s\> masc. rhyming.           fkIr /p˙\.kir/ <ph\.kii.r\> masc. a
                                              Muslim ascetic.
p/as&igk /pra.s\m.gik/ <pra.s\~.gi.k\>
adj. 1. unusual 2. incidental.                fkIrI /p˙\.ki.ri/ <ph\.kii.rii> fem.
                                              saintly life.
p/a&t /prant/ <pra~.t\> masc. a province.
                                              fKt /p˙\k.t\/ <ph\.kt\> advb. only.
ip/y /pri.j\/ <pri.j\> adj. 1. dear 2.
beloved.                                      fgavvu& /p˙\.gav.vu~/ <ph\.ga.v\.vu~> v.tr.
                                              to reject (little rudely).
p/It /prit/ <prii.t\> fem. 1. love 2.
affection.                                    fjetI /p˙\.Ôe.ti/ <ph\.Ôe.tii> fem.
                                              disgrace.

                                              f4 /p˙\ˇ/ <ph\.ˇ\> advb. `shame shame’
                                                                                             133


                                                  f8sI /p˙\¯.si/ fem. a kind of vegetable
f4k6I /p˙\.ˇ\k.Îi/ <ph\.ˇ\.k\.Îii> fem.           pod.
alum.
                                                  ftvo /p˙\t.vo/ masc. a religious
f4kvu& /p˙\.ˇ\k.vu~/ <ph\.ˇ\.k\.vu~> v.intr.      command (in Islam).
to go astray.
                                                  fteh /p˙\.teh/ <ph\.te.h\> fem. victory.
f4karvu& /p˙\ˇ.kar.vu~/ <ph\.ˇ\.ka.v\.vu~>
v.tr. 1. to beat 2. to give a blow 3. to hit      ffXtu& /p˙\.p˙\Æ.tu~/ <ph\.ph\.Æ\.tu~> adj.
(a ball).                                         boiling.

f4kIyu& /p˙\.ˇ\k.(i).ju~/ <ph\.ˇ\.kii.ju~> adj.   frk /p˙\.r\k/ <ph\.r\.k\> masc.
easily breakable.                                 difference.

f4ko /p˙\ˇ.ko/ <ph\.ˇ\.ko> masc. loss             frkvu& /p˙\.r\k.vu~/ <ph\.r\.k\.vu~>
(in business).                                    v.intr. to flutter.

f4ko /p˙\ˇ.ko/ <ph\.ˇ\.ko> masc. a                frj /p˙\.r\Ô/ <ph\.r\.Ô\> fem. duty.
young beautiful girl. (slang).
                                                  frijyat /p˙\r.Ôi.jat/ <ph\.r\.Ôi.ja.t\> adj.
f4ak6o /p˙\.ˇak.Îo/ <ph\.ˇ\.k\.Îo> masc.          compulsory.
a fire-cracker.
                                                  frtaram /p˙\r.ta.ram/ <ph\.r\.ta.ra.m\>
f4a8u& /p˙\.ˇa.¯u~/ <ph\.ˇ\.¯u~> neut. an         masc. a wandering man.
abusive marriage song.
                                                  frtu& /p˙\r.tu~/ <ph\.r\.tu~> adj.
f6k /p˙\.Î\k/ <ph\.Î\.k\> fem. a flap             surrounding.
of a garment.
                                                  frfiryu& /p˙\r.p˙\r.(i).ju~/
f6ko /p˙\Î.ko/ <ph\.Î\.ko> masc.                  <ph\.r\.ph\.ri.ju~> neut. a pamphlet.
sudden terror.
                                                  frman /p˙\r.man/ <ph\.r\.ma.n\> neut.
f6co /p˙\Î.co/ <ph\.Î\.co> masc. 1.
                                                  an order.
disposal 2. liquidation of debts.
                                                  frvu& /p˙\r.vu~/ <ph\.r\.vu~> v.intr. to
f4af4 /p˙\.ˇa.p˙\ˇ/ <p\.ˇa.ph\.ˇ\> advb.
                                                  move.
non-stop.
                                                  frsa8 /p˙\r.sa¯/ <ph\.r\.sa.¯\> neut.
f8go /p˙\¯.go/ <ph\.¯\.ko> masc. a
                                                  fried tasty food items.
shoot (of a plant, etc.).
                                                  frak /p˙\.rak/ <ph\.ra.k\> neut. a
f8s /p˙\.¯\s/ neut. a kind of fruit.
                                                  frock.
                                                                                           134


fraX /p˙\.raÆ/ <ph\.ra.Æ\> masc. light           f&6 /p˙\nÎ/ <ph\~.Î\> masc. fund.
food taken while fasting.
                                                 f&fosvu& /p˙\m.p˙os.vu~/ <ph\~.pho.s\.vu~>
firyad /p˙\.ri.jad/ <ph\.ri.ja.d\> fem. a        v.tr. to search minutely.
complain.
                                                 fakvu& /p˙\k.vu~/ <pha.k\.vu~> v.tr. to
firyadI /p˙\.ri.ja.di/ <ph\.ri.ja.dii>           have a mouthful of a powdery thing.
masc. a complainant.
                                                 fakI /p˙a.ki/ <pha.kii> fem. powdered
frI /p˙\.ri/ <ph\.rii> advb. again.              medicine.

fla8u& /p˙\.la.¯u~/ <ph\.la.¯u~> neut. 1.        fako /p˙a.ko/ <pha.ko> masc. an act of
some one 2. some thing.                          placing a mouthful of a powdery thing.

flahar /p˙\.la.har/ <ph\.la.ha.r\> masc.         fag8 /p˙a.g\¯/ <pha.g\.¯\> masc. the
fruit diet.                                      fifth month of the Vikram year.

fskvu& /p˙\.s\k.vu~/ <ph\.s\.k\.vu~>             facr /p˙a.c\r/ <pha.c\.r\> fem. a wage.
v.intr. to burst down with the sound of
tearing.                                         fajl /p˙a.Ô\l/ <pha.Ô\.l\> adj. surplus.

fsavu& /p˙\.sa.vu~/ <ph\.sa.vu~> v.intr. to      fa4 /p˙aˇ/ <pha.ˇ\> fem. a splitting.
entrapped.
                                                 fa4k /p˙a.ˇ\k/ <pha.ˇ\.k\> neut. a
fX /p˙\Æ/ <ph\.Æ\> neut. a fruit.                railway crossing.

fXdayk /p˙\Æ.da.j\k/ <ph\.Æ\.da.j\.k\>           fa4fU4 /p˙aˇ.p˙uˇ/ <pha.ˇ\.phu.ˇ\> fem.
adj. fruitful.                                   disunity.

fXvu& /p˙\Æ.vu~/ <ph\.Æ\.vu~> v.exp. 1. to       fa4vu& /p˙aˇ.vu~/ <pha.ˇ\.vu~> v.intr. to be
bear fruit 2. to be benefitted.                  torn.

fXaw /p˙\.Æa.u~/ <ph\.Æa.u~> adj. fruit          fa6 /p˙aÎ/ <pha.Î\> fem. a splitting.
bearing (plants, trees etc).
                                                 fat6o /p˙at.Îo/ <pha.t\.Îo> masc. a
fiXyu& /p˙\.Æi.ju~/ <ph\.Æi.ju~> neut. a         eunuch.
street.
                                                 fans /p˙a.n\s/ <pha.n\.s\> fem. a
f&goXvu& /p˙\˜.goÆ.vu~/ <ph\~.go.Æ\.vu~>         lantern.
v.tr.
to throw.                                        faydakark /p˙a.j\.da.ka.r\k/
f&4avu& /p˙\¯.ˇa.vu~/ <ph\~.ˇa.vu~> v.intr. to   <pha.j\.da.ka.r\.k\> adj. beneficial.
change direction.
                                                                                         135


faydo /p˙aj.do/ <pha.j\.do> masc.
benefit.                                      fa&s /p˙a~s/ <pha~.s\> fem. a splinter.

fargtI /p˙ar.g\.ti/ <pha.r\.g\.tii> fem.      fa&sI /p˙a~.si/ <pha~.sii> fem. gallows.
a divorce.
                                              fa&sIgr /p˙a~.si.g\r/ <pha~.sii.g\.r\>
fars /p˙a.r\s/ <pha.r\.s\> neut. a farce.     masc. an executioner.

fal /p˙al/ <pha.l\> masc. crop.               fa&so /p˙a~.so/ <pha~.so> masc. noose.

faltu& /p˙al.tu~/ <pha.l\.tu~> adj.           ifkr /p˙i.k\r/ <phi.k\.r\> fem. anxiety.
unnecessary.
                                              ifKku&/p˙ik.ku~/ <phi.kku~> adj. pale.
falvu& /p˙al.vu~/ <pha.l\.vu~> v.intr. to
bloom.                                        if4kar /p˙iˇ.kar/ <phi.ˇ\.ka.r\> masc.
                                              hatred.
fav4 /p˙a.v\ˇ/ <ph.v\.ˇ\> fem.
adaptability.                                 iflsUf /p˙il.sup˙/ <phi.l\.suu.ph\>
                                              masc. a philosopher.
favvu& /p˙av.vu~/ <pha.v\.vu~> v.exp. 1. to
suit 2. to succeed.                           iflsUfI /p˙il.su.p˙i/ <phi.l\.suu.phii>
                                              fem. philosophy.
faXv8I /p˙a.Æ\v.¯i/ <pha.Æ\.v\.¯ii> fem.
1. distribution 2. allotment.                 fI8 /p˙i¯/ <phii.¯\> neut. foam.

faiXyu& /p˙a.Æi.ju~/ <pha.Æi.ju~> neut. a     fI8vu& /p˙i¯.vu~/ <phii.¯\.vu~> v.tr. to
turban.                                       froth.

faXo /p˙a.Æo/ <pha.Æo> masc. an allotted      fIfu& /p˙i.p˙u~/ <phii.phu~> neut. 1. a husk
share.                                        2. an empty pod.

fa&k6u& /p˙a~k.Îu~/ <pha~.k\.Îu~> adj.        fugavo /p˙u.ga.vo/ <phuu.ga.vo> masc.
praiseworthy.                                 inflation.

fa&ko /p˙a~.ko/ <pha~.ko> masc. vain pride.   fuTkarvu& /p˙ut.kar.vu~/ <phu.tka.r\.vu~>
                                              v.tr. to hiss.
fa&4o /p˙a~.ˇo/ <pha~.ˇo> masc. 1. a branch
2. a diverging part.                          fudIno /p˙u.di.no/ <phu.dii.no> masc.
                                              mint.
fa&d /p˙a/ <pha~.d\> fem. a pot-belly.
                                              fursd /p˙ur.s\d/ <phuu.r\.s\.d\> fem.
fa&fa& /p˙a~.p˙a~/ <pha~.pha~> masc. vain     leisure.
efforts.
                                                                                              136


fuleku& /p˙u.le.ku~/ <phuu.le.ku~> neut. a       fer /p˙er/ <phe.r\> masc. difference.
marriage procession.
                                                 fer /p˙er/ <phe.r\> masc. vertigo.
fuvaro /p˙u.va.ro/ <phuu.va.ro> masc. a
fountain.                                        ferIyo /p˙e.ri.jo/ <phe.rii.jo> masc. 1. a
                                                 hawker 2. a peddler.
fUg /p˙ug/ <phuu.g\> fem. mould.
                                                 ferI /p˙e.ri/ <phe.rii> fem. 1. a turn 2. a
fUgvu& /p˙ug.vu~/ <phuu.g\.vu~> v.intr. to       trip.
become moldy.
                                                 fero /p˙e.ro/ <phe.ro> masc. 1. a turn 2.
fU4vu& /p˙ut.vu~/ <phuu.ˇ\.vu~> v.intr. to       a trip.
break with a loud sound.
                                                 felavu& /p˙e.la.vu~/ <phe.la.vu~> v.intr. to
fUdu& /p˙u.du~/ <phuu.du~> neut. a               spread.
butterfly.
                                                 felavo /p˙e.la.vo/ <phe.la.vo> masc.
fUmtu& /p˙um.tu~/ <phuu.m\.tu~> neut. a          circulation.
tassel.
                                                 fe&kvu& /p˙´~k.vu~/ <phe~.k\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
fUl /p˙ul/ <phuu.l\> neut. a flower.             throw 2. to hurl.

fUl8@ /p˙u.l\¯.Ôi/ <phuu.l\.¯\.Ôii> adj.         fe&4o /p˙´~.ˇo/ <phe~.ˇo> masc. a kind of
vain and boastful because of praise.             turban.

fUlf4ak /p˙ul.p˙\.ˇak/                           fe&dvu& /p˙´~d.vu~/ <phe~.d\.vu~> v.tr. to
<phu.l\.ph\.ˇa.k\> adj. foppish.                 search.

fUlvvu& /p˙u.l\v.vu~/ <phuu.l\.v\.vu~>           fe&slo /p˙´~s.lo/ <phe~.s\.lo> masc.
v.tr. to cause to swell                          disposal.

fUlvu& /p˙ul.vu~/ <phuu.l\.vu~> v.intr. . to     fo: /p˙oi/ <pho.ii> fem. father’s sister.
swell 2. to blossom.
                                                 fok /p˙ok/ <pho.k\> adj. meaningless.
fU&k /p˙u~k/ <phuu~.k\> fem. a puff.
                                                 foj /p˙oÔ/ <pho.Ô\> fem. army.
fU&kvu& /p˙u~k.vu~/ <phuu~.k\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
blow 2. to puff.                                 fo6vu& /p˙oÎ.vu~/ <pho.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                                 break
fe8 /p˙e¯/ fem. a serpent’s hood.                violently.
fefsu& /p˙ep˙.su~/ <phe.ph\.su~> neut. a
lung.                                            fotrI /p˙ot.ri/ <pho.t\.rii> fem. husk.
                                                                                         137


foru& /p˙o.ru~/ <pho.ru~> neut. a drop.
                                              bg6vu& /b\.g\Î.vu~/ <b\.g\.Î\.vu~> v.intr.
folvu& /p˙ol.vu~/ <pho.l\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to    1. to be spoiled 2. to be polluted.
peel
2. to husk.                                   bg6o /b\g.Îo/ <b\.g\.Îo> masc. the
                                              symbol for 2.
foLlI /p˙ol.li/ <pho.llii> fem. a skin
boil.                                         bgl /b\.g\l/ <b\.g\.l\> fem. the
                                              armpit.
foslavvu& /p˙os.lav.vu~/ <pho.s\.la.v\.vu~>
v.tr. to coax.                                bga6 /b\.gaÎ/ <b\.ga.Î\> masc.
                                              wastage.

                     b                        bga6vu& /b\.gaÎ.vu~/ <b\.ga.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
                                              to waste.

bk bk /b\k b\k/ <b\.k\.b\.k\> neut. a         bgasu& /b\.ga.su~/ <b\.ga.Î\.vu~> neut. a
prattle.                                      yawn.

bkrI /b\k.ri/ <b\.k\.rii> fem. a female       bgIco /b\.gi.co/ <b\.gi.co> masc. a
goat.                                         garden.

bkru& /b\k.ru~/ <b\.k\.ru~> neut. a goat.     bcku& /b\c.ku~/ <b\.c\.ku~> neut. a bite.

bkro /b\k.ro/ <b\.k\.ro> masc. a male         bct /b\.c\t/ <b\.c\.t\> fem. a saving.
goat.
                                              bcp8 /b\c.p\¯/ <b\.c\.p\.¯\> neut.
bkvu& /b\k.vu~/ <b\.k\.vu~> v.intr. to        childhood.
prattle.
                                              bcvu& /b\c.vu~/ <b\.c\.vu~> v.intr. to be
bixs /b\k.ßiß/ <b\.kßi.s\> <b> fem. a         saved.
gift.
                                              bcav /b\.cav/ <b\.ca.v\> masc. a
b`tr /b\k˙.t\r/ <b\.kh\.t\.r\> neut. an       protection, a defense.
armor.
                                              bCcu& /b\c.cu~/ <b\.ccu~> neut. a child.
bi`yo /b\.k˙i.jo/ <b\.khi.jo> masc. a
stitch.                                       bjar /b\.Ôar/ <b\.Ôa.r\> neut. market.

b`e6o /b\.k˙e.Îo/ <b\.khe.Îo> masc. a         bza6vu& /b\.Ô˙aÎ.vu~/ <b\.Ôha.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
quarrel.                                      to thrust upon skillfully.
b`ol /b\.k˙ol/ <b\.kho.l\> fem. a cave-
like hollow.
                                                                                      138


b4ako /b\.ˇa.ko/ <b\.ˇa.ko> masc. a
potato.                                        bdam /b\.dam/ <b\.da.m\> fem. an
                                               almond.
b6b6vu& /b\Î.b\Î.vu~/ <b\.Î\.b\.Î\.vu~>
v.intr. to prattle.                            bdI /b\.di/ <b\.dii> fem. viciousness,
                                               corruption.
b6a: /b\.Îai/ <b\.Îa.ii> fem. boasting.
                                               b0u& /b\.d˙u~/ <b\.dhu~> adj. all, whole,
b6a= /b\.Îaß/ <b\.Îa.ß\> fem. boasting.        entire, total.

b8gu& /b\¯.gu~/ <b\.¯\.gu~> neut. 1. self-     bnvu& /b\n.vu~/ <b\.n\.vu~> v.intr. 1. to
praise, 2. boasting.                           become, 2. to take shape.

btk /b\.t\k/ <b\.t\.k\> neut. a duck.          bnav /b\.nav/ <b\.na.v\> masc. an
                                               event.
btavvu& /b\.tav.vu~/ <b\.ta.v\.vu~> v.tr. 1.
to show, 2. to guide.                          bnav4 /b\.na.v\ˇ/ <b\.na.v\.ˇ\> fem. 1.
                                               construction, 2. cheating.
b]aI /b\t.ti/ <b\.ttii> fem. a lamp.
                                               bnevI /b\.ne.vi/ <b\.ne.vii> masc.
b{aIs /b\t.ris/ <b\.trii.s\> adj. thirty       sister’s husband.
two, 32.
                                               bNne /b\n.ne/ <b\.nne> adj. both.
bdn /b\.d\n/ <b\.d\.n\> neut. the
body.                                          bpor /b\.por/ <b\.po.r\> fem. noon,
                                               mid-day.
bdnxI /b\d.n\k.ßi/ <b\.d\.n\.kßii> fem.
defamation.                                    bfaro /b\.p˙a.ro/ <b\.pha.ro> masc.
                                               sultry weather.
bdnam /b\d.nam/ <b\.d\.na.m\> adj.
notorious.                                     bbUck /b\.bu.c\k/ <b\.buu.c\.k\> adj.
                                               stupid.
bdbu /b\d.bu/ <b\.d\.bu> fem. bad
smell.                                         bm8u& /b\m.¯u~/ <b\.m\.¯u~> adj.
                                               double.
bdma= /b\d.maß/ <b\.d\.ma.ß\> adj.
wicked.                                        byan /b\.jan/ <b\.ja.n\> neut. 1.
                                               description, 2. narration.
bdlo /b\d.lo/ <b\.d\.lo> masc. an
exchange.                                      brkt /b\r.k\t/ <b\.r\.k\.t\> fem. 1.
                                               profit, 2. benefit.
bdsUrt /b\d.su.r\t/ <b\.d\.suu.r\.t\>
adj. ugly (face).                              br24 /b\r.c˙\ˇ/ <b\.r\.ch\.ˇ\> adj.
                                               rough.
                                                                                    139


                                            bhar /b\.har/ <b\.ha.r\> postp.
br6o /b\r.Îo/ <b\.r\.Îo> masc. the          outside.
back.
                                            bihQkar /b\.hiß.kar/ <b\.hi.s°ka.r\>
br8I /b\r.¯i/ <b\.r\.¯ii> fem. a jar.       masc. 1. rejection, 2. excommunication,
                                            3. boycott.
brf /b\.r\p˙/ <b\.r\.ph\> masc. 1. ice,
2. snow.                                    bhu /b\.hu~/ <b\.hu~> adj. 1. many, 2.
                                            much.
brfI /b\r.p˙i/ <b\.r\.phii> fem. a kind
of sweet.                                   bhucra /b\.hu.c\.ra/ <b\.hu.c\.ra> fem.
                                            a goddess of that name.
brbad /b\r.bad/ <b\.r\.ba.d\> adj.
ruined.                                     bhumit /b\.hu.m\.ti/ <b\.hu.m\.ti> fem.
                                            majority.
brabr /b\.ra.b\r/ <b\.ra.b\.r\> adj. 1.
equal, 2. similar, 3. right, 4. proper.     bhu£pI /b\.hu.ru.pi/ <b\.huu.ruu.pii>
                                            adj. assuming various forms with an
brobr /b\.ro.b\r/ <b\.ro.b\.r\> adj. 1.     intention to hide an original one.
equal, 2. similar, 3. right, 4. proper
                                            bhu£pI /b\.hu.ru.pi/ <b\.huu.ruu.pii>
broX /b\.roÆ/ <b\.ro.Æ\> fem. the           masc. 1.a person who assumes various
spleen.                                     forms with an intention to hide his/ her
                                            original one. 2. a person who assume
blke /b\l.ke/ <b\.l\.ke> advb. not only     various forms to entertain people.
that.
                                            bhu&vcn /b\.hu~.v\.c\n/ <b\.hu~.v\.c\.n\>
bla /b\.la/ <b\.la> fem. 1. a ghost, 2. a   neut. plural.
person who harasses like a ghost.
                                            bhen /b\.hen/ <b\.he.n\> fem. sister.
bil /b\.li/ <b\.li> masc. offering to a
deity.                                      bheru& /b\.he.ru~/ <b\.he.n\> adj. deaf.

bs /b\s/ <b\.s\> advb. enough.              bhera= /b\.he.raß/ <b\.he.ra.ß\> fem.
                                            deafness.
bs /b\s/ <b\.s\> fem. bus.
                                            bX /b\Æ/ <b\.Æ\> nuet.1.power, 2.
bhadUr /b\.ha.dur/ <b\.ha.duu.r\> adj.      strength.
brave.
                                            bXt8 /b\Æ.t\¯/ <b\.Æ\.t\.¯\> neut.
bhanu& /b\.ha.nu~/ <b\.ha.nu~> neut. an     fuel.
excuse.
                                            bXtra /b\. \.t\.ra/ <b\.Æ\.t\.ra> fem.
                                            pain caused by burning.
                                                                                        140



bXd /b\.Æ\d/ <b\.Æ\.d\> masc. 1. oxen,         b&0bestu& /b\nd˙.bes.tu~/
2. bullock 3. an idiot.                        <b\~.dh\.be.s\.tu~> adj. suitable.

bXva`or /b\Æ.va.k˙or/ <b\.Æ\.va.kho.r\>        b&0besvu& /b\nd˙.bes.vu~/
adj. rebellious.                               <b\~.dh\.be.s\.vu~> v.intr. to be fitting.

bXvu& /b\Æ.vu~/ <b\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. to burn.   b&0ar8 /b\n.d˙a.r\¯/ <b\~.dha.r\.¯\>
                                               neut. 1. constitution 2. construction.
bXvo /b\Æ.vo/ <b\.Æ\.vo> masc. revolt.
                                               b&0ar8Iy /b\n.d˙a.r\.¯ij/
bXaTkar /b\.Æat.kar/ <b\.Æa.tka.r\> masc.      <b\~.dha.r\.¯i.j\> adj. constitutional.
a rape.
                                               b&i0yar /b\n.d˙i.jar/ <b\~.dhi.ja.r\> adj.
biXya /b\.Æi.ja/ <b\.Æi.ja> masc. hon.
                                               1. unventilated, 2. stagnant.
small-pox.
                                               b&0I /b\n.d˙i/ <b\~.dhii> fem.
biXyu& /b\.Æi.ju~/ <b\.Æi.ju~> adj. strong.
                                               prohibition.
bXev /b\.Æev/ <b\.Æe.v\> fem. a festival.      b&0u /b\n.d˙u/ <b\~.dhu> masc. 1.
                                               brother, 2. a co-worker.
b&g6I /b\˜.gÎi/ <b\~.g\.Îii> fem. a
bangle.                                        b&ba`anu& /b\m.ba.k˙a.nu~/
                                               <b\~.ba.kha.nu~> neut. a fire-brigade
b&6I /b\˜.Îi/ <b\~.Îii> fem. a waistcoat.
                                               station.
b&dr /b\n.d\r/ <b\~.d\.r\> neut. 1. a          b&bavaXo /b\m.ba.va.Æo/ <b\~.ba.va.Æo>
port, 2. a harbor.                             masc. a fireman.
b&dUk /b\n.duk/ <b\~.du.k\> fem. a gun.        b&bo /b\m.bo/ <b\~.bo> masc. a fire
                                               engine.
b&dUk6I /b\n.duk.Îi/ <b\~.du.k\.Îii> fem.
a small gun.                                   b&srI /b\ns.ri/ <b\~.s\.rii> fem. a flute.

b&dobSt /b\n.do.b\s.t\/ <b\~.do.b\.st\>        b&sI /b\ns.ri/ <b\~.sii> fem. a flute.
masc. arrangement.
                                               ba /ba/ <ba> fem. mother.
b&0 /b\n.d˙\/ <b\~.dh\> adj. closed.
                                               ba: /ba.i/ <ba.ii> fem. a maid-servant.
b&0 /b\n.d˙\/ <b\~.dh\> masc. a dam.
                                               bakI /ba.ki/ <ba.kii> adj. 1. residua, 2.
b&0n /b\n.d˙\n/ <b\~.dh\.n\> neut. 1.
                                               balance, 3. surplus, 4. wanting.
prohibition, 2. captivity.
                                                                                       141


ba`6vu& /ba.k˙\Î.vu~/ <ba.kh\.Î\.vu~>
v.intr. to quarrel.                             babaga6I /ba.ba.ga.Îi/ <ba.ba.ga.Îii>
                                                fem. a hand-driven vehicle for children.
bag /bag/ <ba.g\> masc. a garden.
                                                babo /ba.bo/ <ba.bo> masc. 1. a son, 2.
ba3u& /ba.g˙u~/ <ba.ghu~> adj. idiotic.         a boy.

baj /baÔ/ <ba.Ô\> masc. a hawk.                 bar /bar/ <ba.r\> adj. 1. twelve, 2. 12.

baj5 /ba.Ô\ˇ˙/ <ba.Ô\.ˇh\> masc. a foot-        bar8u& /bar.¯u~/ <ba.r\.¯u~> neut. a door.
stool.
                                                barmu& /bar.mu~/ <ba.r\.mu~> adj. twelfth.
bajrI /baÔ.ri/ <ba.Ô\.rii> fem. millet.
                                                barmu& /bar.mu~/ <b\.r\.mu~> neut. a
ba@ /ba.Ôi/ <ba.Ôii> fem. a game.               religious rite performed on the twelfth
                                                day after a person’s death.
ba@gr /ba.Ôi.g\r/ <ba.Ôii.g\.r\> masc. a
juggler.                                        bar= / bars /ba.r\ß, ba.r\s/
                                                <ba.r\.ß\/ ba.r\.s\> fem. twelfth day
bazvu& /ba.Ô˙.vu~/ <ba.Ôh\.vu~> v.intr. 1. to   of either of the fortnights.
embrace, 2. to quarrel.
                                                barsa` /bar.sak˙/ fem. frame of a door.
ba4lI /baˇ.li/ <ba.ˇ\.lii> fem. a bottle.
                                                bara`6I /ba.ra.k˙\.Îi/ fem. a series of
ba8 /ba¯/ <ba.¯\> neut. an arrow.               simple syllables organized in a particular
                                                order.
ba8avXI /ba.¯a.v\.Æi/ <ba.¯a.v\.Æii>
masc. an expert archer.                         baraxrI /ba.ra.kß\.ri/ fem. a series of
                                                simple syllables organized in a particular
batl /ba.t\l/ <ba.t\.l\> adj. cancelled.        order.

bap /bap/ <ba.p\> masc. father.                 barI /ba.ri/ fem. a window.

bap6u& /bap.Îu~/ <ba.p\.Îu~> adj.               baru& /ba.ru~/ neut. an entrance.
extremely helpless.
                                                barEya /ba.r\i.ja/ masc. a community so-
bapdada /bap.da.da/ <ba.p\.da.da> masc.         named.
pl. forefathers.
                                                baro4 /ba.roˇ/ masc. a community so-
bafvu& /bap˙.vu~/ <ba.ph\.vu~> v.tr. to         named.
cook by boiling.
                                                barobar /ba.ro.bar/ advb. directly.
babt /ba.b\t/ <ba.b\.t\> fem. an issue.
                                                                                      142


baldI /bal.di/ fem. a bucket.               baXvu& /baÆ.vu~/ <ba.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. to burn.

bav6u& /bav.Îu~/ neut. the upper arm.       ba&k6o /ba~k.Îo/ <ba~.k\.Îo> masc. a
                                            bench.
bavn /ba.v\n/ adj. 1. fifty two, 2. 52.
                                            ba&0vu& /ba~d˙.vu~/ <ba~.dh\.vu~> v.tr. 1.to
bavlu& /bav.lu~/ neut. a statue.            tie 2. to wrap.

bavX /ba.v\Æ/ masc. a kind of thorny        ba&0o /ba~.d˙o/ <ba~.dho> masc. a
tree.                                       physical construction.
                                            ba&y /ba~j/ <ba~.j\> fem. a sleeve.
bavI /ba.vi/ fem. a female mendicant.
                                            ba&y0rI /ba~j.d˙\.ri/ <ba~.j\.dh\.rii> fem.
bavIs /ba.vis/ adj. twenty two, 22.         security.

bavu& /ba.vu~/ neut. a cobweb.              ibcaru& /bi.ca.ru~/ <bi.ca.ru~> adj. poor.

bavo /ba.vo/ masc. a mendicant.             ib2anu& /bi.c˙a.nu~/ <bi.cha.nu~> neut. 1. a
                                            bed. 2. a mattress.
bas5 /ba.s\ˇ˙/ adj. sixty six.
                                            bI2avvu& /bi.c˙av.vu~/ <bii.cha.v\.vu~>
basmtI /bas.m\.ti/ masc. a kind of rice.    v.tr. to spread.

basUdI /ba.su.di/ fem. a kind of sweet.     ibnAnu-vI /bin.\.nu.b˙\.vi/
                                            <bi.n\.\.nu.bh\.vii> adj.
baho= /ba.hoß/ adj. skilful.                inexperienced.

baXk /ba. \k/ neut. a child.                ibnj£rI /bin.Ô\.ru.ri/ <bi.n\.Ô\.ruu.rii>
                                            adj. unnecessary.
baXp8 /baÆ.p\¯/ neut. a childhood.
                                            ibn=rtI /bin.ß\r.ti/ <bi.n\.ß\.r\.tii> adj.
baXpo9I /baÆ.po.t˙i/ <ba.Æ\.po.thii> fem.   unconditional.
a primer.                                   iblkul /bil.kul/ <bi.l\.ku.l\> advb. 1.
baXbo0 /baÆ.bod˙/ <ba.Æ\.bo.dh\> adj.       wholly, 2. in the least.
a variety of Devanagari script.             ibla6I /bi.la.Îi/ <bi.la.Îii> fem. a cat
baXm&idr /baÆ.m\n.dir/ <ba.Æ\.m\~.di.r\>    (female).
neut. a nursery.                            ibla6o /bi.la.Îo/ <bi.la.Îo> masc. a cat
baXlGn /baÆ.l\g.n\/ <ba.Æ\.l\.gn\> neut.    (male).
a child-marriage.
                                                                                             143


ibLlo /bil.lo/ <bi.llo> masc. 1. a badge,        bIbI /bi.bi/ <bii.bii> fem. wife (mainly
2. a medal.                                      in Muslim dialect).

ibv6avvu& /biv.Îav.vu~/ <bi.v\.Îa.v\.vu~>        bIbu& /bi.bu~/ <bii.bu~> neut. 1. a die, 2. a
v.tr. to frighten.                               printing block.

ibham8u& /bi.ha.m\¯u~/ <bi.ha.m\.¯u~>            bI-Ts /bi.b˙\t.s\/ <bi.bh\.ts\> adj.
adj. frightful.                                  disgusting.

ib&dI /bin.di/ <bi~.dii> fem. an                 bImar /bi.mar/ <bi.ma.r\> adj. sick
ornamental dot on the forehead.
                                                 bImarI /bi.ma.ri/ <bi.ma.rii> fem.
ib&du /bin.du/ <bi~.du> neut. a drop.            sickness.

ib&b /bimb/ <bi~.b\> neut. a reflection.         bIvu& /bi.vu~/ <bii.vu~> v.intr. to fear.

bI /bi/ <bii> neut. a seed.                      bu5\5u& /buˇ˙.ˇ˙u~/ <bu.ˇhˇhu~> adj. blunt.

bIk /bik/ <bii.k\> fem. fear.                    bu69l /buŒ.t˙\l/ <bu.Î\.th\.l\> adj.
                                                 idiotic.
bIcaru& /bi.ca.ru~/ <bii.ca.ru~> adj. 1. poor,
2. helpless.                                     bu6vu& /buÎ.vu~/ <bu.Î\.vu~> v.intr. 1. to
                                                 sink, 2. to drown
bIj /biÔ/ <bii.Ô\> neut. a seed.
                                                 bui)0 /bud˙.d˙i/ <bu.dhdhi> fem.
bIj /biÔ/ <bii.Ô\> fem. a second day of          intelligence.
either of the fortnight of a lunar month.
                                                 bu0var /bud˙.var/ <bu.dh\.va.r\> masc.
bIjvr /biÔ.v\r/ <bii.Ô\.v\.r\> masc. a           Wednesday.
man marrying for the seond time.
                                                 bumra8 /bum.ra¯/ <bu.m\.ra.¯\> fem.
bIju& /bi.Ôu~/ <bii.Ôu~> adj. 1. second, 2.      loud shouts.
another.
                                                 bur`o /bur.k˙o/ <bu.r\.kho> masc. a
bI6vu& /biÎ.vu~/ <bii.Î\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to        mask.
close (envelop etc.), 2. to wrap.
                                                 bulbul /bul.bul/ <bu.l\.bu.l\> neut. a
bI6I /bi.Îi/ <bii.Îii> fem. a kind of            nightingale.
cigar.
                                                 bul&d /bu.l\nd/ <bu.l\~.d\> adj. 1.
bIna /bi.na/ <bii.na> fem. . fact.               grand, 2. loud and deep sound.

                                                 bu&d /bund/ <bu~.d\> neut. a drop.
                                                                                         144


                                              be5k /be.ˇ˙\k/ <be.ˇh\.k\> fem. a seat.
bU /bu:/ <buu> fem. odor.
                                              be5a6u& /be.ˇ˙a.Îu~/ <be.ˇha.Îu~> adj.
bUc /buc/ <buu.c\> masc. a cork.              inactive (life).

bUcu& /bu.cu~/ <buu.cu~> adj. a flat-nosed.   be6I /be.Îi/ <be.Îii> fem. shackles.

bU4 /buˇ/ <buu.ˇ\> fem. ear-lobe.             be6u& /be.Îu~/ <be.Îu~> neut. a pair of
                                              water-pot.
bUm /bum/ <buu.m\> fem. a shout.
                                              be6oX /be.ÎoÆ/ <be.Îo.Æ\> adj.
bUmlu& /bum.lu~/ <buu.m\.lu~> neut. a         misshaped.
kind of fish.
                                              be7&gu& /be.Î˙\˜.gu~/ <be.Îh\~.gu~> adj.
be /be/ <be> adj. two.                        disorderly.

beAab£ /be.ab.ru/ <be.a.b\.ruu> fem.          betaXa& /be.ta.Æa~/ <be.ta.Æa~> masc. pl.
disgrace.                                     dimness of the eyes acquired around the
                                              age of 42.
be:man /be.i.man/ <be.ii.ma.n\> adj.
dishonest.                                    betaXIs /be.ta.Æis/ <be.ta.Æii.s\> adj.
                                              forty-two.
bew /beu/ <be.u~> adj. both.
                                              bedrkar /be.d\r.kar/ <be.d\.r\.ka.r\>
bekI /be.ki/ <be.kii> adj. an even            adj. careless.
number.
                                              be06k /be.d˙\.Î\k/ <be.dh\.Î\.k\>
be`br /be.k˙\.b\r/ <be.kh\.b\.r\> adj.        advb. fearlessly.
ignorant.
                                              be0aru& /be.d˙a.ru~/ <b\.dha.ru~> adj.
begm /be.g\m/ <be.g\.m\> fem. a               double-edged.
queen (Muslim).
                                              be)yan /be.d˙jan/ <be.dhj.n\> adj.
becen /be.cen/ <be.ce.n\> adj. restless.      inattentive.

becenI /be.ce.ni/ <be.ce.nii> fem.            benmUn /ben.mun/ <be.n\.muu.n\> adj.
restlessness.                                 unparalleled.

be4 /beˇ/ <be.ˇ\> masc. an island.            bepgu& /be.p\.gu~/ <be.p\.gu~> adj. biped.
be4I /be.ˇi/ <be.ˇii> fem. a daughter.
                                              bebakXu& /be.bak.Æu~/ <be.ba.k\.Æu~> adj.
be4o /be.ˇo/ <be.ˇo> masc. a son.             perplexed.
                                                                                         145


be-an /be.b˙an/ <be.bha.n\> adj.               bErI /b\i.ri/ <b\i.rii> fem. wife (now a
unconscious.                                   derogatory word, particularly in urban
                                               and educated class).
berojgar /be.roÔ.gar/ <be.ro.Ô\.ga.r\>
adj. unemployed.                               bo`u& /bo.k˙u~/ <bo.khu~> adj. toothless.

bel6I /bel.Îi/ <be.l\.Îii> adj. a pair (of     bogdu& /bog.du~/ <bo.g\.du~> neut. a
two persons).                                  tunnel.

bevkUf /bev.kup˙/ <be.v\.ku.ph\> adj.          bocI /bo.ci/ <bo.cii> fem. the neck.
stupid.
                                               boj /boÔ/ <bo.Ô\> masc. 1. burden 2.
bev6 /be.v\Î/ <be.v\.Î\> adj. folded.          weight.

be=k /be.ß\k/ <be.ß\.k\> advb.                 bo6vu& /boÎ.vu~/ <bo.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to
undoubtedly.                                   shave the head entirely.

be=rm /be.ß\.r\m/ <be.ß\.r\.m\> adj.           bo6u& /bo.Îu~/ <bo.Îu~> adj. a shaved off
shameless.                                     head.

be=u)0 /be.ßudd˙/ <be.ßu.dhdh\> adj.           bo8I /bo.¯i/ <bo.¯ii> fem. the first
swooned.                                       cash-sale of the day.

be=umar /beßu.mar/ <be.ßu.ma.r\> adj.          bodu& /bo.du~/ <bo.du~> adj. dull.
limitless.
                                               bo0 /bod˙/ <bo.dh\> masc. sermon.
bes8u& /bes.¯u~/ <be.s\.¯u~> neut. a
mourning ritual.                               bor /bor/ <bo.r\> neut. a kind of berry.

besvu& /bes.vu~/ <be.s\.vu~> v.intr. to sit.   bol /bol/ <bo.l\> masc. a speech.

besvu& /bes.vu~/ <be.s\.vu~> v.intr. to        bolvu& /bol.vu~/ <bo.l\.vu~> v.intr. to
begin (of a month, a year or a season          speak.
etc.). Ex. mne gya mihne p&drmu& vrs be5u&.
                                               bolacalI /bo.la.ca.li/ <bo.la.ca.lii> fem.
beSvad /be.svad/ <be.sva.d\> adj.              a verbal quarrel.
tasteless.
                                               bolI /bo.li/ <bo.lii> fem. a dialect.
behal /be.hal/ <be.ha.l\> adj. ruined.
                                               bovu& /bo.vu~/ <bo.vu~> v.tr. to sow.
behUdI /be.hu.di/ <be.huu.dii> adj.
irrational.
                                                                                            146


boXvu& /boÆ.vu~/ <bo.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to dip,   -c6vu& /b˙\.c\Î.vu~/ <bh\.c\.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
2. to soak.                                     to eat recklessly.

Bya=I /bja.ßi/ <bja.ßii> adj. eighty two.       -jn /b˙\.Ô\n/ <b\.Ô\.n\> neut.
                                                1. devotional song, 2. hymn
b/a−8 /brah.m\¯/ <bra.hm\.¯\> masc.
Brahmin.                                        -jvvu& /b˙\.Ô\v.vu~/ <bh\.Ô\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
                                                to perform (a play etc.)
                     -                          -jvu& /b˙\Ô.vu~/ <bh\.Ô\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
                                                worship through singing, 2. to recite.
-kt /b˙\k.t\/ <bh\.kt\> masc.
worshiper (male)                                -ijyu& /b˙\.Ôi.ju~/ <bp\.ji.yu~> neut. a kind
                                                of fried food made of gram flour.
-kta8I /b˙\k.ta.¯i/ <bh\.kta.¯ii> fem.
1. worshiper (female), 2. wife of a             -4kvu& /b˙\.ˇ\k.vu~/ <bh\.Ôi.ju~> v.intr. to
worshiper.                                      roam.

-ikt /b˙\k.ti/ <bh\.kti> fem. devotion.         -4kavu& /b˙\ˇ.ka.vu~/ <bh\.ˇ\.ka.vu~>
                                                v.intr. to collide.
-gt /b˙\.g\t/ <bh\.g\.t\> masc.
worshiper (male)                                -4Uiryu& /b˙\.tu.ri.ju~/ <bh\.ˇuu.ri.ju~>
                                                neut. puppy.
-gta8I /b˙\g.ta.¯i/ <bh\.g\.ta.¯ii> fem.
1. worshiper (female), 2. wife of a             -4\4 /bh\ˇ.ˇ\/ <bh\.tt\> masc. a
worshiper.                                      surname.

-gvtI /bg.v\.ti/ <bh\.g\.v\.tii> adj.           -i5yar`anu& /b˙\.ˇ˙i.jar.kha.nu~/
divine.                                         <bh\.ˇhi.ja.r\.kha.nu~> neut. a
                                                bakery.
-gvan /b+\g.van/ <bh\.g\.va.n\>
masc. god.                                      -5\5I /b˙\ˇ˙.ˇ˙i/ <bh\.ˇhˇhii> fem. 1. an
                                                oven, 2. a furnace, 3. a kiln.
-gvu& /b˙\g.vu~/ <bh\.g\.vu~> adj.
reddish.                                        -6 /b˙\Î/ <bh\.Î\> adj. brave
                                                (person).
-ignI /b.gi.ni/ <bh\.gi.nii> fem. sister.
                                                -6vIr /b˙\Î.vir/ <bh\.Î\.vii.r\> adj.
-gIr9 /b.gi.r\t˙/ <bh\.dii.r\.th\> adj.         brave
extremely difficult.
                                                -6kI /b˙\Î.ki/ <bh\.Î\.kii> fem.
-Gn /b˙\g.n\/ <bh\.gn\> adj. broken.            porridge.
                                                                                    147


-6ko /b˙Î.ko/ <bh\.Î\.ko> masc. a big      -mrI /b˙\m.ri/ <bh\.m\.rii> fem. a
flame.                                     wasp (female).

