Governor Brian Schweitzer of Montana The New Homestead Act Montanans by ramhood17


									                         Governor Brian Schweitzer of Montana

           The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development

                                    Table of Contents

Part A – Financial Proposal
     Application for Federal Assistance, SF-424
     Budget Information Form, SF-424A
            Budget Narrative
            Appendix A.1 and A.2 Leveraging Funding Sources

Part B – Technical Proposal
     Abstract                                                             i
     Timeline                                                             iii
     Strength of Partnership                                              1
     Statement of Need                                                    8
     Strategies for System Transformation                                 11

Part C – Appendix
     WIRED Region Map                                                     B.1
     Bid Solicitation                                                     B.2
     Cluster Industry Model                                               B.3
     Professional Resume                                                  B.4
                           Governor Brian Schweitzer of Montana

            The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development


        Governor Brian Schweitzer appointed the State Workforce Investment Board (SWIB),

comprised of private, public and tribal representatives, in partnership with the Montana

Department of Labor and Industry (DLI), to respectfully request $15 million in WIRED funding

for the evolution of Montana’s workforce by creation of innovative biolubricant and bioproduct

manufacturing embryonic clusters in the WIRED region of central and eastern Montana (Map,

Attachment B.1).

       The identified WIRED region, encompassing 32 counties and six Indian Reservations,

has historically relied heavily on agriculture as an economic force. Seven years of extreme

drought has resulted in regional socio-economic trends comparable to the ‘dustbowl era’ of the

1930’s. These socio-economic trends include: an aging and declining population, wage and

salary income that is both depressed and stagnant, a high prevalence of poverty, and an

increasing reliance on federal farm subsidies for farm income. Montana must nurture an

innovative value-added industry that benefits domestic agriculture and creates globally

competitive enterprises resulting in high paying jobs in rural communities. Montana’s

manufacturing jobs pay an annual wage of approximately $35,300 per worker compared to an

average of $27,800 for all other Montana workers. In addition to higher wages for workers, a

regional input-output model shows that for every job created in an oilseed crushing plant, two

additional jobs will be created in the WIRED region. Currently, less than 12% of Montana’s

manufacturing firms are located in eastern and central Montana.

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                     i
       The strength of rural Montana is the people – the diligent homesteader – and their love

for the region. Through our committed partnerships (Montana’s citizens, state agencies, private

businesses, investors, academic institutions, entrepreneurs, philanthropists, and Tribal leaders)

we will develop new directions for the future of rural Montana, incorporate best practices, and

transform our rural Ag-economy including, but not limited to: (1) Systems level curriculum

roadmap with supporting course materials using the cluster as context; (2) Delivery models that

provide blended e-learning and instructor delivery; (3) Manufacturing Career Cluster model that

provides students and incumbent workers the educational information to create a career pathway;

(4) Models for increasing collaboration with industry partners to develop a competency-based

modular training program; (5) Optimization of biolubricant production in existing industry; (6)

Expansion of existing establishment of oilseed processing and refining facilities and (7)

Evaluation of new oil crops suitable for production in the arid climate of central and eastern


       Governor Schweitzer declared the WIRED region to be primed for a “New Homestead

Act,” as a means to reverse the erosion of central and eastern Montana communities. While a

startling number of rural, geographically isolated Montanans live in poverty, with less than 300

miles of Interstate highway, sporadic infrastructure, and only a handful of paved airports; they

are also sitting on nearly 89,000 square miles of some of the greatest energy reserves in the

nation, be it the wind blowing across the prairies, the crops growing from the ground, or the coal

underneath the ground. With advances in biofuels and renewables, the region is well positioned

to revitalize the economy with energy development.

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                        ii

                                   Phase One - 12 months
    INITIATIVE DIRECTOR            Establish ad-hoc advisory group
                                   Advertise/hire Initiative Director
                                   Recruit entrepreneurs and investment (1)
♦ Department of Labor &            Assist plant establishment (1)
  Industry                         Phase Two – 12 months
♦ State Workforce Investment       Recruit entrepreneurs and investment (2)
  Board                            Assist plant establishment (2)
                                   Recruit growers
                                   Scale-up oilseed production (1)
                                   Product marketing (1)
                                   Phase Three - 12 months
                                   Product marketing (2)
                                   Recruit entrepreneurs and investment (3)
                                   Scale-up oilseed production (2)

                                   Phase One - 12 months
    RESEARCH & DESIGN              Formulate new lubricants and products (1)
                                   New product development (1)
                                   Phase Two – 12 months
♦   Department of Commerce         Formulate new lubricants and products (2)
♦   Montana State University       New product development (2)
♦   Agriculture Research Centers   Work with industry to implement production (1)
                                   Quality control of new products (1)
♦   Tribes                         Phase Three - 12 months
♦   2 Year Colleges                Work with industry to implement production (2)
                                   Quality control of new products (2)

                                   Phase One - 12 months
 BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT              Complete feasibility of production and expansion
                                   Complete feasibility of bio-lube production
♦ Department of Commerce           Develop grant/loan program – Commerce
♦ MMEC                             Advertise/hire grant/loan program staff – Commerce
♦ Business Incubator               Develop/issue formal grant application process
                                   Phase Two – 12 months
♦ Tribes                           Expansion and production marketing (1)
♦ Peaks & Prairies                 Bio-lube production & marketing (1)
♦ Sustainable Systems              Phase Three - 12 months
                                   Expansion and production marketing (2)
                                   Bio-lube production & marketing (2)

                                   Phase One - 12 months
        NEW BUSINESS               Feasibility of oil processing prototype (1)
♦   Department of Commerce         Feasibility of refinery establishment (1)
                                   Identification of specific products (1)
♦   MMEC                           Phase Two - 12 months
♦   Business Incubator             Feasibility of oil processing prototype (2)
                                   Feasibility of refinery establishment (2)
♦   Tribes                         Identification of specific products (2)
♦   Private Industry               Construction of new facilities (1)
                                   Production of bio-lubes and bio-products (1)
                                   Phase Three - 12 months
                                   Construction of new facilities (2)
                                   Production of bio-lubes and bio-products (2)

    The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                        iii
 ♦   Department of Commerce          Phase One- 12 months
 ♦   MMEC                            Regional
 ♦   Business Incubator              Phase Two- 12 months
 ♦   Tribes
                                     Phase Three- 12 months
 ♦   Private Industry                International

