STUDY GUIDE INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY (PSY 200)

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					           STUDY GUIDE: INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY (PSY 200)
                            Text: Wade & Tarvis
                          Semester: Start Fall 2007

                          CHAPTER 1: What is Psychology
Trained Introspection      Functionalism             Psychoanalysis
Biological Perspective     Learning Perspective      Behaviorists
Case study                 Naturalistic Observation Empirical
Validity                   Correlation               Experiment
Independent Variable       Dependent Variable        Random Assignment
Placebo                    Single/Double Blind       Psychotherapist
Social-Cognitive Learning Perspective          Cognitive Perspective
Sociocultural Perspective                      Psychodynamic Perspective
Humanistic Psychology                          Psychiatrist

                                CHAPTER 2: Personality
Personality                 Trait                    Psychoanalysis
Psychodynamic theories Defense Mechanisms            Ego
Denial                      Objective tests          Central/Secondary Traits
Big Five Personality traits Humanistic Psychology    Unconditional Positive Regard
Temperament                 Heritability             Reciprocal determinism
Social-cognitive Learning Theory              Individualist vs. collectivist cultures

                                CHAPTER 3: Development
                                                   Motor reflexes
Contact Comfort              Separation Anxiety    Strange Situation
Attachment                   Attachment Styles     Gender Schema
Identity crisis              Sensorimotor stage    Developmental Psychology
Object permanence            Preoperational stage  Mental Operations
Conservation                 Concrete Operations   Formal Operations
Gender identity              Adolescence           Erik Erikson
Authoritarian vs. Authoritative parenting

                   CHAPTER 4: Neurons, Hormones & the Brain
Central nervous system   Spinal Cord              Neuron
Dendrites                Cell body                Axon
Nerve                    Stem cells               Synapse
Action potential         Neurotransmitter         Hormones
Oxytocin                 Cortisol                 Brain stem
Cerebellum               Hypothalamus             Pituitary Gland
Limbic System            Hippocampus              Corpus Callosum
Cerebral Cortex          Occipital lobes          Temporal lobes
Frontal lobes            Autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system                 Reticular activating system (RAS)
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
           CHAPTER 5: Consciousness: Body Rhythms and Mental States

Consciousness               Circadian rhythm      Depressants
REM & Non REM sleep         Hypnosis              Psychoactive drug
Stimulants                  Sleep Deprivation     Psychedelic Drugs
Tolerance
                        CHAPTER 6: Sensation and Perception
Critical period             Perception            Synesthesia
Absolute threshold          Difference threshold  Signal-detection Theory
Selective attention         Retina                Rods & Cones
Dark adaptation             Gestalt principles    Binocular cues
Retinal disparity           Perceptual constancy
Doctrine of specific nerve energies

                         CHAPTER 7: Thinking and Intelligence

Prototype                   Cognitive schema           Heuristic
Availability heuristic      Cognitive dissonance       Intelligence
Mental age                  Intelligence quotient      Stereotype threat
Metacognition               Emotional intelligence     Heritability

                                 CHAPTER 8: Memory
Reconstructive memory      Recall                   Recognition
Priming                    Cognitive schemas        Chunks
Elaborative rehearsal      Deep/Shallow processing
Mnemonics                  Retrieval cues    State-dependent memory
Encoding, Storage, Retrieval
Sensory register, Short-term memory, Working memory, Long-term memory

                                CHAPTER 9: Learning
Behaviorism                 Observational learning

Classical conditioning: Conditioned stimulus, Unconditioned stimulus, Conditioned
response, Extinction, Spontaneous recovery, Higher-order conditioning, Stimulus
generalization, Stimulus Discrimination

Operant Conditioning: Reinforcement, Punishment, Primary/Secondary reinforcer,
Postiive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement, Extinction, Stimulus generalization,
Stimulus discrimination, Continuous reinforcement, intermittent (partial) schedule of
reinforcement, Behavior modification, Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic reinforcers
                CHAPTER 10: Behavior in Social and Cultural Context
Milgram’s Obedience Study                                Stanford Prison Study
Self-serving bias            Cognitive Dissonance        Conformity
Groupthink                   Ethnocentrism               Stereotype
Prejudice (and origins of) Implicit and explicit prejudice
Reducing Prejudice           Social loafing              Fundamental Attribution Error
Situational vs. dispositional attributions               Just-World Hypothesis
Blaming the victim                                       Diffusion of responsibility

                       CHAPTER 11: Psychological Disorders

Mental disorder             Advantages of the DSM      Projective tests
Alcohol Dependence          Objective tests            Generalized anxiety disorder
Panic disorder              Phobia                     ADHD
Major depression            Bipolar disorder           Personality disorders
Insanity                    Schizophrenia              Psychosis
Antisocial personality disorder                        Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

                        CHAPTER 12: Treatment and Therapy
Antipsychotic drugs         Antidepressant drugs        Lithium carbonate
Electroconvulsive therapy Psychoanalysis                Free association
Psychodynamic therapies Behavior therapy                Systematic desensitization
Cognitive therapy           Cognitive-behavior therapy
Client-centered therapy     Ingredients of successful therapy
Unconditional positive regard

                     CHAPTER 13: Emotion, Stress, and Health
Emotion                     Primary/Secondary emotions Facial feedback
Display rules               Cortisol                   Oxytocin
Coping with stress          Emotion-focused coping
Type A personality and health
General Adaptation Syndrome
Alarm, resistance, exhaustion phases of stress
Pessimistic & optimistic explanatory styles
Gender differences in emotion/emotional expression

        CHAPTER 14: The Major Motives of Life: Love, Sex, Food, and Work
Motivation                Intrinsic/Extrinsic motivation     Passionate love
Companionate love         Oxytocin                           Set point
Leptin                    Approach goals/Avoidance goals
Working conditions and factors that increase work motivation

				
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