-6ako /b˙\.Îa.ko/ <bh\.Îa.ko> masc.        -mro /b˙\m.ro/ <bh\.m\.ro> fem. a
an explosive sound.                        wasp (male).

-8kar /b˙\¯.kar/ <bh\.¯\.ka.r\> masc.      -mvu& /b˙\m.vu~/ <bh\.m\.vu~> v.intr. 1.
a sound indicating a future event.         to rotate, 2. to wander.

-8tr /b˙\¯.t\r/ <bh\.¯\.t\.r\> neut.       -Mmr /b˙\m.m\r/ <bh\.mm\.r\> fem.
education.                                 the eyebrow.

-8vu& /b˙\¯.vu~/ <bh\.¯\.vu~> v.tr. to     -y&kr /b˙\.jan.k\r/ <bh\.j\~.k\.r\> adj.
study.                                     frightful.

-8I /b˙\.¯i/ postp. towards.               -yank /b˙\.ja.n\k/ <bh\.ja.n\.k\> adj.
                                           frightful.
-{aI@ /b˙\t.ri.Ôi/ <bh\.trii.Ôii> fem. a
niece.                                     -r6vu& /b˙\.r\Î.vu~/ <bh\.r\.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
                                           to grind.
-± /b˙\d.r\/ <bh\.dr\> adj.
auspicious.                                -rt /b˙\.r\t/ <bh\.r\.t\> neut.
                                           embroidery.
-pko /b˙\p.ko/ <bh\.p\.ko> masc. 1. a
grand appearance, 2. a grand show.         -rtgU&98 /b˙\.r\t gu~.t˙\¯/
                                           <bh\.r\.t\.gu~.th\.Î\> neut.
--k /b˙\.b˙\k/ <bh\.bh\.k\> fem.           embroidery.
luster.
                                           -rtI /b˙\r.ti/ <bh\.r\.tii> fem. tide.
-ravvu& /b˙\b˙.rav.vu~/
<bh\.bh\.ra.v\.vu~> v.tr. to sprinkle      -rpUr /b˙\r.pur/ <bh\.r\.puu.r\> adj.
powder.                                    abundant.

--Ukvu& /b˙\.b˙uk.vu~/ <bh\.bhuu.k\.vu~>   -r-a&`Xu& /b˙\r.b˙a~k˙.Æu~/
v.intr. to blaze suddenly.                 <bh\.r\.bha~.kh\.Æu~> neut. the dawn.

--Ut /b˙\.b˙ut/ <bh\.bhuu.t\> fem.         -rm /b˙\.r\m/ <bh\.r\.m\> masc.
ashes.                                     illusion.

--UtI /b˙\.b˙u.ti/ <bh\.bhuu.tii> fem.     -rmavu& /b˙\r.ma.vu~/ <bh\.r\.ma.vu~>
ashes.                                     v.intr. to be deceived.
                                                                                        148


-rvvu& /b˙\.r\v.vu~/ <bh\.r\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
to hang.                                       -va6o /b˙\.va.Îo/ <bh\.va.Îo> masc.
                                               fiasco.
-rva6 /b˙\r.vaÎ/ <bh\.r\.va.Î\> masc.
a shepherd.                                    -vanI /b˙\.va.ni/ <bh\.va.nii> fem. the
                                               goddess Parvati.
-rvu& /b˙\r.vu~/ <bh\.r\.vu~> v.tr. to fill.
                                               -vayo /b˙\.va.jo/ <bh\.va.jo> masc. the
-rvu& /b˙\r.vu~/ <bh\.r\.vu~> v.tr. to         actor of a -va: - a folk-drama.
measure.
                                               -ivQy /b˙\.viß.j\/ <bh\.vi.s°j\> neut.
-raw /b˙\.ra.u/ <bh\.ra.u> adj. 1.             future.
plump, 2. chubby.
                                               -vu& /b˙\.vu~/ <bh\.vu~> neut. the
-rosapa{a /b˙\.ro.sa.pat.r\/                   eyebrow.
<bh\.r\.sa.pa.tr\> adj. trustworthy.
                                               -vo-v /b˙\.vo.b˙\v/ <bh\.vo.bh\.v\>
-roso /b˙\.ro.so/ <bh\.ro.so> masc.            advb. in each birth.
trust.
                                               -Vy /b˙\.vj\/ <bh\.vj\> adj. grand.
-yuR&-adyuR& /b˙\.rju~.b˙ad.rju~/ adj.
prosperous.                                    -svu& /b˙\s.vu~/ <bh\.s\.vu~> v.intr. to
                                               brak.
-lmnsa: /b˙\l.m\n.sai/
<bh\.l\.m\.n\.sa.ii> fem. goodness.            -Xtu& /b˙\Æ.tu~/ <bh\.Æ\.tu~> adj. similar.

-la: /b˙\.la.i/ <bh\.la.ii> fem. 1.            -Xvu& /b˙\Æ.vu~/ <bh\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. to
goodness, 2. gentleness.                       mix with.

-lam8 /b˙\.la.m\¯/ <bh\.la.m\.¯\>              -&ga8 /b˙\˜.ga¯/ <bh\~.ga.¯\> neut. a
fem. recommendation.                           break.

-lu& /b˙\.lu~/ <bh\.lu~> adj. good.            -&gar /b˙\˜.gar/ <bh\~.ga.r\> masc.
                                               scrap.
-le /b˙\le/ <bh\.le> advb. well.
                                               -&6ar /b˙\¯.Îar/ <bh\~.Îa.r\> masc. 1. a
-v /b˙\v/ <bh\.v\> masc. life.                 granary 2. a store-house.

                                               -&6aro /b˙\¯.Îa.ro/ <bh\~.Îa.ro> masc. a
-vn /b˙\.v\n/ <bh\.v\.n\> neut. a big
                                               collective dinner for community given as
house.                                         a part of social custom or religious ritual.
-va: /b˙\.va.i/ <bh\.va.ii> fem. 1. a          -&6oX /b˙\¯.Îo / <bh\~.Îa.ro> neut.
folk-drama, 2. fiasco.                         fund.
                                                                                          149


                                             -aGyu&tU4yu& /b˙a.gju~.tu.ˇju~/ <bha.gju~.tu.ˇju~>
-&-ervu& /b˙\m.b˙er.vu~/ <bh\~.bhe.r\.vu~>   adj. broken.
v.tr. to incite.
                                             -aGye /\b˙ag.je/ <bha.gje> advb. rarely.
-a /b˙a/ <bha> masc. an honorable
term used for elders.                        -a@ /b˙a.Ôi/ <bha.Ôii> fem. vegetables
                                             (leafy).
-a: /b˙a.i/ <bha.ii> masc. brother.
                                             -a@mUXa /b˙a.Ôi.mu.Æa/ <bha.Ôii.muu.Æa>
-a:caro /b˙a.i.ca.ro/ <bha.ii.ca.ro>         masc. pl. an insignificant person or
masc. brotherhood.                           thing.

-a:b&0I /b˙a.i.b\n.di/ <bha.ii.b\~.dhii>     -a4 /b˙aˇ/ <bha.ˇ\> masc. a bard.
fem. friendship.
                                             -a4a: /b˙a.ˇa.i/ <bha.ˇa.ii> fem. 1. the
-a:-a&6u /b˙a.i.b˙a~¯.Îu/ <bha.ii.bha~.Îu>   function of a bard, 2. excessive flattery.
masc. pl. brothers and sisters of the same
presents.                                    -ai4yo /b˙a.ˇi.jo/ <bha.ˇi.jo> masc. a
                                             community so-named.
-a`rI /b˙ak˙.ri/ <bha.kh\.rii> fem. a
kind of bread.                               -a6u& /b˙a.Îu~/ <bha.Îu~> neut. 1. rent, 2.
                                             fair, 3. freight.
-ag /b˙ag/ <bha.g\> masc. 1. share, 2.
part.                                        -a6Ut /b˙a.Îut/ <bha.Îu.t\> masc. a
                                             tenant.
-agvu& /b˙ag.vu~/ <bha.g\.vu~> v.intr. to
run away.                                    -a8aVyvhar /b˙a.¯a.vj\v.har/
                                             <bha.¯a.vj\.v\.ha.r\> masc. relation
-agakar /b˙a.ga.kar/ <bha.ga.ka.r\>          permitting joint meals.
masc. division (in maths).
                                             -ai8yo /b˙a.¯i.jo/ <bha.¯i.jo> masc. a
-agIdar /b˙a.gi.dar/ <bha.gii.da.r\>         sister’s son.
masc. partner (normally in business).
                                             -a8I /b˙a.¯i/ <bha.¯ii> fem. a sister’s
-agIdarI /b˙a.gi.da.ri/ <bha.gii.da.rii>     daughter.
fem. partnership.
                                             -a8u& /b˙a.¯u~/ <bha.¯u~> neut. a dish
-agoX /b˙a.goÆ/ <bha.go.Æ\> fem. an          served.
outskirt of a village/ a small town.
                                             -a8ej /b˙a.¯eÔ/ <bha.¯e.Ô\> masc. a
-aGy /b˙ag.j\/ <bha.gj\> neut. 1.fate, 2.    sister’s son.
destiny.
                                                                                      150


-a8o /b˙a.¯o/ <bha.¯o> masc. a sister’s
son.                                         -avvu& /b˙av.vu~/ <bha.v\.vu~> v.exp. to
                                             like in taste.
-at /b˙at/ <bha.t\> fem. design.
                                             -ava9R /b˙a.var.t˙\/ <bha.va.rth\> masc.
-at /b˙at/ <bha.t\> masc. pl. cooked         implied meaning.
rice.
                                             -aiv /b˙a.vi/ <bha.vi> neut. 1. future, 2.
-adrvo /b˙a.d\r.vo/ <ba.d\.r\.vo> masc.      fate.
eleventh month of the Vikram year.
                                             -aivk /b˙a.vik/ <bha.vi.k\> adj.
-an /b˙an/ <bha.n\> neut.                    emotional.
consciousness.
                                             -aq8 /b˙a.ß\¯/ <bha.s°\.¯\> neut. 1. a
-a-I /b˙a.b˙i/ <bha.bhii> fem. a             speech, 2.a lecture, 3. a discourse.
brother’s wife.
                                             -aqa /b˙a.ßa/ <bha.s°a> fem. language.
-ar /b˙ar/ <bha.r\> masc. 1. weight, 2.
burden.                                      -aqa&tr /b˙a.ßa~n.t\r/ <bha.s°a~.t\.r\> neut.
                                             translation.
-ar8 /b˙a.r\¯/ <bha.r\.¯\> neut. 1.
weight, 2. burden.                           -aqa&trkar /b˙a.ßa~n.t\r.kar/
                                             <bha.s°a~.t\.r\.ka.r\> masc. translator.
-art /b˙a.r\t/ <bha.r\.t\> neut. India.
                                             -aQy /b˙aß.j\/ <bha.s°j\> neut.
-artIy /b˙ar.ti.j\/ <bha.r\.tii.j\> adj.     commentary.
Indian.
                                             -as /b˙as/ <bha.s\> masc. an illusion.
-are /b˙a.re/ <bha.re> adj. 1. heavy, 2.
weighty.                                     -aX /b˙aÆ/ <bha.Æ\> fem. whereabouts.

-aro /b˙a.ro/ <bha.ro> masc. a bundle        -aXvu& /b˙aÆ.vu~/ <bha.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. to see.
of grass or wood.
                                             -a&g /b˙a~˜.g\/ <bha~.g\> fem. 1. hemp,
-alo6u& /b˙a.lo.Îu~/ <bha.lo.Îu~> neut. an   2. a drink containing hemp.
arrow.
                                             -a&gfo6 /b˙a~g.p˙oÎ/ <bha~.g\.pho.Î\>
-av /b˙av/ <bha.v\> masc. rate.              fem. breakage.

-av /b˙av/ <bha.v\> masc. feeling.           -a&gro /b˙a~˜g.ro/ <bha~.g\.ro> masc. a
                                             kind of herb.
-avna /b˙av.na/ <bha.v\.na> fem. 1.
desire 2. sentiment.
                                                                                        151


-a&gvu& /b˙a~g.vu~/ <bha~.g\.vu~> v.tr. to    -I&g6u& /b˙i~g.Îu~/ <bhii~.g\.Îu~> neut. 1. a
break.                                        dead skin, 2. a scale.

-a&jg6 /b˙a~Ô.g\Î/ <bha~.Ô\.g\.Î\> fem.       -I&jvvu& /b˙i~.Ô\v.vu~/ <bhii.Ô\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
1. negotiations, 2. quarrel.                  to soak.

-a&jg6Iyu& /b˙a~Ô.g\.Îi.ju~/                  -I&6o /b˙i¯.Îo/ <bhi.Îo> masc. okra.
<bha~.Ô\.g\.Îii.ju~> adj. 1. quarrelsome,
2. negotiator.                                -I&t /b˙i~t/ <bhi~.t\> fem. a wall.

-a&6vu& /b˙a~¯Î.vu~/ <bha~.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to   -Ulk8u& /b˙u.l\k.¯u~/ adj. absent-minded.
revile.
                                              -Ul-ulam8I /b˙ul.b˙u.lam.¯i/
-a&-rvu& /b˙a~.b˙\r.vu~/ <bha~.bh\.r\.vu~>    <bhu.l\.bhu.la.m\.¯ii> fem. a
v.intr. to bellow.                            labyrinth.

i-`ar8 /b˙i.k˙a.r\¯/ <bhi.kha.r\.¯\>          -USko /b˙us.ko/ <bhuu.sko> masc. a
fem. a female beggar.                         jump downward.
                                              -Uk&p /b˙u.k\mp/ <bhuu.k\~.p\> masc.
i-`arI /b˙i.k˙a.ri/ <bhi.kha.rii> masc. a     an earthquake.
male beggar.
                                              -UkI /b˙u.ki/ <bhuu.kii> fem. fine
i-Nn /b˙in.n\/ <bhi.nn\> adj. different.      powder.

-I` /b˙ik˙/ <bhii.kh\> fem. begging.          -Uko /b˙u.ko/ <bhuu.ko> masc. powder.

-I6 /b˙iÎ/ <bhii.Î\> fem. crowdedness.        -U` /b˙uk˙/ <bhuu.kh\> fem. hunger.

-I6vu& /b˙iÎ.vu~/ <bhii.Î\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to   -U`ru& /b˙uk˙.ru/ <bhuu.kh\.ru~> adj.
shut up, 2. to fasten.                        grey.

-Itr /b˙i.t\r/ <bhii.t\.r\> neut. within.     -U~yu& /b˙u.k˙ju~/ <bhuu.khju~> adj.
                                              hungry.
-Ina= /b˙i.naß/ <bhii.na.ß\> fem.
moisture.                                     -UgoX /b˙u.goÆ/ <bhu.go.Æ\> fem.
                                              geography.
-Inu& /b˙i.nu~/ <bhii.nu~> adj. 1.wet, 2.
soaked, 3. moist.                             -Ucr /b˙u.c\r/ <bhu.c\.r\> adj.
                                              terrestrial.
-Il /b˙il/ <bhii.l\> masc. a community
so named.                                     -Ut /b˙ut/ <bhuu.t\> neut. a ghost.
                                                                                          152


-UtavX /b˙u.ta.v\Æ/ <bhuu.ta.v\.Æ\> fem.     -U&kvu& /b˙u~k.vu~/ <bhu~.k\.vu~> v.intr. to
a group of ghosts.                           bray.

-Udev /b˙u.dev/ <bhuu.de.v\> masc. a         -U&gX /b˙u˜.g\ / <bhu~.g\.Æ\> fem. a
Brahman.                                     long-tube like trumpet.

-Uim /b˙u.mi/ <bhuu.mi> fem. land.           -U&gXI /b˙u~˜.g\.Æi/ <bhu~.g\.Æii> fem. a
                                             small pipe or a small tube.
-Uimka /b˙u.mi.ka/ <bhuu.mi.ka> fem.
an introduction.                             -U&gXu& /b˙u~˜.g\.Æu~/ <bhu~.g\.Æu~> neut. a
                                             big pipe or a big tube.
-Uimit /b˙u.mi.ti/ <bhuu.mi.ti> fem.
geometry.                                    -U&jvu& /b˙u~Ô.vu~/ <bhu~.Ô\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                             roast.
-Uimdah /b˙u.mi.dah/ <bhuu.mi.da.h\>
masc. burial.                                -U&6 /b˙u¯Î/ <bhuu~.Î\> neut. a pig.

-UrkI /b˙ur.ki/ <bhuu.r\.kii> fem. a         -U&6a: /b˙u¯.Îai/ <bbhuu~.Îa.ii> fem.
spell.                                       wickedness.

-Uiryu& /b˙u.ri.ju~/ <bhuu.ri.ju~> adj.      -U&6u& /b˙u¯.Îu~/ <bhuu.Îu~> adj. wicked.
bluish.
                                             -U&svu& /b˙u~s.vu~/ <bhuu~.s\.vu~> v.tr. to
-Uru& /b˙u.ru~/ <bhuu.ru~> adj. blue.        erase.

-Ul /b˙ul/ <bhuu.l\> fem. 1. mistake, 2.     -eg /b˙eg/ <bhe.g\> masc. admixture.
error.
                                             -egu& /b˙e.gu~/ <bhe.g\> adj. 1. mixed, 2.
-Ulvu& /b˙ul.vu~/ <bhuu.l\.vu~> v.intr. to   collected.
forget.
                                             -ej /b˙eÔ/ <bhe.Ô\> masc. humidity.
-Ulu& /b˙u.lu~/ <bhuu.lu~> adj. astray.
                                             -eju& /b˙e.Ôu~/ <bhe.Ôu~> neut. 1.the brain,
-Uvo /b˙u.vo/ <bhuu.vo> masc. a              2. intellect.
remover of ghosts.
                                             -e4 /b˙eˇ/ <bhe.ˇ\> fem. a meeting.
-Usko /b˙us.ko/ <bhuu.s\.ko> masc. a
jump downward.                               -e4 /b˙eˇ/ <bhe.ˇ\> fem. a gift.

-UStrivd\ya /b˙us.t\r.vi.dja/                -e4vu& /b˙eˇ.vu~/ <bhe.ˇ\.vu~> v.intr. to
<bhuu.st\.r\.vi.dja> fem. geology.           embrace.

                                             -e4o /b˙e.ˇo/ <bhe.ˇo> masc. a meeting.
                                                                                           153


                                                  -ogvvu& /b˙o.g\v.vu~/ <bho.g\.v\.vu~>
-ed /b˙ed/ <bhe.d\> masc. difference.             v.tr. to enjoy (the ownership,
                                                  possession).
-ed /b˙ed/ <bhe.d\> masc. mystery.
                                                  -ogivlas /b˙og.vi.las/ <bho.g.vi.la.\s>
-ed-av /b˙ed.b˙av/ <bhe.d\.bha.v\>                masc. luxury.
masc. discrimination.
                                                  -ogI /b˙o.gi/ <bho.gii> adj. a person
-edvu& /b˙ed.vu~/ <bhe.d\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to        who enjoys or suffers.
pierce, 2. to thurst.
                                                  -oGy /b˙og.j\/ <bho.gj\> adj. worth
-edI /b˙e.di/ <bhe.dii> adj. mysterious.          enjoying.

-edu /b˙e.du/ <bhe.du> masc. mystic.              -ojn /b˙o.Ô\n/ <bho.Ô\.n\> neut. a
                                                  mean (formal).
-ervvu& /b˙e.r\v.vu~/ <bhe.r\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
to hang.                                          -o4 /b˙oˇ/ <bho.ˇ\> adj. idiotic.

-eX /b˙eÆ/ <bhe.Æ\> fem. a mixture.               -o4vo /b˙oˇ.vo/ <bho.ˇ\.vo> masc. an
                                                  earthen jug.
-eXvvu& /b˙e.Æ\v.vu~/ <bhe.Æ\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
to mix.                                           -omyo /b˙o.mi.jo/ <bho.mi.jo> masc. a
                                                  guide.
-eXseX /b˙eÆ.seÆ/ <bhe.Æ\.se.Æ\> fem.
adulteration.                                     -oir&g /b˙o.ri˜g/ <bho.ri~.g\> masc. a
                                                  big serpent.
-eXseXIyu& /b˙eÆ.se.Æi.ju~/ <bhe.Æ\.se.Æii.ju~>
adj. 1. adulterated, 2. miscellaneous.            -olu& /b˙o.lu~/ <bho.lu~> neut. a monkey.

-e&= ~ -e&s /b˙´~s ~ b˙´~ß/ <bhe~.ß\ ~ bhe~.s\>   -oXvvu& /b˙o.Æ\v.vu~/ <bho.Æ\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
fem. a buffalo.                                   to cheat.

-o: /b˙o.i/ <bho.ii> masc. a community            -oXu& /b˙o.Æu~/ <bho.Æu~> adj. a simple-
so named.                                         hearted.

-og /b˙og/ <bho.g\> masc. 1. a                    -o&kvu& /b˙ø~k.vu~/ <bho.k\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
sacrifice, 2. an offering to the god.             pierce, 2. to bore.

-ogv4o /b˙og.v\.ˇo/ <bho.g\.v\.ˇo>                -o&5p /b˙ø~.ˇ˙\p/ <bho.ˇh\.p\> fem.
masc. ownership.                                  crestfallen.

                                                  -o&5u& /b˙ø~.ˇ˙u~/ <bho.ˇhu~> adj.
                                                  crestfallen.
                                                                                        154


-o&y /b˙ø~j/ <bho.\> fem. 1. land, 2.             mk\km /m\k.k\m/ <m\.kk\.m\> adj.
ground.                                           firm.

-o&ytXIyu& /b˙ø~j.t\.Æi.ju~/ <bho.j\.t\.Æi.ju~>   m`ml /m\k˙.m\l/ <m\.kh\.m\.l\>
neut. a ground-floor.                             neut. velvet.

-o&yru& /b˙ø~j.ru~/ <bho.j\.ru~> neut. a          m~`IcUs /m\k˙.k˙i.cus/
tunnel.                                           <m\.khkhii.cuu.s\> adj. extremely
                                                  miser.
-Ogoilk /b˙\u.go.lik/ <bh\u.go.li.k\>
adj. geographical.                                mg /m\g/ <m\.g\> masc. pl. a kind of
                                                  pulse.
-Oitk /b˙\u.tik/ <bh\.ti.k\> adj. 1.
physical, 2. materialistic, 3. mundane.           mgj /m\.g\Ô/ <m\.g\.Ô\> neut. the
                                                  brain.
-/m /b˙r\m/ <bhr\.m\> masc. illusion.
                                                  mgj /m\.g\Ô/ <m\.g\.Ô\> masc. a kind
-/Q4 /b˙r\ß.ˇ\/ <bhr\.s°ˇ\> neut. 1.              of sweet.
polluted, 2. degenerated.
                                                  mgtru& /m\.g\t.ru~/ <m\.g\.t\.ru~> neut.
-/Q4acar /b˙r\ß.ˇa.car/ <bhr\.s°ˇa.ca.r\>         a mosquito.
masc. corruption.
                                                  mgfXI /m\g.p˙\.Æi/ <m\.g\.ph\.Æii>
-/amk /b˙ra.m\k/ <bhra.m\.k\> adj.                fem. groundnut.
deceptive.
                                                  mgr /m\.g\r/ <m\.g\.r\> masc.
-/a&it /b˙ra~n.ti/ <bra~.ti> fem. illusion.       alligator.

-<8 /b˙ru¯/ <br≤u.¯\> masc. an                    mck /m\.c\k/ <m\.c\.k\> fem. giving
undeveloped embryo.                               in.

                                                  mcko6 /m\c.koÎ/ <m\.c\.ko.Î\> fem.
                        m                         muscle stratch.

                                                  mc6vu& /m\.c\Î.vu~/ <m\.c\.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
mkr /m\.k\r ra.ßi/ <m\.k\.r\> fem. the            to twist.
Capricorn, the tenth sign of the zodiac.
                                                  mC2r /m\c.c˙\r/ <m\.cch\.r\> neut. a
mka: /m\.ka.i/ <m\.ka.ii> fem. maize.             mosquito.

mkan /m\.kan/ <m\.ka.n\> neut. a                  m2vo /m\c˙.vo/ <m\.ch\.vo> masc. a
house.                                            small boat.
                                                                                       155


mjnU /m\Ô.nu/ <m\.Ô\.nuu> adj.                m5o /m\.ˇ˙o/ <m\.ˇho> masc. a food
lovelorn.                                     made of yogurt.

mjbUt /m\Ô.but/ <m\.Ô\.buu.t\> adj.           m6du& /m\Î.du~/ <m\.Î\.du~> neut. a
strong.                                       dead body.

mjbUtI /m\Ô.bu.ti/ <m\.Ô\.buu.tii> fem.       m6aga&5 /m\.Îa.ga~ˇ˙/ <m\.Îa.ga~.ˇh\>
strength.                                     fem. a deadlock.

mjbUr /m\Ô.bur/ <m\.Ô\.buu.r\> adj.           m7vu& /m\Î˙.vu~/ <m\.Îh\.vu~> v.tr. to
helpless.                                     frame (a photo for example).

mjbUrI /m\Ô.bu.ri/ <m\.Ô\.buu.rii> fem.       mi8 /m\.¯i/ <m\.¯i> masc. a gem.
helplessness.
                                              mi8yar /m\.¯i.jar/ <m\.¯i.ja.r\> masc.
mja /m\.Ôa/ <m\.Ôa> fem. pleasant.            a professional bangle-maker.

mjUr /m\.Ôur/ <m\.Ôuu.r\> masc. a             mt /m\t/ <m\.t\> masc. 1. an opinion,
labor.                                        2. a vote.

mjUs /m\.Ôus/ <m\.Ôuu.s\> masc. a big         mtdar /m\t.dar/ <m\.t\.da.r\> masc. a
wooden box carving on it.                     voter.

mjja /m\Ô.Ôa/ <m\.ÔÔa> fem. the               mtp{a /m\t.p\t.r\/ <m\.t\.p\.tr\> neut.
marrow of bone.                               a voting paper.

m4ku& /m\ˇ.ku~/ <m\.ˇ\.ku~> neut. a wink.     mt-ed /m\t.b˙ed/ <m\.t\.bhe.d\> masc.
                                              difference of opinion.
m4m4avvu& /m\ˇ.m\.ˇav.vu~/
<m\.ˇ\.m\.ˇa.v\.vu~> v.tr. to wink.           mtlb /m\t.l\b/ <m\.t\.l\.b\> fem. 1.
                                              purpose, 2. intention.
m4vu& /m\ˇ.vu~/ <m\.ˇ\.vu~> v.exp. to be
cured.                                        mtlibyu& /m\t.l\b.i.ju~/ <m\.t\.l\.bi.ju~>
                                              adj. selfish.
m5 /m\ˇ˙/ <m\.ˇh\> masc. pl. a kind of
pulse.                                        mtai0kar /m\.ta.d˙i.kar/
                                              <m\.ta.dhi.ka.r\> masc. the right to
m5 /m\ˇ˙/ <m\.ˇh\> masc. a monastery.         vote.

m5arvu& /m\.ˇ˙ar.vu~/ <m\.ˇha.r\.vu~> v.tr.   mit /m\.ti/ <m\.ti> fem. intellect.
1. to repair, 2. to fix error in a writing.
                                              mtu& /m\.tu~/ <m\.tu~> neut. signature.
                                                                                     156


m9vu& /m\t˙.vu~/ <m\.th\.vu~> v.intr. to      mna: /m\.nai/ <m\.na.ii> fem. 1.
churn.                                        prohibition, 2. forbidding.

m9am8 /m\.t˙a.m\¯/ <m\.tha.m\.¯\>             mnam8u& /m\.nam.¯u~/ <m\.na.m\.¯u~>
fem. hard work.                               neut. reconciliation.

m9aXu& /m\.t˙a.Æu~/ <m\.tha.Æu~> neut. 1. a   mnavvu& /m\.nav.vu~/ <m\.na.v\.vu~> v.tr.
heading, 2. a top.                            1. to pursue, 2. to pacify.

mdd /m\.d\d/ <m\.d\.d\> fem. help.            mnIqa /m\.ni.ßa/ <m\.nii.s°a> fem.
                                              desire.
mdinyu& /m\.d\n.i.ju~/ <m\.d\.ni.ju~> neut.
a young one of an elephant.                   mnuQy /m\.nuß.j\/ <m\.nu.s°j\> masc. a
                                              human being.
mdarI /m\.da.ri/ <m\.da.rii> masc. a
jugglar.                                      mne /m\.ne/ <m\.ne> pron. to me.

midra /m\.di.ra/ <m\.di.ra> fem. wine.        mnobX /m\.no.b\Æ/ <m\.no.b\.Æ\> neut.
                                              willpower.
m0 /m\.d˙/ <m\.dh\> neut. honey.
                                              mnor9 /m\.no.r\t˙/ <m\.no.r\.th\>
m0ur /m\.d˙ur/ <m\.dhu.r\> adj.               masc. desire.
sweet.
                                              mnor&jk /m\.no.r\n.Ô\k/
m)y /m\d˙.j\/ <m\.dhj\> adj. 1.               <m\.no.r\~.Ô\.k\> adj. entertaining.
middle, 2. central.
                                              mnor&jn /m\.no.r\n.Ô\n/
m0rat /m\d˙.rat/ <m\.dh\.ra.t\> fem.          <m\.no.r\~.Ô\.n\> neut. entertainment.
mid-night.
                                              mnoiv}aan /m\.no.vig.nan/
mn /m\n/ <m\.n\> neut. an organ of            <m\.no.vi.gna.n\> neut. spychology.
desire.
                                              mnohr /m\.no.h\r/ <m\.no.h\.r\> adj.
mnn /m\.n\n/ <m\.n\.n\> neut. deep-
                                              attractive.
thinking.
                                              mft /m\.p˙\t/ <m\.ph\.t\> advb. free
mnsUbo /m\n.su.bo/ <m\.n\.su.bo>
                                              of cost.
masc. motive.
                                              mbl` /m\b.l\k˙/ <m\.b\.l\.kh\> adj.
mnSvI /m\.n\s.vi/ <m\.n\.svii> adj. 1.
                                              abundant.
self-willed, 2. whimsical.
                                              mmt /m\.m\t/ <m\.m\.t\> fem.
                                              insistence.
                                                                                    157


                                             mrvu& /m\r.vu~/ <m\.r\.vu~> v.intr. to die.
mmra /m\m.ro/ <m\.m\.ra> masc. a
type of rice flake.                          mrvo /m\r.vo/ <m\.r\.vo> masc. a small
                                             unripe mango.
mmXavvu& /m\m.Æav.vu~/
<m\.m\.Æa.v\.vu~> v.tr. to chew.             mrisyo /m\.r\.si.jo/ <m\.r\.si.jo> masc.
                                             a mourning song.
mrkvu& /m\.r\k.vu~/ <m\.r\.k\.vu~> v.intr.
to smile.                                    mrhUm /m\r.hum/ <m\.r\.huu.m\> adj.
                                             1. deceased, 2. late.
mr3I /m\r.g˙i/ <m\.r\.ghii> fem. a hen.
                                             mramt /m\.ra.m\t/ <m\.ra.m\.t\> fem.
mrjad /m\r.Ôad/ <m\.r\.Ôa.d\> fem.           1. repair, 2. mending.
decency.
                                             mrI /m\.ri/ <m\.rii> fem. black or white
mrjadI /m\r.Ôa.di/ <m\.r\.Ôa.dii> adj.       pepper.
observing strict untouchablility (a
religious practice found mainly among        mrImsalo /m\.ri.m\.sa.lo/
the Vaishnava. This untouchability has       <m\.rii.m\.sa.lo> masc. spices.
nothing to do with social
untouchablility).                            mro6 /m\.roÎ/ <m\.ro.Î\> masc. a
                                             shape (of a letter for example).
mrijyat /m\r.Ôi.jat/ <m\.r\.Ôi.ja.t\> adj.
voluntary.                                   mmR /m\r.m\/ <m\.rm\> masc. deep
                                             meaning.
mr@ /m\r.Ôi/ <m\.r\.Ôii> fem. desire.
                                             myaRda /m\r.ja.da/ <m\.rja.da> fem. 1.
mr@vo /m\r.Ôi.vo/ <m\.r\.Ôii.vo> masc.       limit, 2. border.
diver.
                                             myaRidt /m\r.ja.dit/ <m\.rja.di.t\> adj.
mr6avu& /m\r.Îa.vu~/ <m\.r\.Îa.vu~>          limited.
v.intr. to be twisted.
                                             mlkvu& /m\.l\k.vu~/ <m\.l\.k\.vu~> v.intr.
mr6o /m\r.Îo/ <m\.r\.Îo> masc.               to smile.
dysentery.
                                             mlm /m\.l\m/ <m\.l\.m\> masc.
mr8 /m\.r\¯/ <m\.r\.¯\> neut. death.         ointment.

mri8yu& /m\.r\.¯i.ju~/ <m\.r\.¯i.ju~> adj.   mlml /m\l.m\l/ <m\.l\.m\.l\> neut.
desperate.                                   muslin.

mrd /m\.r\d/ <m\.r\.d\> masc. male.          mla: /m\.lai/ <m\.la.ii> fem. cream.
                                                                                  158


mvalI /m\.va.li/ <m\.va.lii> masc. a       mhamarI /m\.ha.ma.ri/ <m\.ha.ma.rii>
scoundrel.                                 fem. an epidemic.

m=£ /m\ß.ru/ <m\.ß\.ru~> neut. cotton      mhar9I /m\.ha.r\.t˙i/ <m\.ha.r\.thii>
and silk mixed yarn.                       masc. an extremely powerful warrior.

m=hUr /m\ß.hur/ <m\.ß\.huu.r\> adj.        mharaj /m\.ha.raÔ/ <m\.ha.ra.Ô\> masc.
renowned.                                  1.an emperor, 2. a temple priest, 3. a
                                           cook.
m+krI /m\ß.k\.ri/ <m\.ßk\.rii> fem. 1. a
joke, 2. a jest.                           mharaja /m\.ha.ra.Ôa/ <m\.ha.ra.Ôa>
                                           masc. an emperor.
mslt /m\s.l\t/ <m\.s\.l\.t\> fem.
consultation.                              mhara8I /m\.ha.ra.ni/ <m\.ha.ra.¯ii>
                                           fem. an empress.
msXvu& /m\.s\Æ.vu~/ <m\.s\.Æ\.vu~> v.tr.
to knead.                                  mhaly /m\.ha.l\j/ <m\.ha.l\.j\> masc.
                                           a palace.
msa8 /m\.sa¯/ <m\.sa.¯\> neut. a
burial-place.                              mhavro /m\.hav.ro/ <m\.ha.v\.ro>
                                           masc. practice.
msai8ya /m\.sa.¯i.jo/ <m\.sa.¯i.ja>
masc. a mourner accompanying a             mhasagr /m\.ha.sa.g\r/
funeral procession.                        <m\.ha.sa.g\.r\> masc. an ocean.

msalo /m\.sa.lo/ <m\.sa.lo> masc.          mihno /m\.hi.no/ <m\.hi.no> masc. a
spices.                                    month.

mso /m\.so/ <m\.so> masc. a wart.          mihla /m\.hi.la/ <m\.hi.la> fem. a
                                           woman.
mStk /m\s.t\k/ <m\.st\.k\> neut. the
head.                                      mhuvr /m\.hu.v\r/ <m\.huu.v\.r\>
                                           neut. a snake charmer’s flute.
mhiqR /m\.h\r.ßi/ <m\.h\.rs°i> masc. a
great sage.                                mhe&k /m\.h´~k/ <m\.he~.k\> fem.
                                           fragrance.
mh&t /m\.h\nt/ <m\.h\~.t\> masc. the
head of a monastery.                       mheC2a /m\.hec.c˙a/ <m\.he.ccha> fem.
                                           an ambition.
mha /m\.ha/ <m\.ha> masc. forth
month of the Vikram year.                  mhe8u& /m\.he.¯u~/ <m\.he.¯u~> neut. a
                                           taunt.
mhakaVy /m\.ha.kav.j\/ <m\.ha.ka.vj\>
neut. epic.
                                                                                  159


mhetl /m\.he.t\l/ <m\.he.t\.l\> fem. a    like ornament usually presented by the
time limit.                               bridegroom to the bride.

mhetI /m\.he.ti/ <m\.he.tii> fem. 1. a    m&gXacr8 /m\˜g.Æa.c\.r\¯/
teacher’s wife, 2. a female teacher.      <m\~.g\.Æa.c\.r\.¯\> neut. invocation
                                          of a divine being at the bringing of an
mheto /m\.he.to/ <m\.he.to> masc. 1.      auspicious work.
teacher, 2. an accountant.
                                          m&@ra /m\µ.Ôi.ra/ <m\~.Ôii.ra> masc. pl. a
mhent /m\.he.n\t/ <m\.he.n\.t\> fem.      pair of cymbals.
mental or manual work.
                                          m&jUr /m\µ.Ôur/ <m\~.Ôuu.r\> adj.
mhenta8u& /m\.hen.ta.¯u~/                 approved.
<m\.he.n\.ta.¯u~> neut. remuneration.
                                          m&jUrI /m\µ.Ôu.ri/ <m\~,Ôuu.rii> fem.
mheman /m\.he.man/ <m\.he.ma.n\>          approval.
masc. hon. a guest.
                                          m&6p /m\¯.Î\p/ <m\~.Î\.p\> masc. a
mhel /m\.hel/ <m\.he.l\> masc. a          decorated platform.
palace.
                                          m&6vu& /m\¯Î.vu~/ <m\~.Î\.vu~> v.intr. .to
mXtr /m\Æ.t\r/ <m\.Æ\.t\.r\> neut. 1.     begin, 2. to start.
remuneration 2. profit.
                                          m&trvu& /m\n.t\r.vu~/ <m\~.t\.r\.vu~> v.tr.
mXvu& /m\Æ.vu~/ <m\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. to    to bind by a spell.
meet.
                                          m&tVy /m\n.t\.vj\/ <m\~.t\.vj\> neut.
mXvu& /m\Æ.vu~/ <m\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. to    opinion.
gain.
                                          m&{a /m\nt.r\/ <m\~.tr\> masc. a spell.
m&ko6o /m\˜.ko.Îo/ <m\~.ko.Îo> masc. a
kind of black ant.                        m&{aI /m\n.tri/ <m\~.trii> masc. a
                                          minister.
m&gXfero /m\˜.\Æ.p˙e.ro/
<m\~.g\.Æ\.phe.ra> masc. a marriage       m&9n /m\n.t˙\n/ <m\~.th\.n\> neut. a
ritual in which bride and bridegroom      churning.
move around the marriage platform.
                                          m&d /m\nd/ <m\~.d\> adj. slow.
m&gXvar /m\˜.g\Æ.var/ <m\~.g\.Æ\.va.r\>
masc. Tuesday.                            m&dva6 /m\nd.vaÎ/ <m\~.d\.va.Î\> fem.
                                          sickness.
m&gXsU{a /m\˜.g\Æ.sut.r\/
<m\~.g\.Æ\.su.tr\> neut. a necklace-      m&idr /m\n.dir/ <m\~.di.r\> neut. a
                                          temple.
                                                                                       160


                                               ma5u& /ma.ˇ˙u~/ <ma.ˇhu~> adj. .bad, 2.
m&dI /m\n.di/ <m\~.dii> fem. 1. scarcity,      wrong.
2. trade depression.                           ma6I /ma.Îi/ <ma.Îii> fem. 1. mother,
                                               2. goddess.
ma /ma/ <ma> fem. 1. mother, 2.
grandmother.                                   ma8 /ma¯/ <ma.¯\> fem. a metallic pot.

ma:ka&glu& /mai.ka˜g.lu~/ <ma.ii.ka~.g\.lu~>   ma8vu& /ma¯.vu~/ <ma.¯\.vu~> v.tr. to
adj. physically weak.                          enjoy.

mak6 /ma.k\Î/ <m> masc. a bug.                 ma8s /ma.¯\s/ <ma.¯\.s\> masc. a
                                               human being.
ma` /mak˙/ <ma.kh\> fem. a fly.
                                               ma8sa: /ma¯.sai/ <ma.¯\.sa.ii> fem.
ma`8 /ma.k˙\¯/ <ma.kh\.¯\> neut.               humility.
butter.
                                               ma8ek /ma.¯ek/ <ma.¯e.k\> neut. a
mag /mag/ <ma.g\> fem. demand.                 ruby.

magvu& /mag.vu~/ <ma.g\.vu~> v.tr. to ask      mata /ma.ta/ <ma.ta> fem. 1. mother, 2.
for.                                           goddess.

magu& /ma.gu~/ <ma.gu~> neut. a proposal       ma{a /mat.r\/ <ma.tr\> advb. 1. only, 2.
for betrothal.                                 merely.

ma28 /ma.c˙\¯/ <ma.ch\.¯\> fem. a              ma{aa /mat.ra/ <ma.tra> fem. a unit of
fisherwoman.                                   measure.

ma2lI /mac˙.li/ <m> fem. a fish.               ma9akU4 /ma.t˙a.kuˇ/ <ma.tha.kuu.ˇ\>
                                               fem. unnecessary discussion.
ma2I /ma.c˙i/ <ma.chii> masc. a
fisherman.                                     ma9afrel /ma.t˙a.p˙\.rel/
                                               <ma.tha.ph\.re.l\> adj. hot-tempered.
ma@ /ma.Ôi/ <ma.Ôii> adj. former.
                                               ma9a-are /ma.t˙a.b˙a.re/ <ma.tha.bha.re>
ma@ /ma.Ôi/ <ma.Ôii> fem. hon. 1. a            adj. 1. challenging, 2. uncontrollable.
grandmother, 2. a goddess.
                                               ma9u& /ma.t˙u~/ <ma.thu~> neut. head.
ma4I /ma.ˇi/ <ma.ˇii> fem. clay.
                                               madiXyu& /ma.d\Æ.ju/ <ma.d\.Æi.ju~> neut.
ma4e /ma.ˇe/ <ma.ˇe> postp. for                an amulet.