                                   Phase One- 12 months
       EDUCATION AND               Conduct RFP (convert manufacturing pathways model to Bio-Energy)
         WORKFORCE                 Conduct RFP (develop customized Bio-Energy Cluster-Based
                                            Entrepreneurial education
        DEVELOPMENT                Formalize Regents’ Unified Curricula Models (UCM) for two-year
                                            Economic Development programs (1)
♦ Office of Commissioner of        Develop Career Cluster models in Two-Year institutions
  Higher Education                 Phase Two – 12 months
                                   Manage Bio-Energy grants (1)
♦ Workforce Development            Establish Bio-Energy Cluster Hub (1)
  Director                         Implement Regents’ UCM to support Bio-Energy Cluster (2)
♦ Two-Year Institutions            Establish Workforce Development Partners (WDP) (1)
♦ Bio-Energy Workforce             Identify/develop Bio-Energy industry career clusters (1)
                                   Apply Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT) (1)
  Development Unit                 Phase Three- 12 months
                                   Manage Bio-Energy grants (2)
                                   Evaluate/expand WDP (improve access for low-income adults) (2)
                                   Identify/develop Bio-Energy industry career clusters (2)
                                   Expand Regent’s UCM to support Bio-Energy Cluster (3)
                                   Expand Cluster Hubs to support related industries (2)
                                   Apply PERT (2)

                                  Phase One- 12 months
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT               Apply for RFP funds
    AND DELIVERY                  Establish business/industry and educational partners network in pathways
                                     curricula development (1)
                                  Create blended e-learning pathways models
Central/Eastern Region            Design new learning module requiring contextualized instruction
Educational Institutions and      Phase Two- 12 months
Workforce Development             Develop Bio-Energy Cluster Hub (1)
Partners                          Implement Bio-Energy Manufacturing pathways model (2)
                                  Implement customized entrepreneurial curriculum (1)
                                  Continue offering Regents’ Unified Curricula Models that support
♦ Office of Commissioner of                Bio-Energy Cluster
  Higher Education                Coordinate activities with WDP network (1)
♦ Community Colleges              Phase Three- 12 months
♦ Tribal Colleges                 Review and refine Bio-Energy manufacturing pathways model (3)
                                  Expand entrepreneurial education (2)
♦ WIA Providers                   Expand coordination of WDP network (2)
♦ Adult Education Centers         Expand Bio-Energy Cluster Hubs (2)
                                  Continue offering Regents’ UCM to support Bio-Energy Cluster
                                  Develop supporting career clusters models
                                  Apply PERT

     The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                            iv

   Establishment of a globally competitive bioenergy and bioproducts manufacturing cluster in

central and eastern Montana will utilize existing cohesive partnerships with business and

industry, education, community development organizations, state and tribal governments and

philanthropic foundations. These partnerships will develop sustainable industry in rural central

and eastern Montana, create high-paying jobs in management, engineering, marketing,

manufacturing and construction, and increase the net return and stability of farm income.


Regional Grower Cooperatives, Existing Agri-Industry and Montana Agricultural Business


       These organizations represent the agricultural producers in central and eastern Montana.

A value-added biolubricant and bioproduct industry cluster will only be established when

producers embrace the potential and divert a proportion of their production to oil seed

production. To achieve this end, these partners will work with education and extension services

to promote adoption of alternative crop production. Once developed, this conversion to a

value-added crop will drive further development of a globally competitive biolubricant and

bioproduct industry and continued creation of jobs in central and eastern Montana.

Montana and Regional Entrepreneurs

       These partners are investing in projects and are building the economic infrastructure

needed for sustainability. Montana currently is home to over 1,442 manufacturing companies

(MT DLI). Globally competitive biolubricant and biobased manufacturing businesses are

currently operating and private investment in these new ventures is occurring. As the revenue

from these businesses continues to grow they will attract outside private capital for expansion.

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                       1
       For example, Sustainable Systems, LLC, has recently acquired an oilseed processing

plant in Culbertson, MT, using a combination of debt and equity and is expanding the production

of oilseed acres across MT for the manufacture of biofuels, biolubricants and culinary products.

Sustainable Systems is in need of skilled engineers, scientists, technologists, maintenance crews,

and operators capable of quickly assimilating into a highly complex manufacturing environment.

This application will assist in the development of the critical workforce that will maintain global

competitiveness. An additional example is Veteran’s Pride, a MT corporation of retired

military officers, partnering with Dr Johnson and the Ft.Belknap Tribe. They are pursuing a

camelina, biodeisel approach, with the goal of creating a profit center on the reservation,

providing long-term employment and self sustaining revenue streams.

Technology Information Exchange, MT Independent Telecommunications Systems/Vision

Net/iConnect Montana

   Affiliated organizations are owned and operated by Montana’s rural telephone co-ops,

providing more than 80% of high-speed Internet access to rural communities, and with thousands

of miles of fiber optic cable, are able to connect eastern MT to the world. For the purpose of this

project, these entities will assist in developing innovative means for distance learning.

Established video-conferencing studios may also be utilized for stakeholders to exchange



MT Rural Development Corporations – Business Establishment and Support

MT Native American Development Corporation, Montana Ag Innovation Center (USDA

Rural Development) and Local Development Corporations

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                      2
   Montana has several state, local, and federal agencies in place to assist entrepreneurs in

establishment and expansion of globally competitive rural businesses. These agencies will assist

in regional development of hubs for oilseed processing and/or refining including fundraising,

establishment of viable business plans, establishment of processing and refining facilities, and

procurement of raw materials necessary for product manufacture and packaging.


Montana State University-Bozeman, Northwest Agriculture Research Center (NWARC),

and the Montana Ag Research Centers – Research and Development

       MSU holds several key patents in the area of biolubricant manufacture including motor

oils, penetrating oils, greases, hydraulic oils and dust suppressants. MSU will provide

experimental amounts of the product for evaluation by industry and independent laboratories.

NWARC’s Dr. Duane Johnson has and continues to work within the industry to: (1) identify

new biolubricant applications and formulate efficacious formulations, (2) educate farmers in

production of necessary crops and (3) work with industry to produce the desired product. The

NWARC will continue to evaluate conventional and alternative oil crops for production in

Montana and as feedstock for biolubricants and bioproducts.

Montana State University-Bozeman – Research and Development

       Dr. David Sands and Dr. Alice Pilgeram will work with Dr. Johnson to identify and

develop new oil crops and new products. Dr. Sands teaches several courses to train students in

biotechnology. Students will comprise a workforce capable of continued development of

biobased products, optimization of product manufacture and laboratory confirmation of quality

and performance.

