Teaching Education a beginner�s guide by guy25


									Teaching & Education
     a beginner’s guide
      Dr. Ramesh Mehay
   Programme Director Bradford VTS
Today’s A&Os
 To introduce you to educational theory to help you in your
  teaching with registrars and medical students
 To keep this pretty light hearted without you falling asleep

 At the end of today‟s session
 You‟ll understand the four ACME steps to delivering effective
  teaching sessions
 You‟ll be able to distinguish between an aim and an objective
 Hopefully, some practice….
                 IMPORTANT SLIDE

4 important aspects of any educational session:
 Aims & Objectives
 Content
 Methodology
 Evaluation
Aims & Objectives I
   How can you do something or AIM for something if you don‟t
    know what that AIM is?
   Analogy: buying a house
   Ignoring A&Os  everything goes wrong (unstructured,
   A&Os are foundation building blocks
Aims & Objectives II
Aims & Objectives = purpose = what are you/we trying to do/achieve?

   Aims – a broad statement of intent
    eg at the end of this session, you’ll be more knowledgeable about
    educational theory bits that will help you in practice

   Objective – a specific statement of intent
    eg at the end of this session, you’ll be able to define an aim and an

Aims & Objectives III
Aims and Objectives usually fall into 3 domains

   knowledge
   skills/competencies
   attitudes
Content I
   Easy to figure out content if u have defined the A&Os
   Remember to deliver on the learner‟s agenda which may
    be totally different than yours
   Sometimes, your agenda might be important too and thus
     negotiation
   Possible content: K.S.A.
   Deep Learning vs Superficial Learning
   How to teach at several levels in one session eg “GPR
    who says I don‟t know anything about blah blah blah”
   Consolidate heavy content stuff with handouts
      Content II
Linking knowledge to skills
    Miller’s pyramid

         Shows how
         Knows how
   Methodology I

 What do you see?
Methodology II
   There are a variety of ways of delivering something
   Some more effective than others
   Use a mixture of ways even in one session (esp with groups
    of learners)  learning styles
   Skills can never be acquired simply through talking; practice
    is best, demonstration/role play alternatives
   Always try to get participants involved – interactiveness; by
    being awake, they learn
   Don‟t bombard with too much information
   Remember, average attention span is 20 minutes  breaks
Methodology III

We remember:
 10% of what we read
 20% of what we hear
 30% of what we see
 50% of what we see and hear
 80% of what we say
 90% of what we say and do (Rigg)
Methodology IV

 Putting it all together
  I hear and I forget
  I see and I remember
  I do and I understand

                           Confuscius c 450 BC
Methodology V
Methods of Instruction
   the lecture               role-play
   the modified lecture      simulation
   the demonstration         games
   registrar practice        videos/films
   registrar reading
                              brainstorming
   group discussion
                              programmed instruction
   conferences
   seminars                  field trips
   workshops, clinics        question and answer
   the fishbowl
Methodology VI
   Lectures
   Tutorials
   Books
   Journals
   Electronic information sources
Methodology VII
   Clinical
   Practical
   Consultation
   Communication
   Problem solving
   Research and audit (evaluating and doing)
     How do we
  acquire skills and
develop attitudes and
Methodology VIII
Some learning tools (incl. for attitudes)
    problem case analysis - things you know you don‟t know
    random case analysis - issues you may not have identified
    critical incident analysis - learning from mistakes and near
    PUNs (patient unmet needs)
    DENs (doctors educational needs)
Methodology IX
Experiential learning (Kolb)
Kolb (1984) describes an experiential learning cycle:
 concrete experience
 observations and reflection
 formation of abstract concepts and generalizations
 testing implications of concepts in new situations.

So whilst learning from concrete experience forms part of the
  theory of experiential learning, a process reflection is also
Methodology X
Reflective practitioner
Schön (1983) developed the concept of the „Reflective
The professional practitioner reflects on their knowledge whilst
  engaging in activity.
This enables them to adapt to the potentially unique context or
  problem with which they are faced.

 Coles (1994) concludes that:
„Professional education should provide people with the
   opportunity to reflect on their practice and to identify the
   theories embedded in their routine work.‟
Methodology XI
Constructivism (3 Cs)
Three C‟s

   Construction- Knowledge builds on what is already known.

   Context is important when learning and also when applying
    learning in practice

   Collaboration – knowledge is socially negotiated, i.e varies
    in different contexts / cultures, collaboration helps to explore
    different perspectives.
Evaluation I
 Information about performance or behaviour which leads to
   action to affirm or develop performance or behaviour
 to affirm what you do well
 to help you develop in areas you do less well
Evaluation II
Useful feedback
   is well timed (enough time, full attention, calm, prepared)
   involves mutual goodwill
   is balanced
   is specific
   is descriptive
   can lead to change (if change required))
Evaluation III
Receiving feedback
     may need to ask
     listen carefully
     ask for clarification, examples, alternatives
     give it time to sink in
     think about your relationship with giver
     don‟t let small criticisms devastate
     don‟t be defensive
   Remember ACME
   What are you trying to do? Ask the learner… Negotiate
   Think about the content in light of the A&Os – be careful re:
    overloading with info
   Think about your methodology – add dynamism, enthusiasm,
   If you have tried something before, try it; play with it; don‟t be
   Get the learners to help you be even better – evaluate!

                  And the last slide……. (yippy  )
Adult learning
 learning  what’s important to you
 applicable in the real world (context)
 learner, not teacher, is responsible
 learning is self directed
 learning is continuous, must adapt to new

   compare to pedagogic (childhood) learning

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