                                               mada /ma.da/ <ma.da> adj. female.
                                                                                    161


                                           mamUlI /ma.mu.li/ <ma.muu.lii> adj.
ma)ym /mad˙.j\m/ <ma.dhj\.m\> adj.         insignificant.
medium.                                    mamo /ma.mo/ <ma.mo> masc. mother’s
                                           brother.
man /man/ <ma.n\> neut. fame.
                                           mayka&glu& /maj.ka˜g.lu~/ <ma.j\.ka~.g\.lu~>
manta /man.ta/ <ma.n\.ta> fem. 1. a        adj. very weak (in terms of physical
pledge, 2. a religious vow.                construction).

mand /ma.n\d/ <ma.n\.d\> adj.              maya /ma.ja/ <ma.ja> fem. illusion.
honorary.
                                           mar /mar/ <ma.r\> masc. beating.
mannIy /ma.n\.ni.j\/ <ma.n\.nii.j\> adj.
honorable.                                 marpI4 /mar.piˇ/ <ma.r\.pii.ˇ\> fem.
                                           repeated or severe beating.
manpan /man.pan/ <ma.n\.pa.n\> neut.
respect.                                   marft /mar.p˙\t/ <ma.r\.ph\.t\> postp.
                                           1. with, 2. by, 3. through.
manvu& /man.vu~/ <ma.n\.vu~> v.tr. to
believe.                                   marvu& /mar.vu~/ <ma.r\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
                                           beat, 2. to strike.
manisk /man.sik/ <ma.n\.si.k\> adj.
mental.                                    maramarI /ma.ra.ma.ri/ <ma.ra.ma.rii>
                                           fem. a violent clash.
manItu& /ma.ni.tu~/ <ma.nii.tu~> adj.
favorite.                                  magR /marg/ <ma.rg\> masc. a road.

maNy /man.j\/ <ma.nj\> adj. acceptable.    maimRk /mar.mik/ <ma.rmi.k\> adj.
                                           subtle.
map /map/ <ma.p\> neut. measure.
                                           mal /mal/ <ma.l\> masc. goods.
mafI /ma.p˙i/ <ma.phii> fem.
forgiveness.                               maldar /mal.dar/ <ma.l\.da.r\> adj.
                                           rich.
mabap /mabap/ <ma.ba.p\> neut. pl.
parents.                                   malmta /mal.m\.ta/ <ma.l\.m\.ta> fem.
                                           property.
mama /ma.ma/ <ma.ma> masc. hon.
mother’s brother.                          malimlkt /mal.mil.k\t/
                                           <ma.l\.mi.l\.k\.t\> fem. property.
mamI /ma.mi/ <ma.mii> fem. mother’s
brother’s wife.                            mailk /ma.lik/ <ma.li.k\> masc. 1.
                                           owner, 2. a master, 3. a boss, 4. god.
                                                                                       162


                                            maXa /ma.Æa/ <ma.Æa> fem. a garland.
mailkI /ma.li.ki/ <ma.li.kii> fem.
ownership.                                  maiXyu& /ma.Æi.ju~/ <ma.Æi.ju~> neut. a
                                            storey.
mail= /ma.liß/ <ma.li.ß\> fem.
massaging.                                  maXI /ma.Æi/ <ma.Æii> masc. a gardener.

mavjt /mav.Ô\t/ <ma.v\.Ô\.t\> fem.          maXo /ma.Æo/ <ma.Æo> masc. a nest.
care.
                                            ma&jvu& /ma~Ô.vu~/ <ma~.Ô\.vu~> v.tr. to
mav5u& /mav.ˇ˙u~/ <ma.v\.ˇhu~> neut.        cleanse a pot and etc.
unseasonable rain.
                                            ma&6vu& /ma~Î.vu~/ <ma~.Î\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
mavi6yu& /ma.v\Î.ju~/ <ma.v\.Îi.ju~> adj.   begin, 2. to start.
too much obedient of mother.
                                            ma&6vu& /ma~Î.vu~/ <ma~.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to
mavtr /mav.t\r/ <ma.v\.t\.r\> neut. pl.     close.
parents.
                                            ma&dgI /ma~d.gi/ <ma~.d\.gii> fem.
mavo /ma.vo/ <ma.vo> masc. 1. solid         sickness.
cream of milk, 2. kernel of fruits etc.
                                            ma&dlu& /ma~d.lu~/ <ma~.d\.lu~> adj. always
ma=I /ma.ßi/ <ma.ßii> fem. mother’s         sick.
sister.
                                            ma&du& /ma~.du~/ <ma~.du~> adj. sick.
mas /mas/ <ma.s\> masc. a month.
                                            ma&s /ma~s/ <ma~.s\> neut. flash.
maisk /ma.sik/ <ma.si.k\> adj.
monthly.                                    ma&sahar /ma~.sa.har/ <ma~.sa.ha.r\>
                                            masc. meat or mutton food.
maisk /ma.sik/ <ma.si.k\> neut.
women’s menses.                             ma&saharI /ma~.sa.ha.ri/ <ma~.sa.ha.rii>
                                            adj. non- vegetarian.
maso /ma.so/ <ma.so> masc. mother’s
sister’s husband.                           imjagru& /mi.Ôa.g\.ru~/ <mi.Ôa.g\.ru~> neut.
                                            a hinge.
maihtI /ma.hi.ti/ <ma.hi.tii> fem.
knowledge.                                  imjaj /mi.ÔaÔ/ <mi.Ôa.Ô\> masc.
                                            temperament.
maX /maÆ/ <ma.Æ\> masc. a storey.
                                            imja@ /mi.Ôa.Ôi/ <mi.Ôa.Ôii> adj. hot-
maX`u& /maÆ.k˙u~/ <ma.Æ\.khu~> neut. 1. a   tempered.
structure, 2. a frame.
                                                                                     163


imit /mi.ti/ <mi.ti> fem. a date.             mI&7X /mi~.Î˙\Æ/ <mii~.Îh\.Æ\> neut. a
                                              kind of fruit.
im{a /mit.r\/ <mi.tr\> masc. a friend.        mI&7u& /mi~¯.Î˙o/ <mii~.Îhu~> adj. shrewd.

im{ata /mit.r\.ta/ <mi.tr\.ta> adj.           muk¥mo /mu.k\d.d\.mo/
friendship.                                   <mu.k\.dd\.mo> masc. a law suit.

im(ya /mit˙.ja/ <mi.thja> adj. 1. illusory,   mukablo /mu.kab.lo/ <mu.ka.b\.lo>
2. unreal.                                    masc. a comparison.

imlkt /mil.k\t/ <mil.k\.t\> fem.              mukt /muk.t\/ <mu.kt\> adj. free.
property.
                                              muikt /muk.ti/ <mu.kti> fem. freedom.
imln /mi.lan/ <mi.l\.n\> neut. 1.
meeting, 2. union.                            mu`vas /muk˙.vas/ <mu.kh\.va.s\>
                                              masc. a sort of mouth cleaning food
imlav4 /mi.la.v\ˇ/ <mi.la.v\.ˇ\> fem.         taken after a meal.
adulteration.
                                              mu`I /mu.k˙i/ <mu.khii> masc. chief of
imlavvu& /mi.lav.vu~/ <mi.la.v\.vu~> v.tr.    a village or a community.
to mix.
                                              mu~y /muk˙.j\/ <mu.khj\> adj. 1. chief,
imS{aI /mis.tri/ <mi.strii> masc. a skilled   2. foremost.
craftsman.
                                              mug4 /mu.g\ˇ/ <mu.g\.ˇ\> masc. a
mI5a: /mi.ˇ˙a.i/ <mi.ˇha.ii> fem. sweet.      crown.

mI5a= /mi.ˇ˙aß/ <mii.ˇha.ß\> fem.             mu5\5I /muˇ˙.ˇ˙i/ <mu.ˇhˇhii> fem. a fist.
sweetness.
                                              mutr6I /mu.t\r.Îi/ <mu.t\.r\.Îii> fem. a
mI5u& /mi.ˇ˙u~/ <mii.ˇhu~> neut. salt.        urinal.

mI5u& /mi.ˇ˙u~/ <mii.ˇhu~> adj. sweet.        mudt /mu.d\t/ <mu.d\.t\> fem. a fixed
                                              time.
mI8 /mi::¯/ <mii.¯\> neut .wax.
                                              mu¥l /mud.d\l/ <mu.dd\.l\> fem. the
mI8b]aI /mi:Î.b\t.ti/ <mii.¯\.b\.ttii>        principal amount.
fem. candle.
                                              mu¥o /muddo/ <mu.ddo> masc. issue.
mI&6u& /miÎ.Îu~/ <mii.Îu~> neut. a figure
of zero.                                      mu±k /mud.r\k/ <mu.dr\.k\> masc.
                                              printer.
                                                                                  164


mu±a /mud.ra/ <mu.dra> fem. a stamp.
                                           mus¥o /mu.s\d.do/ <mu.s\.ddo> masc.
muin/mu.ni/ <mu.ni> masc. a sage.          a draft.

munIm /mu.nim/ <mu.ni.m\> masc. 1.         muslman /mu.sal.man/
an accountant, 2. a manager.               <mu.s\.l\.ma.n\> masc. a follower of
                                           Islam.
mufils /mup˙.lis/ <mu.ph\.li.s\> adj.
penniless.                                 musafr /mu.sa.p˙\r/ <mu.sa.ph\.r\>
                                           masc. a traveller.
mur3I /mur.g˙i/ <mu.r\.ghii> fem. hen.
                                           musafrI /mu.sa.p˙\.ri/ <mu.sa.ph\.rii>
murityo /mu.r\.ti.o/ <mu.r\.ti.jo> masc.   fem. 1 a travel, 2. a journey.
a would-be-son-in-law or bridegroom.
                                           musIbt /mu.si.b\t/ <mu.sii.b\.t\> fem.
murBbI /mu.r\b.bi/ <mu.r\.bbii> adj.       trouble.
elderly.
                                           muiSlm /mus.lim/ <mu.sli.m\> masc. a
murBbo /mu.r\b.bo/ <mu.r\.bbo> masc.       follower of Islam.
a kind of conserved food.
                                           mUkvu& /muk.vu~/ <mu.k\.vu~> v.tr. to put.
murad /mu.rad/ <mu.ra.d\> fem. desire.
                                           mU&gu& /mu˜.gu/ <muu~.gu~> adj. 1.
mulk /mu.l\k/ <mu.l\.k\> masc. a           speechless, 2. silent.
territory.
                                           mU2 /muc˙/ <mu.ch\> fem. the
multvI /mu.l\t.vi/ <mu.l\.t\.vii> adj.     moustache.
postponed.
                                           mU5 /muˇ˙/ <mu.ˇh\> fem. the hilt of a
mulv8I /mu.l\v.¯i/ <mu.l\.v\.¯ii> fem.     sword.
valuation.
                                           mU6I /mu.Îi/ <muu.Îii> fem. 1. capital,
mulakat /mu.la.kat/ <mu.la.ka.t\> fem.     2. investment.
a visit.
                                           mUtr /mu.t\r/ <muu.t\.r\> neut. urine.
mulaym /mu.la.j\m/ <mu.la.j\.m\> adj.
soft.                                      mUtrvu& /mu.t\r.vu~/ <muu.t\.r\.vu~>
                                           v.intr. to urinate.
mu+kel /muß.kel/ <mu.ßke.l\> adj.
difficult.                                 mU{aip*6 /mut.r\.pi¯.Î\/ neut. the kidney.

mu+kelI /muß.ke.li/ <mu.ßke.lii> fem.      mU{aa=y /mut.ra.ß\j/ <muu.tra.ß\.j\>
difficulty.                                masc. the bladder.
                                                                                           165


                                               me9I /me.t˙i/ <me.tii> fem. 1. a kind of
mUr` /mu.r\k˙/ <muu.r\.kh\> adj. fool.         seed used for seasoning, 2. a plant used
                                               as vegetable.
mUtR /mur.t\/ <muu.rt\> adj. 1.
corporeal, 2. concrete.                        me9Ipak /me.t˙i.pak/ <me.thii.pa.k\>
                                               masc. a sweet made of me9I.
mUitR /mur.ti/ <muu.rti> fem. an idol.
                                               me9Iyu& /met˙.ju~/ <me.thii.ju~> neut. a kind
mUlvvu& /mu.l\v.vu~/ <muu.l\.v\.vu~> v.tr.     of pickles seasoned with me9I.
1. to ascertain the price, 2. to assay.
                                               med /med/ <me.d\> masc. fat.
mULy /mul.j\/ <muu.lj\> neut. 1. value,
2. price.                                      mednI /med.ni/ <me.d\.nii> fem.
                                               congregation.
mUX /muÆ/ <muu.lj\> neut. 1. origin, 2.
root, 3. fundamental.                          medan /me.dan/ <me.da.n\> neut. 1. a
                                               plain, 2. a playground.
mUXaxr /mu.Æak.ß\r/ <muu.Æa.kß\.r\>
masc. pl. the letters of an alphabet.          mena /me.na/ <me.na> fem. a kind of
                                               song-bird.
mUXo /mu.Æo/ <muu.Æo> masc. a radish.
                                               mel /m´l/ <me.l\> masc. 1. filth, 2. dirt.
mU&gu& /mu˜.gu~/ <muu~.gu~> adj. 1.
speechless, 2. dumb.                           mel`aw& /m´l.k˙a.u~/ <me.la.kha.u~> adj. a
                                               cloth that conceals dirt.
mU&zv8 /mu~Ô˙.v\¯/ <muu~.Ôh\.v\.¯\>
fem. uneasiness.                               mel6I /m´l.Îi/ <me.l\.Îii> fem. a female
                                               ghost.
mU&zavu& /mu~.Ô˙a.vu~/ <muu.Ôha.vu~> v.intr.
to be perplexed.                               melvu& /mel.vu~/ <me.l\.vu~> v.tr. to put.

mU&6vu& /mu¯Î.vu~/ <mu~.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to       melu& /m´.lu~/ <me.lu~> adj. 1. dirty, 2.
shave the head entirely.                       filthy.

m<Tyu& /mrut.ju~/ <mr≤u.tju~> neut. death.     me&= /m´~ß/ <me.ß\> fem. soot.

m<d&g /mru.d\˜g/ <mr≤u.d\~.g\> neut. a         meXv8 /meÆ.v\¯/ <me.Æ\.v\.¯\> neut. a
kind of drum.                                  mixture.

me6I /me.Îi/ <me.Îii> fem. an upper            meXvvu& /me.Æ\v.vu~/ <me.Æ\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
storey.                                        to mix.
                                                                                    166


meXap /me.Æap/ <me.Æa.p\> masc. 1. a      moj=o` /moÔ.ßok˙/ <mo.Ô\.ßo.kh\>
meeting, 2. a union.                      masc. luxury.

meXav6o /me.Æav.Îo/ <me.Æa.v\.Îo>         moju& /mo.Ôu~/ <mo.Ôu~> neut. a wave.
masc. a public function.
                                          moju& /mo.Ôu~/ <mo.Ôu~> neut. a glove.
meXo /me.Æo/ <me.Æo> masc. a fair.
                                          mojUd /mo.Ôud/ <mo.Ôu.d\> adj.
me& /m´~/ <me~> pron. I.                  existing.

moklvu& /mok\l.vu~/ <mo.k\.l\.vu> v.tr.   mo4u& /mo.ˇu~/ <mo.ˇu~> adj. 1. big, 2.
to send.                                  large, 3. adult, 4. elder.

mokXa= /mok.Æaß/ <mo.k\.Æa.ß\> fem. 1.    mo6u& /mo.Îu~/ <mo.Îu~> adj. late.
roominess, 2. freedom, 3. comfort.
                                          mo7amo7 /mø.Î˙a.moÎ˙/
mokXu& /mok.Æu~/ <mo.k\.Æu~> adj. 1.      <mo.Îha.mo.Îh\> advb. fact to face.
spacious, 2. open.
                                          mo7u& /mø.Î˙u~/ <mo.Îhu~> neut. the
moka8 /mo.ka¯/ <mo.ka.¯\> fem. a          mouth.
condolence ritual.
                                          mo8 /mo¯/ <mo.¯\> neut. lubricant
moko /mø.ko/ <mo.ko> masc. a              mixed with flour.
favorable opportunity.
                                          mot /møt/ <mo.t\> neut. death.
mox /mok.ß\/ <mo.kß\> masc.
liberation.                               moityo /mo.ti.jo/ <mo.ti.jo> masc.
                                          cataract.
mogro /mog.ro/ <mo.g\.ro> masc. a
kind of flower plant.                     motI /mo.ti/ <mo.tii> neut. a pearl.

moc8 /mo.c\¯/ <mo.c\.¯\> fem. a           modI /mo.di/ <mo.dii> masc. a grocery.
female of the cobbler community.
                                          mo- /mob˙/ <mo.bh\> masc. a beam
mocI /mo.ci/ <mo.cii> masc. 1. a
                                          supporting a roof.
cobbler, 2. a name of a community.
                                          mo-adar /mo.b˙a.dar/ <mo.bha.da.r\>
moj6I /moÔ.Îi/ <mo.Ô\.Îii> fem. a kind
                                          adj. 1. respected, 2. having high status.
of light, embroidered shoe.
                                          mor /mor/ <mo.r\> masc. peacock.
mojmja /moÔ.m\.Ôa/ <mo.Ô\.m\.Ôa> fem.
1 luxury, 2. comfort.                     morco /mor.co/ <mo.r\.co> masc. front.
                                                                                       167


morlI /mor.li/ <mo.r\.lii> fem. a flute.     mohvu& /moh.vu~/ <mo.h\.vu~> v.tr. to be
                                             fascinated or deluded.
mors /mo.r\s/ <mo.r\.s\> fem. granular
sugar.                                       moXu& /mø.Æu~/ <mo.Æu~> adj. tasteless.

moiryo /mor.(i).jo/ <mo.ri.jo> masc. a       mo& /mø~/ <mo~> neut. 1. the mouth, 2.
kind of wild corn.                           face.

morI /mø.ri/ <mo.rii> fem. a drain.          mo&3varI /mø~g˙.va.ri/ <mo~.gh\.va.rii>
                                             fem. 1. dearness, 2. allowance.
mol /mol/ <mo.l\> masc. a standing
crop.                                        mo&3u& /mø~˜.gu~/ <mo~.ghu~> adj. extremely
                                             dear.
movu& /mo.vu~/ <mo.vu~> v.tr. to lubricate
flour with oil, ghee etc.                    mOn /m\un/ <m\u.n\> neut. self-
                                             imposed dumbness.
mosm /mo.s\m/ <mo.s\.m\> fem. a
season.                                      mOlvI /m\ul.vi/ <m\ul.vii> masc. 1. a
                                             learned Muslim, 2. an expert in Islamic
mosmI /mos.mi/ <mo.s\.mii> adj.              laws.
seasonal.
                                             mOlIk /m\u.lik/ <m\u.lii.k\> adj.
mos&bI /mo.s\m.bi/ <mo.s\~.bii> fem. a       original.
kind of fruit.
                                             Myan /mjan/ <mja.n\> neut. a scabbard.
mosaX /mo.saÆ/ <mo.sa.Æ\> neut. the
maternal side of relation.
                                                                  y
mosaXu& /mo.sa.Æu~/ <mo.sa.Æu~> neut. 1.
gifts given by the parents to their
daughter on her first pregnancy, 2. gifts    yk<t /j\k.rut/ <j\.kr≤u.t\> neut. the liver.
given by the maternal side of the
relatives.                                   yjman /j\Ô.man/ <j\.Ô\.ma.n\> masc. a
                                             host.
moh /moh/ <mo.h\> masc. fascination.
                                             y}a /j\g.n\/ <j\.gn\> masc. a religious
mohk /mo.h\k/ <mo.h\.k\> adj.                performance.
charming.
                                             ymdUt /j\m.dut/ <j\.m\.duu.t\> masc. a
mohn9aX /mo.h\n.t˙a /                        servant of the god of death.
<mo.h\.n\.tha.Æ\> masc. a kind of
sweetmeets.                                  y= /j\ß/ <j\.ß\> masc. fame.

                                             y&{a /j\n.tr\/ <j\~.tr\> neut. a machine.
                                                                                          168


                                                yogI /jo.gi/ <jo.gii> masc. an ascetic.
yatna /jat.na/ <ja.t\.na> fem. suffering.
                                                yoGy /jog.j\/ <jo.gj\> adj. 1. proper, 2.
ya{aa /jat.ra/ <ja.tra> fem. a pilgrim.         needful.

yad /jad/ <ja.d\> fem. memory.                  yojk /jo,Ô\k/ <jo.Ô\.k\> masc. an
                                                organizer.
yadI /ja.di/ <ja.dii> fem. a note.
                                                yojna /joÔ.na/ <jo.Ô\.na> fem. a plan.
yan /jan/ <ja.n\> neut. a vehicle
(formal)                                        yojvu& /joÔ.vu~/ <jo.Ô\.vu~> v.tr. to plan.

yar /jar/ <ja.r\> masc. friend.                 yoin /jo.ni/ <jo.ni> fem. a female’s
                                                generative organ.
ya&i{ak /ja~t.rik/ <ja~.tri.k\> adj. machine-
like.                                           yOvn /jau.ban/ <j\u.v\.n\> neut. youth.
yuikt /juk.ti/ <ju.kti> fem. 1. skill, 2.
trick.
                                                                      r
yug /jug/ <ju.g\> masc. an age.

yu)0 /jud˙.d˙\/ <ju.dhdh\> neut. war.           rkm /r\.k\m/ <r\.k\.m\> fem. a thing.

yuvk /ju.v\k/ <ju.v\.k\> masc. a young          rkabI /r\.ka.bi/ <r\.ka.bii> fem. 1. a
man.                                            plate, 2. a saucer.

yuvtI /juv.ti/ <ju.v\.tii> fem. a young         rkt /rk.t\/<r\.kt\> neut. blood.
women.
                                                rxk /r\k.ß\k/ <r\.kß\.k\> masc. a
yuvraj /juv.raÔ/ <ju.v\.ra.Ô\> masc. a          guard.
crown prince.
                                                rxa /r\k.ßa/ <r\.kßa> fem. a protection.
yuvra}aI /juv.rag.ni/ <ju.v\.ra.gnii> fem.
the wife of a crown prince.                     r`6p4\4I /r\.k˙\Î.p\ˇ.ˇi/
                                                <r\.kh\.Î\.p\.ˇˇii> fem. 1. wandering,
yog /jo.g\/ <jo.g\> masc. union.                2. roaming.

yoganuyog /jo.ga.nu.jog/ <jo.ga.nu.jo.g\>       r`6vu& /r\.k˙\Î.vu~/ <r\.kh\.Î\.vu~>
advb. 1. by chance, 2. incidently.              v.intr. 1. to wander, 2. to roam.

yoignI /jo.gi.ni/ <jo.gi.nii> fem. a            r`6u& /r\k˙.Îu~/ <r\.kh\.Îu~> adj. 1.
female ascetic.                                 wandering, 2. roaming.
                                                                                            169


r`at /r\.k˙at/ <r\.kha.t\> fem. an illicit
wife.                                         rja: /r\.Ôai/ <r\.Ôa.ii> fem. a quilt.

r`e /r\.k˙e/ <r\.khe> advb. by chance.        rjaic5\5I /r\.Ôa.ciˇ˙ˇ˙i/ <r\.Ôa.ci.ˇhˇhii>
                                              fem. a written permission.
r`evaX /r\.k˙e.vaÆ/ <r\.khe.va.Æ\> masc.
1. guardian, 2. a protector.                  r4vu& /r\ˇ.vu~/ <r\.ˇ\vu~> v.tr. to speak the
                                              same thing repeatedly.
rg /r\g/ <r\.g\> fem. a vein.
                                              r6vu& /r\Î.vu~/ <r\.Î\.vu~> v.intr. to
rgi=yu& /r\.g\.ßi.ju~/ <r\.g\.ßi.ju~> adj.    weep.
slow and tedious.
                                              r6aroX /r\.Îa.roÆ/ <r\.Îa.ro.Î\> fem.
r3va4 /r\g.vaˇ/ <r\.gh\.va.ˇ\> masc.          weeping.
bewilderment.
                                              ri7yaXu& /r\.Î˙i.ja.Æu~/ <r\.Îhi.ja.Æu~> adj.
rcna /r\c.na/ <r\.c\.na> fem. 1.              fascinating.
construction, 2. composition.
                                              r8 /r\¯/ <r\.¯\> neut. a desert.
rciyta /r\c.ji.ta/ <r\.c\.ji.ta> masc. 1. a
constructor, 2. a composer.                   r8 /r\¯/ <r\.¯\> neut. a battle-field.

rcvu& /r\c.vu~/ <r\.c\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to       r8kvu& /r\.¯\k.vu~/ <r\.¯\.k\.vu~> v.intr.
construct, 2. to compose.                     to tinkle.

rj /r\Ô/ <r\.Ô\> fem. 1. a molecule, 2. a     r8kar /r\¯.kar/ <r\.¯\.ka.r\> masc. a
particle.                                     tinkling sound.

rjk8 /r\Ô.k\¯/ <r\.Ô\.k\.¯\> masc. a          r82o6 /r\¯.c˙oÎ/ masc. Lord Sri
particle of dust.                             Krishna.

rjko /r\Ô.ko/ <r\.Ô\.ko> masc. a kind of      r8z8vu& /r\¯.Ô˙\¯.vu~/ <r\.¯\.Ôh\.¯\.vu~>
grass.                                        v.intr. to tinkle repeatedly.

rjt /r\.Ô\t/ <r\.Ô\.t\> neut. silver.         rtn /r\.t\n/ <r\.t\.n\> neut. the pupil
                                              of the eye.
rjnI /r\Ô.ni/ <r\.Ô\.nii> fem. night.
                                              rtl /r\.t\l/ <r\.t\.l\> masc. a measure
rjpUt /r\Ô.put/ <r\.Ô\.pu.t\> masc. a         of weight.
man belonging to Rajput community.
                                              rtva /r\t.va/ <r\.t\.va> masc. a kind of
rja /r\.Ôa/ <r\.Ôa> fem. 1. a holiday, 2. a   skin disease.
leave.
                                                                                       170


rta= /r\.taß/ <r\.ta.ß\> fem. redness.        rmUj /r\.muÔ/ <r\.mu.Ô\> fem. 1.
                                              humor, 2. fun.
rtaXu& /r\.ta.Æu~/ <r\.ta.Æu~> neut. yam.
                                              rvrvvu& /r\v.r\v.vu~/ <r\.v\.r\.v\.vu~>
rta&0Xu& /r\.ta~n.d˙\.Æu~/ <r\.ta~.dh\.Æu~>   v.intr. to occur a biting sensation on the
adj. night-blind.                             tongue.

rTn /r\t.n\/ <r\.tn\> neut. a gem.            rivvar /r\.vi.var/ <r\.vi.va.r\> masc.
                                              Sunday.
r9 /r\t˙/ <r\.th\> masc. a chariot.
                                              rvo /r\.vo/ <r\.vo> masc. granular flour
r¥I /r\d.di/ <r\.ddii> fem. 1. useless, 2.    of wheat.
scrap papers and etc.
                                              rs /r\s/ <r\.s\> masc. juice.
rbarI /r\.ba.ri/ <r\.ba.rii> masc. a
shepherd.                                     rs /r\s/ <r\.s\> masc. interest.

rmk6u& /r\.m\k.Îu~/ <r\.m\.k\.Îu~> neut.      rsaksI /r\.sa.k\.si/ <r\.sa.k\.sii> fem.
a toy.                                        an intense contest.

rm`a8 /r\m.k˙a¯/ <r\.m\.kha.¯\> neut.         rsadar /r\.sa.dar/ <r\.sa.da.r\> adj.
a riot.                                       juicy.

rmjan /r\m.Ôan/ <r\.m\.Ôha.n\> masc.          rsay8 /r\.sa.j\¯/ <r\.sa.j\.¯\> neut.
the ninth and the holy month of the Hijri     chemical.
era.
                                              risk /r\.sik/ <r\.si.k\> adj. romantic.
rmz4 /r\m.Ô˙\ˇ/ <r\.m\.Ôh\.ˇ\> fem. the
climax and the higest tempo of dancing,       rsI /r\.si/ <r\.sii> fem. a vaccine.
singing etc.
                                              rsId /r\.sid/ <r\.sii.d\> fem. a receipt.
rmt /r\.m\t/ <r\.m\.t\> fem. 1. a
game, 2. a play. 3. a sport.                  rso /r\.so/ <r\.so> masc. thick juice of
                                              cooked vegetables.
rmityaX /r\.m\.ti.jaÆ/ <r\.m\.ti.ja.Æ\>
adj. 1. playful, 2. joyful.                   rso;yo /r\.so.i.jo/ <r\.so.ii.jo> masc. a
                                              male cook.
rmrmvu& /r\m.r\m.vu~/ <r\..m\.r\.m\.vu~>
v.intr. 1. to jingle, 2. to tinkle.           rso;8 /r\.so.i.j\¯/ <r\.so.ii.j\.¯\> fem.
                                              a female cook.
rmvu& /r\m.vu~/ <r\.m\.vu~> v.intr. 1. to
play, 2. to sport.
                                                                                            171


rso: /r\.so.i/ <r\.so.ii> fem. 1. cooking,     r&g-ed /r\˜.b˙ed/ <r\~.g\.bhe.d\> masc.
2. cooked food.                                racism.

rso6u& /r\.so.Îu~/ <r\.so.Îu~> neut. a         r&glo /r\˜g.lo/ <r\~.g\.lo> masc. a
kitchen.                                       clown.

rsoXI /r\.so.Æi/ <r\.so.Æii> fem. a bug-       r&gvu& /r\˜g.vu~/ <r\~.g\.vu~> v.tr. to color.
like tumor.
                                               r&gIn /r\˜.gin/ <r\~.gii.n\> adj. colorful.
rSto /r\s.to/ <r\.sto> masc. 1. a road, 2.
a cure, 3. a solution.                         ra: /ra.i/ <ra.ii> fem. 1. mustard plant,
                                               2. mustard.
rSsI /r\s.si/ <r\.ssii> fem. a thick
string.                                        raxs /rak.ß\s/ <ra.kß\.s\> masc. 1. a
                                               monster, 2. a demon, 3. a devil.
rhSy /r\.h\s.j\/ <r\.h\.sj\> neut. secret.
                                               raxsI /rak.ß\.si/ <ra.kß\.sii> adj. 1.
rhe5a8 /r\.he.ˇ˙a¯/ <r\.he.ˇha.¯\> neut.       devilish, 2. monstrous.
1. a house, 2. an abode, 3. a residence.
                                               ra` /ra.k˙/ <ra.kh\> fem. ashes.
rhe8Ikr8I /r\.he.¯i.k\r.¯i/
<r\.he.¯ii.k\.r\.¯ii> fem. 1. life style,      ra`6I /rak˙.Îi/ <ra.kh\.Îii> fem. a
2. manners.                                    thread that sisters tie on the arm of the
                                               brothers for their protection.
rhevu& /r\.he.vu~/ <r\.he.vu~> v.intr. 1. to
live, 2. to dwell, 3. to reside.               ra`vu& /rak˙.vu~/ <ra.kh\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                               keep.
rXvu& /r\Æ.vu~/ <r\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. to earn.
                                               ra`o6Iyu& /ra.k˙o.Îi.ju~/ <ra.kho.Îii.ju~>
riXyam8u& /r\. i.ja.m\.¯u~/                    adj. grey.
<r\.Æi.ja.m\.¯u~> adj. 1. beautiful, 2.
pleasant.                                      rag /rag/ <ra.g\> masc. tune.

r&k /r\˜k/ <r\~.k\> adj. poor.                 raj /raÔ/ <ra.Ô\> neut. a kingdom.

r&g /r\˜g/ <r\~.g\> masc. color.               rajku&vr /raÔ.ku~.v\r/ <ra.Ô\.ku~.v\.r\>
                                               masc. a prince
r&g-Uim /r\˜.g\.b˙u.mi/ <r\~.g\.bhuu.mi>
fem. a theatre.                                rajku&vrI /raÔ.ku~v.ri/ <ra.Ô\.ku~.v\.rii>
                                               fem. a princess.
r&g7&g /r\˜g.Î˙\˜g/ <r\~.g\.Îh\~.g\>
masc. manners.                                 rajkar8 /raÔ.ka.r\¯/ <ra.Ô\.ka.r\.¯\>
                                               neut. politics.
                                                                                     172



rajkIy /raÔ.ki.j\/ <ra.Ô\.kii.j\> adj.      ratidvs /rat.di:.v\s/ <ra.t\.di.v\.s\>
political.                                  adj. day and night.

rajkumar /raÔ.ku.mar/ <ra.Ô\.ku.ma.r\>      ratpaXI /rat.pa.Æi/ <ra.t\.pa.Æii> fem. a
masc. prince.                               night-shift.

rajgadI /raÔ.ga.di/ <ra.Ô\.ga.dii> fem. a   ratvaso /rat.va.so/ <ra.t\.va.so> masc. a
throne.                                     halt for a night.

raj0anI /raÔ.d˙a.ni/ <ra.Ô\.dha.nii> fem.   ratu& /red/ <ra.tu~> adj. red.
a state’s capital.
                                            rai{a/rat.ri/ <ra.tri> fem. night.
rajnIit /raÔ.ni.ti/ <ra.Ô\.nii.ti> fem.
politics.                                   ranI /ra.ni/ <ra.nii> adj. wild.

rajnEitk /raÔ.n\i.tik/ <ra.Ô\.n\i.ti.k\>    raf6o /rap˙.Îo/ <ra.ph\.Îo> masc. 1. an
adj. political.                             ant-hill, 2. a serpent’s burrow.

rajrmt /raÔ.r\.m\t/ <ra.Ô\.r\.m\.t\>        rab /rab/ <ra.b\> fem. gruel.
fem. diplomacy.
                                            ram7ol /ram.Î˙ol/ <ra.m\.Îho.l\> masc.
raja /ra.Ôa/ <ra.Ôa> masc. the king.        a big drum.

ra@ /ra.Ôi/ <ra.Ôii> adj. pleased.          rampatr /ram.pa.t\r/ <ra.m\.pa.t\.r\>
                                            neut. a begging-bowl.
rajy /raÔ.j\/ <ra.Ôj\> neut. a state.
                                            ramfX /ram.p˙\Æ/ <ra.m\.ph\.Æ\> neut.
rajyai-qek /raÔ.ja.b˙i.ßek/                 a kind of fruit.
<ra,Ôja,bhi.s°e.k\> masc. 1.
enthronement, 2. coronation.                ramba8 /ram.ba¯/ <ra.m\.ba.¯\> neut.
                                            infallible.
ra6 /raÎ/ <ra.Î\> fem. a shout.
                                            ram-roso /ram.b˙\.ro.so/
ra8I /ra.¯i/ <ra.¯ii> fem. queen.           <ra.m\.bh\.ro.so> masc. faith in god.

ra8Ivas /ra.¯i.vas/ <ra.¯ii.va.s\> masc.    ram-rose /ram.b˙\.ro.se/
a harem.                                    <ra.m\.bh\.ro.so> postp. 1. things left
                                            on the faith in god, 2. things left
ra8o /\ra.¯o/ <ra.¯o> masc. a Rajput        unattended.
king.
                                            ramrajy /ram.raÔ.j\/ <ra.m\.ra.Ôj\> neut.
rat /rat/ <ra.t\> fem. night.               an ideal state.
                                                                                          173


                                             ra&0vu& /ra~d˙.vu~/ <ra~.dh\.vu~> v.tr. to
ramlIla /ram.li.la/ <ra.m\.lii.la> fem. a    cook.
folk drama.
                                             irbavvu& /ri.bav.vu~/ <ri.ba.v\.vu~> v.tr. 1.
ramI /ra.mi/ <ra.mii> masc. a gardener.      to persecute, 2. to tyrannize.

ramo /ra.mo/ <ra.mo> masc. a domestic        irvaj /ri.vaÔ/ <ri.va.Ô\> masc. a custom.
servant.
                                             irsavu& /ri:sa.vu~/ <ri.sa.vu~> v.intr. to be
ray8 /ra.j\¯/ <ra.j\.¯\> fem. a tree.        displeased.

ray8 /ra.j\¯/ <ra.j\.¯\> neut. fruits of     rIzvvu& /ri.Ô˙\v.vu~/ <rii.Ôh\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
ray8 tree.                                   to please.

rav8h(9o /ra.v\¯.h\t˙.t˙o/                   rI7u& /ri.Î˙u~/ <rii.Îhu~> adj. seasoned.
<ra.v\.¯\.h\.ththo> masc. a kind of
musical instrument.                          rIt /rit/ <rii.t\> fem. 1. method, 2.
                                             style.
ravi8yo /ra.v\.¯i.jo/ <ra.v\.¯i.jo> masc.
a village-watchman.                          rIt-at /rit.b˙at/ <rii.t\.bha.t\> masc. pl.
                                             manners.
raQ4^ /raß.ˇr\/ <ra.s°ˇr\> neut. a nation.
                                             rItirvaj /rit.ri.vaÔ/ <rii.t\.ri.va.Ô\>
raQ4^Iy /raß.ˇri.j\/ <ra.s°ßˇri.j\> adj.     masc. pl. customs.
national.
                                             rI&g8 /ri˜.g\¯/ <rii~.g\.¯\> neut. an
ras /ras/ <ra.s\> masc. a kind of            eggplant.
collective dance.
                                             rI&2 /ri~c˙/ <rii~.ch\> neut. a bear.
rasayi8k /ra.sa.j\.¯ik/ <ra.sa.j\.¯i.k\>
adj. chemical.                               ruAab /ru.ab/ <ru.a.b\> masc. 1. pomp,
                                             2. grandeur.
raht /ra.h\t/ <ra.h\.t\> fem. relief.
                                             rucvu& /ruc.vu~/ <ru.c\.vu~> exp. to like.
rahdarI /rah.da.ri/ <ra.h\.da.rii> masc.
a traveler on a foot.                        ruic /ru.ci/ <ru.ci> fem. liking.

rahbr /rah.b\r/ <ra.h\.b\.r\> masc. a        ruickr /ru.ci.k\r/ <ru.ci.k\.r\> adj. 1.
guide.                                       tasteful, 2. likable.

rahu /ra.hu/ <ra.huu> masc. a planet of      rudn /ru.d\n/ <ru.d\.n\> neut.
that name.                                   weeping.
                                                                                            174


rui0r /ru.d˙ir/ <ru.dhi.r\> neut. blood.       £mal /ru.mal/ <ruu.ma.l\> masc. 1.
                                               towel, 2. handkerchief.
£ /ru/ <ruu> neut. cotton.
                                               £&0vu& /ru~d˙.vu~/ <ruu~.dh\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
£zvu& /ruÔ˙.vu~/ <ruu.Ôh\.vu~> v.intr. to      restrict 2. to stop.
be healed.
                                               re`a /re.k˙a/ <re.kha> fem. a line.
£5vu& /ruˇ˙.vu~/ <ruu.ˇh\.vu~> v.intr. to be
enraged because of displeasure.                re`a&= /re.ka~mß/ <re.kha~.ß\> masc. a
                                               longitude.
£6u& /ru.Îu~/ <ruu.Îu~> adj. graceful.
                                               rec /rec/ <re.c\> masc. a purgative.
£7 /ruÎ˙/ <ruu.Îh\> adj. traditionally
established.                                   re6 /reÎ/ <re.Î\> fem. a raid.

£i7 /ru.Î˙i/ <ruu.Îhi> fem. a custom.          re6vu& /reÎ.vu~/ <re.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to pour.

£p /rup/ <ruu.p\> neut. 1. appearance,         rei7yaX /re.Î˙i.jaÆ/ <re.Îhi.ja.Æ\> adj. 1.
2. form.                                       stray, 2. ownerless and wandering.

£pk /ru.p\k/ <ruu.p\.k\> neut. a               re7u& /re.Î˙u~/ <re.Îhu~> adj. uncared for
metaphor.                                      by any one.

£pre`a /rup.re.k˙a/ <ruu.p\.re.kha>            re8 /re¯/ <re.¯\> neut. a substance for
fem. an outline.                               soldering metals.

£paXu& /ru.pa.Æu~/ <ruu.pa.Æu~> adj.           retI /re.ti/ <re.tii> fem. sand.
beautiful.
                                               rebzeb /reb.Ô˙eb/ <re.b\.Ôhe.b\> adj.
£pa&tr /ru.pa~n.t\r/ <ruu.pa~.t\.r\> neut.     wet with perspiration.
transformation.
                                               rel /rel/ <re.l\> fem. flood.
£ipyo /ru.pi.jo/ <ruu.pi.jo> masc.
India’s currency.                              relm2el /re.l\m.c˙el/ <re.l\.m\.che.l\>
                                               fem. an overflow.
£p&u /ru.pu~/ <ruu.pu~> neut. silver.
                                               relavu& /re.la.vu~/ <re.la.vu~> v.intr. to
£b£ /rub.ru/ <ruu.b\.ruu> advb. in the         spread like a stream.
presence of.
                                               relo /re.lo/ <re.lo> masc. a small thin
£mzUm /rum.Ô˙um/ <ruu.m\.Ôhuu.m\>              flow.
advb. with the sounds of jingling
anklets.                                       re=m /re.ß\m/ <re.ßh\.m\> neut. silken.
                                                                                          175



resadar /re.sa.dar/ <re.sa.da.r\> adj.         ronk /ro.n\k/ <ro.n\.k\> fem. beauty.
fibrous.
                                               ropvu& /rop.vu~/ <ro.p\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
reso /re.so/ <re.so> masc. fiber.              plant, 2. to sow.

re&kvu& /r´~k.vu~/ <re~.k\.vu~> v.intr. to     roma&c /ro.ma~µc/ <ro.ma~.c\> masc. a
bellow (of cow, buffalo).                      thrill.

rok6 /ro.k\Î/ <ro.k\.Î\> fem. cash.            rovu& /ro.vu~/ <ro.vu~> v.intr. to cry.

rok6Iyu& /ro.k\.Îi.ju~/ <ro.k\.Îii.ju~> adj.   ro=nI /roß.ni/ <ro.Ô\.nii> fem.
dealing in cash.                               illumination.

rokvu& /rok.vu~/ <ro.k\> v.tr. to stop.        roq /roß/ <ro.s°\> masc. 1. anger, 2.
                                               wrath.
roka8 /ro.ka¯/ <ro.ka.¯\> neut. delay.
                                               rO± /r\u.dr\/ <r\u.dr\> adj. 1. terrible,
rog /rog/ <ro.g\> masc. disease.               2. horrible.

roigyu& /ro.gi.ju~/ <ro.gi.ju~> adj. sick.
                                                                     l
roj /roÔ/ <ro.Ô\> masc. 1. a day, 2. a
date.                                          lkvo /l\k.vo/ <l\.k\.vo> masc.
roj /roÔ/ <ro.Ô\> masc. a daily wage.          paralysis.