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                       3
BioEnergy Workforce Development Unit (BioWDU)

   This unit, under the direction of Dr. Arlene Parisot, based out of the Commissioner’s Office

of Higher Education, will work toward establishing Bioproducts Manufacturing Cluster Hubs in

two-year colleges primarily located within the targeted region. The Office will manage a grant

and loan program under contract with the Montana Department of Labor and Industry to

implement the WIRED proposal for equipment, training, curriculum development, career ladder

building, and distance learning capabilities at the two-year institutions. In addition, the BioWDU

will conduct its activities in coordination with the Montana University System Research Centers,

the Initiative Director, and existing Industry leaders. These Cluster Hubs will survey industry

needs for curriculum development, update skill standards, benchmark practices, and collect

information about cluster occupations and programs. The Hubs will also provide a shared library

of customized programs, facilitation of “Train the Trainer” (sharing expertise to enhance

deficiencies in curriculum) for other colleges and workforce development providers. The

BioWDU will also request funds to replicate the existing Manufacturing Career Pathway model

refocused to the Bioproducts Industry Cluster in two-year institutions in the targeted region.

This will require establishing manufacturing programs linked to K12 and WIA providers and

redesigning the curriculum to be contextually-based in coordination with the Bioproducts

industry. As appropriate, courses will also be converted to a blended e-learning format.

Montana’s Two-Year Colleges - Workforce Training and Product Testing Centers –College

of Technology, Tribal Colleges, and Community Colleges

   The two-year colleges, with minor curriculum modifications and additions of equipment, are

prepared to offer workforce training in all aspects related to Agriculture/BioFuel/Biotechnology

business. The two-year colleges, in collaborative partnership with the BioWDU, will function as

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                      4
Cluster Hubs for training the necessary skilled workforce through, but not limited to: (1) Diesel

technology programs to train new mechanics or retrain individuals to work on engines utilizing

bio-fuels and bio-lubricants, which in turn provides feedback to the R&D component; (2) Metals

technology programs to train welders and machinists to design, build and maintain crush plants

and refining facilities, (3) Construction technology programs to use Agri-based building products

and sustainable materials, such as straw board for construction projects; (4) Alternative fuel and

sustainable systems training certificates; (5) Maintenance and repair of turbine engines, utilizing

bio-fuel and bio-lubricants; (6) Automotive technology programs utilizing bio-fuel and bio-

lubricants; (7) Bio-technologists, engineering technologists, and electronic specialists trained to

work in the refining and streamlining of systems in the bio-product refineries; and (8) Business

and marketing training, with an Ag-based economics emphasis, to aid in marketing of the

products within Montana, the United States, and Internationally.


Governor’s Office of Economic Opportunity (GOEO)

       GOEO will act as a coordinating agent between all parties involved in WIRED to make

certain that all available resources in the state are being maximized to ensure the project’s

success. The office guides businesses to any available funding sources within the state and helps

to create strategies for the financing of projects, maximizing the available funds. The office

coordinates with local development groups statewide to assist businesses interested in starting,

expanding or locating a business in Montana. The GOEO serves as the Governor’s

representatives to the business community and works to bring all parties to the table to maximize

the likelihood of a project’s success.

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                          5
MT Department of Commerce

       The Department of Commerce will manage a grant and loan program under contract with

Montana Department of Labor and Industry to implement the WIRED proposal. The program

will provide grant funds for customized worker training that goes to businesses working with the

two year colleges and other training providers on specialized training and curriculum

development. The loan program will provide funds to applicants primarily for working capital,

equipment, other business needs, and also grants for feasibility studies. The Department will

coordinate with experienced development corporations such as the Certified Regional

Development Corporations and will also provide funding for colleges and K-12 programs

consistent with the WIRED proposal.

       The principal finance programs that can be used to leverage WIRED funds with the

development and expansion of value-added businesses are: Primary Sector Workforce Training

Grant Program ($1.68 million including Workforce Investment Act funds), Big Sky Economic

Development Trust Fund ($1.35 million), Commerce Loan Fund (CDBG) ($2.4 million), Board

of Investments Value-Added Loan Participation Program (up to $7 million per project possible).

The Montana Board of Research, Commercialization & Technology offers $2.6 million in grants

and loans for research and commercialization projects. Commerce administers a number of U.S.

Department of Housing and Urban Development programs including Community Development

Block Grant, HOME, Section 8, and other HUD programs, which will be utilized as much as

possible in WIRED activities.

Montana Department of Agriculture

       The department administers the Montana Growth Through Agriculture Program. Through

monetary investments in projects, the program establishes public/private sector partnerships that

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                    6
assist in the development of innovative agricultural products and processes to add value to the

Ag Industry, to create new jobs, and to expand small business opportunities. Approximately

$1.2 million is available annually to fund projects that require a 1:1 applicant match, not to

exceed $150,000 per requester. The “New Homestead Act” will likely spawn numerous projects

that will be eligible for funding from the program. Since 2001, Growth Through Ag, has

provided approx. $337,000 of funds related to oilseed processing, biodiesel and biolubricant

production, and other oilseed derived products.

Montana Department of Labor and Industry (DLI)

   DLI will serve this project as the grant recipient and formulate an ad-hoc committee of the

State Workforce Investment Board (SWIB) to oversee project development and implementation

and the services of the Initiative Director. DLI will solicit bids for hiring of a WIRED Initiative

Director (see Bid Solicitation, Attachment B.2). Within the Workforce Services Division of

DLI, the following programs and services representing state and federal funding streams will

provide opportunities for collaboration with this project: employment service, business

advocacy, Workforce Investment Act, Trade Adjustment Act, Migrant and Seasonal Farm

Workers Program, Veterans Services, the Registered Apprenticeship and Training Program, and

Research and Analysis Bureau for labor market information. The registered Apprenticeship and

Training program will be critical to this project due to the rural nature of the region. Businesses

can grow their own talent, while the worker/apprentice earns a paycheck and also earning a

nationally recognized certification.


The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                      7
    The Department of Commerce has an ongoing working relationship with the Northwest Area

Foundation (Opportunity Links) and the Montana Community Foundation and will help

coordinate WIRED activities with these and other philanthropic organizations.


       Montana’s seven year drought, paired with the effect of global markets on the cash crops,

that are the anchor of the WIRED region’s economy, have made a severe impact on the

economic health of the region.

•   Agricultural subsidies during the period of (’99-01) came close to equaling actual receipts

    received for crops produced by farmers in the WIRED region.

•   Although less than 20 percent of Montana’s population resides in the WIRED region, 24

    percent of Montanan’s who live in poverty reside in the region.

•   Among children residing in the WIRED region, the percent living in poverty is 140 percent

    of the US Average.

•   Currently, there are more than 2,500 families receiving cash assistance (TANF) in the

    WIRED region, and many more receiving food stamps and other support. 2003 federal

    income tax data places 10 of America’s

    poorest counties in the WIRED region.

    The population of the WIRED region

has decreased by 5.8 percent over the

previous decade, while the population for
                                                Average Wages & Salaries – bottom 20 US Counties,
the State of Montana has increased by 5.7         Of the 10 lowest ranking counties, 8 are in MT
                                                 Source: the Economist, December 8, 2005, “The
                                                            Poorest Part of America.”
percent over the same period.

Unemployment levels for the region have fluctuated between 6.4 and 4.9 percent over the

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                        8
previous decade; however - when jobs are lost, the likely result is that the unemployed workers

will leave the region, as the creation of new jobs is not expected. The loss of opportunity in the

WIRED region has effectively snowballed into a workforce migration from the region to other

states or to the more economically active western part of the state where employment levels have

surged by 25.1 percent over the past five years.

       Montana ranks 50th in the nation for average wages [DLI]; the average wage in 2004 for

the WIRED region was only $24,863, whereas the average wage for the rest of the state in 2004

was $28,172, or $14,485 less then the national average. In 2000, nearly 18 percent of the

WIRED region had not graduated from high school, although 31 percent of adults in the region

had received some college education, a number on par with the state average. The drop-off

comes when we see that while 24.4 percent of adults in the state had achieved a college degree

by 2000, only 17.1 percent in the WIRED region had achieved the same level of educational


       The only industry in the region that has experienced substantive growth is in oil, coal and

gas extraction, accounting for approximately 2,817 jobs, with the majority of the

workforce/facilities based in the WIRED region. DLI research shows that the number of farms

owned by corporations and trusts has increased by 4 million acres, while the acreage owned by

sole proprietorships and partnerships has decreased by nearly 3 million acres since 1987. As the

number of acres needed to remain profitable increases, the need for farm labor decreases, which

leads to continued depopulation of the area. As economic well-being has disappeared, so have

support industries such as education, healthcare and financial entities.

       According to Jim Sylvester, economist at the University of Montana's Bureau of Business

and Economic Research, "The problem is keeping young people…that requires economic

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                         9
opportunity. The only economic opportunity proposed is what no one else wants - industrial

waste disposal sites, industrial pig farms, chicken farms, and prisons.“

       The true picture of viability for the region’s economy is clouded by the substantial

infusion of federal farm subsidies into the region. Over the past decade, farm subsidies, at their

highest level, represented 12.4 percent of the region’s income. The WIRED region has taken in

an average of 87 percent of the state’s $3.4 billion in domestic federal farm subsidies over the

previous decade. Meanwhile, the most recent Doha round of World Trade Organization (WTO)

talks in Hong Kong resulted in an agreement to phase out farm subsidies by the year 2013. This

would result in a significant loss of income to the farmers and those dependent upon their

production in the WIRED region.

       The disasters to American energy production in the Gulf of Mexico have pinpointed the

vulnerability of the United States to disruptions of energy production. Rapidly escalating prices

have impacted Montana as well as the remainder of the United States. The reliance on foreign-

produced oil and energy has reinforced the need for both dispersed energy production and

diversity of energy sources to maintain U.S. energy security. Recent demand for increased

production of bio-energy such as biodiesel and ethanol; and bio-based lubricants (such as

greases, hydraulic oils and motor oils) provide opportunities for which Montana is well suited.

Shifting the region’s agricultural base from being a predominately cash crop economy to one that

is boosted by agricultural processing will enable the region to become economically viable and

to compete in global markets.

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                         10

Objective – Increase Accountability, Local Input, and Serve Those Most in Need

       Montana recently implemented efforts designed to drive system integration and

innovation by transforming our workforce system to a single statewide planning area. This

began by Governor Schweitzer appointing his State Workforce Investment Board (SWIB) on

August 30, 2005 and charging the board with 4 goals: 1) Ensure the workforce system is

accountable to the people it serves; 2) Promote more local input and involvement; 3) Get as

much money to participants as possible; and 4) Increase services to the last and the least, with a

focus on Montana’s Native American population. Waiver of 20 CFR 661.300(f) allowed the

SWIB to assume the roles of the previous two local boards. USDOL approved Montana’s Plan

Modification and Waiver on October 11, 2005. Based on this action, it is estimated Montana

will save approximately $1 million dollars of administrative WIA overhead (almost 1/7 of our

total WIA funding) that will now go to serve participants in the system. In addition, a

duplicative bureaucratic layer has been removed, making the system more efficient and

accountable to the people we serve.

       The recent efforts of the SWIB have demonstrated that by implementing new strategies

designed to drive system integration, innovation and transformation, we are moving Montana

forward. As a result, communities across Montana are well prepared to work with industry,

business, and Government to implement strategies such as those defined in the WIRED proposal

to become competitive in the global economy.

       Montana is home to one-third of the nation’s coal reserves and the nation’s fourth

greatest wind resource, and plans are currently underway in the state to develop both resources.

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                         11
Objective – Expand Employment and Advancement Opportunities

       In an effort to expand employment and advancement opportunities for Montana’s

workers and catalyze the creation of high-skill and high-wage opportunities we must develop an

embryonic industry cluster. The cluster is in the early stages of development and its social and

support structures are also just emerging, resulting in a greater need for support from

entrepreneurs, R&D, and seed or venture capital (See Cluster Profile, Attachment B.3). Cluster

development requires state policy options to develop human resources for the cluster. To

prepare the current and future workforce to support the emerging biotechnologies, Montana

looks to the 2004 Washington State’s Snohomish County Triad Initiative funded in 2004 by the

U.S. Department of Labor, High Growth Job Training Initiative (AACC, Dec. 2005, Jan. 2006).

Objective - Reduce the Brain Drain and Increase Educational Pathways

       This model proposes developing standard and advanced level curriculum with multiple

delivery options, including distance learning. It addressed the need for an “aerospace” career

ladder and related educational pathways. The Triad represents education, industry and

government partnerships. Modeling components of this “Best Practice” supports the Montana

WIRED initiative to regenerate a regional economy. As the Washington model responded to a

decision by the Boeing Company to build their aircraft from composite versus traditional metal

materials, so does this Montana “Triad Partnership“ to use alternative crops to support a

bioenergy and bioproducts economy in central and eastern Montana.