                                               lx8 /l\k.ß\¯/ <l\.kß\.¯\> neut. 1. a
rojnI=I /roÔ.ni.ßi/ <ro.Ô\.nii.ßii> fem. a
                                               sign, 2. a symptom, 3. quality.
diary.
                                               låmI /l\k.ßmi/ <l\.kß\.mii> fem. the
rojbroj /roÔ.b\.roÔ/ <ro.Ô\.b\.ro.Ô\>
                                               wide of lord Vishnu and the goddess of
advb. everyday.                                wealth.
ro@ /ro.Ôi/ <ro.Ôii> fem. maintenance.         l`pit /l\k˙.p\.ti/ <l\.kh\.p\.ti> masc.
                                               a millionaire.
rojo /ro.Ôo/ <ro.Ôo> masc. a fast-day for
Muslim.                                        l`lU4 /l\k˙.luˇ/ <l\.kh\.luu.ˇ\> adj.
                                               abundant.
ro4lI /roˇ.li/ <ro.ˇ\.lii> fem. a thin, soft
circular bread of wheat flour.                 l`vu& /l\k˙.vu~/ <l\.kh\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                               write.
rotl /ro.t\l/ <ro.t\.l\> adj. apt to weep
over trifles.
                                                                                            176


l`a8 /l\.k˙a¯/ <l\.kha.¯\> neut.                lckvu& /l\.c\k.vu~/ <l\.c\.k\.vu~> v.intr.
written material.                               to bend down because of burden.

l`av4 /l\.k˙a.v\ˇ/ <l\.kha.v\.ˇ\> fem.          lcko /l\c.ko/ <l\.c\.ko> masc. a lump
writing.                                        of a viscous substance.

l`o4I /l\.k˙o.ˇi/ <l\.kho.ˇii> fem. a           lcpc /l\c.p\c/ <l\.c\.p\.c\> adj.
marble.                                         viscous and doughy.

lg6I /l\g.Îi/ <l\.g\.Îii> fem. a bar of         ljam8I /l\.Ôam.¯i/ <l\.Ôa.m\.¯ii> fem. a
gold.                                           kind of plant whose leaves contract
                                                when we touch.
lgn /l\.g\n/ <l\.g\.n\> neut. marriage.
                                                ljavvu& /l\.Ôav.vu~/ <l\.Ôa.v\.vu~> v.tr. to
lg-g /l\g.b˙\g/ <l\.g\.bh\.g\> advb.            disgrace.
approximately.
                                                ljja /l\Ô.Ôa/ <l\.ÔÔa> fem. modesty.
lgatar /l\.ga.tar/ <l\.ga.ta.r\> advb.
nonstop.                                        l4 /l\ˇ/ <l\.ˇ\> fem. a thin string of
                                                hair.
lgam /l\.gam/ <l\.ga.m\> fem. 1. the
bit of bridle, 2. control.                      l4kvu& /l\.ˇ\k.vu~/ v.intr. to hang.

lgavvu& /l\.gav.vu~/ <l\.ga.v\.vu~> v.tr. 1.    l4kaXu& /l\ˇ.ka.Æu~/ <l\.ˇ\.ka.Æu~> adj. apt
to smear with, 2. to join.                      to walk.

lgI /l\.gi/ <l\.gii> advb. 1. till, 2. up to.   l4ku& /l\ˇ.ku~/ <l\.ˇ\.ku~> neut. a graceful
                                                expression or physical attitude.
lgolg /l\.go.l\g/ <l\.go.l\.g\> postp.
very near.                                      l6t /l\.Î\t/ <l\.Î\.t\> fem. a fight.

lGn /l\g.n\/ <l\.gn\> neut. marriage.           l6vu& /l\Î.vu~/ <l\.Î\.vu~> v.intr. 1. to
                                                fight, 2. to quarrel.
l3rv3r /l\.g˙\r.v\.g˙\r/
<l\.g\.r\.v\.g\.r\> adj. tattered.              l6a: /l\.Îai/ <l\.Îa.ii> fem. a battle.

l3u /l\.g˙u/ <l\.ghu> adj. small.               l6ayk /l\.Îa.j\k/ <l\.Îa.j\.k\> adj. 1.
                                                warlike, 2. inclined to fight.
l3utm /l\.g˙u.t\m/ <l\.ghu.t\.m\> adj.
minimum.                                        l78 /l\.Î˙\¯/ <l\.Îh\.¯\> fem.
                                                manner.
l3umtI /l\.g˙u.m\.ti/ <l\.ghu.m\.tii>
fem. minority.
                                                                                             177


l8vu& /l\¯.vu~/ <l\.¯\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to          lpavu& /l\.pa.vu~/ <l\.pa.vu~> v.intr. to
reap, 2. to harvest.                             hide oneself.

lt /l\t/ <l\.t\> fem. habit.                     lpe4vu& /l\.peˇ.vu~/ <l\.pe.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr. 1.
                                                 to wrap, 2. to involve someone.
l]ao /l\t.to/ <l\.tto> masc. 1. a locality,
2. a street.                                     lpe6vu& /l\.peÎ.vu~/ <l\.pe.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                                 besmear thickly.
l96vu& /l\.t˙\Î.vu~/ <l\.th\.Î\.vu~> v.intr.
1. to stumble, 2. to deteriorate.                lpe6o /l\.pe.Îo/ <l\.pe.Îo> masc. a
                                                 thick layer.
l96Iyu& /l\.t˙\.Îi.ju~/ <l\.ˇh\.Îii.ju~> neut.
stumbling.                                       lPp6 /l\p.p\Î/ <l\.pp\.Î\> fem. a slap.

lpkvu& /l\.p\k.vu~/ <l\.p\.k\.vu~> v.intr.       lPpn2Ppn /l\p.p\n.c˙\p.p\n/
to be scorched.                                  <l\.pp\.n\.ch\.pp\.n\> fem. useless
                                                 worry or discussion.
lpkaro /l\p.ka.ro/ <l\.p\.ka.ro> masc.
repeated scorching or stinging pain.             lf6ff6 /l\.p˙\Î.p˙\.p˙\Î/
                                                 <l\.ph\.Î\.ph\.ph\.Î\> advb. with
lp2p /l\p.c˙\p/ <l\.p\.ch\.p\> fem.              disorderly clothing.
underhand maneuvering.
                                                 lfru& /l\p˙.ru~/ <l\.ph\.ru~> neut. a lump
lp4 /l\.p\ˇ/ <l\.p\.ˇ\> fem. . a swoop,          of the nose-mucus.
2. a pouncing upon.
                                                 lb6vu& /l\.b\Î.vu~/ <l\.b\.Î\.vu~> v.intr.
lp4vu& /l\.p\ˇ.vu~/ <l\.p\.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr. to      to hand.
trap someone.
                                                 lbaco /l\.ba.co/ <l\.ba.co> masc. a
lp6ak /l\p.Îak/ <l\.p\.Îa.k\> fem. a             disorderly collection of cloths, broken
slap.                                            things and etc.

lplp /l\p.l\p/ <l\.p\.l\.p\> fem.                lba6 /l\.baÎ/ <l\.ba.Î\> adj. roguish.
prattle.
                                                 lm8azI&k /l\m.¯a.Ô˙i~k/ <l\.m\.¯a.Ôhi.k\>
lpvu& /l\p.vu~/ <l\.p\.vu~> v.intr. to hide.     fem. a tedious and useless discussion.

lpsvu& /l\.p\s.vu~/ <l\.p\.s\.vu~> v.intr.       lm8u& /l\m.¯u~/ <l\.m\.¯u~> neut. the
to slip.                                         temple.

lps8u& /l\.p\s.vu~/ <l\.p\.s\.vu~> adj.          ly /l\j/ <l\.j\> masc. rhythm.
slippery.
                                                                                               178


llkar /l\l.kar/ <l\.l\.ka.r\> masc. a               lso4vu& /l\.soˇ.vu~/ <l\.so.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr. to
loud singing or utterance.                          mash.

llkarvu& /l\l.kar.vu~/ <l\.l\.ka.r\.vu~> v.tr.      lha8I /l\.ha.¯i/ <l\.ha.¯ii> fem. gift
1. to sing in a lingering tune, 2. to               distributing among the relatives.
challenge someone.
                                                    lhavo /l\.ha.vo/ <l\.ha.vo> masc. a
llcavu& /l\l.ca.vu~/ <l\.l\.ca.v\.vu~> v.tr.        chance.
to be enticed.
                                                    lihyo /l\.hi.jo/ <l\.hi.jo> masc. a scribe.
llna /l\l.na/ <l\.l\.na> fem. a beautiful
woman.                                              lher /l\.her/ <l\.he.r\> fem. a wave.

lvro /l\v.ro/ <l\.v\.ro> masc. a bruise             lherI /l\.he.ri/ <l\.he.rii> adj. joyful.
caused by the nail etc.
                                                    lXvu& /l\Æ.vu~/ <l\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. to bend
lvvu& /l\v.vu~/ <l\.v\.vu~> v.intr. 1. to           down.
prate, 2. to chatter.
                                                    l&g6u& /l\˜g.Îu~/ <l\~.g\.Îu~> adj. 1. lame,
lvajm /l\.va.Ô\m/ <l\.va.Ô\.m\> neut. a             2. cripple.
periodic subscription.
                                                    l&g6o /l\˜g.Îo/ <l\~.g\.Îo> masc. a type
lvadI /l\.va.di/ <l\.va.dii> fem.                   of a mango.
pertaining to arbitration.
                                                    l&gr /l\˜.g\r/ <l\~.g\.r\> neut. an
lvaru& /l\.va.ru~/ <l\.va.ru~> neut. 1. a kid       anchor.
(of goat) 2. a lamb.
                                                    l&gUr /l\˜.gur/ <l\~.guu.r\> masc. a
lvaro /l\.va.ro/ <l\.va.ro> masc. prattle.          monkey.

liv&g /l\.vi˜g/ <l\.vi~.g\> neut. a clove.          l&go4Iyu& /l\˜.go.ˇi.jo/ <l\~.go.ˇi.ju~> masc.
                                                    childhood (friend).
liv&igyu& /l\.vi˜.gi.ju~/ <l\.vi~.gi.ju~> adj. as
big as or shaped like a clove.                      l&p4 /l\m.p\ˇ/ <l\~.p\.ˇ\> adj.
                                                    adulterous.
l+kr /l\ß.k\r/ <l\.ßk\.r\> neut. army.
                                                    l&bcors /l\mb.co.r\s/ <l\~.b\.co.r\.s\>
ls8 /l\.s\¯/ <l\.s\.¯\> neut. garlic.               adj. rectangular.

lsrko /l\.s\r.ko/ <l\.s\.r\.ko> masc. a             l&bodr /l\m.bo.d\r/ <l\~.bo.d\.r\> adj.
scratch.                                            pot-bellied.

                                                    lak6I /lak.Îi/ <la.k\.Îii> fem. a stick.
                                                                                           179


                                               la6kvayu& /la.Î\k.va.ju~/ <la.Î\.k\.va.ju~>
lak6u& /lak.Îu~/ <la.k\.Îu~> neut. 1. wood,    adj. beloved (child).
2. timber.
                                               la6vo /laÎ.vo/ <la.Î\.vo> masc. a kind
laxi8k /lak.ß\.nik/ <la.kß\.¯i.k\> adj.        of sweet.
1. peculiar, 2. typical.
                                               la6u /la.Îu~/ <la.Îu> masc. a kind of
la` /lak˙/ <la.kh\> fem. sealing-wax.          sweet.

la` /lak˙/ <la.kh\> adj. one hundred           lat /lat/ <la.t\> fem. a kick.
thousand.
                                               lad /lad/ <la.d\> fem. excretion of
la`u& /la.k˙u~/ <la.khu~> neut. a birth-       some quadrupeds such as horse.
mark.
                                               ladvu& /lad.vu~/ <la.d\.vu~> v.tr. to load.
lag /lag/ <la.g\> masc. 1. a support, 2.
an opportunity.                                ladI /la.di/ <la.dii> fem. flooring tile.

lag8I /lag.¯i/ <la.g\.¯ii> fem.                la0vu& /lad˙.vu~/ <la.dh\.vu~> v.exp. 1. to
sentiment.                                     find, 2. to get.

lagt /la.g\t/ <la.g\.t\> fem. local            lap4 /la.p\ˇ/ <la.p\.ˇ\> fem. a slap.
taxes.
                                               laprva /la.p\r.va/ <la.p\.r\.va> adj.
lagvg /lag.v\g/ <la.g\.v\.g\> fem.             careless.
influence (for getting gain illegally).
                                               lap=I /lap.ßi/ <la.p\.ßii> fem. a sweet of
lagvu& /lag.vu~/ <la.g\.vu~> v.exp. to feel.   that name.

lagvu& /lag.vu~/ <la.g\.vu~> v.intr. to        lafo /la.p˙o/ <la.pho> masc. a slept.
kindle.
                                               la- /lab˙/ <la.bh\> masc. 1. advantage,
lacar /la.car/ <la.ca.r\> adj. helpless.       2. benefit.

laj /laÔ/ <la.Ô\> fem. 1. credit, 2.           layk /la.j\k/ <la.j\.k\> adj. suitable.
reputation.
                                               lal /lal/ <la.l\> adj. red.
la4I /ma.ˇi/ <la.ˇii> fem. timber-market.
                                               lalc /la.l\c/ <la.l\.c\> fem. greed.
la5I /la.ˇ˙i/ <la.ˇhii> fem. a thick stick.
                                               lalcu& /lal.cu~/ <la.l\.cu~> adj. greedy.
la6 /laÎ/ <la.Î\> masc. pl. endearment.
                                                                                           180


lalsa /lal.sa/ <la.l\.sa> fem. intense         il&g /li˜.g\/ <li~.g\> neut. 1. a sign, 2.
desire.                                        the idol of Lord Shiva, 3. the generative
                                               organ of the male.
lala= /la.laß/ <la.la.ß\> fem. redness.
                                               il&bu /lim.bu~/ <li~.bu~> neut. a lemon.
lailma /la.li.ma/ <la.li.ma> fem.
redness.                                       il&bu6I /lim.bu.Îi/ <li~.bu.Îii> fem. a
                                               lemon-tree.
lalI /la.li/ <la.lii> fem. redness.
                                               il&boXI /lim.bo.Æi/ <li~.bo.Æii> fem. the
lavrI /lav.ri/ <la.v\.rii> fem. a kind of      fruit of a neem tree.
bird.
                                               lI` /lik˙/ <lii.kh\> fem. 1. an egg of a
lavvu& /lav.vu~/ <la.v\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to       louse, 2. a nit.
bring, 2. to fetch, 3. to buy.
                                               lIcI /li.ci/ <lii.cii> fem. a kind of fruit-
la= /laß/ <la.ß\> fem. a corpse.               tree or its fruit.

laX /laÆ/ <la.Æ\> fem. 1. saliva, 2.           lI4I /li.ˇi/ <lii.ˇii> fem. a line.
spittle.
                                               lIm6I /lim.Îi/ <lii.m\.Îii> fem. a kind
laXo /la.Æo/ <la.Æo> masc. a burning           of neem tree.
coal.
                                               lIm6o /lim.Îo/ <lii.m\.Îo> masc. a
la&38 /la~˜.g\¯/ <la~.g\.¯\> fem. fasting.     neem tree.

la&c /la~c/ <la~.c\> fem. a bribe.             lIlm /li.l\m/ <lii.l\.m\> neut. emerald.

la&bu& /la~.bu~/ <la~.bu~> adj. long.          lIla /li.la/ <lii.la> fem. play.

ili`t /li.k˙it/ <li.khi.t\> adj. written.      lIlalher /li.la.l\.her/ <lii.la.l\.he.r\>
                                               fem. complete happiness.
iljjt /liÔ.Ô\t/ <li.ÔÔ\.t\> fem. keen joy.
                                               lIla= /li.laß/ <lii.la.ß\> fem. greenness.
ilip /li.pi/ <li.pi> fem. script.
                                               lIlu& /li.lu~/ <lii.lu~> neut. green.
illam /li.lam/ <li.la.m\> neut. auction.
                                               lIsu& /li.su~/ <lii.su~> adj. smooth.
ilso4o /li.so.ˇo/ <li.so.ˇo> masc. 1. a thin
line 2. a bruise.                              lI&4 /li~ˇ/ <lii~.ˇ\> neut. nasal mucus.

                                               lI&6I& /li~¯.Îi/ <lii~.Îii> fem. excrement of
                                               goat etc.
                                                                                            181


                                                 lU4 /luˇ/ <luu.ˇ\> fem. robbing.
lI&p8 /li~.p\¯/ <lii~.p\.¯\> neut. daubing
with cow-dung, clay etc.                         lU4vu& /luˇ.vu~/ <luu.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr. to rob.

lI&pvu& /li~p.vu~/ <lii~.p\.vu~> v.tr. to daub   lU8 /lu¯/ <luu.¯\> neut. salt.
with cow-dung, clay etc.
                                                 lU8o /lu.¯o/ <luu.¯o> masc. the effects
luCca: /luc.cai/ <lu.cca.ii> fem.                of combination with salt.
cunningness.
                                                 lUm /lum/ <luu.m\> fem. a bunch.
luCcu& /luc.cu~/ <lu.ccu~> adj. cunning.
                                                 lUlI /lu.li/ <luu.lii> fem. the tongue
lu2i8yu& /lu.c˙\.¯i.ju~/ <lu.ch\.¯i.ju~> neut.   (derogatory).
jute cloth for wiping.
                                                 lUlu& /lu.lu~/ <lu.lu~> adj. lame.
lu4aru /lu.ˇa.ru/ <lu.ˇa.ru> masc. a
robber.                                          le` /lek˙/ <le.kh\> masc. 1. an article,
                                                 2. a writing.
luhar /lu.har/ <lu.ha.r\> masc. a
blacksmith.                                      le`k /le.k˙\k/ <le.kh\.k\> masc. a
                                                 writer (male)
lu&gI /lu˜.gi/ <luu~.gii> fem. a cylindrical
garment worn round the waist and                 le`n /le.k˙\n/ <le.kh\.n\> neut.
covering the legs.                               writing.
lU /lu/ <luu> fem. sunstroke.                    le`u& /le.k˙u~/ <le.khu~> neut. account.

lU`s /lu.k˙\s/ <luu.kh\.s\> fem. a kind          le`e /le.k˙e/ <le.khe> advb. at the rate.
of skin-disease.
                                                 le8dar /l´¯.dar/ <le.¯\.da.r\> adj. a
lU`u& /lu.k˙u~/ <luu.khu~> adj. dry
                                                 creditor.
(without oil, ghee etc.).
                                                 le8de8 /le¯.de¯/ <le.¯\.de.¯\> fem.
lug6a&l]aa& /lug.Îa~.l\t.ta~/
                                                 relation of financial transaction.
<luu.g\.Îa~.l\.tta~> neut. pl. clothes and
similar other things.                            lep /lep/ <le.p\> masc. coating.

lUg6u& /lug.Îu~/ <luu.g\.Îu~> neut. 1. a         lepvu& /lep.vu~/ <le.p\.vu~> v.tr. to coat.
garment, 2. a sari, 3. an article of dress.
                                                 lebas /le.bas/ <le.ba.s\> masc.
lU2vu& /luc˙.vu~/ <lu.ch\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                                 costume.
wipe.
                                                                                             182


le-agu /le.b˙a.gu/ <le.bha.gu~> adj.              loko]ar /lo.kot.t\r/ <lo.ko.tt\.r\> adj.
unreliable (person).                              super-human.

levadeva /le.va.de.va/ <le.va.de.va> fem.         lo`&6 /lo.k˙\¯Î/ <lo.kh\~.Î\> neut. iron.
1. relation, 2. concern.
                                                  locn /lo.c\n/ <lo.c\.n\> neut. the eye
levu& /le.vu~/ <le.vu~> v.tr. 1. to take, 2. to   (poetic).
purchase, 3. to accept.
                                                  loco /lo.co/ <lo.co> masc. a lump.
lok /lok/ <lo.k\> masc. 1. people, 2. a
mythological region of the universe.              lo4 /loˇ/ <lo.ˇ\> masc. 1. flour, 2. fine
                                                  powder.
lokk9a /lok.k\.t˙a/ <lo.k\.k\.tha> fem.           lo4vu& /loˇ.vu~/ <lo.ˇ\.vu~> v.intr. to roll
a folktale.                                       on around.

lokgIt /lok.git/ <lo.k\.gii.t\> neut. a           lo7I /lo.Î˙i/ <lo.Îhii> fem. an iron pan.
folksong.
                                                  lo7u& /lo.Î˙u~/ <lo.Îhu~> neut. iron.
lokccaR /lok.c\r.ca/ <lo.k\.c\.rca> fem.
popular talk.                                     lop /lop/ <lo.p\> masc. 1. merger, 2.
                                                  assimilation.
lok@vn /lok.Ôi.v\n/ <lo.k\.Ôii.v\.n\>
neut. social life.                                lopvu& /lop.vu~/ <lo.p\.vu~> v.intr. to
                                                  hide.
lokip/y /lok.pri.j\/ <lo.k\.pri.j\> adj.
popular.                                          lofr /lo.p˙\r/ <lo.ph\.r\> adj. a
                                                  vagabond.
lok-oGy /lok.b˙og.j\/ <lo.k\.bho.gj\>
adj. capable of being understood by the           lo- /lob˙/ <lo.bh\> masc. greed.
masses.
                                                  lo-am8u& /lo.b˙am.¯u~/ <lo.bha.m\.¯u~>
lokmt /lok.m\t/ <lo.k\.m\.t\> masc.
                                                  adj. enticing.
public opinion.
                                                  lo-I /lo.b˙i/ <lo.bhii> adj. greedy.
lok=ahI /lok.ßa.hi/ <lo.k\.ßa.hii> fem.
democracy.                                        lohcu&bk /loh.cum.b\k/ <lo.h\.cu~.b\.k\>
lokiht /lok.hit/ <l> neut. public welfare.        neut. a magnet.

                                                  lohIyaX /lo.hi.jaÆ/ <lo.hii.ja.Æ\> adj. 1.
lokacar /lo.ka.car/ <lo.ka.ca.r\> masc.
                                                  bloody, 2. violent, 3. stained with blood.
social customs.
                                                  lohI /lo.hi/ <lo.hii> neut. blood.
lokoikt /lo.kok.ti/<lo.ko.kti> fem. a
proverb.
                                                                                         183


lohIwkaXo /lo.hi.u.ka.Æo/ <lo.hii.u.ka.Æo>   v`a8 /v\.k˙a¯/ <v\.kha.¯\> masc.
masc. quarrel.                               praise.

lohIluha8 /lo.hi.lu.ha¯/ <lo.hii.lulha.¯\>   v`a8vu& /v\.k˙a¯.vu~/ <v\.kha.¯\.vu~>
adj. bleeding heavily.                       v.tr. to praise.

lohIva /lo.hi.va/ <lo.hii.va> masc. a        v`ar /v\.k˙ar/ <v\.kha.r\> fem. a store
kind of disease related to blood.            house.

loiXyu& /lo.Æi.ju~/ <lo.Æi.ju~> neut. ear-   v`o6vu& /v\.k˙oÎ.vu~/ <v\.kho.Î\.vu~>
ornament for women.                          v.tr. 1. to find faults, 2. to criticize.

lo&do /lø~.do/ <lo~.do> masc. a lump of      vg6aw /v\g.Îau/ <v\.g\.Îa.u~> adj.
sticky.                                      pertaining to wood.

lOikk/l\u.kik/ <l\u.ki.k\> adj. worldly.     vg6o /v\g.Îo/ <v\.g\/Îo> masc.
                                             barren region.
                       v                     vgr /v\.g\r/ <v\.g\.r\> postp. without.

vkrvu& /v\.k\r.vu~/ <v\.k\.r\.vu~> v.intr.   vga6vu& /v\.gaÎ.vu~/ <v\.ga.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
1. to deteriorate 2. to worsen.              to cause to sound (of musical
                                             instrument).
vkro /v\k.ro/ <v\.k\.ro> masc. sale.
                                             vga6vu& /v\.gaÎ.vu~/ <v\.ga.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
vkIl /v\.kil/ <v\.kii.l\> masc. a            1. to harm, 2. to injure.
lawyer.
                                             vgere /v\.ge.re/ <v\.ge.re> advb. et
vkIlatnamu& /v\.ki.lat.na.mu~/               cetera.
<v\.kii.la.t\.na.mu~> neut. power of
                                             vgo /v\.go/ <v\.go> masc. a locality.
attorney.

vktVy /v\k.t\v.j\/ <v\.kt\.vj\> neut. a      vgovvu& /v\.gov.vu~/ <v\.go.v\.vu~> v.tr.
speech.                                      to defame.

vkta /v\k.ta/ <v\.kta> masc. a speaker.      v3ar /v\.g˙ar/ <v\.gha.r\> masc. the
                                             act of sizzling a liquid dish with boiled
v`t /v\.k˙\t/ <v\.kh\.t\> masc. time.        mixture of ghee or oil and spices.

                                             v3arvu& /v\.g˙ar.vu~/ <v\.gha.r\.vu~> v.tr.
v`tov`t /v\.k˙\.to.v\.k˙\t/
                                             to sizzle a liquid dish with boiled ghee or
<v\.kh\.to.v\.kh\.t\> advb. 1. often,
                                             oil and spices.
2. frequently.
                                                                                       184


vcgaXo /vc.ga.Æo/ <v\.c\.ga.Æo> masc.          v4avvu& /v\.ˇav.vu~/ <v\.ˇa.v\.vu~> v.tr. 1.
in middle part of time.                        to exchange a big coin/ bill for smaller
                                               ones, 2. to encash a draft, note or checks
vcn /v\.c\n/ <v\.c\.n\> neut.                  etc.
promise.
                                               v4avvu& /v\.ˇav.vu~/ <v\.ˇa.v\.vu~> v.tr. to
vcn /v\.c\n/ <v\.c\.n\> neut. number           pass by or cross safely.
(grammatical).
                                               v4emaguR /v\.ˇe.mar.gu/ <v\.ˇe.ma.rgu>
vclu& /v\c.lu~/ <v\.c\.lu~> adj. 1. middle,    masc. a traveler.
2. intermediate.
                                               v6 /v\Î/ <v\Î> masc. a banyan tree.
vCce /v\c.ce/ <v\.cce> postp. in the
middle.                                        v6vo /v\Î.vo/ <v\.Î\.vo> masc. an
                                               ancestor.
v2U4vu& /v\.c˙uˇ.vu~/ <va.chu.ˇ\.vu~>
v.intr. to go off suddenly.                    v6ssro /v\Î.s\s.ro/ <v\.Î\.s\.s\.ro>
                                               masc. father of a father-in-law.
v2eru& /v\.c˙e.ru~/ <va.che.ru~> neut. a
colt.                                          v6sasu /v\Î.sa.su~/ <v\.Î\.sa.su> fem.
                                               mother of a father-in-law.
v2erI /v\.c˙e.ri/ <v\.che.rii> fem. a filly.
                                               v6Il /v\.Îil/ <v\.Îii.l\> adj. elder
v2o6vu& /v\.c˙oÎ.vu~/ <v\.cho.Î\.vu~> v.tr.    person in a family.
to separate.
                                               v6IlopaijRt /v\.Îi.lo.par.Ôit/
vjn /v\.Ô\n/ <v\.Ô\.n\> neut. 1.               <v\.Îi.lo.pa.rÔi.t\> adj. acquired or
weight, 2. burden.                             erned by ancestors.

v4 /v\ˇ/ <v\.ˇ\> masc. reputation.             v6e /v\.Îe/ <v\.Îe> postp. 1. by, 2.
                                               with.
v4lavu& /v\ˇ.la.vu~/ <v\.ˇ\.la.vu~> v.tr. 1.
to become a religious/ caste convert, 2.       v7vu& /v\Î˙.vu~/ <v\.Îh\.vu~> v.intr. to
to be polluted because of food, drinks         quarrel.
etc.
                                               v8kr /v\¯.k\r/ <v\.¯\.k\.r\> masc. a
v4hukm /v\ˇ.hu.k\m/ <v\.ˇ\.hu.k\.m\>           weaver.
masc. an ordinance.
                                               v8jar /v\¯.Ôar/ <v\.¯\.Ôha.r\> fem. a
v4a8a /v\.ˇa.¯a/ <v\.ˇa.¯a> masc. a            craven.
kind of beans.
                                               v8vu& /v\¯.vu~/ <v\.¯\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
v4av /v\.ˇav/ <v\.ˇa.v\> masc.                 weave, 2. to intertwine and make, 3. to
discount.                                      roll bread, 4. to pick or gather crops.
                                                                                      185


                                              v0are /v\.d˙a.re/ <v\.dha.re> adj. 1.
v8svu& /v\.¯\s.vu~/ <v\.¯\.s\.vu~> v.intr.    more, 2. additional.
1. to worsen, 2. to deteriorate.
                                              v0avvu& /v\.d˙av.vu~/ <v\.dha.v\.vu~>
v8a4 /v\.¯aˇ/ <v\.¯a.ˇ\> masc. texture.       v.tr. to welcome gladly.

vtn /v\.t\n/ <v\.t\.n\> neut. native          v0u /v\.d˙u/ <v\.dhu> adj. more.
place.
                                              v0U /v\.d˙u/ <v\.dhuu> fem. a wife.
vtnI /v\t.ni/ <v\.t\.ni> adj. a native.
                                              v0ervu& /v\.d˙er.vu~/ <v\.dhe.r\.vu~> v.tr.
vtI /v\.ti/ <v\.tii> postp. on behalf of.     to offer as a sacrifice.

vd /v\d/ <v\.d\> fem. the dark half of a      vn /v\n/ <v\.n\> neut. forest.
lunar month.
                                              vnraj /v\n.raÔ/ <v\.n\.ra.Ô\> masc. the
vdn /v\.d\n/ <v\.d\.n\> neut. the face        king of the forest- lion.
(poetic).
                                              vnSpit /v\.n\s.p\.ti/ <v\.n\.sp\.ti>
v¥I /v\d.di/ <v\.ddii> fem. reminder          fem. 1. trees, plants, etc. 2. vegetation.
(in mathematics).
                                              vpra= /v\p.raß/ <v\.p\.ra.ß\> masc. 1.
v0 /v\d˙/ <v\.dh\> masc. a slaughter.         use, 2. consumption.

v0vu& /v\d˙.vu~/ <v\.dh\.vu~> v.intr. 1. to   vfadar /v\.p˙a.dar/ <v\.pha.da.r\> adj.
grow, 2. to increase.                         faithful.

v0vu& /v\d˙.vu~/ <v\.dh\.vu~> v.intr. to      vmn /v\.m\n/ <v\.m\.n\> neut.
remain as a residue.                          vomiting.

v0a: /v\.d˙a.i/ <v\.dha.ii> fem. good         vmX /v\.m\Æ/ <v\.m\.Æ\> masc.
news.                                         whirlpool.

v0am8u& /v\.d˙am.¯u~/ <v\.dha,m\.¯u~>         vy /v\j/ <v\.j\> fem. age.
neut. a ceremonial worship of goddess
on an auspicious event.                       vyov<)0 /v\.jo.vrud˙.d˙\/
                                              <v\.jo.vr≤u.dhdh\> adj. 1. old, 2.
v0arvu& /v\.d˙ar.vu~/ <v\.dha.r\.vu~> v.tr.   elderly.
to increase.
                                              vr /v\r/ <v\.r\> masc. a bridegroom.
v0arvu& /v\.d˙ar.vu~/ <v\.dha.r\.vu~> v.tr.
to save.                                      vr` /v\.r\k˙/ <v\.r\.kh\> masc. a very
                                              thin layer of gold or sliver.
                                                                                           186


                                               vraX /v\.raÆ/ <v\.ra.Æ\> fem. 1. steam,
vr3o6Iya& /v\r.g˙o.Îi.ja~/                     2. vapor.
<v\.r\.gho.Îii.ja~> neut. pl. people
accompanying a marriage procession.            viryaXI /v\.ri.ja.Æi/ <v\.ri.ja.Æii> fem.
                                               fennel seed.
vr3o6o /masc./ <v\.r\.gho.Îo> masc. a
marriage procession.                           virQ5 /v\.riß.ˇ˙\/ <v\.ri.s°ˇh\> adj. chief.

vr8 /v\.r\¯/ <v\.r\.¯\> fem. 1. a caste,       vru /v\.ru/ <v\.ru> neut. a wolf.
2. a social class.
                                               vre6u& /v\.re.Îu~/ <v\.re.Îu~> neut. a rope.
vr8aigyu& /v\r.¯a.gi.ju~/ <v\.r\.¯a.gi.ju~>
adj. 1. foppish, 2. vainly showy.              vro /v\.ro/ <v\.ro> masc. a caste
                                               dinner.
vr8I /v\r.¯i/ <v\.r\.¯ii> fem. selection.
                                               vgR /v\r.g\/ <v\.rg\> masc. a class.
vrtvu& /v\.r\t.vu~/ <v\.r\.t\.vu~> v.intr.
to behave.                                     vgRivg/h /v\rg.vig.r\h/
                                               <v\.rg\.vi.gr\.h\> masc. a class-war.
vrtaro /v\r.ta.ro/ <v\.r\.ta.ro> masc. 1.
a prediction, 2. a forcast.                    vcRs /v\r.c\s/ <v\.rc\.s\> neut.
                                               controlling power.
vrdan /v\r.dan/ <v\.r\.da.n\> neut.
blessing from a god, a saint etc.              vcRSvI /v\r.c\s.vi/ <v\.rc\.svii> adj.
                                               powerful.
vrmaXa /v\r.ma.Æa/ <v\.r\.ma.Æa> fem.
the garland that bride puts round the          v8R /v\r.¯\/ <v\.r¯\> masc. color.
neck of the bridegroom.
                                               v8R /v\r.¯\/ <v\.r¯\> masc. letter.
vrraja /v\r.ra.Ôa/ <v\.r\.ra.Ôa> masc. a
bridegroom.                                    v8R /v\r.¯\/ <v\.r¯\> fem. caste.
vrvu& /v\r.vu~/ <v\.r\.vu~> adj. 1. ugly, 2.
                                               v8Rn /v\r.¯\n/ <v\.r¯\.n\> neut. 1.
misshaped, 3. wicked.
                                               description, 2. narration.
vrsI /v\r.si/ <v\.r\.sii> fem. ceremony
                                               v8Rvvu& /v\r.¯\v.vu~/ <v\.r¯\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
performed on the first anniversary of
someone’s death.                               1. to describe, 2. to narrate.

vrs /v\.r\s/ <v\.r\.s\> neut. year.            v8Rs&kr /v\r.¯\.s\˜.k\r/
                                               <v\.r¯\.s\~.k\.r\> adj. born of parents
vrsad /v\r.sad/ <v\.r\.sa.d\> masc.            of different castes or religion.
rain.
                                                                                          187


v8aRnuk/m /v\r.¯a.nu.kr\m/                       vsva4 /v\s.vaˇ/ <v\.s\.va.ˇ\> masc. 1.
<v\.rna.nu.kr\.m\> masc.                         residing, 2. dwelling, 3. stay.
alphabetical order.
                                                 vsvu& /v\s.vu~/ <v\.s\.vu~> v.intr. 1. to
vtR8U&k /v\r.t\.¯u~k/ <v\.rt\.¯u~.k\> fem.       dwell, 2. to reside.
1. behavior, 2. conduct.
                                                 vs&t /v\.s\nt/ <v\.s\~.t\> fem. the
vtRn /v\r.t\n/ <v\.rt\.n\> neut. 1.              spring season.
behavior, 2. conduct.
                                                 vsa8u& /v\.sa.¯u~/ <v\.sa.¯u~> neut. a
vtRman /v\r.t\.man/ <v\.rt\.ma.n\> adj.          food item made of various spices and
1. present, 2. current.                          eaten normally in winter.

vtRmankaX /v\r.t\.man.kaÆ/                       vsavvu& /v\.sav.vu~/ <v\.sa.v\.vu~> v.tr.
<v\.rt\.ma.n\> masc. present tense.              to cause to live.

vtRmanp{a /v\r.t\.man.p\t.r\/                    vsavvu& /v\.sav.vu~/ <v\.sa.v\.vu~> v.tr.
<v\.rt\.ma.n\.p\.tr\> neut. a                    to purchase durable things.
newspaper.                                       vsaht /v\.sa.h\t/ <v\.sa.h\.t\> fem. a
vtuRX /v\r.tuÆ/ <v\.rtu.Æ\> neut. a circle.      settlement.

                                                 visyt /v\.si.j\t/ <v\.si.j\.t\> fem.
vqR /v\r.ß\/ <v\.rs°\> neut. an year.
                                                 inheritance.
vqaR¢tu /v\r.ßa.ru.tu/ <vv\.rs°a.r≤u.tu>         visytnamu& /v\.si.j\t.na.mu~/ <v\.si.j\.t\>
fem. the rainly season.                          neut. a will.
vl8 /v\.l\¯/ <v\.l\.¯\> neut. mental             vsUkvu& /v\.suk.vu~/ <v\.su.k\.vu~> v.intr.
inclination.                                     to cease yielding milk.
vlo8u& /v\.lo.¯u~/ <v\.lo.¯u~> neut. a           vsUlat /v\.su.lat/ <v\.su.la.t\> fem. an
churning rod.                                    act of recovering money.
vlopat /v\.lo.pat/ <v\.lo.pa.t\> masc.           vStI /v\s.ti/ <v\.stii> fem. population.
restlessness and dejection.
                                                 vStIg8trI /v\s.ti.g\.¯\t.ri/
vlopaityu& /v\.lo.pa.ti,ju~/ <v\.lo.pa.ti.ju~>
                                                 <v\.stii.g\.¯\.t\.rii> fem. census.
adj. inclined to be restless and deject.

vsit /v\s.ti/ <v\.s\.ti> fem. population.        vStIp{ak /v\s.ti.p\t.r\k/
                                                 <v\.stii.p\.tr\.k\> neut. a census
vsvso /v\s.v\.so/ <v\.s\.v\.so> masc.            record.
1. remorse, 2. grudge.
                                                                                           188


vStu /v\s.tu/ <v\.stu> fem. a thing.
                                                 vheXo /v\.he.Æo/ <v\.he.Æo> masc. a
vS{a /v\s.tr\/ <v\.str\> neut. a garment.        stream.

vha8 /v\.ha¯/ <v\.ha.¯\> neut. a ship.           vhe&c8I /fem./ <v\.he~.c\.¯ii> fem.
                                                 distribution.
vhal /v\.hal/ <v\.ha.l\> neut.
affection.                                       vhe&cvu& /v\.h´~c.vu~/ <v\.he~.c\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                                 distribute.
vhI /v\.hi/ <v\.hii> fem. an account-
book.                                            vhorvu& /v\.hor.vu~/ <v\.ho.r\.vu~> v.tr.
                                                 1. to purchase 2. to undertake a risk
vhIv4 /v\.hi.v\ˇ/ <v\.hii.v\.ˇ\> masc.           thoughtlessly.
an administration.
                                                 vX /v\Æ/ <v\.Æ\> masc. a twist.
vhIv4I /v\.hi.v\.ˇi/ <v\.hii.v\.ˇii> adj.
administrative.                                  vXg8 /v\Æ.g\¯/ <v\.Æ\.g\.¯\> neut. 1.
                                                 a relation, 2. a connection.
vhIv&co /v\.hi.v\µ.co/ <v\.hii.v\~.co>
masc. a bard keeping the record of               vXgvu& /v\.Æ\g.vu~/ <v\.Æ\.g\.vu~> v.intr.
genealogical tree.                               1. to cling, 2. to stick to.

vhu /v\.hu/ <v\.hu> fem. a wife.                 vXga6 /v\Æ.gaÎ/ <v\.Æ\.ga.Î\> masc. 1.
                                                 ghost, 2, an evil spirit.
vhem /v\.hem/ <v\.he.m\> masc. 1.
suspicion, 2. doubt.                             vXtr /v\Æ.t\r/ <v\.Æ\.t\.r\> neut. 1.
                                                 profit, 2. remuneration.
vhemI /v\.he.mi/ <v\.he,mii> adj.
suspicious.                                      vXvu& /v\Æ.vu~/ <v\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. 1. to be
                                                 twisted, 2. to be bent.
vhelu& /v\.he.lu~/ <v\.he.lu~> adj. early.
                                                 vXvu& /v\Æ.vu~/ <v\.Æ\.vu~> v.intr. to
vhevar /v\.he.var/ <v\.he,va.r\> masc.           return.
day to day interaction.
                                                 vXavvu& /v\.Æav.vu~/ <v\.Æa.v\.vu~> v.tr. to
vhevaru& /v\.he.va.ru~/ <v\.he.va.ru~> adj.      see one off.
honest in day to day interaction.
                                                 vXa&k /v\.Æa~˜k/ <v\.Æa~.k\> masc. a turn.
vhevu& /v\.he.vu~/ <v\.he.vu~> v.intr. to
flow.                                            vXI /v\.Æi/ <v\.Æii> advb. besides.

vheiXyu& /v\.he.Æi.ju~/ <v\.he.Æi.ju~> neut. a   v&4oX /v\¯.ˇoÆ/ <v\~.ˇo.Æ\> masc.
small stream.                                    whirlwind.
                                                                                            189


v&4oXIyo /v\¯.ˇo.Æi.jo/ <v\~.ˇo.Æii.jo> masc.   va38 /va.g˙\¯/ <va.gh\.¯\> fem.
whirlwind.                                      tigress.

v&trI /v\n.t\.ri/ <v\~.t\.ri> fem. a female     vack /va.c\k/ <va.c\.k\> masc. reader.
ghost.
                                                vacn /\va.c\n/ <va.c\.n\> neut.
v&dn /v\n.d\n/ <v\~.d\.n\> neut. a              reading.
respectful bow.
                                                vacnaly /va.c\.na.l\j/ <va.c\.na.l\.j\>
v&dna /v\n.da.na/ <v\~.d\.na> fem. 1. a         neut. a library.
bowing, 2. a salutation, 3. a prayer.
                                                vaca /va.ca/ <va.ca> fem. a speech
v&do /v\n.do/ <v\.ndo> masc. a
cockroach.                                      vaCya9R /vac.jar.t˙\/ <va.cja.rth\> adj.
                                                literal meaning.
v&= /v\mß/ <v\~.ß\> masc. descendents.
                                                va26I /vac˙.Îi/ <va.ch\.Îii> fem. a
v&=pr&pra /v\mß.p\.r\m.p\.ra/                   female calf.
<v\~.ß\.p\.r\~.p\.ra> fem. a femily-tree.
                                                vaj /vaÔ/ <va.Ô\> adj. tired.
va /va/ <va> advb. or.
                                                vajape4I /va.Ôa.pe.ˇi/ <va.Ôa.pe.ˇii> fem.
va /va/ <va> masc. wind.                        a harmonium.

va /va/ <va> masc. rheumatism.                  vaij&{a /va.Ôin.tr\/ <va.Ôi~.tr\> neut. a
                                                musical organ.
vaky /vak.j\/ <va.kj\> neut. a sentence.
                                                va4 /vaˇ/ <va.ˇ\> fem. a road.
vagvu& /vag.vu~/ <va.g\.vu~> v.exp. 1. to
be injured, 2. to be wounded.                   va4 /vaˇ/ <va.ˇ\> fem. a wick.

vagvu& /vag.vu~/ <va.g\.vu~> v.intr. to be      va4vu& /vaˇ.vu~/ <va.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr. to pound
struck.                                         or crush with a muller.

vagvu& /vag.vu~/ <va.g\.vu~> v.intr. to         va4a3a4 /va.ˇa.g˙aˇ/ <va.ˇa.gha.ˇ\> fem.
strike (of a clock).                            negotiations.

vagoXvu& /va.goÆ.vu~/ <va.go.Æ\.vu~> v.intr.    va6 /vaÎ/ <va.Î\> fem. 1. a hedge, 2. a
1. to ruminate, 2. to chew and cud.             fence, 3. a railing.

va3 /va˙/ <va.gh\> masc. tiger.                 va6kI /vaÎ.ki/ <va.Î\.kii> fem. a cup-
                                                like small vessel.
                                                                                           190


va6ab&0I /va.Îa.b\n.d˙i/ <va.Îa.b\~.dhii>    vadiXyu& /va.d\.Æi.ju~/ <va.d\.Æi.ju~> adj.
fem. group-ism.                              cloudy.