       One of the key elements of the Washington model focuses on the “New Learning Model”

that emphasizes teaching in a contextual team environment. Montana has invested Carl D.

Perkins federal funds to introduce and encourage contextualized instructional methods in

secondary and postsecondary education. The state also dedicated a portion of its Incentive Grant

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                       12
funds from the USDOL and Carl D. Perkins State Leadership to develop curriculum models in

two-year colleges focused on Career Clusters and its related pathways to connect the educational

pipelines. These grants required infusion of contextualized instruction as well as partnerships

with business and industry, education, and workforce development within their region. The

Manufacturing Career Cluster model that has been developed can be replicated in this project. A

state educational policy option related to Career Clusters development would further these


           For the Indian Nations in the WIRED region, there is significant opportunity to utilize

Section 166 WIA funds and Tribal TANF funds to create vocational training opportunities for

high school youth, through apprenticeship and on the job training opportunities, such as those

successfully implemented in partnership with Salish & Kootenai College, Ft. Peck Community

and Blackfeet Community College.

           Implementing MSU Northern’s dual enrollment option (high school-2yr university credit)

we can create the basic foundation of knowledge and skills required for any manufacturing


Objective – Increase Responsiveness & Reduce Redundancies

    A current state policy option linked to this initiative is the Montana Board of Regents’ 2005-

2010 Strategic Plan that sets as a goal the need to assist in the expansion and improvement of the

state’s economy through the development of high value jobs and the diversification of the

economic base. To achieve this goal, the system must increase responsiveness to workforce

development needs by expanding and developing programs in high demand fields in the state.

There are two recommendations being considered by the Montana Board of Regents:

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                         13
•   establishing Regents’ Unified Curricula Models for two-year programs in high demand, high

    skill occupational pathways within a career cluster.

•   establishing Cluster Hubs in two-year institutions located within a regional industry cluster

    system or connected.

Each of these proposals would serve a specific purpose—to provide training that is driven by

economic and workforce demands, regional and/or statewide. Both of these proposals represent

a transformation in structure founded upon current knowledge of Career Clusters as an

organizational tool for instruction and Industry Clusters as an innovative economic model.

Objective – Increase Accessibility to Education/Training Options

       The educational model for this initiative would be driven by the outcomes expected as

identified in the Washington Triad Partnership model: (1) systems level curriculum roadmap

with supporting course materials using the cluster as context, (2) delivery models that provide

blended e-learning and instructor deliver, (3) Manufacturing Career Cluster model that provides

students and incumbent workers the educational information to create a career pathway and (4)

Models for increasing collaboration with industry partners to develop a competency-based

modular training program.

       Establishing bioproduct embryonic industry clusters allow for an infusion of

contextualized instruction greatly benefiting rural economies and Tribal Nations initially in

Montana, with the potential for growth into neighboring states, such as North and South Dakota,

suffering a similar economic plight. Establishment of an industry cluster to produce biodiesel,

biolubricants and bioproducts will provide a globally competitive economic opportunity

compatible with Montana’s rural communities and environment of central and eastern Montana.

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                        14
Objective – Retain and Increase Population – Maximizing Value-Added Ag

   Markets for biodiesel blends in the US have grown from 25 million gallons in 2001 to over

500 million gallons in 2005. This growth has been stimulated by several factors including: 1) a

competitive price with petroleum-based diesel, 2) a greater concern for reduced tailpipe

emissions, 3) a federal mandate to remove sulfur as a fuel additive and 4) tax incentives to

produce a blended biodiesel:diesel mixture.

       Biolubricants are another growing market. The annual consumption of automotive and

related lubricants is 4.5 billion pounds per year (7.6 lbs/gallon). Approximately 42% of this

amount, or 1.89 billion lbs (249 million gallons) is used as motor oil. An additional 27% or 1.2

billion lbs is used as hydraulic oil. Market analysis by the USDA, Briggs and Stratton Mfg., and

the United Soybean Board have shown consumers are willing to use biobased materials. Surveys

indicate a 28% acceptance of bio-motor oils and a 63% acceptance of bio-hydraulic oils. In the

case of the bio-motor oils, tailpipe emissions have been reduced 38%, and the used oil remains

non-toxic and biodegradable. The oils also reduce engine friction providing an average engine

with an additional 4-5 base Horsepower and a 3-4% increase in fuel economy.

       The initial focus of this project will be a biolubricant manufacturing cluster. Research

and agents from the Montana Ag Experiment Station, Montana Extension Service, and the

Initiative Director will work with growers to increase production of oilseeds. Crop production

systems will be selected based on acres suitable for oilseed crop production.

       Existing crush plants will be expanded and new plants established throughout the target

region. Crush plants will process oil seed from an area encompassing 12,000 to 20,000 acres.

The crush plant will be designed to operate 24 hours per day, 320 days per year. Staff will be

trained to operate and maintain equipment and to handle the two primary products: oil and high-

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                       15
protein meal. Meal will be transported to livestock feeding operations or to a pelleting mill for

the manufacture of animal or fertilizer products. The oil will be pre-processed for shipment to a

regional refining facility. More than one crusher may be used to supply a centrally-located


           The refiner will convert the oil into the primary products of methyl esters (biodiesel) and

glycerin. In some cases, the base oil can be used for product manufacture. Further conversion of

the methyl ester products to value-products is feasible. Biolubricants will be manufactured to

industry requirements. Refineries will require highly skilled technicians for quality control and

quality assurance of each production run. Staff at this level will include a laboratory technician

trained to do essential chemistry, management, accounting, transportation and packaging, as well

as engineering staff and electronics specialists for process optimization. Biolubricants meeting

quality standards will be sent to the College of Technology for full performance evaluation.

Those passing the test protocol will be marketed as motor oils, hydraulic oils, cutting oils,

cosmetics, or other products produced by regional private enterprise. Oils which do not meet the

standards of the biolubricants may be remanufactured into biodiesel. The ratio of manufactured

biodiesel to biolubricant will be dependent upon market factors. Additional refineries may be

required to manufacture specific products such as erucimides and estolides, each of which show

great promise with the global economy.

           Lubricants represent a 4.0 billion gallon industry in the U.S. It would be highly desirable

from many standpoints to convert a sizable portion of this lubricant from petroleum-based to

vegetable oil-based, Montana has the resources to develop this value-added industry and become

the leading producer of high-quality, environmentally friendly biolubricants.

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                         16
Objective – Reduce Unemployment, Depopulation & Increase Personal Income

       The primary sectors of the workforce that will benefit from this initiative are farmers and

rural agricultural businesses. The proposal will initiate work with existing biobased oilseed

processors to enhance their capabilities and to develop a systematic approach to new proposed

facilities. Expansion of this industry will require scale-up of oilseed production and scale-up of

the workforce to support this industry throughout Montana. Oilseed crops are more valuable to

the producer than commodity grain crops. This farmgate value would be further enhanced by

farmer participation in production of value-added products such as biolubricants and biofuel.

This will benefit the community by increasing local purchasing of services.

       Simultaneously, we will establish infrastructure to process, package and market

biolubricants and bioproducts. This infrastructure will be located close to production in order to

minimize transportation of raw materials from the farmer to the manufacturer. We anticipate that

a minimum of twelve community scale oil pressing plants and pre-processing facilities, will be

required to meet market demand. Each pressing plant will employ approximately 12-15

employees and each processing facility will employ 4-5 employees per shift. These new jobs

include engineers, chemists, marketing specialists, accountants, and workforce labor. Laborers at

all levels will earn better than average salaries or wages to ensure production stability and

longevity. In addition to this designated workforce, there is effectively a 3-fold multiplier, for

every one person in manufacturing there is an average of 2 related jobs in health care,

professional services, etc.

Objective – Reduce Dependence on Farm Subsidies, Increase Economic Viability

    Canola is the primary oil for the manufacture of bio-based motor oils suitable for 4-stroke

engine applications including gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles. The cost of manufacture of

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                         17
bio-based motor oils is midway between conventional and synthetic motor oils. This oil is in test

by the U.S. Army.

    Oleic safflower does not contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linolenic acid,

which makes it a very stable oil for both edible and industrial applications. Currently, MSU

Bozeman and Sustainable Systems, LLC has developed the technology to manufacture an

efficacious safflower oil-based hydraulic oil. This oil is in test by the U.S. Army

    Camelina is a source of omega 3-enriched oil. These oils are highly desired in the food and

feed markets. However, the low cost of production also makes them a candidate for the

manufacture of biodiesel. Approximately 75% of biodiesel cost is in feedstocks. Consequently,

while soy and canola biodiesel cost approximately $2.20-$2.85/gallon to manufacture, camelina

biodiesel can be made for $1.80-2.00 /gallon. They are also excellent candidates for the

manufacture of wax esters, commonly used in cosmetic products from foundations and lipsticks

to shampoos and hand lotions. The wax esters also represent a new potential market in motor oil

manufacture and in metal cutting oils.

    Crambe and rapeseed - the primary oil produced in the seed of crambe and rapeseed is a

monounsaturated fat called erucic acid. Erucic acid is primarily used to manufacture erucimides,

a slip agent used in metal manufacture and as a coating on poly-films commonly used to protect

food such as "Saran Wrap". Erucimides are currently only produced in Europe, but transportation

costs have stimulated buyers to seek U.S. production.

Objective –Increase Job Opportunities & Earning Income Potential

    Erucimide production (crambe and rapeseed). Erucimides represent a potential market in

Canada of 4-8 million pounds annually. To produce erucimides from crambe or rapeseed oil just

for the Canadian market would require employment of 75-150 skilled people working in

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                      18
everything from production to oil extraction, methyl transesterification, oil separation and

erucimide production. The byproducts from this process would result in the production of a meal

suitable for use as a soil fumigant, a fertilizer or as a protein base for adhesive manufacture. The

crop production requirements would be 15,000 to 25,000 acres of land. The value to Montana for

erucimide production is expected to be $150 million. Sustainable Systems, LLC currently

processes rapeseed and crambe and ships the crude oil out of state for the manufacture of slip

agents. Manufacturing of higher value euricimides within the state would allow Montana to

retain additional revenue.

    Motor oil production (Canola). Canola-oil based estolide motor oils are expected to be

highly competitive with synthetic motor oils in price and to exceed their ability in lubricant

performance. Production requirements would exceed the available land in Montana. However,

maximizing Montana production would employ 20 to 30 people per crushing plant, 5 to 10

people per refining plant and 20-30 people for marketing and distribution. The total people

involved would equal 300-400 people from production to sales. The estimated value of the motor

oil would be $36 million per year.

Objective – Increase Job Growth, Market Opportunities & Investments by Private


•   The Initiative Director will work closely with industry to identify market opportunities for

    derivatives of vegetable oils. The targeted products will be researched by the MSU staff and

    a production protocol developed. Industry will analyze the protocol and make

    recommendations related to costs of manufacture. The team will meet with a targeted

    community development officer and local industry leaders (including local bankers,

    government leaders and targeted buyers). MSU-Bozeman will provide experimental

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                       19
   amounts of the product for evaluation by industry and independent laboratories.

    MMEC and organizations such as Veteran’s Pride will assist in industry feasibility studies,

provide a number of engineering and business services and project management as required at

each stage of business and product development and operation. Initially, MMEC expects to

conduct manufacturing feasibility and cost-benefit analysis and process modeling / simulation to

provide the data required for marketing and financial analysis, to be provided by other entities,

which are critical to successful product launches and business development. Once feasibility is

established these entities can provide business systems, facility planning and plant layout

services to ensure resources are appropriately applied, then employee training, quality

management and Lean manufacturing to produce a quality product in the most efficient manner.

Local industry leaders, such as Peaks and Prairies, Great Northern Growers, Sustainable

Systems, LLC, Montana Biotechnologies and members of the farm community will work with

potential buyers and the Montana Department of Commerce and the Montana Department of

Agriculture to develop production contracts and required standards.

The New Homestead Act: Montanans for Bio-Product Development                                        20
                                                                           Appendix B.2

                              STATE OF MONTANA

JOB TITLE:                        Program Initiative Director (Contract)
SALARY:                           $80,000 to $100,000 (Based on qualifications)
DIVISION:                         State Workforce Investment Board Ad-Hoc
LOCATION:                         Helena
STATUS:                           Contract Employment

Provide oversight on bio-based facility design, equipment purchase, training standards, site
location approval and coordination of processing with raw material delivery. Works with
educational institutions and Tribal Nations in developing educational programs related to value-
added processing of oilseeds. Assists plant managers in meetings with university researchers and
extension agents, farmers and farm communities to assist in developing a dependable supply
chain. Assists in training personnel on new products to be introduced during the development of
the project and assist in providing critical data in the marketing of these products. Provide
periodic progress updates to the Department of Labor & Industry and the Governor's Office.