va6I /va.Îi/ <va.Îii> fem. a farm of         vadXu& /va.d\Æ/ <va.Î\.Æu~> neut. a cloud.
nursing fruit or flower plants.
                                             van /van/ <va.n\> masc. complexion.
va6o /va.Îo/ <va.Îo> masc. a backyard.
                                             vangI /van.gi/ <va.n\.gii> fem. an item.
va7 /vaÎ˙/ <va.Îh\> masc. 1. a cut, 2. a
wound.                                       vanr /va.n\r/ <va.n\.r\> masc. a
va7vu& /vaÎ˙.vu~/ <va.Îh\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to   monkey.
cut, 2. to reap.
                                             vam8u& /vam.¯u~/ <va.m\.¯u~> adj.
vai8jy /va.¯iÔ.j\/ <va.¯i.Ôj\> neut. 1.      inferior.
trade, 2. commerce.
                                             vamn /va.man/ <va.m\.n\> adj.
vai8y8 /va.¯i.j\¯/ <va.¯i.j\.¯\> fem. 1.     dwarfish.
a woman belonging to the Vania caste,
2. a Vani’s wife.                            vay6a: /vaj.Îai/ <va.j\.Îa.ii> fem. over
                                             wisdom.
vai8yo /va.¯i.jo/ <va.¯i.jo> masc. a man
of the Vania caste.                          vay6u& /vaj.Îu~/ <va.j\.Îu~> adj. causing
                                             gas in the body.
va8I /va.¯i/ <va.¯ii> fem. speech.
                                             vaydo /vaj.do/ <va.j\.do> masc. 1.
vat /vat/ <va.t\> fem. 1. a story, 2. a      promise, 2. a forward transaction.
narrative.
                                             vayro /vaj.ro/ <va.j\.ro> masc. wind.
vatcIt /vat.cit/ <va.t\.ci.t\> fem.
conversation.                                vayro /vaj.ro/ <va.j\.ro> masc. a
                                             popular or current trend.
vatavr8 /va.ta.v\.r\¯/ <va.ta.v\.r\.¯\>
neut. atmosphere.                            vayVy /va.j\v.j\/ <va.j\.vj\> adj. North-
                                             West.
vaTsLy /vat.s\l.j\/ <va.ts\.lj\> neut.
affection.                                   vayu /va.ju/ <va.ju~> masc. 1. wind, 2.
                                             air.
vad /vad/ <va.d\> masc. 1. debate, 2.
ism.                                         vayu /va.ju/ <va.ju> masc. 1. gas, 2.
                                             indigestion.
vadX /va.d\Æ/ <va.d\.Æ\> neut. a cloud.
                                             varvu& /var.vu~/ <va.r\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
                                             restraint, 2. to prohibit.
                                                                                       191


                                              vavu& /va.vu~/ <va.vu~> v.tr. to give a birth
vars /va.r\s/ <va.r\.s\> masc. an             to a calf.
inheritor.
                                              vavetr /va.ve.t\r/ <va.ve.t\.r\> neut. 1.
varsagt /var.sa.g\t/ <va.ra.sa.g\.t\>         sowing, 2. planting.
adj. hereditary.
                                              vas /vas/ <va.s\> masc. a locality.
varso /var.so/ <va.r\.so> masc. 1.
legacy, 2. heritage, 3. inheritance.          vas /vas/ <va.s\> fem. smell.

var&var /va.r\m.var/ <va.r\~.va.r\> advb.     vas8 /va.s\¯/ <va.s\.¯\> neut. 1. a
1. repeatedy, 2. now and again.               vessel, 2. a utensil.

varafrtI /va.ra.p˙\r.ti/ <va.ra.ph\.r\.tii>   vas8kUs8 /va.s\¯.ku.s\¯/
advb. one after another.                      <va.s\.¯\.kuu.s\.¯\> neut. pl. kitchen
                                              utensils.
vare36Iye /va.re.g˙\.Îi.je/
<va.re.gh\.Îii.je> advb. frequently.          vasna /vas.na/ <va.s\.na> fem. 1. desire
                                              for worldly happiness, 2. passion.
varo /va.ro/ <va.ro> masc. turn.
                                              vasvuU& /vas.vu~/ <va.s\.vu~> v.tr. to close.
vataR /var.ta/ <va.rta> fem. 1. a stroy, 2.
a narrative.                                  vasI /va.si/ <va.sii> adj. stale.

vaiqRk /var.ßik/ <va.rs°i.k\> adj. 1.         vaStv /vas.t\v/ <va.st\.v\> neut. a
yearly, 2. annual.                            reality.

val /val/ <va.l\> masc. a kind of pluse.      vaStivk /vas.t\.bik/ <va.st\.vi.k\> adj.
                                              real.
valoX /va.loÆ/ <va.lo.Æ\> fem. a green
pod of kind of pulse used as a vegetable.     vaStu /vas.tu/ <va.stu> neut. a ritual
                                              performed before occupying a house.
vav /vav/ <va.v\> fem. a step-well.
                                              vaStupUja /vas.tu. pu.Ôa./ <va.stu.puu.Ôa>
vav4o /vav.ˇo/ <va.v\.ˇo> masc. a flag.       fem. a ritual performed before
                                              occupying a house.
vav6 /va.v\Î/ <va.v\.Î\> masc. 1.
whereabouts, 2. news.                         vah /vah/ <va.h\> advb. 1. well-done,
                                              2. bravo.
vav8I /vav.¯i/ <va.v\.¯ii> fem. a
sowing.                                       vahn /va.h\n/ <va.h\.n\> neut. a
                                              vehicle.
vavu& /va.vu~/ <va.vu~> v.intr. to blow.
                                                                                                192


vaihyat /va.hi.jat/ <va.hi.a.t\> adj. 1.          va&cvu& /va~c.vu~/ <va~.c\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
hollow, 2. bogus.                                 read, 2. to decipher.

vaX /vaÆ/ <va.Æ\> masc. hair.                     va&z8u& /va~Ô˙.¯u~/ <va~.Ôh\.¯u~> adj. 1.
                                                  barren, 2. childless.
vaXvu& /vaÆ.vu~/ <va.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
bend, 2. to roll.                                 va&7o /va~.Î˙o/ <va~.Îho> masc. a
                                                  bachelor on compusion.
vaXvu& /vaÆ.vu~/ <va.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
repay, 2. to return.                              va&dro /va~d.ro/ <va~.d\.ro> masc. a male
                                                  monkey.
vaXvu& /vaÆ.vu~/ <va.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. to sweep.
                                                  va&drI /va~d.ri/ <va~.d\.rii> fem. a female
vaXvu& /vaÆ.vu~/ <va.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. to             monkey.
change the direction of a vehicle, water
etc.                                              va&dru& /va~d.ru~/ <va~.d\.ru~> neut. a
                                                  monkey.
vaX&d /va.Æ\nd/ <va.Æ\~.d\> masc. a
barber.                                           va&0o /va~.d˙o/ <va~.dho> masc. 1.
                                                  opposition, 2. objection, 3. dispute.
vaXI /va.Æi/ <va.Æii> fem. a nose-ring.
                                                  va&s /va~s/ <va~.s\> masc. a bamboo.
vaXo /va.Æo/ <va.Æo> masc. a metallic
wire.                                             va&sl6I /va~.s\l.Îi/ <va~.s\.l\.Îii> fem. a
                                                  flute.
va&k /va~k/ <va~.k\> masc. 1. fault, 2.
defect.                                           va&sXI /va~s.Æi/ <va~.s\.Æii> fem. a flute.

va&k6o /va~k.Îo/ <va~.k\.Îo> masc. dowry          va&so /va~.so/ <va~.so> masc. the back.
given to the bridegroom by the bride
side.                                             ivk4 /vi.k\ˇ/ <vi.k\.ˇ\> adj. 1. tough, 2.
                                                  difficult.
va&ku& /va~.ku~/ <va~.ku~> adj. 1. crooked, 2.
bent, 3. curved.                                  ivkraX /vik.raÆ/ <vi.k\.ra.Æ\> adj.
                                                  terrible.
va&ku&cUku& /va~.ku~.cu~.ku~/ <va~.ku~.cuu.ku~>   ivkLp /vi.k\l.p\/ <vi.k\.lp\> masc. an
adj. zigzag.                                      alternative.

va&3u& /va~.g˙u~/ <va~.ghu~> neut. a ravine.      ivksvu& /vi.k\s.vu~/ <vi.k\.s\.vu~> v.intr.
                                                  1. to grow, 2. to develop, 3. to increase.
va&cn /va~.c\n/ <va~.c\.n\> neut. a
reading.                                          ivkist /vik.sit/ <vi.k\.si.t\> adj.
                                                  developed.
                                                                                         193



ivkar /vi.kar/ <vi.ka.r\> masc.                ivcrvu& /vi.c\r.vu~/ <vi.c\.r\.vu~> v.intr.
deterioration.                                 to loiter.

ivkarI /vi.ka.ri/ <vi.ka.rii> adj. apt to      ivcar /vi.car/ <vi.ca.r\> masc. thought.
change.
                                               ivcark /vi.ca.r\k/ <vi,ca.r\.k\> masc. a
ivkas /vi.kas/ <vi.ka.s\> masc. 1.             thinker.
growth, 2. development.
                                               ivcar8a /vi.car.¯a/ <vi.ca.r\.¯a> fem. 1.
ivk<t /vik.rut/ <vi.kr≤u.t\> adj.              thinking, 2. consideration.
distorted.
                                               ivcarvu& /vi.car.vu~/ <vi.ca.r\.vu~> v.tr. to
ivxep /vik.ßep/ <vi.kße.p\> masc.              think.
obstruction.
                                               ivic{a /vi.cit.r\/ <vi.ci.tr\> adj. strange.
iv`vad /vik˙.vad/ <vi.kh\.va.d\> masc.
1. discord, 2. dispute.                        ivC2ed /vic.c˙ed/ <vi.cche.d\> masc. a
                                               cut.
iv`U4u& /vi.k˙u.ˇu~/ <vi.khuu.ˇu~> adj.
separated and lonely.                          ivjy /vi.Ô\j/ <vi.Ô\.j\> masc. victory.

iv`ervu& /vi.k˙er.vu~/ <vi.khe.r\.vu~> v.tr.   ivjatIy /vi.Ôa.ti.j\/ <vi.Ôa.tii.j\> adj. of
to scatter.                                    different sex, caste, class or race.

iv~yat /vik˙.jat/ <vi.khja.t\> adj.            ivjeta /vi.Ôe.ta/ <vi.Ôe.ta> masc. a victor.
famous.
                                               ivjog /vi.Ôog/ <vi.Ôo.g\> masc.
ivgt /vi.g\t/ <vi.g\.t\> fem. 1. past, 2.      suffering from a separation from the
gone.                                          beloved one.

ivg/h /vi.gr\.h\/ <vi.gr\.h\> masc. a          iv}aan /vig.nan/ <vi.gna.n\> neut.
battle.                                        science.

iv34n /vi:.g˙\.ˇ\n/ <vi.gh\.ˇ\n\> neut.        iv}aapk /vig.na.p\k/ <vi.gna.p\.k\> adj.
deconstruction.                                1. declaring, 2. advertising.

iv3atk /vi.g˙a.t\k/ <vi.gha.t\.k\> adj.        iv4&b8a /vi.ˇ\mb.¯a/ <vi.ˇ\~.b\.¯a> fem.
destructive.                                   1. misery, 2. grief, 3. difficulties.

iv#n /vig.n\/ <vi.ghn\> neut. obstacle.        iv6&bn /vi.Îam.b\n/ <vi.Î\~.b\.n\> neut.
                                               mockery.
ivcx8 /vi.c\k.ß\¯/ <vi.c\.kß\.¯\> adj.
1. intellegent, 2. shrewd.
                                                                                           194


ivtr8 /vit.r\¯/ <v> neut. distribution.           ivd\van /vid.van/ <vi.dva.n\> masc. 1. a
                                                  learned man, 2. a scholar.
ivta6vu& /vi.taÎ.vu~/ <vi.ta.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to
harass.                                           iv0va /vid˙.va/ <vi.dh\.va> fem. a
                                                  widow.
ivday /vi.daj/ <vi.da.j\> fem. a
departure.                                        iv0vaivvah /vid˙.va.vi.vah/
                                                  <vi.dh\.va.vi.va.h\> masc. a widow’s
ividt /vi.dit/ <v> adj. known.                    re-marriage.

ivduqI /vi.du.ßi/ <vi.du.s°ii> fem. a             iv0ata /vi.d˙a.ta/ <vi.dha.ta> fem. the
learned woman.                                    creator of the universe.

ivdUqk /vi.du.ß\k/ <vi.duu.s°\.k\> masc.          iv0a{aI /vi.d˙at.ri/ <vi.dha.trii> fem. the
a clown.                                          goddess of destiny.

ivde= /vi.deß/ <vi.de.ß\> masc. a foreign         iv0an /vi.d˙an/ <vi.dha.n\> neut. a
country.                                          statement.

ivde=I /vi.de.ßi/ <vi.de.ßii> adj. foreign.       iv0ayk /vi.d˙a.j\k/ <vi.dha.j\.k\> adj.
                                                  constructive.
ivd\yman /vid.j\.man/ <vi.dj\.ma.n\>
adj. 1. existing, 2. present.                     ivi0 /vi.d˙i/ <vi.dhi> fem. the god of
                                                  destiny.
ivd\ya /vid.ja/ <vi.dja> fem. knowledge.
                                                  ivi0 /vi.d˙i/ <vi.dhi> fem. ritual.
ivd\yapI5 /vid.ja.piˇ˙/ <vi.dja.pii.ˇh\>
fem. an educational institution.                  iv0ur /iv.d˙ur/ <vi.dhu.r\> adj.
                                                  widower.
ivd\ya9IR /vid.jar.t˙i/ <vi.dja.rthii> masc.
a male student.                                   ivny /vi.n\j/ <vi.n\.j\> masc.
                                                  humbleness.
ivd\ya9IRnI /vid.jar.t˙i.ni/ <vi.dja.rthii.nii>
fem. a female student.                            ivnv8I /vi.n\v.¯i/ <vi.n\.v\.¯i> fem. a
                                                  request.
ivd\yut /vid.jut/ <vi.dju.t\> fem. 1.
lightning, 2. electricity.                        ivn&tI /vi.n\n.ti/ <vi.n\~.tii> fem. a
                                                  request.
iv±oh /vid.roh/ <vi.dro.h\> masc. a
mutiny.                                           ivna /vi.na/ <vi.na> postp. except.

ivd\vta /vid.v\.ta/ <vi.dv\.ta> fem.              ivna= /vi.naß/ <vi.na.ß\> masc. 1.
knowledge.                                        destruction, 2. extinction.
                                                                                          195


                                            ivi-Nn /vi.b˙in.n\/ <vi.bhi.nn\> adj. 1.
ivna=I /vi.na.ßi/ <vi.na.ßii> adj.          different, 2. separate.
destructive.
                                            iv-Uit /vi.b˙u.ti/ <vi.bhuu.ti> fem. a
ivinmy /vi.ni.maj/ <vi.ni.m\.j\> masc.      superman.
1. exchange, 2. barter.
                                            ivml /vi.m\l/ <vi.m\.l\> adj. pure.
ivnod /vi.nod/ <vi.no.d\> masc. joy.
                                            ivman /vi.man/ <vi.ma.n\> neut. an
ivpi]a /vi:.p\t.ti/ <vi.p\.tti> fem. 1. a   aircraft.
calamity, 2. misery, 3. trouble.
                                            ivmanm9k /vi.man.m\.t˙\k/
ivp9 /vi.p\t˙/ <vi.p\.th\> masc. wrong      <vi.ma.n\.m\.th\.k\> neut. an
path.                                       airport.

ivprIt /vip.rit/ <vi.p\.rii.t\> adj.        ivmu` /vi.muk˙/ <vi.mu.kh\> neut.
opposite.                                   unfavorable.

ivpul /vi.pul/ <vi.pu.l\> adj. abundant.    ivyavu& /vi.ja.vu~/ <vi.ja.vu~> v.intr. (of
                                            beasts) to give birth.
ivp/ /vip.r\/ <vi.pr\> masc. a Brahmin.
                                            ivrmvu& /vi.r\m.vu~/ <vi.r\.m\.vu~> v.intr.
ivPlv /vip.l\v/ <vi.pl\.v\> masc. a         to stop.
revolt.
                                            ivrh /vi.r\h/ <vi.r\.h\> masc.
iv-kt /vi.b˙\k.t\/ <vi.bh\.kt\> adj.        separation from dear ones.
divided.
                                            ivragI /vi.ra.gi/ <vi.ra.gii> adj. a
iv-ikt /vi.b˙\k.ti/ <vi.bh\.kti> fem. a     hermit.
case.
                                            ivra4 /vi.raˇ/ <vi.ra.ˇ\> adj. 1. huge, 2.
iv-ag /vi.b˙ag/ <vi.bha.g\> masc. a         magnificent.
section.
                                            ivram /vi.ram/ <vi.ra.m\> masc. 1. rest,
iv-ajk /vi.b˙a.Ô\k/ <vi.bha.Ô\.k\> adj.     2. pause.
dividing.
                                            ivro0 /vi.rod˙/ <vi.ro.dh\> masc. 1. an
iv-ajn /vi.b˙a.Ô\n/ <v> neut. division.     objection, 2. opposition.

iv-ajy /vi.b˙aÔ.j\/ <vi.bha.Ôj\> adj.       ivro0a-as /v.ro.d˙a.b˙as/
divisible.                                  <vi.ro.dha.bha.s\> masc. mere
                                            apparent opposition.
                                                                                           196


ivlx8 /vi.l\k.ß\¯/ <vi.l\.kß\.¯\> adj.
peculiar.                                        ivveck /vi.ve.c\k/ <vi.ve.c\.k\> masc. a
                                                 critic.
ivly /vi.l\j/ <vi.l\.j\> masc.
dissolution.                                     ivvecn /vi.ve.c\n/ <vi.ve.c\.n\> neut.
                                                 criticism.
ivlsvu& /vi.l\s.vu~/ <vi.l\.s\.vu~> v.intr. 1.
to shine, 2. to glitter.                         ivvecna /vi.ve.c\.na/ <vi.ve.c\.na> fem.
                                                 interpretation.
ivlap /vi.lap/ <vi.la.p\> masc.
lamentation.                                     iv=d /vi.ß\d/ <vi.ß\.d\> adj. clear
                                                 (argument etc.)
ivlayt /vi.la.j\t/ <vi.la.j\.t\> neut.
England.                                         iv=aX /vi.ßaÆ/ <vi.ßa.Æ\> adj. large.

ivlaytI /vi.la.j\.ti/ <vi.la.j\.tii> adj. 1.     ivi=Q4 /vi.ßiß.t\/ <vi.ßi.s°ˇ\> adj. peculiar.
made in England, 2. foreign.
                                                 iv=e /vi.ße/ <vi.ße> postp. about.
ivlavu& /vi.la.vu~/ <vi.la.vu~> v.intr. to
wither.                                          iv=eq /vi.ßeß/ <vi.ße.s°\> adj. additional.

ivlas /vi.las/ <vi.la.s\> masc.                  iv=eqtŠ /vi.ßeß.t\h/ <vi.ße.s°\.t\:> advb.
merriment.                                       especially.

ivvr8 /viv.r\¯/ <vi.v\.r\.¯\> neut. 1.           iv=eqta /vi.ßeß.ta/ <vi.ße.s°\.ta> fem.
criticism, 2. commentary.                        difference.

ivvad /vi.vad/ <vi.va.d\> masc. a                iv[aam /vis.ram/ <vi.ßra.m\> masc. rest.
controversy.
                                                 iv¿leq8 /viß.le.ß\¯/ <vi.ßle.ß\.¯\> neut.
ivvadaSpd /vi.va.da.sp\d/                        analysis.
<vi.va.da.sp\.d\> adj. controversial.
                                                 iv¼ /viß.v\/ <vi.ßv\> neut. the universe.
ivvah /vi.vah/ <vi.va.h\> masc. 1.
betrothal, 2. marriage.                          iv¼as /ivß.vas/ <vi.ßva.s\> masc. 1.
                                                 trust, 2. confidence.
iviv0 /vi.vid˙/ <vi.vi.dh\> adj. various.
                                                 iv¼as3at /viß.vas.g˙at/
iviv0ta /vi.vid˙.ta/ <vi.vi.dh\.ta> fem.         <vi.ßva.s\.gha.t\> masc. betrayal.
variety.
                                                 iv¼as3atI /viß.vas.g˙a.ti/
ivvek /vi.vek/ <vi.ve.k\> masc.                  <vi.ßva.s\.gha.tii> adj. a betrayer
politeness.                                      person.
                                                                                             197



ivq /viß/ <vi.s°\> neut. poison.                 ivSmy /vis.m\j/ <vi.sm\.j\> neut. 1. a
                                                 wonder, 2. a surprise, 3. an
ivq0r /viß.d˙\r/ <vi.s°\.dh\.r\> masc. a         astonishment.
serpent.
                                                 ivSmr8 /vis.m\.r\¯/ <vi.sm\.r\.¯\>
ivqm /vi.ß\m/ <vi.s°\.m\> adj. unequal.          neut. forgetting.

ivqy /vi.ß\j/ <vi.s°\.j\> masc. 1. a             ivhrvu& /vi.h\r.vu~/ <vi.h\.r\.vu~> v.intr.
perceivable object, 2. subject                   1. to stroll, 2. to walk for a pleasure.

ivqyaNtr /vi.ßa.jan.t\r/ <vi.s°\.ja.nt\.r\>      ivhar /vi.har/ <vi.ha.r\> masc. 1. a
neut. digression.                                stroll, 2. a leisurely walk.

ivqad /vi.ßad/ <vi.s°a.d\> masc. 1.              ivhIn /vi.hin/ <vi.hii.n\> adj. devoid
dejection, 2. grief.                             of.

ivqe /vi.ße/ <vi.s°e> postp. about.              ivh\vX /vih.v\Æ/ <vi.h.v\.Æ\> adj.
                                                 puzzled and upset.
ivsgR /vi.s\r.g\/ <vi.s\.rg\> masc. the
sign (:).                                        vI`rvu& /vi.k˙\r.vu~/ <vii.kh\.r\.vu~>
                                                 v.intr. to dispersed.
ivsjRn /vi.s\r.Ô\n/ <vi.s\.rÔ\.n\> neut.
dissolution.                                     vIgt /vi.g\t/ <vii.g\.t\> fem. details.

ivsamo /vi.sa.mo/ <vi.sa.mo> masc. a             vI2Xvu& /vi.c˙\Æ.vu~/ <vii.ch\.Æ\.vu~> v.tr.
halt for resting.                                to cleanse (utensils etc.)

ivStrvu& /vis.t\r.vu~/ <vi.st\.r\.vu~> v.intr.   vIjXI /viÔ.Æi/ <vii.Ô\.Æii> fem. 1.
to spread out.                                   lightening, 2. electricity.

ivStar /vis.tar/ <vi.sta.r\> masc. 1. an         vI8vu& /vi¯.vu~/ <vii.¯\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
area, 2. extension.                              pick, 2. to pluck.

ivStarpUvRk /vis.tar.pur.v\k/                    vI8a /vi.¯a/ <vii.¯a> fem. a lute.
<vi.sta.r\.puu.rv\.k\> adj. 1. at
length, 2. in detail.                            vInvvu& /vi.n\v.vu~/ <vii.n\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
                                                 1. to entreat, 2. to request.
ivStarvu& /vis.tar.vu~/ <vi.sta.r\.vu~> v.tr.
1. to extend, .2 to expand.                      vIfrvu& /vi.p˙\r.vu~/ <vii.ph\.r\.vu~>
                                                 v.intr. to become uncontrolled because
ivSfo4 /vis.p˙oˇ/ <vi.spho.ˇ\> masc.             of anger.
explosive.
                                                 vImo /vi.mo/ <vii.mo> masc. insurance.
                                                                                                198



vIr /vir/ <vii.r\> adj. brave.                        ve5vu& /veˇ˙.vu~/ <ve.ˇh\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                                      suffer.
vIrta /vir.ta/ <vii.r\.ta> fem. bravery.
                                                      ve6fvu& /ve.Î\p˙.vu~/ <ve.Î\.ph\.vu~> v.tr.
vIyR /vir.j\/ <vii.rj\> neut. semen.                  to waste.

vI=I /vi.ßi/ <vii.ßii> fem. an inn.                   ve6vu& /veÎ.vu~/ <ve.Î\.vu~> v.tr. to pluck
                                                      fruits.
vI&2I /vi~.c˙i/ <vii~.chii> masc. a scorpian
(male).                                               ve7o /ve.Î˙o/ <ve.Îho> masc. one of the
                                                      cuts on a finger-joint.
vI&28 /vi~.c˙\¯/ <vii~.ch\.¯\> fem. a
scorpian (female).                                    ve8I /ve.¯i/ <ve.¯ii> fem. a braid of
                                                      hair.
vI&j8o /vi~Ô.¯o/ <vii.Ô\.¯o> masc. a fan.
                                                      vetn /ve.t\n/ <ve.t\.n\> neut. salary.
vI&4vu& /vi~ˇ,vu~/ <v> v.tr. to wrap.vI&4I /vi~.ˇi/
<vii~.ˇii> fem. an ornamental ring.                   vetrvu& /ve.t\r.vu~/ <ve.t\.r\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                                      cut cloth for tailoring.
vI&4o /vi~.ˇo/ <vii~.ˇo> masc. a roll.
                                                      vetaX /ve.taÆ/ <ve.ta.Æ\> masc. a ghost.
vI&0vu& /vi~d˙.vu~/ <vii~.dh\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
                                                      vedna /ved.na/ <ve.d\.na> fem. pain.
bore, 2. to pierce, 3. to prick.

v<x /vruk.ß\/ <vr°u.kß\> neut. a tree.                ve0k /ve.d˙\k/ <ve.dh\.k\> adj. 1.
                                                      piercing, 2. sharp.
v<)0 /vrud.d˙\/ <vr°u.dhdh\> adj. old.
                                                      ve0vu& /ved˙.vu~/ <vve.dh\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
v<i)0 /vrud˙.d˙i/ <vr°u.dhdhi> fem.                   bore, 2. to pierce.
growth.                                               ve0=aXa /ved˙.ßa.Æa/ <ve.dh\.ßa.Æa> fem.
v<q8 /vru.ß\¯/ <vr°u.s°\.¯\> neut. a                  an observatory.
testicle.                                             vepar /ve.par/ <ve.pa.r\> masc. 1. trade,
veg /veg/ <ve.g\> masc. speed.                        2. commerce, 3. business.

                                                      veparI /ve.pa.ri/ <ve.pa.rii> masc. 1.
vegXu& /veg.Æu~/ <ve.g\.Æu~> adj. at a
                                                      trader, 2. a businessman, 3. a shop-
distance.                                             keeper.
vecvu& /vec.vu~/ <ve.c\.vu~> v.tr. to sell.           ver /v´r/ <ve.r\> neut. hostality.

veca8 /ve.ca¯/ <ve.ca.¯\> neut. sale.
                                                                                         199


ver82er8 /ve.r\¯.c˙e.r\¯/                        vE0Vy /v\i.d˙\v.j\/ <v\i.dh\.vj\> neut.
<ve.r\.¯\.che.r\.¯\> advb. scattered.            widowhood.

vervu& /ver.vu~/ <ve.r\.vu~> v.tr. to scatter.   vE=a` /v\i.ßak˙/ <v\i.ßa.kh\> masc. the
                                                 seventh month of the Vikram year.
veragI /ve.ra.gi/ <ve.ra.gii> masc. an
ascetic.                                         vEQ8v /v\iß.¯\v/ <v\i.s°¯\.v\> masc. a
                                                 sect of Hinuism so named.
veran /ve.ran/ <ve.ra.n\> adj. 1.
desolate, 2. uninhabitated.                      Vyikt /vj\k.ti/ <vj\.kti> fem. 1. an
                                                 individual, 2. a person.
vero /ve.ro/ <ve.ro> masc. 1. a tax, 2. a
toll.                                            Vyg/ /vjg.r\/ <vj\.gr\> adj. puzzled.

vel8 /ve.l\¯/ <ve.l\.¯\> neut. a rolling-        Vyg/ta /vj\.gr\.ta/ <vj\.gra.ta> fem.
pin.                                             uneasiness.

velo /ve.lo/ <ve.lo> masc. a creeper.            Vy9a /vj\.t˙a/ <vj\.tha> fem. pain.

vevla: /vev.lai/ <ve.v\.la.ii> fem. over-        Vyi-car /vj\.b˙i.car/ <vj\.bhi.ca.r\>
wisdom.                                          masc. immoral sexual relation.

veva: /ve.vai/ <ve.va.ii> masc. the              Vyi-carI /vj\.b˙i.ca.ri/ <vj\.bhi.ca.rii>
father-in-law of one’s son or daughter.          adj. an immoral man.

veiv=aX /ve.vi.ßaÆ/ <ve.vi.ßa.Æ\> neut.          Vyi-carI8I /vj\.b˙i.ca.ri.¯i/
betrothal.                                       <vj\.bhi.ca.rii.¯ii> adj. an immoral
                                                 woman.
ve= /veß/ <ve.ß\> masc. 1. dress, 2.
costume.                                         Vy9R /vj\r.t˙\/ <vj\.rth\> adj. useless.

ve+ya /veß.ja/ <ve.ßja> fem. prostitute.         Vyvsay /vj\v.saj/ <vj\.v\.sa.j\> masc.
                                                 activity.
vEkiLpk /v\i.k\l.pik/ <v\i.k\.lpi.k\> adj.
optional.                                        VyvS9a /vj\.v\s.t˙a/ <vj\.v\.stha> fem.
                                                 1. a proper arrengement, 2, a proper
vE}aaink /v\ig.na.nik/ <v\i.gna.ni.k\>           management.
masc. a scientist.
                                                 Vyvhar /vj\v.har/ <vj\.v\.ha.r\> masc.
vE}aaink /v\ig.na.nik/ <v\i.gna.ni.k\>           a social interaction.
adj. scientific.

vEd /v\id/ <v\i.d\> masc. a doctor.
                                                                                        200


Vyvharku=X /vj\v.har.ku.ß\Æ/                Vyayam /vja.jam/ <vja.ja.m\> masc.
<v\.v\.ha.r\.ku.ß\.Æ\> adj. 1.              exercise.
practical, 2. good at social interaction.
                                            VyuTpi]a /vjut.p\t.ti/ <vju.tp\.tti> fem.
Vyvharu /vj\v.ha.ru/ <vj\.v\.ha.ru> adj.    etymology.
feasible.
                                            v/t /vr\t/ <vr\.t\> neut. a moral or
Vysn /vj\.s\n/ <vj\.s\.n\> neut. a bad      religous vow.
habit.

VySt /vj\s.t\/ <vj\.st\> adj. dispersed.
                                                                  =
Vy&g /vj\˜.g\/ <vj\~.g\> masc. satirical.   =k /ß\k/ <ß\.k\> masc. 1. doubt, 2.
                                            suspicion.
Vy&jn /vj\µ.Ô\n/ <vj\~.Ô\.n\> masc. a
consonant.                                  =kdar /ß\k.dar/ <ß\.k\.da.r\> adj.
                                            suspected (person).
Vyakr8 /vjak.r\¯/ <vja.k\.r\.¯\> neut.
grammar.                                    =km&d /ß\k.m\nd/ <ß\.k\.m\~.d\> adj.
                                            suspicious.
Vya~ya /vja.k˙ja/ <vja.khja> fem.
definition.                                 =kro /ß\k.ro/ <ß\.k\.ro> masc. 1. a
                                            hawk, 2. a falcon.
Vya~yata /vjak˙.ja.ta/<vja.khja.ta> masc.
a lecturer.                                 =kvu& /ß\k.vu~/ <ß\.k\.ro> v.intr. 1. to be
                                            able, 2. to be possible.
Vya~yan /vjak˙.jan/ <vja.khja.n\> neut. a
lecture.                                    =kkiryu& /\ß\k.k\.ri.ju~/ <ß\.kk\.ri.ju~>
                                            neut. a sweet potato.
Vyaj /vjaÔ/ <vja.Ô\> neut. interest (on
money).                                     =kkl /ß\k.k\l/ <ß\.kk\.l\> fem. face.

Vyai0 /vja.d˙i/ <vja.dhi> masc. 1. a        =ikt /ß\k.ti/ <ß\.kti> fem. 1. strength, 2.
disease, 2. a sickness.                     force.

Vyap /vjap/ <vja.p\> masc. spreed.          =iktpUjk /ß\k.ti.pu.Ô\k/
                                            <ß\.kti.puu.Ô\.k\> adj and masc. a
Vyapk /vja.p\k/ <vja.p\.k\> adj.            worshipper of the goddess.
widespread.
                                            =iktpUja /ß\k.ti.pu.Ôa/ <ß\.kti/puu.Ôa>
Vyapar /vja.par/ <vja.pa.r\> masc.          fem. worship of the goddess.
business.
                                            =ky /ß\k.j\/ <ß\.kj\> adj. possible.
                                                                                      201


                                              =rdI /ß\r.di/ <ß\.r\.dii> fem. cold.
=kyta /ß\k.j\.ta/ <ß\.kj.ta> fem.
possibility.                                  =rbt /ß\r.b\t/ <ß\.r\.b\.t\> neut. cold
                                              drink.
=8 /ß\¯/ <ß\.¯\> neut. a plat of jute.
                                              =rm /ß\.r\m/ <ß\.r\.m\> fem. 1.
=8gar /ß\¯.gar/ <ß\.¯\.ga.r\> masc.           modesty, .2 shame.
beauty-aids.
                                              =rmavu& /ß\r.ma.vu~/ <ß\.r\.ma.vu~> v.intr.
=taBdI /ß\.tab.di/ <ß\.ta.bdii> fem. 1. a     1. to blush, 2. to crestfallen.
century, 2. a centenary.
                                              =rmaX /ß\r.maÆ/ <ß\.r\.ma.Æ\> adj. shy.
={au /ß\t.ru/ <ß\.tru> masc. an enemy.
                                              =raf /ß\.rap˙/ <ß\.ra.ph\> masc. a
=p9 /ß\.p\t˙/ <ß\.p\.th\> masc. 1. oath,      banker.
2. vow.
                                              =rafI /ß\.ra.p˙i/ <ß\.ra.phii> adj.
=b /ß\b/ <ß\.b\> neut. a corpse.              related to banking.

=Bd /ß\b.d\/ <ß\.bd\> masc. a word.           =rab /ß\.rab/ <ß\.ra.b\> masc. 1. wine,
=Bdkoq /ß\b.da.koß/ <ß\.bd\.ko.s°\>           2. liquor.
masc. a dictionary.
                                              =rabI /ß\.ra.bi/ <ß\.ra.bii> adj. and
=mvu& /ß\m.vu~/ <ß\.m\.vu~> v.intr. to be     masc. a drunkard.
pacified.
                                              =rIf /ß\.rip˙/ <ß\.ri.ph\> adj.
=ytan /ß\j.tan/ <ß\.j\.ta.n\> masc.           respectable.
Satan.
                                              =rIr /ß\.rir/ <ß\.rii.r\> neut. the body.
=r8 /ß\.r\¯/ <ß\.r\.¯\> neut. shelter.
                                              =rIrrcna /ß\.rir.r\c.na/
=r8agit /ß\r.¯a.g\.ti/ <ß\.r\.¯a.g\.ti>       <ß\.rii.r\.r\.c\.na> fem. anatomy.
fem. 1. submission, 2. surrender.
                                              =rIrs&b&0 /ß\.rir.s\m.ban.d˙\/
=r8a9IR /ß\r.¯ar.t˙i/ <ß\.r\.¯a.rthii> adj.   <ß\.rii.r\.s\~.b\~.dh\> masc. sexual
and masc. a refugee.                          relation.

=r8a: /ß\r.¯ai/ <ß\.r\.¯a.ii> fem. a          =£Aat /ß\.ru.at/ <ß\.ruu.a.t\> fem. a
musical instrument.                           beginning.

=rt /ß\.r\t/ <ß\.r\.t\> fem. 1. a bet, 2. a   =S{a /ß\ß.tr\/ <ß\.str\> neut. a weapon.
condition.
                                                                                        202


=S{aik/ya /ß\ß.tr\.kri.ja/ <ß\.str\.kri.ja>
fem. 1. surgery, 2. surgical operation.       =ayr /ßa.j\r/ <ßa.j\.r\> masc. a poet.

=hId /ß\.hid/ <ß\.hii.d\> adj. and masc.      =arvu& /ßar.vu~/ <ßa.r\.vu~> v.tr. to make a
martyr.                                       hole.

=hIdI /ß\.hi.di/ <ß\.hii.dii> fem.            =arIirk /ßa.ri.rik/ <ßa.rii.ri.k\> adj.
martyrdom.                                    bodily.

=hen=ah /ß\.hen.ßah/ <ß\.he.n\.ßa.h\>         =al /ßal/ <ßa.l\> fem. a shawl.
masc. an emperor.
                                              =ask /ßa.ß\k/ <ßa.s\.k\> masc. a ruler.
=her /ß\.her/ <ß\.he.r\> neut. a city.
                                              =asn /ßa.s\n/ <ßa.s\.n\> neut.
=&ka /ß\˜.ka/ <ß\~.ka> fem. 1. suspicion,     governance.
2. doubt.
                                              =aS{a /ßas.tr\/ <ßa.ßtr\> neut. a scripture.
=&ka=Il /ß\˜.ka.ßil/ <ß\~.ka.ßi.l\> adj. 1.
doubting, 2. suspicious.                      =aS{aa9R /ßas.tra.rt˙\/ <ßa.stra.rth\> masc.
=&kaSpd /ß\˜.ka.sp\d/ <ß\~.ka.sp\.d\>         interpretation of scriptures.
adj. 1. doubtful, 2. uncertain.
                                              =ahm<g /ßah.mrug/ <ßa.h\.mr≤u.g\> neut.
=&` /ß\˜k˙/ <ß\~.kh\> masc. a conch.          an ostrich.

=ak /ßak/ <ßa.k\> neut. edible                =ahukar /ßa.hu.kar/ <ßa.hu.ka.r\> masc.
vegetable.                                    an honest person.

=akaharI /ßa.ka.ha.ri/ <ßa.ka.ha.rii> adj.    =ahu6I /ßa.hu.Îi/ <ßa.hu.Îii> fem. a
vegetarian.                                   porcupine.

=a` /ßak˙/ <ßa.kh\> fem. 1. credit, 2.        =aXa /ßa.la/ <ßa.Æa> fem. a school.
reputation.
                                              =a&t /ßa~nt/ <ßa~.t\> adj. .1quite, 2.
=a`a /ßa.k˙a/ <ßa.kha> fem. a branch.         peaceful.

=a8u& /ßa.¯u~/ <ßha.¯u~> adj. wise.           i=kar /ßi.kar/ <ßi.ka.r\> masc. hunting.

=ap /ßap/ <ßa.p\> masc. a curse.              i=karI /ßi.ka.ri/ <ßi.ka.rii> masc. a
                                              hunter.
=aba= /ßa.baß/ <ßa.ba.ß\> excl. 1. bravo,
2. well-done.                                 i=xk /ßik.ß\k/ <ßi.kß\.k\> masc. a male
                                              teacher.
=aiBdk /ßab.dik/ <ßa.bdi.k\> adj. verbal.
                                                                                             203


i=x8 /ßik.ß\¯/ <ßi.kß\.¯\> neut. 1.             i=Lp /ßil.p\/ <ßi.lp\> neut. a sculpture.
education, 2. teaching.
                                                i=Lp=aS{a /ßil.p\.ßas.tr\/ <ßi.lp\.ßa.str\>
i=xa /ßik.ßa/ <ßi.kßa> fem. 1. teaching, 2.     neut. architecture.
education, 3. punishment.
                                                i=Lp=aS{aI /ßil.p\.ßas.tri/ <ßi.lp\.ßa.strii>
i=ixka /ßik.ßi.ka/ <ßi.kßi.ka> fem. a           masc. an architect.
female teacher.
                                                i=LpI /ßil.pi/ <ßi.lpii> masc. a sculptor.
i=ixt /ßk.ßit/ <ßi.kßi.t\> adj. educated.
                                                i=vra{aI /ßiv.rat.ri/ <ßi.v\.ra.trii> fem.
i=`r /ßi.k˙\r/ <ßi.kh\.r\> neut. a peak.        the night of Lord Shiva’s festival.

i=`&6 /ßi.k˙\¯Î/ <ßi.kh\.r\> masc. a            i=i=r /ßi.ßir/ <ßi.ßi.r\> fem. the later half
kind of sweet.                                  of winter.

i=`a /ßi.k˙a/ <ßi.kha> fem. 1. a tuft, 2. a     i==u /ßi.ßu/ <ßi.ßu> neut. 1. a child, 2. an
pigtail, 3. a crest, 3. a flame of a lamp.      infant.

i=`aw /ßi.k˙a.u/ <ßi.kha.r\> adj.               i=¿n /ßiß.n\/<ßi.ßn\> masc. the penis.
learning.
                                                i=Q4acar /ßiß.ta.car/ <ßi.s°ˇa.ca.r\> masc.
i=`am8 /ßi.k˙a.m\¯/ <ßi.kha.m\.¯\>              politeness.
fem. instruction.
                                                i=Qy /ßiß.j\/ <ßi.s°j\> masc. 1. a male
i=i9l /ßi.t˙il/ <ßi.thi.l\> adj. loose.         student, 2. a male disciple.

i=ibr /ßi.bir/ <ßi.bi.r\> masc. 1. a tent,      i=Qya /ßiß.ja/ <ßi.s°ja> fem. 1. a female
2. a camp.                                      student, 2. a female disciple.

i=yaX /ßi.jaÆ/ <ßi.ja.Æ\> neut. a fox.          i=St /ßis.t\/ <ßi.st\> fem. discipline.

i=yaXu& /ßi.ja.Æu~/ <ßi.ja.Æu~> adj. grown or   i=&g /ßi˜g/ <ßi~.g\> fem. a pod.
produced in winter.
                                                i=&g6u& /ßi˜g.Îu~/ <ßi~.g\.Îu~> neut. a horn.
i=yaXo /ßi.ja.Æo/ <ßi.ja.Æo> masc. winter.
                                                =I` /ßik˙/ <ßii.kh\> fem. advice.
i=r /ßir/ <ßi.r\> neut. the head.
                                                =I` /ßik˙/ <ßii.kh\> masc. a community
i=ra /ßi.ra/ <ßi.ra> fem. a bllod-vessel.       so named.

i=la /ßi.la/ <ßi.la> fem. a slab of stone.      =I`vu& /ßik˙.vu~/ <ßii.kh\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                                learn.
                                                                                         204


                                              =<&gar /ßru˜.gar/ <ßr≤u~.ga.r\> masc. 1.
=ItXa /ßit.Æa/ <ßii.t\.Æa> fem. smallpox.     decoration, 2. ornamentation.
(honorific)
                                              =ekvu& /ßek.vu~/ <ße.k\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
=Iro /ßi.ro/ masc. <ßii.ro> a kind of         bake, 2. to roast.
sweet.
                                              =e5 /ßeˇ˙/ <ße.ˇh\> masc. a master.
=I=I /ßi.ßi/ fem. <ßii.ßii> a small bottle.
                                              =e5a8I /ße.ˇ˙a.¯i/ <ße.ˇha.¯ii> fem. a
=I=o /ßi.ßo/ masc. <ßii.ßo> a big bottle.     mistress.