Experience in developing infrastructure for a bio-based industry. Should have strong
organizational and communication skills. Should have a combination of experience in industry
and academics centered around bio-based product development, process and plant management
and a proven track record of developing university and technical college curriculum geared to
the generation of an industry specific workforce. Knowledge of job training program
administration; of research and analysis techniques; of computerized budgeting, financial and
record-keeping systems; of various management practices, theories, systems and procedures such
as fiscal planning and accountability, property management, program planning and
documentation processes, office management practices, and data processing. Ability to develop
training programs and apply learning/training principles; to communicate effectively orally and
in writing; to plan, coordinate and apply a variety of general management theories, techniques
and practices; to evaluate program and management needs; to develop programming for
reporting systems to comply with federal, state requirements.

EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE: The above knowledge, skills and abilities are typically
acquired through a combination of education and experience equivalent to a Ph.D. in a science or
engineering discipline and a minimum of two years directly related professional level experience
in program administration.

APPLICATION AND SELECTION PROCESS: Selection procedures to be used in
evaluating applicants' qualifications may include an evaluation of the Montana State Application
                                        Page 1 of 2
                                                                           Appendix B.2
form and application supplement; a structured interview; a performance test and reference

                                       Page 2 of 2
                                                                                       Appendix B.3
                              Montana’s Bioenergy and Bioproducts Cluster

                                    Institutional Infrastructure
Regional Grower Cooperatives, Regional and County Economic Development Associations, Native
American Development Corporations, Montana Agricultural Business Assoc., MT Assoc. of Cooperatives,
MT Rural Development Corporations, MT Manufacturers Extension Center

  Raw Materials/Suppliers                                                                   Transportation
Farmers                                                                                 Trucking
                                                Crop Production
Ranchers                                                                                Railroad Lines
                                                                                        Freight Companies
                                               Oilseed Processing                       Export Forwarding
   Intermediate Operations              High-Protein Meal
Crushing Operations                     Feed and Pet Food Industries
Packers / Distributors                  Waxes
Primary Processors                      Bioproducts
                                        Crude Vegetable Oil
                                           Culinary and Cosmetic Oils                       Export Outlets
                                                                                        World Trade Center
Processing (finished goods)
                                                                                        International Trade
                                            Vegetable Oil Refinery
                                                                                        Joint Ventures
       Other Suppliers                                                                    Domestic Markets
                                        Vegetable Gum                                   Retail Outlets
                                        Alcohol                                         Distributors
                                        Biodiesel                                       Internet Sales
                                        • Biolubricants                                 Trade Shows
Technical, Related Advisory
                                        • Erucimides                                    Tourism / Direct Sales
Marketing Specialists                   • Esolides
Architects, Plant Engineers             • Wax Esters
Accountants, Law Firms,                 • Plastics
Biochemists, IT Specialists                                                        Related               Related
Cooperative Extension                                                                                    Clusters

             Sources of Skills, Knowledge, Technology                             Labor Pool
       State and Federal Ag Centers                                      New Entrants (youth,
       Community and Technical Colleges, Universities                        displaced workers, tribal
       Secondary Career & Technical Education                                members)
       Equipment Producers                                               Management
       Consultants, Advisors                                             Engineers
       Associations, Private Industry Certifications                     Skilled Workers/Technicians
                                                                                Appendix B.4

Arlene H. Parisot, Office of Commissioner of Higher Education
Ed.D. Adult, Community and Higher Education, Montana State University -Bozeman
M.S. Career Counseling and Guidance, Montana State University
B.A. English Major, History/Political Science Minor, Idaho State University

Montana University System
State Coordinator for Community Colleges; State Director of Career and Technical Education as
administrator of Carl D. Perkins Vocational, Technical, and Education funds for secondary and
post-secondary institutions; State Workforce Investment Board member representing the
University System; State Agency Management Team member for policy coordination.

University of Oklahoma - Norman, Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma - developed and taught a course titled Programs Planning for Adult

Committee Member for five (5) doctoral students completing a Doctor of Education in Adult and
Higher Education.

A co-grant writer of three (3) successful grants: Project Bridge, U.S. Department of Education;
Tech Prep, Carl Perkins Competitive Grant; Development and Implementation of Occupational
Therapy Assisting Program, Carl Perkins Competitive Grant

Editor of the College’s Self Study document for Northwest Accreditation

Project Access: Selected as a “Successful Practices” by the Advisory Council of Educational
Testing Service and the HEATH Resource Center of the American Council on Education and the
Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) for dissemination to the
postsecondary/disability community

National Association for State Directors of Career and Technical Education consortium
Board of Directors – NASDCTEc
Montana Association for Career and Technical Education
Transatlantic Learning and Innovation Alliance (TA3)
American Association for Community Colleges

Technology as Catalyst for Changing Faculty Role: Implications for Institutional Policy. New
Directions for Community Colleges, Jossy-Bass, October 1997
Teaching and Technology: The Adoption and Diffusion of Technological Innovations By a
Community College Faculty. Doctora1 Thesis. 1995
At a Distance: The Beginner’s View of Distance Education, Adult Learning
Journal (March/April, 1994)
                                                                                  Appendix B.4

Dr. Alice L. Pilgeram, Montana State University Bozeman

Ph.D. 1991            MSU Plant Pathology.
B.S. 1983             MSU Microbiology.

Recent Professional Experience
Co-Director, MSU Biobased Institute                                       2004-present
Assistant Research Professor, MSU Plant Sciences                          1994-Present
Research Plant Pathologist, USDA Sugarbeet Production Unit                1992-1994

Relevant Research

Dr. Pilgeram works with identification and development of added-value crops for production in
the Northern Great Plains. She is the co-director of the Biobased Institute, a program to bridging
agricultural research with commercialization. Her current research emphasis is on biological
control of introduced weeds with endemic pathogens.