=IXva /ßiÆ.va/ <ßii.Æ\.va> masc. pl. a kind   =etr&@ /ßet.r\n.Ôi/ <ße.t\.r\~.Ôii> fem. a
of skin disease.                              carpet.

=ukn /ßu.k\n/ <ßu.k\.n\> masc. hon. an        =er6I /ßer.Îi/ <ße.r\.Îii> fem. sugar-
omen.                                         cane.

=uk/var /ßuk.r\.var/ <ßu.kr\.va.r\> masc.     =erI /ße.ri/ <ße.rii> fem. 1. a lane, 2. a
Friday.                                       street.

=u)0 /ßud˙.d˙\/ <ßu.dhdh\> adj. 1.            =ero /ße.ro/ <ße.ro> masc. a remark.
clean, 2. pure.
                                              =eq /ßeß/ <ße.s°\> adj. residual.
=ui)0 /ßud˙.d˙i/ <ßu.dhdhi> fem.
purification.                                 =Eil /ß\i.li/ <ß\i.li> fem. style.

=u- /ßub˙/ <ßu.bh\> adj. auspicious.          =E=v /ß\i.ß\v/ <ß\i.ß\.v\> neut.
                                              childhood.
=u-eC2k /ßu.b˙ec.c˙\k/ <ßu.bhe.cch\.k\>
adj. a well-wisher.                           =ok /ßok/ <ßo.k\> masc. melancholy.

=u-eC2a /ßu.b˙ec.c˙a/ <ßu.bhe.ccha> fem.      =o` /ßok˙/ <ßo.kh\> masc. a hobby.
a well-wishing.
                                              =o0 /ß˙od˙/ <ßo.dh\> fem. . search, 2.
=UNy /ßun.j\/ <ßuu.nj\> neut. 1. zero, 2.     inquiry.
nothingness.
                                              =o-vu& /ßob˙.vu~/ <ßho.bh\.vu~> v.intr. to
=UrvIr /ßur.vir/ <ßuu.r\.vii.r\> masc. a      look beautiful.
brave person.
                                              =o-a /ßo.b˙a/ <ßo.bha> fem. 1. beauty,
=UX /ßuÆ/ <ßuu.Æ\> fem. dry thorn.            2. charm.

                                              +yam /ßjam/ <ßja.m\> adj. black.
                                                                                       205



+yam /ßjam/ <ßja.m\> masc. The Lord            q6\d=Rn /ß\Î.d\r.ß\n/ <s°\. [.d\.rß\.n\>
Krishna.                                       neut. pl. the six different systems of
                                               Vedic philosophy.
[a)0a /ßr\d.d˙a/ <ßr\.dhdha> fem. 1.
trust, 2. faith, .3 belief.                    qiQ4 /ß\ß.ˇi/ <s°\.s°ˇi> adj. sixty.

[a)0aXu& /ßr\d.d˙a.Æu~/ <ßr\.dhdha.Æu~> adj.
devotional.                                                          s
[av8 /ßr\.v\¯/ <ßr\.v\.¯\> neut. an act
of hearing.                                    s: /s\i/ <s\.ii> masc. a tailor

[aav8 /ßra.v\¯/ <ßra.v\.¯\> masc. the          skmRk /s\.k\r.m\k/ <s\.k\.rm\.k\> adj.
tenth month of a Vikram year.                  a transitive verb.

[aI /ßri/ <ßrii> masc. an auspicious word      skX /s\.k\Æ/ <s\.k\.Æ\> adj. fortunate.
used in the beginning of a writing.
                                               sk&jo /s\.k\µ.Ôo/ <s\.k\~.Ôo> masc. 1. a
[aeiQ5 /ßreß.ˇ˙i/ <ßre.s°ˇhi> masc. a great    gripping machine, 2. a grip.
merchant.
[aota /ßro.ta/ <ßro.ta> adj. 1. a hearer, 2.   sik/y/s\k.ri.j\/ <s\.kri.j\> adj. active.
a listener.
                                               s`8u& /s\k˙.¯u~/ <s\.kh\.¯u~> adj. 1.
¿lok /ßlo.ka/ <ßlo.k\> masc. a stanza.         quiet, 2. tranquil.

¿van /ßva.na/ <ßva.n\> masc. a dog.            s`X6`X /s\.k˙\Æ.Î\.k˙\Æ/
                                               <s\.kh\.Æ\.Î\.kh\.Æ\> adj. loose.
¿vas /ßva.s\/ <ßva.s\> masc. breathing.
                                               s`avt /s\.k˙a.v\t/ <s\.kha.v\.t\> fem.
¿vet /ßve.ta/ <ßve.t\> adj. white.             donation.

                                               s`I /s\.k˙i/ <s\.khi> fem. a female
                     q                         friend.

                                               s`ed /s\.k˙ed/ <s\.khe.d\> advb. sadly.
q4\kmR /ß\ˇ.k\r.m\/ <s°\.ˇ.k\.rm\> masc.
pl. the six duties of Brahmins.                s~t /s\k˙.t\/ <s\.kht\> adj. hard.

q4\ko8 /ß\ˇ.ko¯/ <s°\.t.ko.¯\> masc.           s~ta: /s\k˙.ta.i/ <s\.khta.ii> fem.
hexagonal.                                     hardness.

q4\pd /ß\ˇ.p\d/ <s°\.t.p\.d\> adj. six
footed.
                                                                                      206


sg6 /s\.g\Î/ <s\.g\.Î\> masc. 1. foot-       sjvu& /s\Ô.vu~/ <s\.Ô\.vu~> v.tr. to put on
prints etc. 2. traces.                       clothes, ornaments.

sgp8 /s\g.p\¯/ <s\.g\.Î\> neut.              sja /s\.Ôa/ <s\.Ôa> fem. punishment.
relation.
                                             sjatIy /s\.Ôa.ti.j\/ <s\.Ôa.tii.j\> adj. of
sg-aR /s\.g\r.b˙a/ <s\.g\.rbha> fem.         the same sex.
pregnant.
                                             sjav4 /s\.Ôa.v\ˇ/ <s\.Ôa.v\.ˇ\> fem.
sgv6 /s\g.v\Î/ <s\.g\.v\.Î\> fem. 1.         decoration.
provision, 2. comfort.
                                             s@v /s\.Ôiv/ <s\.Ôii.v\> adj. animate.
sgIr /s\.gir/ <s\.gii.r\> adj. minor
(age)                                        s@vn /s\.Ôi.v\n/ <s\.Ôii.v\.n\> adj.
                                             living.
sgu8 /s\.gu¯/ adj. <s\.gu.¯\> 1.
attributes, 2. qualities.                    sjj /s\Ô.Ô\/ <s\.ÔÔ\> adj. equipped.

sgu&vhalu& /s\.gu~.v\.ha.lu~/                sjjn /s\Ô.Ô\n/ <s\.ÔÔ\.n\> masc. a
<s\.gu~.v\.ha.lu~> neut. relative.           gentleman.

sgu&s&b&0I /s\.gu.s\m.b\n.d˙i/               s4Ik /s\.ˇik/ <s\.ˇii.k\> adj. with
<s\.gu~.s\~.b\~.dhii> neut. relatives etc.   commentary.

sgo{a /s\.got.r\/ <s\.go.tr\> adj.           s4oi6yo /s\.ˇo.Îi.jo/ <s\.ˇo.Îi.jo> masc.
having a common ancestor.                    a speculator.

s3n /s\.g˙\n/ <s\.gh\.n\> adj. 1.            s4os4 /s\.ˇo.s\ˇ/ <s\.ˇo.s\.ˇ\> advb.
dense, 2. solid.                             repeatedly.

s3Xu& /s\g˙.Æu~/ <s\.gh\.Æu~> adj. entire.   s4\4o /s\ˇ.ˇo/ <s\.ˇˇo> masc. a risky
                                             transaction in forward market.
sic{a /s\.cit.r\/ <s\.ci.tr\> adj.
illustrated.                                 s6k /s\.Î\k/ <s\.Î\.k\> adj.
                                             wonderstruck.
sco4 /s\.coˇ/ <s\.co.ˇ\> adj. unfailing.
                                             s6k /s\.Î\k/ <s\.Î\.k\> fem. a well-
sCca: /s\c.cai/ <s\.cca.ii> fem. honesty.    built road.

sjnI /s\Ô.ni/ <s\.Ô\.nii> fem. a female      s6vu& /s\Î.vu~/ <s\.Î\.vu~> v.intr. to rot.
friend.
                                             s6s5 /s\Î.s\ˇ˙/ <s\.Î\.s\.ˇh\> adj.
                                             sixty seven.
                                                                                           207


                                                s]aavIs /s\t.ta.vis/ <s\.tta.vi.s\> adj.
s6s6a4 /s\Î.s\.Îaˇ/ <s\.Î\.s\.Îa.ˇ\>            twenty seven.
advb. non-stop.
                                                s]v /s\t.v\/ <s\.tv\> neut. essence.
s6o /s\.Îo/ <s\.Îo> masc. 1. rot, .2
moral degeneration.                             sTpuruq /s\t.pu.ruß/ <s> masc. a virtuous
                                                man.
s7 /s\Î˙/ <s\.Îh\> masc. a ship’s sail.
                                                sTy /s\t.j\/ <s\.tj\> neut. truth.
s8ko /s\¯.ko/ <s\.¯\.ko> masc. a
shooting pain.                                  sTy /s\t.j\/ <s\.tj\> adj. true.

stt /s\.t\t/ <s\.t\.t\> advb. non-stop.         sTyvadI /s\.tj\va.di/ <s\.tj\.va.dii> adj.
                                                truthful.
stam8I /s\.ta.m\.¯i/ <s\.ta.m\.¯ii>
fem. 1. harassment, 2. teasing.                 sTyag/h /s\.tja.gr\h/ <s\.tja.gr\.h\>
                                                masc. insistence on truth or
stej /s\.teÔ/ <s\.te.Ô\> adj. shining           righteousness.
brightly.
                                                sTyana= /s\.tja.naß/ <s\.tja.na.ß\> neut.
sTkmR /s\t.k\r.m\/ <s\.tk\.rm\> neut. a         annihilation.
benevolent work.
                                                sTs&g /s\t.s\˜g/ <s\.ts\~.g\> masc.
sTkar /s\t.kar/ <s\.tka.r\> masc. 1.            company of saints.
welcome, 2. reception.
                                                sd&tr /s\.d\n.t\r/ <s\.d\~.t\.r\> advb.
sTkarvu& /s\t.kar.vu~/ <s\.ta.r\.vu~> v.tr.     absolutely.
to welcome.
                                                sda /s\.da/ <s\.da> advb. always.
s]ar /s\t.t\r/ <s\.tt\.r\> adj. seventeen.
                                                sdakaX /s\.da.kaÆ/ <s\.da.ka.Æ\> advb.
s]aa /s\t.ta/ <s\.tta> fem. 1. authority,       forever.
2. power.
                                                sdacr8 /s\.da.c\.r\¯/ <s\.da.c\.r\.¯\>
s]aavar /s\t.ta.var/ <s\.tta.va.r\> adj. 1.     neut. moral conduct.
officially, 2. authentic.
                                                sdacar /s\.da.car/ <s\.da.ca.r\> masc. a
s]aa8u& /s\t.ta.¯u~/ <s\.tta.¯u~> adj. ninety   moral conduct.
seven.
                                                sdI /s\.di/ <s\.dii> fem. a century.
s]aavn /s\t.ta.v\n/ <s\.tta.v\.n\> adj.
fifty seven.                                    sd\gt /s\d.g\t/ <s\d.g\.t\> adj. having
                                                attained salvation.
                                                                                     208


                                             sNmagR /s\n.marg/ <s\.nma.rg\> masc.
sd\git /s\d.g\.ti/ <s\d.g\.ti> fem.          a moral path.
salvation.
                                             siNm{a /s\n.mit.r\/ <s\.nmi.tr\> masc.
sd\gu8 /s\d.gu¯/ <s\d.gu.¯\> masc. a         a virtuous friend.
virtue.
                                             sp6avvu& /s\p.Îav.vu~/ <s\.p\.Îa.v\.vu~>
sd\g<hS9 /s\d.gru.h\s.t˙\/                   v.tr. to entrap.
<s\d.gr≤u.h\.sth\> masc. a gentleman.
                                             spnu& /s\p.nu~/ <s\.p\.nu~> neut. a
sd\bui)0 /s\d.bud.d˙i/ <s\d.bu.dhdhi>        dream.
fem. constructive understanding.
                                             sprmu& /s\.p\r.mu~/ <s\.p\.r\.mu~> adj.
sd\-agI /s\d.b˙a.gi/ <s\d.bha.gii> adj.      auspicious.
fortunate.
                                             spa4 /s\.paˇ/ <s\.pa.ˇ\> adj. flat.
sd\-aGy /s\d.b˙a.gj\/ <s\d.bha.gj\>
neut. good fortunate.                        spa4ab&0 /s\.pa.ˇa.b\nd˙/
                                             <s\.pa.ˇa.b\~.dh\> advb. 1. at once, 2.
sd\-av /s\d.b˙av/ <s\d.bha.v\> masc.         promptly.
constructive sentiment.
                                             spa4I /s\.pa.ˇi/ <s\.pa.ˇii> fem. surface.
sd\v<i]a /s\d.vrut.ti/ <s\d.vru≤.tti> fem.
constructive intention.                      spUcu& /s\.pu.cu~./ <s\.puu.cu~> adj.
                                             entire.
s)0r /s\d˙.d˙\r/ <s\.dhdh\.r\> adj.
wealthy.                                     spUt /s\.put/ <s\.puu.t\> masc. a
                                             virtuous son.
snm /s\.n\m/ <s\.n\.m\> fem. a
sweetheart.                                  sPtko8 /s\p.t\.kø¯/ <s\.pt\.ko.¯\>
                                             masc. a heptagon.
snsna4I /s\n.s\.na.ˇi/ <s\.n\.s\.na.ˇii>
fem. 1. a widespread feeling of dismay,      sPtah /s\p.tah/ <s\.pta.h\> neut. a
2. a thrill.                                 week.

snatn /s\.na.t\n/ <s\.na.t\.n\> adj.         sp/ma8 /s\.pr\.ma¯/ <s\.pr\.ma.¯\>
eternal.                                     adj. with proof.

snepat /s\.ne.pat/ <s\.ne.pa.t\> masc.       sp/ma8 /s\.pr\.ma¯/ <s\.pr\.ma.¯\>
delirious fever.                             advb. proportion.

sNman /s\n.man/ <s\.nma.n\> neut. 1.         sp/em /s\.prem/ <s\.pre.m\> advb.
reception, 2. honor.                         lovingly.
                                                                                    209


                                             s_y /s\b˙.j\/ <s\.bhj\> adj. polite.
sfr /s\.p˙\r/ <s\.ph\.r\> fem. 1. a
travel, 2. a journey.                        sm /s\m/ <s\.m\> masc. an oath.

sfrjn /s\.p˙\r.Ô\n/ <s\.ph\.r\.Ô\.n\>        smx /s\.m\k.ß\/ <s\.m\.kß\> advb. in
neut. an apple.                              the presence of.

sfX /s\.p˙\Æ/ <s\.ph\.Æ\> adj. 1.            smg/ /s\.m\g.r\/ <s\.m\.gr\> adj. 1.
fruitful, 2. successful.                     whole, 2. entire.

sfa: /s\.p˙a.i/ <s\.pha.ii> fem.             smcors /s\m.co.r\s/ <s\.m\.co.r\.s\>
cleanliness.                                 masc. a square.

sfac4 /s\.p˙a.c\ˇ/ <s\.pha.c\.ˇ\> advb.      smj /s\.m\Ô/ <s\.m\.Ô\> fem.
totally used up.                             understanding.

sfaXu& /s\.p˙a.Æu~/ <s\.pha.Æu~> adj.        smj8 /s\.m\.Ô\¯/ <s\.m\.Ô\.¯\> fem.
stunned.                                     understanding.

sfed /s\.p˙ed/ <s\.phe.d\> adj. white.       smj8u& /s\.m\Ô.¯u~/ <s\.m\.Ô\.¯u~> adj.
                                             wide.
sbk /s\.b\k/ <s\.b\.k\> masc. a moral.
                                             smjvu& /s\.m\Ô.vu~/ <s\.m\.Ô\.vu~> v.intr.
sb6ko /s\.b\Î.ko/ <s\.b\.Î\.ko> masc.        1. to understand, 2. to comprehend.
a sound made when eating a liquid food
with hand.                                   smju /s\m.Ôu/ <s\.m\.Ôu> adj. wise.

sb6vu& /s\.b\Î.vu~/ <s\.b\.Î\.vu~> v.intr.   smjUtI /s\m.Ôu.ti/ <s\.m\.Ôu.tii> fem. 1.
to suffer for a long time.                   understanding, 2. compromise.

sbX /s\.b\Æ/ <s\.b\.Æ\> adj. strong.         smtl /s\m.t\l/ <s\.m\.t\.l\> neut. an
                                             even surface.
s-r /s\.b˙\r/ <s\.bh\.r\> adj. plenty.
                                             smtula /s\m.tu.la/ <s\.m\.tu.la> fem.
s-a /s\.b˙a/ <s\.bha> fem. a meeting.        balance.

s-asd /s\.p˙a.sad/ <s\.bha.s\.d\>            smtol /s\m.tol/ <s\.m\.to.l\> adj. of
masc. a member (of an association or         equal weight.
organization).
                                             smd=IR /s\m.d\r.ßi/ <s\.m\.d\.rßii> adj.
s_y /s\b˙.j\/ <s\.bhj\> masc. a              impartial.
member (of an association or
organization).
                                                                                      210


sm±iQ4 /s\m.dr\ß.ˇi/ <s\.m\.dr\.s°ˇi>         smSya /s\.m\s.ja/ <s\.m\.sja> fem. 1. a
adj. impartial.                               riddle, 2. a puzzle.

sm-av /s\m.b˙av/ <s\.m\.bha.v\>               smagm /s\.ma.g\m/ <s\.ma.g\.m\>
masc. impartiality.                           masc. 1. an act of meeting, 2. union.

smy /s\.m\j/ <s\.m\.j\> masc. time.           smacar /s\.ma.car/ <s\.ma.ca.r\> masc.
                                              news.
smysUck /s\.m\j.su.c\k/
<s\.m\.j\.suu.c\.k\> adj. sharp-              smacarp{a /s\.ma.car.p\t.r\/
minded.                                       <s\.ma.ca.r\.p\.tr\> neut. a
                                              newspaper.
smysUckta /s\.m\j.su.c\k.ta/
<s\.m\.j\.suu.c\.k\.ta> fem. presence         smaj /s\.maÔ/ <s\.ma.Ô\> masc. 1.
of mind.                                      society, 2. an association.

smrvu& /s\.m\r.vu~/ <s\.m\.r\.vu~> v.tr.      smajvad /s\.maÔ.vad/ <s\.ma.Ô\.va.d\>
to remember someone or something with         masc. socialism.
devotion.
                                              smaj=aS{a /s\.maÔ.ßaß.tr\/
sm£p /s\m.rup/ <s\.m\.ruu.p\> adj.            <s\.ma.Ô\.ßa.ßtr\> neut. sociology.
1. of the same form, 2. similar.
                                              smaj=aS{aI /s\/maÔ.ßaß.tri/
sm9R /s\.m\r.t˙\/ <s\.m\.rth\> adj.           <s\.ma.Ô\.ßa.ßtrii> masc. a sociologist.
powerful.
                                              sma0an /s\/ma/d˙an/ <s\.ma.dha.n\>
smpR8 /s\.m\r.p\¯/ <s\.m\.rp\.¯\>             neut. 1. compromise, 2 settlement.
neut. 1. an offering, 2. a surrendering, 3.
dedication.                                   smai0 /s\.ma.d˙i/ <s\.ma.dhi> fem. 1.
                                              deep meditation, 2. a death of an ascetic,
smpRvu& /s\.m\r.p\.vu~/ <s\.m\.rp\.vu~>       3. a shrine, etc. constructed over the
v.tr. to offer, 2. to dedicate, .3 to         spot where an ascetic’s corpse is buried.
surrender.
                                              sman /s\.man/ <s\.ma.n\> adj. 1.
smvySk /s\m.v\.j\s.k\/                        similar, 2. equal.
<s\.m\.v\.j\.sk\> adj. of the same
age.                                          smanta /s\.man.ta/ <s\.ma.n\.ta> fem.
                                              1. similarity, 2. equality.
sm=er /s\m.ßer/ <s\.m\.ße.r\> fem. a
sword.                                        smapn /s\.ma.p\n/ <s\.ma.p\.n\> neut.
                                              an act of completion.
smSt /s\/m\s.t\/ <s\.m\.st\> adj. 1.
entire, 2. whole.
                                                                                      211


smaPt /s\.map.t\/ <s\.ma.pt\> adj. 1.       smu± /s\.mud.r\/ <s\.mu.dr\> masc. an
completed, 2. finished.                     ocean.

smarvu& /s\.mar.vu~/ <s\.ma.r\.vu~> v.tr.   sm<)0 /s\m.rud˙.d˙\/ <s\.mr≤.dhdh\>
to repair.                                  adj. prosperious.

smar&- /s\.ma.r\m.b˙\/ <s\.ma.r\~.bh\>      sm<i)0 /s\m.rud˙.d˙i/ <s\.mr≤.dhdhi>
masc. a grand celebration.                  fem. prosperity.

smave= /s\.ma.veß/ <s\.ma.ve.ß\> masc.      sme4vu& /s\.meˇ.vu~/ <s\.me.ˇ\.vu~> v.tr.
1. accomodation, 2. inclusion.              to wind up.

smas /s\.mas/ <s\.ma.s\> masc. a            smov6u& /s\.mo.v\.Îu~/ <s\.mo.v\.Îu~>
compound.                                   adj. equal.

sma&tr /s\.ma~n.t\r/ <s\.ma~.t\.r\> adj.    srk8u& /s\.r\k.¯u~/ <s\.r\.k\.¯u~> adj.
parallel.                                   slippery.

simit /s\.mi.ti/ <s\.mi.ti> fem. a          srkvu& /s\.r\k.vu~/ <s\.r\.k\.vu~> v.intr.
committee.                                  1. to slip, 2. to slide.

smIkr8 /s\.mi.k\.r\¯/ <s\.mii.k\.r\.¯\>     srkar /s\r.kar/ <s\.r\.ka.r\> fem.
neut. equation.                             government.

smIxa /s\.mik.ßa/ <s\.mi.kßa> fem.          srkarI /s\r.ka.ri/ <s\.r\.ka.rii> adj.
criticism.                                  governmental.

smIp /s\.mip/ <s\.mii.p\> adj. 1. near,     srko /s\r.ko/ <s\.r\.ko> masc. vinegar.
2. close.
                                            sr`am8I /s\r.k˙am.¯i/
smIpta /s\.mip.ta/ <s\.mii.p\.ta> fem.      <s\.r\.kha.m\.¯ii> fem. comparision.
1. nearness, 2. proximity.
                                            sr`avvu& /s\r.k˙av.vu~/ <s\.r\.kha.v\.vu~>
smIsa&j /s\.mi.sa~Ô/ <s\.mii.sa~.Ô\> fem.   v.tr. to compare.
the dusk.
                                            sr`u& /s\r.k˙u~/ <s\.r\.khu~> adj. equal.
smUict /s\.mu.cit/ <s\.muu.ci.t\> adj.
proper.                                     srgvo /s\r.g\.vo/ <s\.r\.g\.vo> masc.
                                            a tree or its fruit like stick that can be
smuCcy /s\.muc.c\.j\/ <s\.muu.cc\.j\>       used as vegetable.
masc. a collection.
                                            sr3s /s\r.g˙\s/ <s\.r\.gh\.s\> neut. a
smUday /s\.mu.daj/ <s\.muu.da.j\>           procession.
masc. a group.
                                                                                          212



srdar /s\r.dar/ <s\.r\.da.r\> masc. 1.          srhd /s\r.h\d/ <s\.r\.h\.d\> fem. 1.
leader, 2. chief.                               frontier, 2. border.

srdarI /s\r.da.ri/ <s\.r\.da.rii> fem.          srX /s\.r\Æ/ <s\.r\.Æ\> adj. easy.
leadership.
                                                srXta /s\.r\Æ.ta/ <s\.r\.Æ\.ta> fem.
srnamu& /s\r.na.mu~/ <s\.r\.na.mu~> neut.       simplicity.
address.
                                                sravvu& /s\.rav.vu~/ <s\.ra.v\.vu~> v.tr. to
srp&c /s\r.p\µc/ <s\.r\.p\~.c\> masc.           offer food and other things om the death
the president of a village assembly.            anniversary of a relative.

srpav /s\r.pav/ <s\.r\.pa.v\> masc. 1.          srera= /s\.re.raß/ <s\.re.ra.ß\> fem.
a gift, 2. an award.                            average.

sr-r /s\r.b˙\r/ <s\.r\.bh\.r\> adj. 1.          srera= /s\.re.raß/ <s\.re.ra.ß\> advb. on
neither more nor less, 2. equal.                an average.

sr-ra /s\r.b˙\.ra/ <s\.r\.bh\.ra> fem.          sroj /s\.roÔ/ <s\.ro.Ô\> neut. lotus.
hospitality.
                                                sroijnI /s\.ro.Ôi.ni/ <s\.ro.Ôi.nii> fem.
srmu`TyarI /s\r.muk˙.tja.ri/                    lotus plant.
<s\.r\.mu.kh\.tja.rii> fem.
dictactorship.                                  srovr /s\.ro.v\r/ <s\.ro.v\.r\> neut.
                                                lake.
srmu`Tyar=ahI /s\r.muk˙.tjar.ßa.hi/
<s\.r\.mu.kh\.tja.r\.ßa.hii> fem.               sjRk /s\r.Ô\k/ <s\.rÔ\.k\> masc. creator.
dictatorship.
                                                sjRn /s\r.Ô\n/ <s\.rÔ\.n\> neut.
srvaXo /s\r.va.Æo/ <s\.r\.va.Æo> masc.          creation.
1. addition, 2. total.
                                                sjRnaTmk /s\r.Ô\.nat.m\k/
srvEyu& /s\r.v\i.ju~/ <s\.r\.v\i.ju~> neut. a   <s\.rÔ\.na.tm\.k\> adj. creative.
balance-sheet.
                                                sjRvu& /s\rÔ.vu~/ <s\.rÔ\.vu~> v.tr. to
sri=yu& /s\.r\.ßi.ju~/ <s\.r\.ßi.ju~> neut.     create.
rapeseed oil.
                                                svR /s\r.v\/ <s\.rv\> adj. all.
srs /s\.r\s/ <s\.r\.s\> adj. good.
                                                AvRkalIn /s\r.v\.ka.lin/
srsaman /s\r.sa.man/ <s\.r\.sa.ma.n\>           <s\.rva.ka.lii.n\> adj. eternal.
masc. household things.
                                                                                     213


svRg/ahI /s\r.v\.gra.hi/ <s\.rva,gra.hii>   slamt /s\.la.m\t/ <s\.la.m\.t\> adj.
adj. comprehensive.                         free from fear.

svR}a /s\r.v\g.n\/ <s\.rva.gn\> adj.        slamtI /s\.la.m\.ti/ <s\.la.m\.tii> fem,
omniscient.                                 safety.

svR{a /s\r.v\t.r\/ <s\.rva.tr\> advb.       slah /s\.lah/ <s\.la.h\> fem. advice.
everywhere.
                                            slahkar /s\.lah.kar/ <s\.la.h\.ka.r\>
svRna= /s\r.v\.naß/ <s\.rv\.na.ß\> masc.    adj. advisor.
total destruction.
                                            sv8R /s\.v\r.¯\/ <s\.v\.r¯\> adj.
svRnam /s\r.v\.nam/ <s\.rv\.na.m\>          higher caste people.
neut. pronoun.
                                            svlt /s\v.l\t/ <s\.v\.l\.t\> fem.
svR-xI /s\r.v\.b˙k.ßi/ <s\.rv\.bh\.kßii>    convenience.
adj. omnivorous.
                                            svXu& /\s\v.Æu~/ <s\.v\.Æu~> adj.
svRmaNy /s\r.v\.man.j\/ <s\.rv\.ma.nj\>     clockwise.
adj. accepted by all.
                                            sva /s\.va/ <s\.va> adj. one and a
svRVyapk /s\r.v\.vja.p\k/                   quarter.
<s\.rv\.vja.p\.k\> adj. omnipresent.
                                            svayu& /s\.va.ju~/<s\.va.ju~> adj. superior.
svR=iktman /s\r.v\.ß\k.ti.man/
<s\.rv\.ß\.kti.ma.n\> adj.                  svar /s\.var/ <s\.va.r\> fem. morning.
omnipotent.
                                            svarI /s\.va.ri/ <s\.va.rii> fem. a
svaRnumt /s\r.va.nu.m\t/                    passenger.
<s\.rva.nu.m\.t\> adj. unnimous.
                                            sval /s\.val/ <s\.va.l\> masc. 1.
svaRnumit /s\r.va.nu.m\.ti/                 question, 2. inquiry.
<s\.rva.nu.m\.ti> fem. unanimity.
                                            sivny /s\.vi.n\j/ <s\.vi.n\.j\> adj. 1.
svoRCc /s\r.vo.cc\/ <s\.rvo.cj\> adj.       courteous, 2. modest.
highest.                                    siv=eq /s\.vi.ßeß/ <s\.vi.ße.s°\> adj.
sla4 /s\.laˇ/ <s\.la.ˇ\> masc. stone-       peculiar.
mason.                                      sivStr /s\.vis.t\r/ <s\.vi.st\.r\> adj. 1.
slam /s\.lam/ <s\.la.m\> fem.               detailed, 2. extensive.
salutation.
                                                                                             214


sveXa /s\.ve.Æa/ <s\.ve.Æa> advb. in           shyog /s\h.jog/ <s\.h\.jo.g\> masc. co-
time.                                          operation.

s=kt /s\.ß\k.t\/ <s\.ß\.kt\> adj.              shi=x8 /s\h.ßik.ß\¯/ <s\.h\.ßi.kß\.¯\>
strong.                                        neut. co-education.

ssro /s\s.ro/ <s\.s\.ro> masc. father-         shsa /s\h.sa/ <s\.h\.sa> advb.
in-law.                                        suddenly.

sslu& /s\s.lu~/ <s\.s\.lu~> neut. 1. rabbit,   shanu-av /s\.ha.nu.b˙av/
2. hare.                                       <s\.ha.nu.bha.v\> masc. sympathy.

sStu& /s\s.tu~/ <s\.stu~> adj. cheap.          shanu-Uit /s\.ha.nu.b˙u.ti/
                                               <s\.ha.nu.bhuu.ti> fem. sympathy.
sSneh /s\.sneh/ <s\.sne.h\> adj. with
love.                                          shay /s\.haj/ <s\.ha.j\> fem. help.

sh /s\h/ <s\.h\> advb. with.                   sihyr /s\.hi.j\r/ <s\.hi.j\.r\> fem.
                                               female friend (of a female)
shkar /s\h.kar/ <s\.h\.ka.r\> masc. co-
operation.                                     sihyaru& /s\.hi.ja.ru~/ <s\.hi.ja.ru~> adj.
                                               jointly owned.
shkarI /s\h.ka.ri/ <s\.h\.ka.rii> adj.
co-operative.                                  sihQ8u /s\.hiß.¯u/ <s\.hi.s°¯u> adj.
                                               tolerant.
shj /s\.h\Ô/ <s\.h\.Ô\> adj. 1. innate,
2. natural.                                    sihQ8uta /s\.hiß.¯u.ta/ <s\.hi.s°¯u.ta>
                                               fem. tolerance.
shjan&d /s\h.Ôa.n\nd/ <s\.h\.Ôa.n\~.d\>
masc. bliss natural to the soul.               shI /s\.hi/ <s\.hii> fem. signature.

shn /s\.h\n/ <s\.h\.n\> neut.                  shej /s\.heÔ/ <s\.he.Ô\> adj. a little.
suffering.
                                               shetuk /s\.he.tuk/ <s\.he.t\.k\> adj.
sh-agI /s\h.b˙a.gi/ <s\.h\.bha.gii> adj.
                                               intentional.
partner.
                                               shel /s\.hel/ <s\.he.l\> fem. a pleasure-
shmt /s\h.m\t/ <s\.h\.m\.t\> adj.
                                               trip.
agreeing with.
                                               shelu& /s\.he.lu~/ <s\.he.lu~> adj. easy.
shmit /s\h.m\.ti/ <s\.h\.m\.ti> fem.
agreement.                                     shodr /s\.ho.d\r/ <s\.ho.d\.r\> adj.
                                               brother (born of the same mother).
                                                                                            215



s¬ /s\h.j\/ <s\.hj\> adj. endurable.             s&kul /s\˜.kul/ <s\~.ku.l\> adj. complex.

sX /s\Æ/ <s\.Æ\> fem. wrinkle (on bed            s&ket /s\˜.ket/ <s\~.ke.t\> masc. 1. sign,
shit etc.)                                       2. gesture.

sXgvu& /s\.Æ\g.vu~/ <s\.Æ\.g\.vu~> v.intr.       s&kelvu& /s\˜.kel.vu~/ <s\~.ke.l\.vu~> v.intr.
to burn.                                         to wind up.

sXvXvu& /s\Æ.v\Æ.vu~/ <s\.Æ\.v\.Æ\.vu~>          s&koc /s\˜.koc/ <s\~.ko.c\> masc.
v.intr. to move slowly.                          contraction.

sX&g /s\.Æ\˜g/ <s\.Æ\~.g\> adj.                  s&kocvu& /s\˜.koc.vu~/ <s\~.ko.c\.vu~>
unbroken.                                        v.intr. to contract.

siXyo /s\.Æi.jo/ <s\.Æi.jo> masc. rod or         s&korvu& /s\˜.kor.vu~/ <s\.ko.r\.vu~> v.tr.
bar (of metal).                                  to ignite.

sXI /s\.Æi/ <s\.Æii> fem. a thin round           s&ixPt /s\˜.kßip.t\/ <s\~.kßi.pt\> adj.
stick.                                           abridged.

sXe`m /s\.Æe.k˙\m/ <s\.Æe.kh\.m\> fem.           s&~ya /s\˜.k˙ja/ <s\~.khja> fem. 1.
cold.                                            number, 2. figure.

s&k4 /s\˜.k\ˇ/ <s\~.k\.ˇ\> neut. misery.         s&~yab&0 /s\˜.k˙ja.b\nd˙/
                                                 <s\~.khja.b\~.dh\> adj. numerous.
s&k6am8 /s\˜k.Îa.m\¯/
<s\~.k\.Îa.m\.¯\> fem. crowdedness.              s&g /s\˜g/ <s\~.g\> masc. association.

s&kln /s\˜.k\.l\n/ <s\~.k\.l\.n\> neut.          s&g5n /s\˜.g\.ˇ˙\n/ <s\~.g\.ˇh\.n\> neut.
collection.                                      1. association, 2. organization.

s&kLp /s\˜.k\l.p\/ <s\~.k\.lp\> masc.            s&gm /s\˜.g\m/ <s\~.g\.m\> masc.
determination.                                   meeting.

s&kLp=ikt /s\˜.k\l.p\.ß\k.ti/                    s&ga9 /s\˜.gat˙/ <s\~.ga.th\> masc.
<s\~.k\.lp\.ß\.kti> fem. will-power.             company (in travel).

s&kXavu& /s\˜k.Æa.vu~/ <s\~.k\.Æa.vu~> v.intr.   s&gIt /s\˜.git/ <s\~.gii.t\> neut. music.
to be associated with.
                                                 s&gIn /s\˜.gin/ <s\~.gii.n\> adj. 1. solid,
s&kuict /s\˜.ku.cit/ <s\~.ku.ci.t\> adj.         2. durable.
narrow (minded).
                                                                                          216


s&gemrmr /s\˜.ge.m\r.m\r/                      s&}aavack /s\˜.gna.va.c\k/
<s\~.ge.m\.r\.m\.r\> masc. marble.             <s\.gna.va.c\.k\> adj. proper noun.

s&g/h /s\˜.gr\h/ <s\~.gr\.h\> masc. 1.         s&6as /s\¯.Îas/ <s\~.Îa.s\> neut. latrine.
collection, 2. hoard.
                                               s&6ovvu& /s\¯.Îov.vu~/ <s\~.Îo,v\.vu~> v.tr.
s&g/h`or /s\˜.gr\h.k˙or/                       1. to involve, 2. to implicate.
<s\~.gr\.h\.kho.r\> adj. hoarder.
                                               s&t /s\nt/ <s\~.t\> masc. saint.
s&g/h`orI /s\˜.gr\h.k˙o.ri/
<s\~.gr\.h\.kho.rii> fem. hoarding.            s&tva8I /s\nt.va.¯i/ <s\~.t\.va.¯i> fem.
s&g/hvu& /s\˜.gr\h.vu~/ <s\~.gr\.h\.vu~>       teaching of saints.
v.tr. to collect.                              s&tru /s\nt.ru~/ <s\~.t\.ru> neut. orange.

s&g/hS9an /s\˜.gr\h.st˙an/                     s&takUk6I /s\n.ta.kuk.Îi/ <s\~.ta.ku.k\.Îii>
<s\~.gr\.h\.stha.n\> neut. museum.             fem. a game of hide and seek.

s&3 /s\˜.g\/ <s\~.gh\> masc. 1. group of       s&ta6vu& /s\n.taÎ.vu~/ <s\~.ta.Î\.vu~> v.tr.
pilgrims, 2. association, 3. union.            to hide.

s&3rvu& /s\˜.g\r.vu~/ <s\~.gh\.r\.vu~> v.tr.   s&tan /s\n.tan/ <s\~.ta.n\> neut.
1. to collect, 2. to hoard.                    offspring.

s&3qR /s\m.g˙\rß/ <s\~.gh\.rs°\> masc. 1.      s&tap /s\n.tap/ <s\~.ta.p\> masc. 1.
clash, 2. conflict.                            distress, 3. misery.

s&calk /s\µ.ca.l\k/ <s\~.ca.l\.k\> masc.       s&tavu& /s\n.ta.vu~/ <s\~.ta.vu~> v.intr. to
manager (male).                                hide (oneself).

s&cailka /s\µ.ca.li.ka/ <s\~.ca.li.ka> fem.    s&tuln /s\n.tu.l\n/ <s\~.tu.l\.n\> neut.
manager (female).                              balance.

s&caln /s\µ.ca.l\n/ <s\~.ca.l\.n\> neut.       s&toq /s\n.toß/ <s\~.to.s°\> masc.
management.                                    satisfaction.

s&co /s\µ.co/ <s\~.co> masc. machine.          s&toqkark /s\n.toß.ka.r\k/
                                               <s\~.to.s°\.ka.r\.k\> adj. satisfactory.
s&jog /s\µ.Ôog/ <s\~.Ôo.g\> masc.
meeting.                                       s&toqI /s\n.to.ßi/ <s\~.to.s°ii> adj. having
                                               happy disposition.
s&}aa /s\˜.gna/ <s\~.gna> fem. sign.
                                               s&d-R /s\n.d\rb˙/ <s\~.d\.rbh\> masc. 1.
                                               context, 2. reference.
                                                                                          217


                                               s&pkR /s\m.p\rk/ <s\~.p\.rk\> masc.
s&idG0 /s\n.dig.d˙\/ <s\~.di.gdh\> adj.        contact.
doubtful.
                                               s&padk /s\m.pa.d\k/ <s\~.pa.d\.k\>
s&de= /s\n.deß/ <s\~.de.ß\> masc.              masc. editor.
message.
                                               s&padkIy /s\m.pa.d\.ki.j\/
s&de=vahk /s\n.deß.va.h\k/                     <s\~.pa.d\.kii.j\> adj. editorial.
<s\~.de.ß\.va.h\.k\> adj. 1. messenger,
2. courier.                                    s&padn /s\m.pa.d\n/ <s\~.pa.d\.n\>
                                               neut. 1. editing, .2 acquiring.
s&deh /s\n.deh/ <s\~.de.h\> masc. 1.
doubt, 2. suspicion.                           s&pU8R /s\m.pur.¯\/ <s\~.puu.r¯\> adj.
                                               1. entire, 2. whole.
s&i0 /s\n.d˙i/ <s\~.dhi> fem. 1. a joint, 2.
conjunction, 3. treaty, 4. euphonic            s&p/day /s\m.pr\.daj/ <s\~.pr\.da.j\>
coalition of sounds (in grammar).              masc. 1. a religious sect, 2. a cult.

s&i0kaX /s\n.d˙i.kaÆ/ <s\~.dhi.ka.Æ\>          s&b&0 /s\m.b\n.d˙\/ <s\~.b\~.dh\> masc.
masc. period of transition.                    relation.

s&)ya /s\n.d˙ja/ <s\~.dhja> fem. 1.            s&b&0I /s\m.b\n.d˙i/ <s\~.b\~.dhii> adj. 1.
evening, 2. evening prayer.                    related, 2. relative.

s&inpat /s\n.ni.pat/ <s\~.ni.pa.t\> masc.      s&bo0vu& /s\m.bod˙.vu~/ <s\~.bo.dh\.vu~>
delirium.                                      v.tr. to address.

s&inQ5 /s\n.niߡ˙/ <s\~.ni.s°ˇh\> adj. 1.      s&-v /s\m.b˙\v/ <s\~.bh\.v\> masc.
honest, 2. devoted.                            likelihood.

s&inQ5a /s\n.niß.ˇ˙a/ <s\~.ni.s°ˇha> fem. 1.   s&-Xavvu& /s\mb˙.Æav.vu~/
honesty, 2. devotion.                          <s\~.bh\.Æa.v\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to make
                                               someone hear, 2. to speak in insulting
s&Nyas /s\m.njas/ <s\~.nja.s\> masc.           manner.
asceticism.
                                               s&-arvu& /s\m.b˙ar.vu~/ <s\~.bha.r\.vu~>
s&NyasI /s\m.ja.si/ <s\~.nja.sii> masc.        v.tr. 1. to remember, 2. to recollect.
hermit.
                                               s&-avna /s\m.b˙av.na/ <s\~.bha.v\.na>
s&p /s\mp/ <s\~.p\> masc. unity.               fem. probability.

s&pi]a /s\m.p\.tti/ <s\~.p\.tti> fem.          s&-aX /s\m.b˙aÆ/ <s\~.bha.Æ\> fem. care.
wealth.
                                                                                       218


s&-og /s\m.b˙og/ <s\~.bho.g\> masc.        s&vad /s\m.vad/ <s\~.va.d\> masc.
sexual intercourse.                        conversation.

s&mt /s\m.m\t/ <s\~.m\.t\> adj. agreed.    s&vaidta /s\m.va.di.ta/ <s\~.va.di.ta> fem.
                                           harmony.
s&mit /s\m.m\.ti/ <s\~.m\.ti> fem. 1.
approval, 2. agreement.                    s&vadI /s\m.va.di/ <s\~.va.dii> adj.
                                           harmonious.
s&meln /s\m.me.l\n/ <s\~.me.l\.n\> neut.   s&vedn /s\m.ve.d\n/ <s\~.ve.d\.n\> neut.
gathering.                                 sensation.

s&ym /s\i~.j\m/ <s\~.j\.m\> masc. 1.       s&=y /s\m.ß\j/ <s\~.ß\.j\> masc.
restraint, 2. control.                     suspicion.

s&yukt /s\m.juk.t\/ <s\~.ju.kt\> adj. 1.   s&=o0k /s\m.ßo.d˙\k/ <s\~.ßo.dh\.k\>
joined, 2. united.                         adj. researcher.

s&yog /s\m.jog/ <s\~.jo.g\> masc. 1.       s&=o0n /s\m.ßo.d˙\n/ <s\~.ßo.dh\.n\>
union, 2. meeting.                         neut. 1. research, 2. purification.

s&yojk /s\m.jo.Ô\k/ <s\~.jo.Ô\.k\> adj.    s&=oi0t /s\m.ßo.d˙it/ <s\~.ßo.dhi.t\> adj.
uniting.                                   1. purified, 2. searched out.

s&yojk /s\m.jo.Ô\k/ <s\~.jo.Ô\.k\> masc.   s&sgR /s\m.s\rg/ <s\~.s\.rg\> masc. 1.
organizer.                                 contact, 2. association.

s&yojn /s\m.jo.Ô\n/ <s\~.jo.Ô\.n\> neut.   s&sar /s\m.sar/ <s\~.sa.r\> masc. 1. the
the act of joining.                        universe, 2. the world.

s&rxk /s\m.r\k.ß\k/ <s\~.r\.kß\.k\> adj.   s&sarI /s\m.sa.ri/ <s\~.sa.rii> adj.
protector.                                 worldly.

s&rx8 /s\m.r\k.ß\¯/ <s\~.r\.kß\.¯\>        s&Skar /s\m.skar/ <s\~.ska.r\> masc.
neut. protection.                          purification.

s&vt /s\m.v\t/ <s\~.v\.t\> masc. the       s&SkarIta /s\m.sa.ri.ta/ <s\~.ska.rii.ta>
Vikram era that begun in 56 B.C.           fem. civility.

s&vTsrI /s\m.v\t.s\.ri/ <s\~.v\.ts\.rii>   s&Sk<t /s\m.skut/ <s\~.skr≤.t\> fem.
fem. death anniversary.                    Sanskrit language.

s&vnn /s\m.v\.n\n/ <s\~.v\.n\.n\> neut.    s&Sk<it /s\m.skru.ti/ <s\~.skr≤.ti> fem.
1. wooing, 2. courting.                    civilization.
                                                                                       219


s&S9a /s\ß.t˙a/ <s\~.stha> fem. institution.   sa6{aIs /sa.Î\t.ris/ <sa.Î\.trii.s\> adj.
                                               thirty-seven.
s&S9apk /s\m.st˙a.p\k/ <s\~.stha.p\.k\>
adj. founder.                                  sa6lo /saÎ.lo/ <sa.Î\.lo> masc. sari.

s&har /s\m.har/ <s\~.ha.r\> masc.              sa6I /sa.Îi/ <sa.Îii> fem. sari.
destruction.
                                               sa6asatI /sa.Îa.sa.ti/ <sa.Îa.sa.tii> fem.
sakr /sa.k\r/ <sa.k\.r\> fem. suger.           malicious influence of Saturn that
                                               remains over a period of seven years.
saxr /sak.ß\r/ <sa.kß\.r\> adj. 1.
literate, 2. learned.                          sa7u /sa.Î˙u/ <sa.Îhu> masc. husband
                                               of wife’s sister.
saxat\ /sak.ßat/ <sa.kßa.t> advb. in
physical presence.                             sa8sI /sa¯.si/ <sa.¯\.sii> fem. pair of
                                               pincers.
saxaTkar /sak.ßat.kar/ <sa.kßa.tka.r\>
masc. 1. devine realization, 2. spiritual      sat /sat/ <sa.t\> adj. seven.
perception.
                                               satTy /sa.t\t.j\/ <sa.t\.tj\> neut.
saxI /sak.ßi/ <sa.kßii> fem. testimony.        continuity.

saxI /sak.ßi/ <sa.kßii> masc. eye-             satm /sa.t\m/ <sa.t\.m\> fem. seventh
witness.                                       day of a lunar fortnight.

sag /sag/ <sa.g\> masc. 1. teak-tree, 2.       satmu& /sat.mu~/ <sa.t\.mu~> adj. seventh.
teak-wood.
                                               sa9 /sat˙/ <sa.th\> masc. company.
sagr /sa.g\r/ <sa.g\.r\> masc. ocean.
                                               sa9X /sa.t˙\Æ/ <sa.th\.Æ\> fem. thigh.
sacvvu& /sa.c\v.vu~/ <sa.c\.v\.vu~> v.tr. .
to take care of, 2. to preserve.               sai9yo /sa.t˙i.jo/ <sa.ˇhi.jo> masc.
                                               auspicious figure of Swastik.
sacu& /sa.cu~/ <sa.cu~> adj. 1. true, 2.
right.                                         sa9I /sa.t˙i/ <sa.kßii> masc. companion.

saju& /sa.Ôu~/ <sa.Ôu~> adj. healthy.          sa9Idar /sa.t˙i.dar/ <sa.thii.da.r\> masc.
                                               companion.
sa4u& /sa.ˇu~/ <sa.ˇu~> neut. bargain.
                                               sad /sad/ <sa.d\> masc. 1. voice, 2.
sa4e /sa.ˇe/ <sa.ˇe> postp. in exchange.       shout.
                                                                                        220


sadgI /sad.gi/ <sa.d\.gii> fem.              sap /sap/ <sa.p\> masc. a male serpent.
simplicity.
                                             sap8 /sa.p\¯/ <sa.p\.¯\> fem. a female
sadr /sa.d\r/ <sa.d\.r\> advb.               serpent.
respectfully.
                                             sapex /sa.pek.ß\/ <sa.pe.kß\> adj.
sada: /sa.da.i/ <sa.da.ii> fem.              relative.
simplicity.
sadu& /sa.du~/ <sa.du~> adj. 1. simple, .2   sapoilyu& /sa.po.li.ju~/ <sa.po.li.ju~> neut.
plain.                                       young serpent.

sa0k /sa.d˙\k/ <sa.dh\.k\> masc.             saPtaihk /sap.ta.hik/ <sa.pta.hi.k\> adj.
spiritual discipline.                        weekly.

sa0n /sa.d˙\n/ <sa.dh\.n\> neut. 1.          saf /sap˙/ <sa.ph\> adj. clean.
tool, .2 instrument.
                                             safsUf /sap˙.sup˙/ <sa.ph\.suu.ph\>
sa0ns&pNn /sa.d˙\n.sam.p\n.n\/               adj. cleaning.
<sa.dh\.n\.s\~.p\.nn\> adj. possessing
sufficient resources.                        safo /sa.p˙o/ <sa.pho> masc. a kind of
                                             turban.
sa0na /sad˙.na/ <sa.dh\.na> fem.
spiritual practice.                          sabdu& /sab.du~/ <sa.b\.du~> adj. alert.

sa0vu& /sad˙.vu~/ <sa.dh\.vu~> v.tr. to      sabr /sa.b\r/ <sa.b\.r\> neut. stag.
undergo a spiritual practice.
                                             saibtI /sa.bi.ti/ <sa.bi.tii> fem. proof.
sa0ar8 /sa.d˙a.r\¯/ <sa.dha.r\.¯\> adj.
1. ordinary, 2. common.                      sabu /sa.bu/ <sa.bu> masc. soap.

sa0u /sa.d˙u/ <sa.dhu> adj. good.            sa-ar /sa.b˙ar/ <sa.bha.r\> adj.
                                             thankful.
sa0u /sa.d˙u/ <sa.dhu> masc. 1. ascetic,
2. hermit.                                   sa-ar /sa.b˙ar/ <sa.bha.r\> advb.
                                             gratefully.
sa)vI /sad˙.vi/ <sa.dhvii> fem. 1. a
female ascetic, 2. a female hermit.          samg/I /sa.m\g.ri/ <sa.m\.grii> fem.
                                             materials.
san /san/ <sa.n\> fem. . sign, 2. sense.
                                             sam4u& /sam.ˇu~/ <sa.m\.ˇu~> adj.
sanukUX /sa.nu.kuÆ/ <sa.nu.kuu.Æ\> adj.      collected.
favorable.
                                                                                      221


samno /sam.no/ <sa.m\.no> masc.             sarvar /sar.var/ <sa.r\.va.r\> fem. 1.
resistance.                                 nursing, 2. attendance.

samiyk /sa.m\.jik/ <sa.m\.ji.k\> neut.      sars /sa.r\s/ <sa.ra.s\> neut. crane.
periodical.
                                            sar&gI /sa.r\˜.gi/ <sa.r\~.gii> fem.
sam(yR /sa.m\r.t˙j\/ <sa.m\.rthj\> neut.    stringed musical instument.
capability.
                                            sarasarI /sa.ra.sa.ri/ <sa.ra.sa.rii> fem.
sama@k /sa.ma.Ôik/ <sa.ma.Ôii.k\> adj.      cordial relations.
social.
                                            sara&= /sa.ra~mß/ <sa.ra~.ß\> masc. 1.
saman /sa.man/ <sa.ma.n\> masc.             essence, 2. gist.
luggage.
                                            saru& /sa.ru~/ <sa.ru~> adj. good.
samaNy /sa.ma.nj\/ <sa.ma.nj\> adj.
general.                                    sa9Rk /sar.t˙\k/ <sa.rth\.k\> adj.
                                            successful.
samaNytŠ /sa.ma.nj\.t\h/ <sa.ma.nj\.t\:>
advb. usually.                              savRjink /sar.v\.Ô\.nik/ <sa.rv\.Ô\.ni.k\>
                                            adj. public.
samudaiyk /sa.mu.da.jik/ <sa.mu.da.ji.k\>
adj. collective.                            savRi{ak /sar.v\.trik/ <sa.rv\.tri.k\> adj.
                                            ubiquitous.
samUihk /sa.mu.hik/ <sa.muu.hi.k\> adj.
collective.                                 savR-Om /sar.v\.b˙\um/
                                            <sa.rv\.bh\u.m\> adj. sovereign.
same /sa.me/ <sa.me> postp. in front of.
                                            sal /sal/ <sa.l\> neut. year.
samEyu& /sa.m\i.ju~/ <sa.m\i.ju~> neut.
procession going to receive a dignitary.    sal-r /sal.b˙\r/ <sa.l\.bh\.r\> advb.
                                            through out the year.
saMy /sam.j\/ <sa.mj\> neut. similitude.
                                            salvu& /sal.vu~/ <sa.l\.vu~> v.intr. to feel a
sam/ajy /sam.raÔ.j\/ <sa.mra,Ôj\> neut.     pricking pain.
empire.
                                            salosal /sa.lo.sal/ <sa.lo.sa.l\> advb.
sayujy /sa.juÔ.j\/ <sa.ju.Ôj\> neut.        every year.
merging together.
                                            saLlo /sal.lo/ <sa.llo> masc. sari.
sar /sar/ <sa.r\> masc. 1. essence, 2.
gist, 3. summary.                           sav /sav/ <sa.v\> advb. completely.
                                                                                              222


savku& /sav.ku~/ <sa.v\.ku~> adj. of a           saheba /sa.he.ba/ <sa.he.ba> fem.
step-relation.                                   respectable woman.

savcet /sav.cet/ <sa.v\.ce.t\> adj.              sahebI /sa.he.bi/ <sa.he.bii> fem.
cautious.                                        prosperity.

savcetI /sav.ce.ti/ <sa.v\.ce.tii> fem.          sahelI /sa.he.li/ <sa.he.lii> fem. a
caution.                                         female friend.

savj /sa.v\Ô/ <sa.v\.Ô\> masc. lion.             saXavelI /sa.Æa.ve.li/ <sa.Æa.ve.lii> fem.
                                                 wife of wife’s brother.
savr8I /sa.v\r.¯i/ <sa.v\.r\.¯ii> fem. a
small broom.                                     saXI /sa.Æi/ <sa.Æii> fem. wife’s sister.

savr8o /sa.v\r.¯o/ <sa.v\.r\.¯o> masc.           saXo /sa.Æo/ <sa.Æo> masc. wife’s
a big broom.                                     brother.

sasiryu& /sa.s\r.(i)ju~/ <sa.s\.ri.ju~> adj. a   sa&k6u& /sa~k.Îu~/ <sa~.k\.Îu~> adj. narrow.
relative of father-in-law.
                                                 sa&kX /sa~.k\Æ/ <sa~.k\.Æ\> fem. chain.
sasrI /sas.ri/ <sa.s\.rii> fem. home or
family of father-in-law.                         sa&kXvu& /sa~.k\Æ.vu~/ <sa~.k\.Æ\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                                 link to gether.
sasu /sa.su/ <sa.su> fem. mother-in-law.
                                                 sa&kXI /sa~k.Æi/ <sa~.k\.Æii> fem. necklace.
sahijk /sah.Ôik/ <sa.h\.Ôi.k\> adj. 1.
natural, 2. instinctive.                         sa&kXu& /sa~k.Æu~/ <sa~.k\.Æu~> neut. anklet.

sahs /sa.h\s/ <sa.h\.s\> neut. 1.                sa&`vu& /sa~k˙.vu~/ <sa~.kh\.vu~> v.tr. to
adventure, 2. enterprise.                        endure.

sahisk /sah.sik/ <sa.h\.si.k\> adj.              sa&j /sa~Ô/ <sa~.Ô\> fem. evening.
adventurous.
                                                 sa&5o /sa~.ˇ˙o/ <sa~.ˇho> masc. stalk of
saihTy /sa.hit.j\/ <sa.hi.tj\> neut.             sugar cane.
literature.
                                                 sa&0vu& /sa~d˙.vu~/ <sa~.dh\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
saihiTyk /sa.hit.jik/ <sa.hi.tji.k\> adj.        sew, 2. to join, 3. to solder.
literary.
                                                 sa&0o /sa~.d˙o/ <sa~.dho> masc. joint.
saheb /sa.heb/ <sa.he.b\> masc. 1.
master, 2. boss, 3. reputed person.              sa&p/t /sa~m.pr\t/ <sa~.pr\.t\> adj.
                                                 contemporary.
                                                                                               223


                                                 isfars /si.p˙a.r\s/ <si.pha.r\.s\> fem.
sa&p/daiyk /sa~p.r\.da.jik/ <sa~.pr\.da.ji.k\>   recommendation.
adj. sectarian.
                                                 islk /si.l\k/ <si.l\.k\> fem. amount
sa&belu& /sa~.be.lu~/ <sa~.be.lu~> neut. a       remaining after expenditure.
wooden pestle.
                                                 islislab&0 /sil.si.la.b\nd˙/
sa&-Xvu& /sa~.b˙\Æ.vu~/ <sa~.bh.Æ\.vu~> v.tr.    <si.l\.si.la.b\~.dh\> adj. in orderly
1. to hear, 2. to listen.                        manner.

sa&sairk /sa~.sa.rik/ <sa~.sa.ri.k\> adj.        isla: /si.la.i/ <si.la.ii> fem. sewing.
mundane.
                                                 isv6am8 /siv.Îa.m\¯/ <si.v\.Îa.m\.¯\>
sa&Skairk /sa~ns.ka.rik/ <sa~.sa.ka.ri.k>        fem. wages for sewing.
adj. pertaining to culture.
                                                 isskarvu& /sis.kar.vu~/ <si.s\.ka.r\.vu~>
sa&Sk<itk /sa~s.kru.tik/ <sa~.skr≤.ti.k\> adj.   v.intr. to hiss.
cultural.
                                                 isskaro /sis.ka.ro/ <si.s\.ka.ro> masc.
iskko /sik.ko/ <si.kko> masc. 1. seal, 2.        hissing sound.
stamp, 3. coin.
                                                 isso4I /si.so.ˇi/ <si.so.ˇii> fem. whistle.
istm /si.t\m/ <si.t\.m\> masc. tyranny.
                                                 is&cvu& /siµc.vu~/ <si~.c\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
istar /si.tar/ <si.ta.r\> fem. a musical         sprinkle, 2. to water (plant and etc.).
instrument.
                                                 is&dUr /sin.dur/ <si~.du.r\> neut.
istaro /si.ta.ro/ <si.ta.ro> masc. star.         vermilion.

is]aer /sit.ter/ <si.tte.r\> adj. seventy.       is&0v /sin.d˙\v/ <si~.dh\.v\> neut. rock-
                                                 salt.
isTyoter /sit.jo.t\r/ <si.tjo.te.r\> adj.
seventy seven.                                   is&0I /sin.d˙i/ <si~.dhii> fem. a
                                                 community so named.
isTya=I /sit.ja.ßi/ <si.tja.ßii> adj. eighty
seven.                                           is&0I /sin.d˙i/ <si~.dhii> fem. Sindhi
                                                 language.
is)0aNt /sid˙.d˙an.t\/ <si.dhdha.nt\>
masc. 1. principle, 2. doctrine, 3.              is&h /simh/ <si~.h\> masc. lion.
theorem.
                                                 is&h8 /sim.h\¯/ <si~.h\.¯\> fem. lioness.
ispa: /si.pai/ <si.pa.ii> masc. soldier.
                                                                                          224


is&hasn /sim.ha.s\n/ <si~.ha.s\.n\> neut.       su` /suk˙/ <su.kh\> neut. happiness.
throne.
                                                su`6 /su.k˙\Î/ <su.kh\.Î\> neut.
sIzvvu& /si.Ô˙\v.vu~/ <sii.Ôh\.v\.vu~> v.tr.    sandalwood.
to cook by moderate heat.
                                                su`6I /su.k˙.Îi/ <su.kh\.Îii> fem. a
sIzvu& /siÔ˙.vu~/ <sii.Ôh\.vu~> v.intr. to be   kind of sweet.
cooked by moderate heat.
                                                su`I /su.k˙i/ <su.khii> adj. 1. happy, 2.
sI4I /si.ˇi/ <sii.ˇii> fem. a whistle.          well-to-do.

sI6I /si.Îi/ <sii.Îii> fem. 1. ladder, 2.       sugm /su.g\m/ <su.g\.m\> adj. easy.
staircase.
                                                sug&0 /su:.g\nd˙/ <su.g\~.dh\> fem.
sI0u& /si.d˙u~/ <sii.dhu~> adj. straight.       fragrance.

sIm /sim/ <sii.m\> fem. land on the             su36 /su.g˙\Î/ <suu.gh\.Î\> adj. neat
border of a village.                            and clean.

sIm&t /si.m\nt/ <sii.m\~.t\> neut. a ritual     su6taXIs /suÎ.ta.lis/ <su.Î\.ta.Æii.s\>
performed at the time of the first              adj. forty seven.
pregnancy of a woman.
                                                su6oX /su.ÎoÆ/ <su.Îo.Æ\> adj.
sIma /si.ma/ <sii.ma> fem. 1. border, 2.        handsome.
boundary.
                                                sutraw /sut.ra.u/ <su.t\.ra.u~> adj. made
sIimt /si.mit/ <sii.mi.t\> adj. limited.        of cotton yarn.

sIv8 /si.v\¯/ <sii.v\.¯\> neut. sewing.         sud /sud/ <su.d\> fem. bright half of a
                                                lunar month.
sIvvu& /siv.vu~/ <sii.v\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
sew, 2. to stitch.                              su0rvu& /su.d˙\r.vu~/ <su.dh\.r\.vu~>
                                                v.intr. t o improve.
sI&ca: /siµ.cai/ <sii~.ca.ii> fem.
irrigation.                                     su0ra: /sud˙.ra.i/ <su.dh\.ra.ii> fem.
                                                municipality.
sukan /su.kan/ <su.ka.n\> neut. helm.
                                                su0a /su.d˙a/ <su.dha> fem. nectar.
sukanI /su.ka.ni/ <su.ka.nii> masc.
helmsman.                                              &
                                                su0arvu/su.d˙ar.vu~/ <su.dha.r\.vu~> v.tr.
                                                to improve.
sukavu& /su.ka.vu~/ <su.ka.vu~> v.intr. to
become dry.
                                                                                            225


su0aro /su.d˙a.ro/ <su.dha.ro> masc.             sulehnamu& /su.leh.na.mu~/
improvement.                                     <su.le.h\.na.mu~> neut. peace treaty.

su0I /su.d˙i/ <su.dhii> postp. 1. up to, 2       suvaky /su.vak.j\/ <su.va.kj\> neut. a
until.                                           maxim.

sunav8I /su.na.v\.¯i/ <su.na.v\.¯ii>             suvav6 /su.va.v\Î/ <su.va.v\.Î\> fem.
fem. hearing of a case in a court.               childbirth.

supa{a /su.pat.r\/ <su.pa.tr\> adj.              suvas /su.vas/ <su.va.s\> fem.
deserving.                                       fragrance.

sup/is)0 /su.pr\.sid˙.d˙\/                       suiv~yat /su.vik˙.jat/ <su.vi.khja.t\> adj.
<su.pr\.si.dhdh\> adj. 1. renowned,              well-known.
2. well-known.
                                                 suividt /su.vi.dit/ <su.vi.di.t\> adj.
subo0 /su.bod˙/ <su.bo.dh\> adj. easy            well-known.
to understand.
                                                 suiv0a /su.vi.d˙a/ <su.vi.dha> fem.
sumn /su.m\n/ <su,m\.n\> neut.                   convenience.
flower.
                                                 sui=ixt /su.ßik.ßit/ <su.ßi.kßi.t\> adj.
surixt /su.r\k.ßit/ <su.r\.kßi.t\> adj.          well-educated.
safe.
                                                 su=Il /su.ßil/ <su.ßi.l\> adj. of a good
surIlu& /su.ri.lu~/ <su.rii.lu~> adj. 1. well-   character.
tuned, 2. melodious.
                                                 su=o-n /su.ßo.b˙\n/ <su.ßo.bh\.n\>
suruic /su.ru.ci/ <su.ru.ci> adj. refined        neut. decoration.
taste.
                                                 su=oi-t /ßu.ßo.b˙it/ <su.ßo.bhi.t\> adj.
sure` /su.rek˙/ <su.re.kh\> adj.                 well-decorated.
proportionate.
                                                 susjj /su.s\Ô.Ô\/ <su.s\.ÔÔ\> adj. well-
sul- /su.l\b˙/ <su.l\.bh\> adj. easily           equipped.
available.
                                                 susva4o /sus.va.ˇo/ <su.s\.va.ˇo> masc.
sule`n /su.le.k˙\n/ <su.le.kh\.n\> neut.         a wind-blow.
good handwriting.
                                                 sus&gt /su.s\˜.g\t/ <su.s\~.g\.t\> adj. 1.
suleh /su.leh/ <su.le.h\> fem. peace.            consistent.

                                                 suSt /sus.t\/ <su.st\> adj. lazy.
                                                                                        226


                                              sUmsam /sum.sam/ <suu.m\.sa.m\> adj.
suStI /sus.ti/ <su.stii> fem. laziness.       utterly silent.

su&dr /sun.d\r/ <su~.d\.r\> adj.              sUr /sur/ <suu.r\> masc. musical tune.
beautiful.
                                              sUrj /su.r\Ô/ <suu.r\.Ô\> masc. the sun.
suvaXu& /su.wa.Æu~/ <su.va.Æu~> adj.
smooth.                                       sUr8 /su.r\¯/ <suu.r\.¯\> neut. a name
                                              of an edible root.
sUkvvu& /su.k\v.vu~/ <suu.k\.v\.vu~> v.tr.
to dry.                                       sUyR /sur.j\/ <suu.rj\> masc. the sun.

sUku& /su.ku~/ <su.ku~> adj. dry.             sUyRg/h8 /sur.j\.gr\.h\¯/
                                              <suu.rj\.gr\.h\.¯\> neut. solar
sUåm /suk.ßm\/ <suu.kßm\> adj.                eclipse.
minute.
                                              sUyRmu`I /sur.j\.mu.k˙i/
sUg /sug/ <suu.g\> fem. nausea.               <suu.rj\.mu.khii> neut. sun-flower.

sUck /su.c\k/ <suu.c\.k\> adj. 1.             sUyaRSt /sur.jas.t\/ <suu.rja.st\> masc.
suggestive, 2. indicative.                    sunset.
sUcn /su.c\n/ <suu.c\.n\> neut. 1.            sUyoRdy /sur.jo.d\j/ <suu.rjo.d\.j\> masc.
suggestion, 2. indication.                    sunrise.
sUcvvu& /su.c\v.vu~/ <suu.c\.v\.vu~> v.tr.    sUvr /su.v\r/ <suu.v\.r\> neut. pig.
1. to indicate,2 to suggest.
                                              sUvu& /su.vu~/ <suu.vu~> v.intr. to sleep.
sUic /su.ci/ <suu.ci> fem. list.
                                              sU&3vu& /su˜g.vu~/ <suu~.gh\.vu~> v.tr. to
sUict /su.cit/ <suu.ci.t\> adj. 1.
                                              smell.
suggested, 2. indicated.
                                              sU&5 /su~ˇ˙/ <suu~.ˇh\> fem. dry ginger.
sUjvu& /suÔ.vu~/ <suu.Ô\.vu~> v.intr. 1. to
swell, 2. to be swollen.                      sU&7 /su~Î˙/ <suu~.Îh\> fem. trunk.
sUz /suÔ˙/ <suu.Ôh\> fem. deeper
                                              s<iQ4 /sruß.ˇi/ <sr≤.s°ˇi> fem. the universe.
understanding.

sUtk /su.t\k/ <suu.t\.k\> neut.               sena /se.na/ <se.na> fem. army.
ceremonial untouchablility observed
after a death of a family member.             sevk /se.v\k/ <se.v\.k\> masc. servant.

                                              seva /se.va/ <se.va> fem. service.
                                                                                            227



sevacakrI /se.va.cak.ri/ <se.va.ca.k\.rii>    sonerI /so.ne.ri/ <so.ne.rii> adj. golden.
fem. nursing.
                                              soparI /so.pa.ri/ <so.pa.rii> fem. betel
se&k6o /s´~k.Îo/ <se~.k\.Îo> masc. a          nut.
hundred.
                                              sobt /so.b\t/ <so.b\.t\> fem. company.
se&9I /s´~.t˙i/ <se~.thii> fem. line formed
by the parting of hair on two sides.          somvar /som.var/ <so.m\.va.r\> masc.
                                              Monday.
sE)0aiNtk /s\i.d˙an.tik/
<s\i.dhdha.nti.k\> adj. theoretical.          soml /so.m\l/ <so.m\.l\> masc.
                                              extreme poisonous object.
sEink /s\i.nik/ <s\i.ni.k\> masc. soldier.
                                              soy /soj/ <so.j\> fem. a needle.
sENy /s\i.nj\/ <s\i.nj\> neut. army.
                                              soyo /so.jo/ <so.jo> masc. a large and
so /sø/ <so> adj. hundred.                    thick needle.

sogn /so.g\n/ <so.g\.n\> masc. an             sohag /so.hag/ <so.ha.g\> masc. well-
oath.                                         adorned.

sogat /so.gat/ <so.ga.t\> fem. gift.          soham8u& /so.ha.m\.¯u~/ <so.ha.m\.¯u~>
                                              adj. good-looking.
sojo /so.Ôo/ <so.Ôo> masc. swelling.
                                              soX /soÆ/ <so.Æ\> adj. sixteen.
so4I /so.ˇi/ <so.ˇii> fem. a cane.
                                              so&3varI /sø~˜g.va.ri/ <so~.gh\.va.rii> fem.
so6 /soÎ/ <so.Î\> fem. a side of the          cheapness.
body.
                                              so&pvu& /sø~p.vu~/ <so~.p\.vu~> v.tr. 1. to
so6m /so.Î\m/ <so.Î\.m\> fem.                 hand over. 2. to entrust.
fragrance.
                                              sO /s\u/ <s\u> adj. all.
sodagr /so.da.g\r/ <so.da.g\.r\> masc.
a merchant doing large scale business.        sOjNy /s\u.Ô\n.j\/ <s\u.Ô\.nj\> neut.
                                              gentlemanliness.
sodo /so.do/ <so.do> masc. trade.
                                              sO-aGy /s\u.b˙ag.j\/ <s\u.bha.gj\> neut.
sonamhor /so.na.m\.hor/                       good fortune.
<so.na.m\.ho.r\> fem. guinea.
                                              sOr- /s\u.r\b˙/ <s\u.r\.bh\> neut.
sonu& /so.nu~/ <so.nu~> neut. gold.           fragrance.
                                                                                     228


                                             S9avr /st˙a.v\r/ <stha.v\.r\> adj.
sO&dyR /s\u~.d\r.j\/ <s\u~.d\.rj\> neut.     immovable.
beauty.
                                             iS9it /st˙i.ti/ <sthi.ti> fem. a condition.
S`ln /sk˙\.l\n/ <skh\.l\.n\> neut. 1.
an error, 2. a mistake.                      iS9r /st˙ir/ <sthi.r\> adj. immovable.

Stn /st\n/ <st\.n\> masc. female             Snatk /sna.t\k/ <sna.t\.k\> masc.
breast.                                      graduate.

Str /st\r/ <st\.r\> neut. a layer.           Snan /snan/ <sna.n\> neut. a bath.

Stvn /st\.v\n/ <st\.v\.n\> neut. praise.     Snayu /sne.h\/ <sna.ju> masc. a muscle.

Stuit /stu.ti/ <stu.ti> fem. praise.         Sneh /sneh/ <s> masc. 1. love, 2.
                                             affection.
StuTy /stut.j\/ <stu.tj\> adj.
praiseworthy.                                Sp0aR /sp\r.d˙a/ <sne.h\> fem.
                                             competition.
Sto{a /stot.r\/ <sto.tr\> neut. a hymn of
praise.                                      Sp=R /sp\r.ß\/ <sp\.rß\> masc. touch.

S{aI /stri/ <strii> fem. a woman.            SpQ4 /sp\ß.ˇ\/ <sp\.s°ˇ\> adj. 1. clear, 2.
                                             plain.
S{aE8 /str\i.¯\/ <stri.¯\> adj. womanly.
                                             Sf4Ik /sp˙\.ˇik/ <sph\.ˇii.k\> masc.
S9pit /st˙\.p\.ti/ <sth\.p\.ti> masc. an     crystal.
architect.                                   Smr8 /sm\.r\¯/ <sm\.r\.¯\> neut.
                                             recollection.
S9X /st˙\Æ/ <sth\.Æ\> neut. 1. a place, 2.
a location.                                  Smrvu& /sm\r.vu~/ <sm\.r\.vu~> v.tr. to
                                             remember.
S9aink /st˙a.nik/ <stha.ni.k\> adj. local.
                                             Sm=an /ßm\.ßan/ <sm\.ßa.n\> neut.
S9apk /st˙a.p\k/ <stha.p\.k\> adj.           funeral place.
founder.
                                             Smark /sma.r\k/ <sma.r\.k\> neut. 1. a
S9apTy /st˙a.p\t.j\/ <stha.p\.tj\> neut.     monument, 2. a memorial.
1. sculpture, 2. architecture.
                                             iSmt /smit/ <smi.t\> neut. smile.
S9ayI /st˙a.ji/ <stha.jii> adj. stable.
                                             Sm<it /smru.ti/ <smr≤.ti> fem. Hindu
                                             scriptures.
                                                                                       229



Sm<it /smru.ti/ <smr≤.ti> fem. memory.       Svraj /sv\.raÔ/ <sv\.ra.Ô\> neut. self-
                                             government.
Sv. /sv\/ <sv\.> adj. a short form of
SvgRS9, deceased.                            Sv£p /sv\.rup/ <sv\.ruu.p\> neut. 1.
                                             shape, 2. form.
SvgRS9 /sv\r.g\s.t˙\/ <sv\.rg\.sth\> adj.
deceased.                                    SvgR /sv\r.g\/ <sv\.rg\> neut. heaven.

SvC2 /sv\c.c˙\/ <sv\.cch\> adj. clean.       SvgRvasI /sv\r.g\.va.si/ <sv\.rg\.va.sii>
                                             adj. deceased.
Svjn /sv\.Ô\n/ <sv\.Ô\.n\> masc. a
relative.                                    SvgRS9 /sv\r.g\.st˙\/ <sv\.rg\.sth\> adj.
                                             deceased.
Svt&{a /sv\.t\n.tr\/ <sv\.t\~.tr\> adj.
free.                                        SvgIRy /sv\r.gi.j\/ <sv\.rgii.j\> adj.
                                             deceased.
Svt&{ata /sv\.t\n.tr\.ta/ <sv\.t\~.tr\.ta>
fem. freedom.                                SvamI /sva.mi/ <sva.mii> masc. 1.
                                             husband, 2. lord, 3. master, 4. owner.
Svde= /sv\.deß/ <sv\.de.ß\> masc. 1.
motherland, 2. native land.                  Sva9R /svar.t˙\/ <sva.rth\> masc. self-
                                             interest.
Svde=ai-man /sv\.de.ßa.b˙i.man/
<sv\.de.ßa.bhi.ma.n\> neut.                  SvaS(y /svas.t˙j\/ <sva.sthj\> neut.
patriotism.                                  health.

Svde=ai-manI /sv\.de.ßa.b˙i.ma.ni/           SvIkar /svi.kar/ <svii.ka.r\> masc. 1.
<sv\.de.ßa.bhi.ma.nii> neut. patriotic.      recognition, 2. acceptance.

Svde=I /sv\.de.ßi/ <sv\.de.ßii> adj. of      SvIkayR /svi.kar.j\/ <svii.ka.rj\> adj.
one’s own country.                           acceptable.

SvPn /sv\p.n\/ <sve.pn\> neut. a
dream.                                                            H
Sv-av /sv\.b˙av/ <sv\.bha.v\> masc.          hk /h\k/ <h\.k\> masc. 1. right, 2.
nature.                                      claim.

Svman /sv\.man/ <sv\.ma.n\> neut.            hkar /h\.kar/ <h\.ka.r\> masc.
self-respect.                                affirmation.

Svr /sv\r/ <sv\.r\> masc. voice.
                                                                                    230


hkIkt /h\.ki.k\t/ <h\.kii.k\.t\> fem. a     h8vu& /h\¯.vu~/ <h\.¯\.vu~> v.tr. to kill.
fact.
                                            hta= /h\.taß/ <h\.t.aß\> adj.
hkIm /h\.kim/ <h\.kii.m\> masc. a           disappointed.
physician.
                                            hTya /h\t.ja/ <h\.tja> fem. 1. an
hcmcvu& /h\c.m\c.vu~/ <h\.c\.m\.c\.vu~>     assassination, 2. a massacre.
v.intr. to become unsteady.
                                            hTyaro /h\t.ja.ro/ <h\.tja.ro> masc. an
hj /h\Ô/ <h\Ô> fem. pilgrimage to           assassin.
Mecca.
                                            hi9yar /h\.t˙i.jar/ <h\.ˇhi.ja.r\> neut. a
hjam /h\.Ôam/ <h\.Ôa.m\> masc. a            weapon.
barber.
                                            h9eXI /h\.t˙e.Æi/ <h\.ˇhe.Æii> fem. palm.
hjar /h\.Ôar/ <h\.Ôa.r\> adj. thousand.
                                            h9o4I /h\.t˙o.ˇi/ <h\.ˇho.ˇii> fem. skill.
h@ /h\.Ôi/ <h\.Ôii> advb. 1. yet, .2 even
now.                                        h9o6I /h\.t˙o.Îi/ <h> fem. a hammer.

hju /h\.Ôu/ <h\.Ôu> advb. 1. yet, 2. even   hd /h\d/ <h\.d\> fem. boundary.
now.
                                            hm8a& /h\m.¯a~/ <h\.m\.¯a~> advb. 1.
h5 /h\ˇ˙/ <h\.ˇh\> fem. stubbornness.       now, 2. presently.

h5vu& /h\ˇ˙.vu~/ <h\.ˇh\.vu~> v.intr. to    hmddIR /h\m.d\r.di/ <h\.m\.d\.rdi>
move away.                                  fem. sympathy.
                                            hmal /h\.mal/ <h\.ma.l\> masc. a
h6kva /h\.Î\k.va/ <h\.Î\.k\.va> masc.       porter.
rabies.
                                            hme= /h\.meß/ <h\.me.ß\> advb.
h6tal /h\Î.tal/ <h\.Î\.ta.l\> fem. a        always.
strike.
                                            hyat /h\.jat/ <h\.ja.t\> adj. living.
hD0Ut /h\Î.d˙ut/ <h\.Î\.dhuu.t\> adj.
insulted or condemned everywhere.           hrkt /h\r.k\t/ <h\.r\.k\.t\> fem.
                                            obstruction.
h6pcI /h\Î.p\.ci/ <h\.Î\.p\.cii> fem.
the chin.                                   hr` /h\.r\k˙/ <h\.r\.kh\> masc. joy.

h6selvu& /h\Î.sel.vu~/ <h\.Î\.se.l\.vu~>    hrigj /h\r.giÔ/ <h\.r\.gi.Ô\> advb. 1.
v.tr. to push away.                         (not) at all, 2. (not) ever.
                                                                                     231


hr36I /h\r.g˙\.Îi/ <h\.r\.gh\.Îii> advb.    hlncln /h\.l\n.c\.l\n/
every moment.                               <h\.l\.n\.c\.l\.n\> fem. movement.

hr8 /h\.r\¯/ <h\.r\.¯\> neut. a deer.       hlvo /h\l.vo/ <h\.l\.vo> masc. a sweet.

hrtu&frtu& /h\r.tu~.p˙\r.tu~/               hlavvu& /h\.lav.vu~/ <h\.la.v\.vu~> v.tr. 1.
<h\.r\.tu~.ph\.r\.tu~> adj. healthy.        to stir 2. to shake.

hrs /h\.r\s/ <h\.r\.s\> masc. piles.        hlesu& /h\.le.su~/ <h\.le.su~> neut. an oar.

hra@ /h\.ra.Ôi/ <h\.ra.Ôii> fem. auction.   hvn /h\.v\n/ <h\.v\.n\> neut. a
                                            ceremonial sacrifice.
hram`or /h\.ram.k˙or/
<h\.ra.m\.kho.r\> adj. wicked.              hva /h\.va/ <h\.va> fem. air.

hrayu& /h\.ra.ju~/ <h\.ra.ju~> adj. 1.      hvaman /h\.va.man/ <h\.va.ma.n\>
ownerless (cattles etc.), 2. strayed.       neut. 1. climate, 2. weather.

hir /h\.ri/ <h\.rii> masc. Lord Vishnu.     hvaldar /h\.val.dar/ <h\.va.l\.da.r\>
                                            masc. a police constable.
hiryaXI /h\.ri.ja.Æi/ <h\.ri.ja.Æii> fem.
greenery.                                   hvalo /h\.va.lo/ <h\.va.lo> masc. 1.
                                            possession, 2. reference.
hirhr /h\.ri.h\r/ <h\.ri.h\.r\> masc.
Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva.                 hve /h\.ve/ <h\.ve> advb. now.

hrIf /h\.ri˙p/ <h\.rii.ph\> masc.           hve9I /h\.ve.t˙i/ <h\.ve.thii> advb. 1.
competitor.                                 henceforth, 2. now onward, 3. hereafter.

hrIfa: /h\.ri.p˙a.i/ <h\.ri.pha.ii> fem.    hvelI /h\.ve.li/ <h\.ve.lii> fem. 1. a big,
competition.                                majestic building, 2. a Vaishnava
                                            temple.
hrek /h\.rek/ <h\.re.k\> advb. 1. each,
2. every one.                               h=e /h\.ße/ <h\.ße> advb. 1. never mind,
                                            2. let it be, 3. it does not matter (to me).
hroX /h\.roÆ/ <h\.ro.Æ\> fem. a row.
                                            hsvu& /h\s.vu~/ <h\.s\.vu~> v.intr. to
hlka: /h\l.kai/ <h\l.ka.ii> fem.            laugh.
meanness.
                                            hsam8u& /h\.sa.m\.¯u~/ <h\.sa.m\.¯u~>
hlku& /h\l.ku~/ <h\.l\.ku~> adj. light.     adj. that which provokes laughter.
                                                                                        232


hStkXa /h\s.t\.k\.Æa/ <h\.st\.k\.Æa> fem.      h&s /h\ms/ <h\~.s\> masc. swan.
handicraft.
                                               ha /ha/ <ha> advb. yes.
hStxep /h\s.t\.kßep/ <h\.st\.kße.p\>
masc. undue interference.                      hak /hak/ <ha.k\> fem. a shout.

St0Unn /h\s.t\.d˙u.n\n/                        hajr /ha.Ô\r/ <ha.Ô\.r\> adj. present.
<h\.st\.dhuu.n\.n\> neut. a hand-
shake.                                         hajrjvabI /ha.Ô\r.Ô\.va.bi/
                                               <ha.Ô\.r\.Ô\.va.bii> adj. quick-witted.
hStp/t /h\s.t\.pr\t/ <h\.st\.pr\.t\> fem.
manuscript.                                    hajrI /haÔ.ri/ <ha.Ô\.rii> fem. presence.

hStmeXap /h\s.t\.me.Æap/ <h\.st\.pr\.t\>       ha6ku& /haÎ.ku~/ <ha.Î\.ku~> neut. a bone.
masc. the act of joining hands of bride
and bridegroom in a marriage ceremony.         ha6vEd /haÎ.v\id/ <ha.Î\.v\i.d\> masc.
hStaxr /h\s.ta.kß\r/ <h\.sta.kß\.r\>           a bone-setter.
masc. 1. hand writing, 2. signature..          ha6marI /haÎ.ma.ri/ <ha.[a.ma.rii> fem.
hX /h\Æ/ <h\.Æ\> neut. a plough.               difficulties.