Tiourebaev, K.S., G.V. Semenchenko, M. Dolgovskaya, M.K. McCarthy, T.W. Anderson, L.D.
    Carsten, A.L. Pilgeram and D.C. Sands. 2001. Biological control of infestations of ditchweed
    (Cannabis sativa) with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cannabis in Kazakhstan. Biocontrol
    Science and Technology 11:535-540.
Sands, D.C., E.J. Ford, R.V. Miller, M.K. McCarthy, T.W, Anderson, A.L. Pilgeram and L.C.
    Darlington. 1997. Characterization of a vascular wilt of Erythroxylum coca caused by
    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli forma specialis nova. Plant Disease 81: 501-504.
Pilgeram, A.L. and J.M. Henson. 1992. Sexual crosses of the homothallic fungus
    Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and characterization of nicotinic acid auxotroph
    following transformation. Exp. Mycol. 16:35-43.
Pilgeram, A.L. and J.M. Henson. 1992. Stability of integrated DNA in transformants of
    Gaeumannomyces graminis. FEMS Microbiology Letters 113:309-314.
Pilgeram, A.L. and J.M. Henson. 1990. Transformation and cotransformation of
    Gaeumannomyces graminis to phleomycin resistance. Phytopathology 80:1124-1129.
                                                                                   Appendix B.4

DR. DUANE L. JOHNSON, Montana State University Bozeman
Ph.D.          1979           MSU Crop Sciences/Genetics
                              Dissertation: Inheritance of Male Sterility in Wheat
M.S.           1975           CSU, Fresno Agricultural Sciences/ Genetics
                              Thesis: Inheritance of Several Traits in Tomato

Professional Experience
• Director, Montana Institute for Bio-based Products and Food Safety, 2002-present.
• Superintendent and Associate Professor (New Crops and Forages), MSU, 2001 to present
• Senior V. President for Research and Development, Agro Management Group Inc. 1994 to
• Associate Professor (New Crops/New Products) CSU 1987 to 2001

Relevant Research
•        Dr. Johnson initiated canola research in Colorado in 1986. By 1990, Colorado was
growing 3,000 hectares of canola for U.S. markets. The canola project expanded to include
processing canola into toasted seeds, toasted canola oils (edible) and canola oils as lubricants
(chain oils, motor oils, greases, wire oils, irrigation well drip oils, and dust suppressants). The
first industrial oil product developed at Colorado State University was a canola-based, all
vegetable oil bicycle chain oil. This oil was the first in the mountain racing bike industry and was
used extensively by the U.S. Olympic Mountain Bicycling team in the 1996 Olympics.
•        His current private emphasis is in developing and commercializing environmentally
benign lubricants derived from vegetable oils. Vegetable oil processing facilities are operating in
Lamar, Colorado (edible canola, sunflower, safflower, and soybean). A second processing plant
is now operational at Eads, Colorado ( He holds the key patent
in this whole arena Vegetable oil -based motor oil (USP No. 5,888,947 1999).

Most Recent Relevant Publications

Rhodes, B.N. and Johnson, D.L. 2002. Vegetable-Based Motor Oils. Pg 85-104 in Sevim Z.
    Erhan and Joseph M. Perez (eds.), Biobased Industrial Fluids and Lubricants, AOCS Press,
    Champaign, IL.
Johnson, D.L., B. Rhodes, and R. Allen. 2002. Canola-based motor oils. Pg. 29–33 in J. Janick
    and A. Whipkey (eds.), Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
Rife, C.L., Auld, D.L., Sunderman, H.D., Heer, W.F., Baltensperger, D.D., Nelson, L.A.,
    Johnson, D.L., Bordovsky, D. and Minor, H.C. 2001. Registration of 'Wichita' rapeseed.
    Crop Science 41(1):263-264.
Ali, A. and Johnson, D.L. 2000. Heritability estimates for winter hardiness in lentil under natural
    and controlled conditions. Plant Breeding 119 (3): 283-285.
                                                                                 Appendix B.4

DAVID SANDS, Professor of Plant Pathology, Montana State University

       Ph.D.          1969 University of California, Berkeley.
       B.S.           1963 Pomona College

Professor                     (1990-Present)        Montana State University
Associate Professor           (1979-1990)           Montana State University
Assistant Professor           (1976-1979)           Montana State University
Assistant Plant Pathologist   (1970-1976)           Connecticut Ag Experiment Station

Selected Refereed Journal Articles

Carsten, L.D., M. R. Johnston, L. I. Douglas, and D. C. Sands. 2000. A field trial of crown rust
        (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) as a biocontrol agent of wild oats on San Clemente
        Island. Biological Control 19:175-181.
Harvey, I.C., G.W. Bourdot, D.J. Saville, and D.C. Sands. 1998. A comparison of auxotrophic
        and wild strains of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum used as a mycoherbicide against Californian
        thistle (Cirsium arvense). Biocontrol Science and Technology 8:73-81.
Johnston, M. R., L. D. Carsten, L.I. Douglas, and D. C. Sands. 2000. Epidemic development
        and virulence in 1995-1998 of Puccinia coronata, a potential biocontrol agent of wild
        oats on San Clemente Island. Biological Control 17: 250-257.
Miller, R.V., E.J. Ford, N.J. Zidak, and D.C. Sands. 1989. A pyrimidine auxotroph of
        Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for use in biological weed control. J. Gen. Microbiology
Sands, D.C., E.J. Ford, E.J., R.V. Miller, B.K. Sally, M.K. McCarthy, A.L. Pilgeram and L.C.
        Darlington. 1997. Characterization of a vascular wilt of Erythroxylum coca caused by
        Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. erthroxyli forma specialis nova. Plant Disease 81: 501-504.
Tiourebaev, K.S., G.V. Semenchenko, M. Dolgovskaya, M.K. McCarthy, T.W. Anderson, L.D.
        Carsten, A.L. Pilgeram and D.C. Sands. 2001. Biological control of infestations of
        ditchweed (Cannabis sativa) with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cannabis in Kazakhstan.
        Biocontrol Science and Technology 11:535-540.

1.     Virulence enhancement of bioherbicides, 2004. (6,673,746)
2.     A carrier methodology for aerial dispersal and soil penetration of bioactive agents. 2002.
3.     Methods and compositions for making fermented cereal products. 2002. (6,066,343)
4.     Oil and absorbent coated granules containing encapsulated living organisms for
       controlling agricultural pests. 1994. (5,358,863).
5.     Self-delimiting fungal mutants, bioherbicidal compositions thereof, method of preparing
       thereof and method of using thereof for weed control. 1992. (5,538,890)
6.     Methods and compositions for improving the nutritive values of foods. 1990. (4,897,350).
7.     Methods and compositions for improving the nutritive value of foods via Lactobacillus

To top