                                               ha6oha6 /ha.Îo.haÎ/ <ha.Îo.ha.Î\>
hXdr /h\Æ.d\r/ <h\.Æ\.d\.r\> fem.
                                               advb. 1. up to the bone, 2. affecting very
turmeric.                                      deeply.
hXvu& /h\Æ.vu~/ <h\.Æ\.vu~> adj. light.        ha9 /hat˙/ <ha.th\> masc. hand.

hXve /h\Æ.ve/ <h\.Æ\.ve> advb. slowly.         ha9k6I /hat˙.k\.Îi/ <ha.th\.k\.Îii> fem.
                                               handcuffs.
hXve9I /h\Æ.ve.t˙i/ <h\.Æ\.ve.thi> advb.
1. slowly, 2. gently.                          ha9calakI /hat˙.ca.la.ki/
                                               <ha.th\.ca.la.kii> fem. jugglery.
h&karvu& /h\˜.kar.vu~/ <h\~.ka.r\.vu~> v.tr.
1. to drive, 2. to sail.                       ha98I /hat˙.¯i/ <ha.th\.¯ii> fem. female
h&gamI /h\˜.ga.mi/ <h\~.ga.mii> adj.           elephant.
temporary.                                     ha9I /ha.t˙i/ <ha.thii> masc. elephant.
h&me= /h\m.meß/ <h\~.me.ß\> advb.
                                               ha9o /ha.t˙o/ <ha.tho> masc. handle.
always.

h&me=a& /h\m.meß/ <h\~.me.ßa~> advb.           ha9oha9 /ha.t˙o.hat˙/ <ha.tho.ha.th\>
always.                                        advb. a handle.
                                                                                             233


ha na /ha na/ <ha na> fem. hesitation.            ha&ja /ha~.Ôa/ <ha~.Ôa> masc. pl. the joints
                                                  of the body.
hain /ha.ni/ <ha.ni> fem. damage.
                                                  ha&f /ha~p˙/ <ha~.ph\> fem. panting.
hainktaR /ha.ni.k\r.ta/ <ha.ni.k\.rta> adj.
damaging.                                         ha&fvu& /ha~p˙.vu~/ <ha~.ph\.vu~> v.intr. to
                                                  pant for breath.
har /har/ <ha.r\> masc. 1. garland, 2.
necklace.                                         ha&isyo /ha~s.(i)jo/ <ha~.si.jo> masc. a
                                                  margin.
har /har/ <ha.r\> fem. defeat.
                                                  ha&sI /ha~.si/ <ha~.sii> fem. 1. a jest, 2. a
harvu& /har.vu~/ <ha.r\.vu~> v.intr. to be        joking.
defeated.
                                                  ihckaru& /hic.ka.ru~/ <hi.c\.ka.ru~> neut.
hal /hal/ <ha.l\> masc. 1. condition, 2.          cowardly.
circumstances.
                                                  ihjravu& /hiÔ.ra.vu~/ <hi.Ô\.ra.vu~> v.intr. to
halk6olk /hal\k.Îo.l\k/                           languish in someone’s memory.
<ha.l\.k\.Îo.l\.k\> advb. unsteady.
                                                  iht /hit/ <hi.t\> neut. welfare.
halcal /hal.cal/ <ha.l\.ca.l\> masc.
condition.                                        ihteC2u /hi.tec.c˙u/ <hi.te.cchu> adj. and
                                                  masc. a wel-wisher.
halt /ha.l\t/ <ha.l\.t\> fem. 1.
condition, 2. circumstances.                      ihna /hi.na/ <hi.na> fem. myrtle.

halvu& /hal.vu~/ <ha.l\.vu~> v.intr. to           ihm /him/ <hi.m\> masc. frost.
move.
                                                  ihlcal /hil.cal/ <hi.l\.ca.l\> fem. 1.
ha= /haß/ <ha.ß\> interjection. shows a           movement, 2. activities.
sense of ease or gratification.
                                                  ihsab /hi.sab/ <hi.sa.b\> masc. 1.
haSy /has.j\/ <ha.sj\> neut. smile.               account, .2 calculation.

haSyaSpd /has.ja.p\d/ <ha.sja.sp\.d\>             ihsabnI= /hi.sab.niß/ <hi.ha.b\.nii.ß\>
adj. rediculous.                                  masc. accountant.

hahakr /ha.ha.kar/ <ha.ha.ka.r\> masc.            ihSso /his.so/ <hi.sso> masc. a share.
widespread feeling of sorrow or terror.
                                                  ih&g /hi˜.g\/ <hi~.g\> fem. asafetida.
ha&kvu& /ha~k.vu~/ <ha~.k\.vu~> v.tr. to drive.
                                                                                        234


ih&mt /him.m\t/ <hi~.m\.t\> fem.               hU&f /hu~p˙/ <huu~.ph\> fem. warmth.
courage.
                                               ®dy /r\.d\j/ <hr\.d\.j\> neut. heart.
ih&sk /him.s\k/ <hi~.s\.k\> adj. violent.
                                               ®dy±avk /r\.d\j.dra.v\k/
ih&sa /him.sa/ <hi~.sa> fem. violence.         <hr\.d\.j\.dra.v\.k\> adj. stronly
                                               affecting to the heart.
hIj6o /hiÔ.Îo/ <hii.Ô\.Îo> masc.
eunuch.                                        ®dypirvtRn /r\.d\j.p\.ri.v\r.t\n/
                                               <hr\.d\.j\.p\.ri.v\.rt\.n\> neut. a
hIbkvu& /hi.b\k.vu~/ <hii.b\.k\.vu~> v.intr.   change of heart.
to sob.
                                               ®dy=UNy /r\.d\j.ßun.j\/ <hr\.d\.j\.ßu.nj\>
hIbku& /hib.ku~/ <hii.b\.ku~> neut. a sob.     adj. feelingless.

hIro /hi.ro/ <hii.ro> masc. diamond.           het /het/ <he.t\> neut. 1. affection, 2.
                                               love.
hI&cvu& /hi~c.vu~/ <hii~.c\.vu~> v.intr. to
swing (oneself).                               hetu /he.tu/ <he.tu> masc. 1. motive, 2.
                                               intention.
hukm /hu.k\m/ <huu.k\.m\> masc. an
order.                                         herangit /he.ran,g\.ti/ <he.ra.n\.g\.ti>
                                               fem. 1. trouble, 2. difficulty.
hukko /huk.ko/ <hu.kko> masc. a
smoking pipe.                                  helI /he.li/ <he.lii> fem. heavy rain.

humlo /hum.lo/ <hu.m\.lo> masc. an             hevainyt /he.va.ni.j\t/ <he.va.ni.j\.t\>
attack.                                        fem. 1. brutality, 2. cruelty.
huLl6 /hul.l\Î/ <hu.ll\.Î\> neut. a riot.
                                               heval /he.val/ <h> masc. an account.
hu& /hu~/ <hu~> pron. I, first person
singular.                                      heisyt /hes.j\t/ <he.si.j\.t\> fem.
                                               capacity.
hUko /hu.ko/ <huu.ko> masc. a smoking
pipe.                                          hoj /hiÔ/ <ho.Ô\> masc. a water
                                               reservoir.
hU&i6yam8 /hu~.Îi.ja.m\¯/
<huu~.Îi.ja.m\.¯\> neut. rate of               hojrI /hoÔ.ri/ <ho.Ô\.rii> fem. stomach.
exchange.
                                               ho5 /hoˇ˙/ <ho.ˇh\> masc. a lip.
hU&6I /hu~¯.Îi/ <huu~.Îii> fem. a bill of
exchange.                                      ho6I /ho.Îi/ <ho.Îii> fem. a boat.
                                                                                          235


ho¥o /hod.do/ <ho.ddo> masc. 1. a               xmapa{a /kß\.ma.pat.r\/ <kß\/ma.pa.tr\>
rank. 2. a position.                            adj. forgivable.

honhar /hon.har/ <ho.n\.ha.r\> adj.             xy /kß\.j\/ <kß\.j\> masc. .tuberculosis.
promising.
                                                xar /kßar/ <kßa.r\> adj. 1. saltiest, 2.
honart /ho.na.r\t/ <ho.na.r\.t\> fem. a         saline.
big accident.
                                                ixitj /kßi.tiÔ/ <kßi.ti.Ô\> fem. the
hom /hom/ <ho.m\> masc. a ceremonial            horizon.
sacrifice.
                                                xe{a /kßet.r\/ <kße.tr\> neut. a place.
holo /ho.lo/ <ho.lo> masc. a dove\line
bird.                                           xe{afX /kßet.r\.p˙\Æ/ <kße.tr\.ph\.Æ\>
                                                neut. area
hovu& /ho.vu~/ <ho.vu~> v.intr. 1. to be, 2.
to take place.                                  xo- /kßob˙/ <kßo.bh\> masc. hesitation
                                                arising from bashfulness.
hoi=yar /ho.ßi.jar/ <ho.ßi.ja.r\> adj. 1.
clever, 2. brillient.
                                                                     }a
hoi=yarI /ho.ßi.ja.ri/ <ho.ßi.ja.rii> fem. 1.
cleverness, 2. intelligence.                    }aait /gnja.ti/ <gna.ti> fem. a caste.

hoha /ho.ha/ <ho.ha> fem. uproar.               }aan /gnan/ <gna.n\> neut. knowledge.

hoXI /ho.Æi/ <ho.Æii> fem. the Holi             }aanI /gna.ni/ <gna.nii> adj. intelligent.
festival.


                     x
x8 /kß\¯/ <kß\.¯\> fem. .a moment.

xit /kß\.ti/ <kß\.ti> fem. 1. loss, 2.
injury.

xi{ay /kß\t.ri.j\/ <kß\.tri.j\> masc. a
community so named.

xma /kß\.ma/ <kß\.ma> fem.
.forgiveness.
                                              236




A Brief Outline of Gujarati Parts-of-Speech
                  Babu Suthar
               bsuthar@sas.upenn.edu


                (Work in progress)


          Department of South Asia Studies
             University Of Pennsylvania
                 820 Williams Hall
                  36th and Spruce
               Philadelphia PA 19104
                                           237


Content

1. Introduction
2. Open class
   2.1. Nouns
   2.2. Adjective
   2.3. Verbs
   2.4. Adverbs
3. Closed class
   3.1. Pronouns and other Pro-Forms
   3.2. Noun adjuncts
       3.2.1. Role markers
            3.2.1.1 Case markers
            3.2.1.2 Postpositions
       3.2.2. Quantifiers
   3.3. Verb adjuncts
       3.3.1. Auxiliaries
           3.3.1.1.   Simple auxiliaries
           3.3.1.2.   Modal auxiliaries
   3.4. Connectives
       3.4.1. Coordinating connectives
       3.4.2. Subordinating connectives
       3.4.3. Correlative connectives
       3.4.4. Adversative connectives
       3.4.5. Explicative connectives
       3.4.6. Causal connectives
   3.5. Other closed classes
       3.5.1. Emphasis markers
       3.5.2. Interjections
       3.5.3. Negators
       3.5.4. Politeness markers
       3.5.5. Tag-marks
4. Conclusion
                                                                                     238


1. Introduction
Gujarati words can be divided into: (1) Open class and (2) Closed class. Open class
consists of nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, while closed class consists of pronouns
and other pro-forms, noun adjuncts, verb adjuncts, conjunctions and others.
2. Open Class
2.1 Nouns
Nouns have the following properties:
     • gender,
     • number
     • case.
        Genders are three: masculine, feminine and neuter. All three genders are marked
and unmarked. Masculine is marked with -Ao, feminine with -:, and neuter is marked with
Ýw&. Examples:

Nouns with unmarked gender

Masculine

-a:      b˙ai         'brother'
sap      sap          'serpent'
ha9      hat˙         'hand'
pvRt     p\rv\t       'mountain'
ivcar    vicar        'thought'

Feminine

bhen     b\hen        'sister'
-e&s     b˙´~s        'buffalo'
Aa&`     ø~k˙         'eye'
vel      vel          'creeper'
pX       p\Æ          'moment'

Neuter

=rIr     ß\rir        'body'
nak      nak          'nose'
fUl      p˙ul         'flower'
man      man          'respect'
mn       m\n          'organ of desire'

Nouns with marked gender

Masculine
                                                                                        239



2okro       c˙okr.o      'boy'
kUtro       kutr.o       'dog (male)'
36o         g˙\Îo        'pot'
Aa&bo       ø~bo         'mango tree'
p9ro        p\t˙r.o      'stone'

Feminine

2okrI       c˙okr.i      'girl'
kUtrI       kutr.i       'dog (female)'
ndI         n\d.i        'river'
za6I        j˙aÎ.i       'bush'
Aa&gXI      ø~gÆ.i       'finger'

Neuter

2okru&      c˙okr.u~     'child'
kUtru&      kutr.u~      'dog'
taXu&       taÆ.u~       'lock'
mo7u&       mø~Î˙.u~     'mouth'
ka8u&       ka¯.u~       'whole'

        Gujarati has many nouns that end in ÝAo and Ý:, but they are not masculine or
feminine respectively. Most traditional grammars treat them as exception. In fact, they
are not. The ÝAo and Ý: of these nouns are not gender markers, they are the indivisible part
of their stem, and therefore it is wrong to treate them as gender markers and then list
them as exceptions. Consider 3o and pa8I, for example. Traditional grammars analyzed
them as follow:

         Ë. 3o
            g˙.o
            stem-Gender marker.
            'a kind of reptile'

     Ì. pa8I
        pa¯.i
        stem-Gender marker
        'water'

       As Ë and Ì show, they treat ÝAo and Ý: as gender markers, which is not a correct
analysis. The correct analysis is given bellow in Í and Î:
                                                                                     240

    Í. 3o
       g˙o.∅
       stem-Gender marker
       'a kind of reptile'

    Î. pa8I
       pa¯i-∅
       stem-Gender marker
       'water'

        This analysis shows that 3o and pa8I are nouns with unmarked gender and their -Ao
and -: are not the gender markers.
        Numbers are two: singular and plural. Singular is unmarked, while plural is
marked with ÝAo. Examples:

Singular              Plural

2okro   c˙okr.o       2okraAo   c˙okra.o            'boys'
2okrI   c˙okr.i       2okrIAo   c˙okr.i.o           'girls'
idvs    div\s         idvso     div\s.o             'days'
ma8s    ma¯\s         ma8so     ma¯\s.o             'men'

        Case markers are ∅ (nominative), -e (agentive/ergative), -∅ or -ne (accusative/
absolutive), -ne (dative/experiencer), -thi or -e (instrumental), -nu~ (genitive), and
-ma~ (locative). Consider the following paradigm:

Nominative                      2okro      c˙okrro.∅
Agentive/Ergative               2okraAe    c˙okra.e
Accusative/Absolutive           2okro      c˙okrro.∅
                                2okrane    c˙okrra.ne
Dative/Experiencer              2okrane    c˙okra.ne
Locative                        2okrama&   c˙okra.ma~

        Genitive case inflects for gender and number as the following paradigm shows:

               Singular                    Plural

Masculine      2okrano                     2okrana
               c˙okra.no                   c˙okra.no

Feminine       2okranI                     2okranI
               c˙okra.ni                   c˙okra.ni
                                                                                       241


Neuter         2okranu&              2okrana&
               c˙okra.nu~            c˙okra.na~

2.2 Adjectives
Gujarati adjectives fall into two categories: (1) variable and (2) invariable. Variable
adjectives vary in terms of the gender and number of the nouns they modify, whereas the
invariable adjectives do not vary. Consider the examples of saru& and su&dr, variable and
invariable adjectives respectively.

   É. saro                    2okro
      sar-o                   c˙okr-o
      good-MSASC.SG           boy-MASC.SG.
      'a good boy'

   Ê. sarI                    2okrI
      sar-i                   c˙okr-i
      good-FEM.SG             boy-FEM.SG.
      'a good girl'

   Ë. saru&                   2okru&
      sar-u~                  c˙okr-u~
      good-NEUT.SG            boy-NEUT.SG.
      'a good child'

   Ì. sara                    2okraAo
      sar-a                   c˙okr-a-o
      good-MSASC.PL           boy-MASC.PL.
      'good boys'

   Í. sarI                    2okrIAo
      sar-i                   c˙okr-i-o
      good-FEM.               boy-FEM.PL.
      'a good girl'

   Î. sara&                   2okra&Ao
      sar-a~                  c˙okr-a~-o
      good-NEUT.PL.           boy-NEUT.PL.
      'a good child'

In É - Î the adjective saru& varies in terms of the gender of the noun it modifies. For
example, in É, the noun is masculine and singular therefore the adjective saru& agrees with
the noun in masculine and singular. In Ê the noun is feminine and singular and therefore
the adjective is also feminine and singular and so on. In Í, however, the noun is feminine
and plural the adjective does not show a plural marker. We can say that adjectives in
Gujarati remain unaffected in number when the noun they modify is feminine and plural.
Now consider the example of su&dr an invariable adjective:
                                                                                        242



   Ï. su&dr           2okro
      sundar          chhokr-o
      beautiful       boy-MASC.SG.
      'a beautiful boy'

   Ð. su&dr            2okrI
      sunder           chhokr-i
      beautiful        boy-FEM.SG.
      'a beautiful girl'

   Ñ. su&dr           2okru&
      beautiful       chhokr-uN
      beautiful       boy-NEUT.SG.
      'a beautiful child'

   ÉÈ. su&dr           2okraAo
       sundar          chhokr-a-o
       good            boy-MASC.PL.
       'beautiful boys'

   ÉÉ. su&dr            2okrIAo
       sunder           chhokr-i-o
       beautiful        boy-FEM.PL.
       'a beautiful girl'

   ÉÊ. su&dr           2okra&Ao
       sundar          chhokr-aN-o
       beautiful       boy-NEUT.PL.
       'beautiful child'

In Ï - ÉÊ, su&dr is an invariable adjective and therefore it does not agree with the noun it
modifies.

2.3 Verbs
Gujarati verbs (non-inflected) have the following structure: verb stem + infinitive.
Example:

   É. hsvu&
      h\s-vu~
      verb stem + infinitive
      'to laugh'

   Ê. r6vu&
      r\Î-vu~
      verb stem + infinitive
                                                                                        243

       'to cry'

A verb root may be intransitive, transitive or double transitive. It may be also simple or
causative. É and Ê are the examples of intransitive root. Ë - Ì and Í- Î are the examples of
transitive and double transitive roots respectively.

   Ë. kapvu&
      kap-vu~
      verb stem + infinitive
      'to cut'

   Ì. pIvu&
      pi-vu~
      verb stem + infinitive
      'to drink'

   Í. Aapvu&
      ap-vu~
      verb stem + infinitive
      'to give'

   Î. moklvu&
      mok\l-vu~
      verb stem + infinitive
      'to send'

É to Î are also the examples of simple verbs, while ÏÝ Ð bellow are the examples of
causative verbs. These are the verbs that are derived from simple verbs.

   Ï. hsavvu&
      h\s.av.-vu~
      verb stem +CAUS1+ INFINITIVE
      'to make someone laugh'

   Ð. hsav6avvu&
      has.av.Îav-vu~
      verb stem + CAUS1 + CAUS2 + INFINITIVE
      'to make someone laugh through some another person'

Gujarati inflected verbs have the following pattern: verb stem + inflectional material.
       Inflectional material may consists of various features such as tense, person,
gender and number. Following table summaries some of the major inflections for the verb
hsvu&Š
Present (verb stem + tense, person, number)

                      Singular        Plural
                                                                     244



First Person         hsu&           hsIAe
                     h\s.u~         h\si.ie

Second Person        hse            hso
                     h\s.e          h\s.o

Third Person         hse            hse
                     h\s.e          h\s.e

Future (verb stem + tense, person, number)

                     Singular       Plural

First Person         hsI=           hsI=u&
                     h\s.iß         h\s.ißu~

Second Person        hs=e           hs=o
                     h\s.ße         h\s.ßo

Third Person         hs=e           hs=e
                     h\s.ße         h\s.ße

Past Progressive (verb stem + progressive marker + gender, number)

                     Singular       Plural

Masculine            hsto           hsta
                     h\s.t.o        h\s.t.a

Feminine             hstI           hstI
                     h\s.t.i        h\s.t.i

Neuter               hstu&          hsta&
                     h\s.t.u~       h\s.t.a~

Past Perfective (verb stem + perfective + gender, number)
                       Singular       Plural

Masculine            hSyo           hSya
                     h\s.y.o        h\s.y.a

Feminine             hsI            HsI
                     h\s.y.i        h\s.y.i
                                                                                    245


Neuter                hSyu&            hSya&
                      h\s.y.u~         h\s.y.a~

Past Plu-perfective (verb stem + pluperfect marker + gender and number)

                Singular      Plural

Masculine             hselo            hsela
                      h\s.el.o         h\s.el.a

Feminine              hselI            hselI
                      h\s.el.i         h\s.el.i

Neuter                hselu&           hsela&
                      h\s.el.u~        h\s.el.a~

Verbs also inflect for imperative (present and future), desiderative, obligatory,
conditional, and infinitive constructions. Examples:

Imperative
Present
Second Person

Singular              Plural/Hon.

rm       r\m          rmo     r\m.o            'play'
`av      k˙av         `aAo    k˙ao             'eat'

Third Person

             rmje (future)
Desiderative rmvu&
Obligatory   rmvanu&
Conditional rmt
Infinitive   rmvu&


Excluding desiderative, all verb forms inflect for gender and number. However,
conditional verb forms inflect optionally.

2.4 Adverbs
Like adjective, adverbs are also variable and non-variable in Gujarati. Variable adverbs
agree with the noun with which the verb agrees. There are various types of adverbs.
Some of them are adverb of time, adverb of place, adverb of manner, adverb of order,
                                                                            246

adverb of quantity, adverb of doubt, adverb of frequency, adverb of negative and
connecting adverbs.

Time

Aaje         aje         'today'
kale         kale        'tomorrow'
prmidvse     p\r\m divse 'day after or
                         day before tomorrow.'
svare        s\vare      'in morning'
bpore        b\pore      'at noon, in the
                         afternoon'
sa&je...     sa~je       'in evening'
etc.

Place

AhI&         \hi~         'here'
Tya&         tya~         'there'
n@k9I        n\jik.t˙i    'from near'
pase         pase         'near'
dUr9I        dur.t˙i      'from a distance'
etc.

Manner

Aem          ´~m          'in that way'
jem          j´~m         ‘as’
tem          t´~m         ‘in that manner’
jem tem      j´~m t´~m    ’by hook or crook'
f4af4        p˙\ˇap˙\ˇ    ‘one after the other’
06a06        d˙\ÎaÎ˙\Î    ‘one after the other’
Acank        \can\k       ‘accidently’
AekaAek      ekaek        ‘suddenly’

Order

phelu&       p\helu~      ‘first, before’
p2I9I        p\c˙it˙i     ‘later, after’
Aa`re        ak˙\re       ‘finally, at last’
Agaw9I       \gaut˙i      ‘in advance’
badma&       badma~       ‘afterward’
                                                          247


A&te         \nte           ‘finally, at the end’

Quantity

08u&         g˙\¯u~         ‘plenty, much, many’
9o6u&        t˙oÎu~         ‘small, less’
pUrtu&       pur.tu~        ‘sufficient’
brobr        b\rob\r        ‘equal’
4ko4k        ˇ\koŠ\k        ‘full’

Doubt

kdac         k\dac          ‘perhaps’
kdaict       k\dacit        ‘hardly’
mo4e -age    moˇe b˙age     ‘mostly’
38u&`ru&     g˙\¯u~k˙\ru~   ‘mainly’
kyarek       kjarek         ‘sometime’

Frequency

roj          roj            ‘everyday’
kyarek       kjarek         ‘sometime’
Avarnvar     \varn\var      ‘frequently’
var&var      var\mvar       ‘repeatdly’

Negative

ma           ma             ‘not’ (colloquial)
na           na             ‘not’
nhI&         n\hi~          ‘not’

Connecting

p8           p\¯            ‘but’
pir8ame      p\ri¯ame       ‘as a result, consequently’
v0uma&       v\d˙uma~       ‘in addition’
joke         jo ke          ‘however’
td\wpra&t    t\dupra~t      ‘morover’

3. Closed class
3.1 Pronouns and other Pro-forms
Personal Pronouns
                                                                                       248

Gujarati personal pronouns differentiate three persons (first, second and third) and two
numbers (singular, plural). They have also inclusive and exclusive contrast in third person
plural. In addition, their second person plural form is also used as honorific.
        Following table summarize regular and agentive pronouns:
                Singular                        Plural

Fist Person             hu&                                Ame      (Exclusive)
                                                           Aap8e    (Inclusive)
Second Person tu&                                          tme
Third Person  te                                           teAo

        Personal pronouns take various cases, which include nominative, ergative,
accusative/ dative, genitive and locative and instrumental. From these genitive forms
distinguish among three genders and two numbers. Following table summaries their
forms:


                  1st.sg 1st.pl 2nd.sg 2nd.pl 3rd.sg 3rd.pl
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Nominative        hu&         Ame      tu&       tme       te       teAo
                              Aap8e

Ergative          me&         Ame      te&       tme       te8e     teAoAe
                              Aap8e                                 tem8e

Accusative        mne         Amne tne           tmne      tene     teAone
                              Aap8ne                                temne

Locative          marama&     Amarama& tarama&   tmarama& tenama&   teAonama&
                              Aap8ama&                              temnama&
Instrumental mara9I           Amara9I tara9I     tmara9I tena9I     teAo9I
                              Aap8a9I                               temna9I

Genitive
       Masc. maro             Amaro taro         tmaro     teno     teAono
                              Aap8o                                 temno

         Fem. marI            AmarI tarI         tmarI     tenI     teAonI
                              Aap8I                                 temnI

         Neut. maru&          Amaru&   taru&     tmaru&    tenu&    teAonu&
                              Aap8u&                                temnu&

Non-personal Pronouns
                                                                                                 249

Gujarati non-personal pronouns include demonstrative pronouns, interrogative pronouns,
relative pronouns, indefinite pronouns and reflexive pronouns.
Demonstrative Pronouns
         Aa, pelu& and te / Ae are the demonstrative pronouns. From these pel&u is variable. Aa is the
near demonstrative pronoun, pelu& is the far demonstrative pronoun, while te / Ae are deictic
pronouns.
Interrogative Pronouns
         Interrogative pronouns are =u& and ko8. From these =u& is variable. We use =u& to ask
question about non-human things, while ko8 to ask question about humans.
Relative Pronouns
         Relative pronouns are je......te. These pronouns are used to connect two sentences.
Indefinite Pronouns
         ko:, ka&:/ k&: and k=u& are the Indefinite pronouns. ko: used for human, while k&:k/ ka&:k
and k=u&k are used for non-human. From these pronouns, k=u& is variable.
Reflexive Pronouns
         pote is the Reflexive pronoun.
         In addition to these, Gujarati has also distributive pronouns (je je, te te, ko8 ko8, =u& =u&
                                                                                                 &
etc.), reciprocal pronouns (prSprSpr, ANyoNy, Arsprs), indefinite pronouns (Amuktmuk, fla8u7I&k8u,   &
k&:k etc.).
         Non-personal pronouns also inflect for ergative, accusative/dative, locative,
genitive and instrumental cases.

3.2 Noun adjuncts
3.2.1 Role markers
Case markers and postpositions are the role markers in Gujarati.
3.2.1.1 Case markers
Gujarati nouns distinguish seven types of cases: subjective, ergative, objective/dative,
agential, ablative, genitive, locative and vocative. From these, genitive inflects for gender
and number of the noun it takes. Following table summarizes the case markers:
Nominative 2okro                2okro AaVyo.                               -∅
Ergative        2okraAe         2okraAe kerI kapI.                         -Ae
Objective       2okrane         rme=e 2okrane mayoR.                       -ne
Dative          2okrane         rme=e 2okrane kerI AapI.                   -ne
Experiencer 2okrane             2okrane p(9r vaGyo.                        -ne
Ablative        bgIca9I         maru& 3r bgIca9I 9o6ek j dUr 2e.           -9I
Instrumental rme=9I             rme=9I bhu& kam 9tu& n9I.                  -9I
Genitive        2okrano         2okrano kagX             -no, -nI, -nu&, etc.
        2okraAono kagX
                                etc.
Locative        3re             rme= ATyare 3re j h=e.                     -Ae
                bgIcama&        rme= ATyare bgIcama& h=e.                  -ma&
Vocative        he 2okra        he 2okra, AhI& Aav.                        -∅

3.2.1.2 Postpositions
Gujarati postpositions fall in two classes: invariant and variant. The variant postpositions
agree with noun in gender and number. Examples:
                                                                                         250


Invariant postpositions:                         trf, bad, lgI, pEkI, v6e, vgr...
Variant postpositions:                           jevo, sr`o...
3.2.2 Quantifiers
Quantifiers are the words that refers to quantity. Following are some of the Gujarati
quantifiers:
1. È %, Í%, Î%.....
2. É/Ì, É/Ê, Ë/Ì...
3. É,Ê, Ë, Ì, Í...
4. Aek, be, {a8, car, pa&c....
5. Aekad, beAek, {a8ek, carek, pa&cek
6. pa, A60u&, po8u&, do7u&, bm8u&...
7. b0u&, 9o6u&, 9o6&uk, ke4lu&k, pUrtu&, ApUrtu&, v0are...
...
3.3 Verb adjuncts
3.3.1 Auxiliaries
3.3.1.1 Simple auxiliaries
Gujarati has two auxiliaries: 2- and ho-. Of these, 2- is used in present tense, while ho- is
used in past tense and future tense. 2Ý and hoÝ both differentiate three person and two
number in present tense and future tense, while hoÝ differentiates three gender and two
numbers only in past tense. Consider the following tables:

2Ý Present tense
                       Singular               Plural

First Person           2u&                    2IAe

Second Person          2e                     2o

Third Person           2e                     2e

hoÝ Future tense

                       Singular               Plural

First Person           ho:=                   ho:=u&

Second Person          h=e                    h=o

Third Person           h=e                    h=e

hoÝ Past tense

                       Singular               Plural

Masculine              hto                    hta
                                                                                          251


Feminine                htI                               htI

Neuter                  htu&                              hta&

3.3.1.2 Modal auxiliaries
Modal auxiliaries are the verbs that are used as auxiliaries. Such verbs are small in
number and they occur with many restrictions. One such restriction is on the combination
of the verbs. We can not combine all the modal auxiliary verbs with all the non-modal
auxiliary verbs. In such verbal sequences, the first verb takes some linking element while
the second verb takes inflectional material. Examples:

Verb           Modal    Example
               verb
`a:            levu&    me& kerI `a: lI0I.
na`vu&         na`vu&   me& je khevu& htu& te khI na~yu&
kapI           ka7vu&   me& kerI kapI ka7I.
sm@            jvu&     hu& AemnI vat sm@ gyo.
s&-XavI        devu&    me& Aemne be vat s&-XavI dI0I.
wtrI           jvu&     hu& f4af4 pg9Iya& wtrI gyo.
-rI            ra`vu&   saru& 9yu& ke me& pa8I -rI ra~yu&. nhI& to Aap8e =u& krt?
hsI            p6vu&    te jor jor9I hsI p6yo.
bolI           w5vu&    te AekaAek bolI w5yo.
ka7I           mUkvu&   me& rme=ne Aoifsma&9I ka8I mUkyo.

3.4 Connectives
3.4.1 Coordinating connectives
Gujarati distinguishes between conjunctive (Ane) and disjunctive (ke, A9va). In disjunctive it
distinguishes between inclusive (ke) and exclusive (A9va). Examples:
Conjunctive sentences:
É. rme= Ane mhe= kale 3er j=e.
Ê. mne lal Ane lIlo r&g gme 2e.
Ë. rme= Aav=e Ane mIna j=e.
Disjunctive sentences:
Ì. marI sa9e ko8 Aav=e? mIna ke lIla? (mIna Aav=e / lIla Aav=e / mIna Ane lIla bNne Aav=e.)
Í. marI sa9e mIna A9va lIla Aav=e. (mIna Aav=e / lIla Aav=e / *mIna Ane lIla bNne Aav=e.)
3.4.2 Subordinating connective
Subordinating conjunction is ke. Examples:
É. te8e k¬u& ke hu& AavI=.
Ê. rme=ne khejo ke Ae kale mare 3er Aave.
Ë. mne htu& j ke Aek be idvsma& mne tav Aav=e.
3.4.3 Correlative connectives
je ...te is a correlative connective, which decline for all the cases. Consider the following
table:

Nominative              je...te
Ergative                je8e...te8e
                                                                                       252


Dative                    jene...tene
Genitive                  jenu&...tenu&
Locative                  jema&...tema&, jenama&...tenama&
Instrumental              jena9I....tena9I

Correlative also inflects for comparative to express size, quantity, etc.: Examples.

jev6u&...tev6u&.   (size)
je4lu&..te4lu&     (quantity)
jem...tem          (manner)
jya&...Tya&        (place)

3.4.4 Adversative connectives
p8 and prNtu are adversative conjunctions. prNtu is more formal than p8. Examples:
É. hu& ca nhI&, p8 kofI pI=.
Ê. tme gme Tya& jav. p8 Aa 2okrane AhI& mUkta jav.
Ë. rme=ne khejo ke -le kam kre. p8 tibyt p8 jaXve.
3.4.5 Explicative connectives
ke and Ae4le are the explicative conjunctions. Examples:
É. hu& Ae4lo b0o 9akI gyelo ke na pu2o vat.
Ê. lIla Ae4le lIla. AenI vat 9ay?
3.4.6 Causal connective
kemke/ kar8ke is a causal connective. Examples:
É. hu& kale Skule n hto gyo kemke/ kar8 ke marI tibyt sarI n htI.
Ê. mare `Ub va&cvu& p6=e kem ke / kar8 ke mare kale pirxa 2e.
3.5 Other Closed classes
3.5.1 Emphasis marker
Gujarati distinguishes between two types of emphasis markers: (1) inclusive and (2)
exclusive. Inclusive marker is y / p8 and exclusive marker is j : Examples:
Inclusive
É. lIla y/p8 kale sa&je rsro4lI `a=e.
Ê. lIla kale sa&je y/p8 rsro4lI `a=e.
Ë. lIla kale sa&je rsro4lI y/p8 `a=e.
Exclusive
É. lIla j kale sa&je rsro4lI `a=e.
Ê. lIla kale sa&je j rsro4lI `a=e.
Ë. lIla kale sa&je rsro4lI j `a=e.
Ì. lIla kale sa&je rs ro4lI `a=e j.
Besides there are also sentential emphasis word `ru&, that agree with object > subject.
Examples:
Í. rme= AaVyo `ro?
Î. rme=e cop6I va&cI `rI?
3.5.2 Interjections
Gujarati has two types of interjections: primary (which do not have any lexical meaning)
and secondary (which have some lexical meaning associated with them). Ahha, Aho, Aoho,
A0000, h&A are the examples of primary interjections while vah, =aba=, ALya, etc. are the
                                                                                           253

examples of secondary interjections. In terms of function, they can be divided into
expressive, conative and phatic types. Expressive interjections can be further divided into
emotive and cognitive interjections. Following is a rough and very preliminary
classification of the Gujarati interjections:
Expressive interjections:
Emotive
1. hay, hay hay, hay re, bapre, ma re, Ao... Express pain
2. Aoho, Aha, A000, Ahha...                  Exclamatory
3. h4\, 2I, 24\, 9U, i0k...                  Express hate.
Cognitive
4. vah, =aba=, Aaha, 0Ny...                  Express joy
Conative
5. Ao, ALya, AlI....                         Address terms (informal).
6. hay, hlo,                                 Express greeting.
7. Aav, Aavo, p0aro                          Express reception (informal sg. informal plural and
                                             honorific, formal respectively).
8. Aavje, Aavjo                              Express good-bye.
9. cal / calo Tyare                          Express parting
Phatic
10. h&, =u&                                  Express question.
11. h&A, ha,...                              Express permission.
12. W&hu&                                    Expresses negation.

3.5.3 Negators
na, nhI&, n and n9I are the negators in Gujarati. We use negators to prohibit an action and
also to negate a sentence or a phrase. Examples:
Prohibitative Negation
É. tme kerI na `ata.
Ê. tme bIju b0u& j `ajo, p8 kerI nhI& `ata.
Ë. tme kerI n `aAo to saru&.
Sentential/Phrasal negation
É. p/½Š rme= AaVyo?
   jvabŠ na.                   (Ramesh did not come.)
Ê. rme= rmto n9I.              (Ramesh may be doing something else.)
Ë, rme= rm=e nhI&.             (Ramesh will not play. He will do something else).
Ì. rme= Aavu& na kre.          (Ramesh would not do such thing. Some another person must have
                               done it).
Í. rme= pakI kerI n laVyo. (Ramesh brought a mango but it was not ripe.)
3.5.4 Politeness marker
@ is the politeness marker that is used with verb and nouns. Examples:
É. kagXno jvab AapvanI k<pa kr=o@.
Ê. bapu@ bhar gam gya 2e. kale Aav=e.
3.5.5 Tag-marks
Gujarati has two types of tag-marks:(1) Sentence initial tag-marks, and (2) Sentence final
tag-marks. Examples:
Sentence Initial tag-marks
                                                                                   254

É. to tme kyare pa2a Aav=o?
Ê. te tme kyare Amdavad jvana?
Ë. to to tu& Aa nokrI krvano `ro, kem?
Ì. Tyare to t u& 3er jvano Aemke?
Sentence Final tag-marks
Í. tme ca pI=o ke?
Î. Aa cop6I lw& ke?
Ï. jra Aa kagX va&cI btav to.
Ð. me& Aa4lu& kam to kyuRne?
4. Conclusion
This is a very brief outline of the Gujarati parts-of-speech I have prepared for the
Beginning Gujarati and Intermediate Gujarati class. I am more concerned with specifying
general properties of these parts of speech and listing sample words belonging to them.
                                                                                  255


                                  Gujarati Numerals


Gujarati has three types of numerals: cardinals, ordinals, and fractions.

Cardinal
                                                  32      32    ËܵÜßôÜ
1      1       †å‘                                33      33    ´ÜåµÜßôÜ
2      2       ËÜå                                34      34    œÜÜåµÜßôÜ
3      3       µÜ±Ü                               35      35    ÆÜÜصÜßôÜ
4      4       œÜÜÓ                               36      36    “µÜßôÜ
5      5       ÆÜÜØœÜ                             37      37    ôÜܲµÜßôÜ
6      6       “                                  38      38    †Ü²µÜßôÜ
7      7       ôÜÜ´Ü                              39      39    †ÜåÄܱܜÜÜêÜßôÜ
8      8       †Ü«                                40      40    œÜÜêÜßôÜ
9      9       ÃÜíÜ                               41      41    †å‘´ÜÜêÜßôÜ
10     10      ¹ôÜ                                42      42    ËÜå´ÜÜêÜßôÜ
11     11      †ÝÄÜÑÜÜÓ                           43      43    ´Üå´ÜÜêÜßôÜ
12     12      ËÜÜÓ                               44      44    œÜàÏÜÜêÜßôÜ
13     13      ´ÜåÓ                               45      45    ÝÆÜô´ÜÜêÜßôÜ
14     14      œÜÜæ¹                              46      46    “å´ÜÜêÜßôÜ
15     15      ÆÜØ¹Ó                              47      47    ôÜ಴ÜÜêÜßôÜ
16     16      ôÜÜåì                              48      48    †²´ÜÜêÜßôÜ
17     17      ôܶÜÓ                              49      49    †ÜåÄܱÜÆÜœÜÜôÜ
18     18      †°ÜÓ                               50      50    ÆÜœÜÜôÜ
19     19      †ÜåÄÜݱÜôÜ                         51      51    †å‘ÜíÜÃÜ
20     20      íÜßôÜ                              52      52    ËÜÜíÜÃÜ
21     21      †å‘íÜßôÜ                           53      53    µÜåÆÜÃÜ
22     22      ËÜÜíÜßôÜ                           54      54    œÜÜåÆÜÃÜ
23     23      ´ÜåíÜßôÜ                           55      55    ÆÜØœÜÜíÜÃÜ
24     24      œÜÜåíÜßôÜ                          56      56    “ÆÆÜÃÜ
25     25      ÆÜœœÜßôÜ                           57      57    ôܶÜÜíÜÃÜ
26     26      “ííÜßôÜ                            58      58    †¬ÜíÜÃÜ
27     27      ôܶÜÜíÜßôÜ                         59      59    †ÜåÄܱÜôÜ܇«
28     28      †¬ÜíÜßôÜ                           60      60    ôÜ܇«
29     29      †ÜåÄܱܵÜßôÜ                       61      61    †å‘ôÜ«
30     30      µÜßôÜ                              62      62    ËÜÜôÜ«
31     31      †å‘µÜßôÜ                           63      63    µÜåôÜ«
                                                                                                       256


64        64       œÜÜåôÜ«                                83       83       ´ÑÜÜïÜß
65        65       ÆÜÜØôÜ«                                84       84       œÜÜåÑÜÜÚïÜß
66        66       “ÜôÜ«                                  85       85       ÆÜØœÜÜïÜß
67        67       ôܲôÜ«                                 86       86       “ÖÑÜÜïÜß
68        68       †²ôÜ«                                  87       87       ôÜ´ÑÜÜïÜß
69        69       †ÄܱÜÜåôÜ߶ÜåÓ                         88       88       †«ÖÑÜÜïÜß
70        70       ÝôܶÜåÓ                                89       89       ÃÜíÑÜÜïÜß
71        71       ‡‘Üå´ÜåÓ                               90       90       ÃÜåíÜàØ
72        72       ËÜÜå´ÜåÓ                               91       91       †å‘ܱÜàØ
73        73       ´ÜÜÇ´ÜåÓ                               92       92       ËÜܱÜàØ
74        74       œÜàÏÜÜå´ÜåÓ                            93       93       µÜܱÜàØ
75        75       ÆÜØœÜÜå´ÜåÓ                            94       94       œÜÜåÓܱÜàØ
76        76       “Üå´ÜåÓ                                95       95       ÆÜØœÜܱÜàØ
77        77       ÝôܶÜÜå´ÜåÓ                            96       96       “ÅÜàØ
78        78       ‡«ÖÑÜÜå´ÜåÓ                            97       97       ôܶÜܱÜàØ
79        79       †ÄܱÑÜ܆åïÜß                           98       98       †¬Ü±ÜàØ
80        80       †åïÜß                                  99       99       ÃÜííÜܱÜàØ
81        81       †åÑÜÜïÜß                              100      100      ôÜÜå
82        82       ËÑÜÜïÜß

In counting 100 is †å‘ ôÜÜå, 200 is ËÜôÜÜå, 300 is µÜ±Ü ôÜÜå, 400 is œÜÜÓ ôÜÜå and so on. Similarly,
1000 is ÷¡Ó, which is once again †å‘ ÷¡Ó, ËÜå ÷¡Ó, µÜ±Ü ÷¡Ó and so on. One hundred
thousand is called êÜÜƒÜ in Gujarati. There is no concept of million in Gujarati. We
describe it as ¹ôÜ êÜ܃Ü. One hundred êÜÜƒÜ is called ‘ÓÜå² and one hundred ‘ÓÜå² is called
†ËÜè.

Remember:

In Gujarati each number symbol has its own name. They are †å‘²Üå, ËÜÄܲÜå, ´ÜÄܲÜå, œÜÜåÄܲÜå,
ÆÜÜ؜ܲÜå, “ÄܲÜå, ôÜܴܲÜå, †Ü«²Üå, ÃÜíܲÜå and ÏÜß²àØ for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 0 respectively.

Ordinals:

The ordinals for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 are ÆÜ÷åêÜàØ, ËÜßèàØ, µÜßèà, œÜÜå³ÜàØ, “¬àØ, respectively. For rest of the
numbers, we use –ÏÜàØ. Examples: ÆÜÜØœÜÏÜàØ, ôÜÜ´ÜÏÜàØ, †ÜÜ«ÏÜàØ, ÃÜíÜÏÜàØ ¹ôÜÏÜàØ and so on. The ordinals
must agree with noun in gender. Example:

ÆÜ÷åêÜÜå “Üå‘ÓÜå            first boy

ÆÜ÷åêÜß “Üå‘Óß              second boy
                                          257



ÆÜ÷åêÜàØ “Üå‘ÓàØ              third boy

Fractions:

Following is the list of the fractions:

¼                  ÆÜÜ
½                  †²ÁÜàØ
¾                  ÆÜÜå±ÜàØ
1¼                 ôÜíÜÜ
1½                 ¹Üå°
1¾                 ÆÜÜå±ÜÜ ËÜå
2¼                 ôÜíÜÜ ËÜå
2½                 †°ß
2¾                 ÆÜÜå±ÜÜ µÜ±Ü
…                  ...
…                  ...
...                ...

				
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